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1

Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.  

PubMed

The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though differences may be due to variability in the data associated with the small masses of materials that dissolved. Nonetheless, ingestion exposure may not contribute appreciably to total body burden given the short residence time of material in the stomach and relatively long dissolution half-times of these materials (t(1/2) = 60 to 380 days). PMID:20096630

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

2010-03-01

2

The purification procedure for human gastric juice FSA and its chemical composition.  

PubMed Central

A purification procedure for a gastric cancer-associated glycoprotein FSA is described. This substance was considered to be sulphated but is now found to derive its charge from carboxylic groups and has been renamed foetal sialoglycoprotein. The chemical composition is similar to blood group substances with differences which may reflect its origin from gastric cancer. The molecular size differs from that of the carcinoembryonic antigen. The calculation of the yield based on dry weight measurements is not possible until a radioimmunoassay technique becomes available and development of such an assay is now in progress in our laboratory. PMID:7460391

Häkkinen, I P

1980-01-01

3

Osmotic concentration of the gastric juice of dogs  

PubMed Central

1. The freezing point of the gastric juice, produced by histamine stimulation in anaesthetized dogs, of the arterial plasma and of the plasma obtained from a gastric vein were measured. 2. The osmolality of the blood that passes through the gastric mucosa increases during secretion of acid juice. 3. The amount of water that should be removed from the arterial plasma to obtain a solution isosmolal to the gastric venous plasma is equivalent to the amount of water required to dilute the secreted H+. From this result it is concluded that the increase of osmolality of the venous plasma is a consequence of the clearance of water free of solute by the gastric mucosa. 4. The gastric juice was hyposmotic to the venous plasma in twenty out of thirty dogs, being isosmotic to that plasma in seven dogs. Even in the last group of animals, the gastric secretion might be considered as slightly hypotonic to the venous blood that passes through the secretory part of the mucosa. 5. Considerations based on available data suggest that the `primary' acid juice is usually hyposmotic to the extracellular fluid in the vicinity of the oxyntic cells. PMID:5784289

Altamirano, M.; Izaguirre, Elizabeth; Milgram, E.

1969-01-01

4

Gastric juice protects against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the rat.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of gastric juice on tumorigenesis in a rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In rats treated with the carcinogen methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, squamous cancer of the esophagus develops in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine treatment is preceded by an operation to induce reflux of duodenal and gastric juice into the esophagus, there is an increased yield of esophageal tumors, many of which are adenocarcinomas. When only gastric juice refluxes into the esophagus, the tumor yield is less and adenocarcinomas are not found. METHODS: Two hundred seventy 8-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Twenty unoperated rats served as controls. The remaining rats underwent the following operations: esophagoduodenostomy with gastric and vagal preservation to induce duodenogastroesophageal reflux (n = 48); esophagoduodenostomy with antrectomy and Billroth 1 reconstruction to produce reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the antrum (n = 53); esophagoduodenostomy with proximal gastrectomy to induce hypergastrinemia and reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the body and forestomach (n = 51); esophagoduodenostomy plus total gastrectomy to produce reflux of duodenal juice alone (n = 50); and esophagoduodenostomy with vagal and gastric preservation but with division of the duodenum just beyond the pylorus and reimplantation into the jejunum, 13 cm distal to the esophagoduodenostomy. This produced reflux of duodenal juice with gastric juice diverted downstream, (n = 48). At 10 weeks of age, all rats were given 4 weekly doses of carcinogen (methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and survivors were killed at 36 weeks of age. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 30% in rats with duodenogastroesophageal reflux and 87% in rats with reflux of duodenal juice alone. Fifty-six percent of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the antrum and 72% of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the body and forestomach developed adenocarcinoma, showing a progression increase in the prevalence of adenocarcinoma as less gastric juice was permitted to reflux with duodenal juice into the esophagus. CONCLUSION: In this rat model, the presence of gastric juice in refluxed duodenal juice against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The protective effect appears to be due to acid secretion from the stomach. Continuous profound acid suppression therapy may be detrimental by encouraging esophageal metaplasia and tumorigenesis in patients with duodenogastroesophageal reflux. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8813264

Ireland, A P; Peters, J H; Smyrk, T C; DeMeester, T R; Clark, G W; Mirvish, S S; Adrian, T E

1996-01-01

5

In vitro studies of gastric juice in patients with food-cobalamin malabsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-cobalamin absorption depends on the initial release of cobalamin from its binders in food. Therefore, the characterization of patients' gastric juices and their behavior in this process was undertaken. Pentagastrin-stimulated gastric juice specimens from three patients with severe food-cobalamin malabsorption, six patients with mild malabsorption, and five patients with normal absorption were tested for pH, pepsin, intrinsic factor content, and

Ralph Carmel

1994-01-01

6

Influence of human gastric juice on oxidation of marine lipids--in vitro study.  

PubMed

This study evaluates whether marine lipids can oxidise in acidic stomach environment and whether authentic gastric juice has the potential to act as a pro- or anti-oxidative medium. Oxidation of herring lipids in emulsions and liposomes was followed in in vitro digestion models containing authentic human gastric juice, and compared to models containing hydrochloric acid solution. Peroxide value, concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and oxygen uptake rate increased in all the models during 2.5 h incubation at pH 4 and 37 °C in darkness. The markers showed no difference between oxidation in gastric juice and hydrochloric acid solution. Gastric juice reduced the prooxidant activity of iron ions measured as oxygen uptake rate, but did not reduce the activity of methemoglobin. Berry juice, green tea, red wine, and caffeic acid reduced oxygen uptake in the acidic environments while coffee, ascorbic acid and orange juice increased oxidation. Beverages accompanying foods containing marine lipids will therefore affect the course of post-prandial lipid oxidation. PMID:23993559

Kristinova, Vera; Storrø, Ivar; Rustad, Turid

2013-12-15

7

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion to Human Gastric Mucus by a High-Molecular-Weight Constituent of Cranberry Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high–molecular–weight constituent of cranberry juice has been found to inhibit the sialyllactose specific adhesion of Helicobacter pylori strains to immobilized human mucus, erythrocytes, and cultured gastric epithelial cells. Different isolates of H. pylori differ in thenaffinity to the cranberry juice constituent. Cranberry juice may also inhibit adhesion of bacteria to the stomach in vivo, and may prove useful for

Ora Burger; Ervin Weiss; Nathan Sharon; Mina Tabak; Ishak Neeman; Itzhak Ofek

2002-01-01

8

Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence suggests that high dietary ascorbic acid reduces gastric cancer risk. It may do this by either reducing N-nitroso compound formation in gastric juice, or by scavenging reactive oxygen species in gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to discover if potential ascorbic acid protection might be increased by supplementation. Thirty two patients were supplemented with ascorbic acid, 500 mg twice daily for two weeks. Gastric juice, plasma, and upper gastrointestinal biopsy ascorbate concentrations were measured and compared with values in 48 unsupplemented patients. It was found that ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations were considerably higher in biopsy specimens from oesophagus, body, antrum, duodenum, and rectum, compared with values in plasma or gastric juice. Plasma and mucosal concentrations were unaffected by the presence of chronic gastritis but gastric juice concentrations were substantially lower in patients with chronic gastritis than in patients with normal histological assessment (p < 0.01). Patients receiving ascorbic acid supplements had higher ascorbic acid concentrations in plasma (p < 0.001), gastric juice (p < 0.001), and at all biopsy sites in the upper gastrointestinal tract (p < 0.05). Gastric juice ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in gastritic patients, however, were still less after supplementation than in normal subjects (p < 0.01). These data suggest that high ascorbic acid intake could reduce gastric cancer risk, but its protective effect might be greater if gastritis is treated (for example, by Helicobacter pylori eradication). PMID:8801192

Waring, A J; Drake, I M; Schorah, C J; White, K L; Lynch, D A; Axon, A T; Dixon, M F

1996-01-01

9

Effects of Juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Gastric Emptying in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml\\/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the

Hsiao-Fung Pu; Wei-Ju Huang; Wen-Min Tseng; Shyi-Wu Wang; Yu-Wen Liu; Ming-Long Doong; Paulus S. Wang

2004-01-01

10

Survival of Bifidobacterium longum Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Beads in Simulated Gastric Juices and Bile Salt Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel

KI-YONG LEE; TAE-RYEON HEO

2000-01-01

11

[A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium gordonae infection diagnosed by gastric juice culture and successfully treated with multidrug chemotherapy].  

PubMed

In September 2008, a 60-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a complaint of bloody sputum; she was healthy until this event. Chest computed tomography scan revealed a cavity, nodular shadows, and bronchiectasis in the left upper lobe and in the left and right middle lobes. Acid-fast bacilli were detected 2 times on gastric juice culture and Mycobacterium gordonae was identified on biochemical study. No active chemotherapy was administered because the discharge of this strain was considered casual and clinically nonsignificant. However, her radiological findings worsened in the following 1 year and 3 months, and M. gordonae was detected 2 more times on gastric juice culture. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by M. gordonae and was treated with clarithromycin, rifampicin, and levofloxacin. After 1 month, her gastric juice culture yielded negative results for M. gordonae, and after a year and a half, her radiological findings improved. In this case, gastric juice culture was as useful as sputum examination for diagnosis and evaluation of the disease. Although M. gordonae is usually considered nonpathogenic, our study shows that it can be pathogenic, and M. gordonae infection may require treatment with chemotherapy. PMID:23367832

Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Hagiwara, Eri; Ikeda, Satoshi; Oda, Tsuneyuki; Komatsu, Shigeru; Ogura, Takashi

2012-11-01

12

Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

1988-01-01

13

Significance of Elevated Levels of Collagen Type IV and Hyaluronic Acid in Gastric Juice and Serum in Gastric Cancer and Precancerous Lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims  Collagen type IV and hyaluronic acid (HA) are the major components of basement membrane and extracellular matrix, respectively.\\u000a Cathepsin D is an aspartyl lysosomal protease involved in the degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix.\\u000a The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of collagen type IV and hyaluronic acid in gastric juice\\u000a and

Hai-Ling Ruan; Ru-Tao Hong; Hui-Jun Xie; Nai-Zhong Hu; Jian-Ming Xu; Wei Zhang

2011-01-01

14

Amperometric microsensor for direct probing of ascorbic acid in human gastric juice.  

PubMed

This article reports on a novel microsensor for amperometric measurement of ascorbic acid (AA) under acidic conditions (pH 2) based on a carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) modified with nickel oxide and ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (NiO-RuHCF). This sensing layer was deposited electrochemically in a two-step procedure involving an initial galvanostatic NiO deposition followed by a potentiodynamic RuHCF deposition from solutions containing the precursor salts. Several important parameters were examined to characterize and optimize the NiO-RuHCF sensing layer with respect to its current response to AA by using cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. With the NiO-RuHCF coated CFME, the AA oxidation potential under acidic conditions was shifted to a less positive value for about 0.2 V (E(p) of ca. 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl) as compared to a bare CFME, which greatly improves the electrochemical selectivity. Using the hydrodynamic amperometry mode, the current vs. AA concentration in 0.01 M HCl, at a selected operating potential of 0.30 V, was found to be linear over a wide range of 10-1610 ?M (n=22, r=0.999) with a calculated limit of detection of 1.0 ?M. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) ranging from 4% to 5% (n=6), depending on the AA concentration, and with a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (r.s.d.) of 6.9% at 100 ?M AA. The long-term reproducibility, using the same microsensor for 112 consecutive measurements of 20 ?M AA over 11 h of periodic probing sets over 4 days, was 16.1% r.s.d., thus showing very good stability at low AA levels and suitability for use over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, using the proposed microsensor, additionally coated with a protective cellulose acetate membrane, the calibration plot obtained in the extremely complex matrix of real undiluted gastric juice was linear from 10 to 520 ?M (n=14, r=0.998). These results demonstrated the unique featuring of the proposed NiO-RuHCF microsensor under acidic conditions with enhanced sensitivity and stability and proved its promising potentiality for direct amperometric probing of AA at physiological levels in real gastric juice environments. PMID:20888449

Hutton, Emily A; Pauliukait?, Rasa; Hocevar, Samo B; Ogorevc, Božidar; Smyth, Malcolm R

2010-09-30

15

Citrus juice composition does not influence radiation sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

Food substrate chemistry is known to influence radiation sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria. The sensitivity of a citrus juice outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis to gamma radiation was determined in five commercial orange juice formulations. The juices differed in pH (3.87 to 4.13), calcium concentration (2.1 versus 36.9 mM), juice composition (orange versus orange-tangerine blend), and antioxidant power (11,751 to 12,826 microM ferric reducing-antioxidant power units). The Dgamma (dose required to achieve 90% destruction) varied only slightly (0.35 to 0.37 kGy), with no significant (P < 0.05) differences among any of the suspending juices. These results indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis sensitivity to gamma radiation is not strongly influenced by the composition of formulated commercial orange juices. PMID:11403141

Niemira, B A

2001-06-01

16

A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because previous studies have shown that a high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibited adhesion of Escherichia coli to epithelial cells and coaggregation of oral bacteria, we have examined its effect on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to immobilized human mucus and to erythrocytes. We employed three strains of H. pylori all of which bound to the mucus and

Ora Burger; Itzhak Ofek; Mina Tabak; Ervin I Weiss; Nathan Sharon; Ishak Neeman

2000-01-01

17

Assessment of the validity of maturity metrics for predicting the volatile composition of Concord grape juice.  

PubMed

Total soluble solids (TSS) are typically used as the sole metric for maturity of Concord grapes. However, the reliability of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of finished juice for grapes sourced from multiple sites has not been investigated. This study sought to determine the validity of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of the juice while also investigating other potentially useful indicators, including pH, titratable acidity (TA), and TSS:TA ratio. Grapes were harvested from 9 sites in the Lake Erie Concord Grape Belt and stratified from north to south and east to west. The key aroma compounds methyl anthranilate ("grapey") and trans-2-hexenal ("herbaceous") were quantified along with several other odorants. It was observed that while TSS was a robust predictor of monomeric anthocyanin content across sites, it was a poor predictor of aroma compounds in the finished juice. Conversely, pH, TA, and TSS:TA ratio were all significantly correlated with methyl anthranilate and trans-2-hexenal concentrations (P < 0.05) in samples equal to or exceeding 15 Brix, the industry minimum for grape maturity. These results indicate that parameters related to acidity are better predictors of aroma composition than TSS, which may aid in efforts to minimize herbaceous off-aromas and optimize the aroma composition of the finished juice. PMID:22384957

Iyer, Meera M; Sacks, Gavin L; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2012-03-01

18

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,

Anh Kim T. Bui; Antony Bacic; Filomena Pettolino

2006-01-01

19

Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.  

PubMed

Abstract Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2015-01-01

20

Identification of phenolic compositions and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices and wines.  

PubMed

This research was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of juices and wines obtained from Robinson, Fremont and Satsuma mandarins. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection was used for identifying and quantifying phenolic compounds. The total amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 36.6 to 132.6 mg/L for the mandarin juice, and from 14.1 to 54.5 mg/L for the wines. In the juices and wines, the major hydroxybenzoic acid was vanillic acid; the major hydroxycinnamic acid was ferulic acid; and the major flavanone was hesperidin. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices was found to be higher than that of wines. Results of this study indicated that these mandarin wines had a composition similar to other beverages, thus demonstrating that these fruits have the potential to be used to produce fermented beverages. PMID:24876641

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2014-06-01

21

Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice. PMID:25248994

de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

2015-01-01

22

Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.  

PubMed

The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), ?-caryophyllene (8.04%) and ?-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

2015-03-01

23

Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.  

PubMed

In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

2014-12-15

24

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juice and Its Relationship with Phenolic Composition and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from

María I. Gil; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán; Betty Hess-Pierce; Deirdre M. Holcroft; Adel A. Kader

2000-01-01

25

Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip. PMID:22835229

Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina

2012-08-17

26

Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.  

PubMed

The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be carefully evaluated in each specific application considering the influence that the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype could have in survival ability in gastric and intestinal conditions and in technological properties. PMID:21774862

Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

2011-08-01

27

Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 Chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis.  

PubMed

Various pomegranate cultivars are grown in several regions of China, but comparative study of their juice polyphenols, antioxidant potentials, and health benefits are few. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions, and antioxidant potentials of pomegranate aril juices from 10 cultivars in 4 Chinese regions were investigated. The results showed that the soluble solid content, reducing sugar content, titratable acid content of them were 13.97-16.30°Brix, 62.82-110.70g/L, 2.657-36.62g/L, respectively. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were 3.15-7.43mgGaE/mL, 0.045-0.335mgQuE/mL, 0.540-2.531mgTaE/mL, and 0.004-0.160mgCyE/mL, respectively. Sugar acid ratio, titratable acid content, total flavonoid concentration, and DPPH scavenging capacity were affected mainly by sweet and sour cultivar type, while soluble solid content and total anthocyanin concentration were affected by environment. Temperature in maturity period and latitude of growing region significantly effected on polyphenol and antioxidant potential levels of pomegranate juice. PMID:25577122

Li, Xuan; Wasila, Humaira; Liu, Linwei; Yuan, Tian; Gao, Zhongmei; Zhao, Beita; Ahmad, Imran

2015-05-15

28

Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of ?-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

2007-01-01

29

Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

30

Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

31

Orange Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A boy named Ben learns that the processing behind fresh-squeezed orange juice is simpler—and more environmentally friendly—than that of bottled orange juice, in this animated video from LOOP SCOOPS.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

32

Comparison of composition, enzyme activity and selected functional properties of potato proteins isolated from potato juice with two different expanded bed resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein concentrates prepared by expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography from industrial potato juice (PJ) were analysed for chemical composition, color, enzyme activities, thermal properties and selected functional properties (solubility and emulsifying stability). Two EBA multi-modal resins, MIMO I-45 and MIMO 1300 (UpFront Chromatography), were employed under various pH conditions resulting in four potato protein concentrates, A–D. Concentrate B contained an

Sissel Løkra; Reidar Barfod Schüller; Bjørg Egelandsdal; Bjørn Engebretsen; Knut Olav Strætkvern

2009-01-01

33

Library Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Library Juice is a current awareness newsletter for librarians and other information professionals, published weekly by editor-librarian Rory Litwin. Each issue of Library Juice compiles recent news, articles, and announcements gleaned from a wide range of mailing lists related to librarianship, information science, intellectual freedom, and social responsibility. The Website posts the current issue of the newsletter and maintains an archive of all past issues.

34

Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23825152

Graf, Daniela; Seifert, Stephanie; Jaudszus, Anke; Bub, Achim; Watzl, Bernhard

2013-01-01

35

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

36

Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

2007-01-01

37

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

38

Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.  

PubMed

Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

2015-02-01

39

CORRELATION OF THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE GASTRIC PARIETAL CELL (DOG) WITH FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE STOMACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the parietal (oxyntic) cell in the gastric glands (corpus of the stomach) of the dog was examined under conditions of active gastric acid secretion and compared with cellular structure in the non-acid-secretory (basal) state. Animals, in both acute and chronic experiments, were equipped with gastric fistulae so that gastric juice could be col- lected for analysis

A. W. Sedar; M. H. F. FRIEDMAN

1961-01-01

40

An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.  

PubMed

The standard of care for chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000-fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 10(6) -fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Thompson, J Will; Dubois, Laura G; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

2015-01-01

41

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may...

2010-04-01

42

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2012-04-01

43

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2014-04-01

44

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2011-04-01

45

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2013-04-01

46

Euterpe oleracea juice as a functional pigment for yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice of Euterpe oleracea Mart. fruit (Arecaceae), known as Açai in the Brazilian Amazon region, is dark purple with a high anthocyanin and phenolic content. The antioxidant and anti-radical properties of E. oleracea juice are well known; the chemical characterisation of its phenolic composition as well as its potential use as food ingredient and natural pigment have been previously

J. D. Coïsson; F. Travaglia; G. Piana; M. Capasso; M. Arlorio

2005-01-01

47

Efficacy of Cranberry Juice on Helicobacter pylori Infection: a Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study postulated that cranberry juice would be effective in the suppression of H. pylori in an endemically infected population at high risk for gastric cancer. Materials and methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Linqu County of Shandong Province, China, where

Lian Zhang; Junling Ma; Kaifeng Pan; Vay Liang W. Go; Junshi Chen; Wei-cheng You

2005-01-01

48

[The pathways of taurine influences on gastric secretion].  

PubMed

In chronic experiments with dogs with gastric fistulas the influence of amino acid taurine on the gastric secretion was investigated. We showed that taurine did not cause acid gastric secretion out of digestion, but increased the gastric secretion stimulated by histamine, increased the contents of gastric acid and pepsine in gastric secretes. When administered either 15 minutes or two hours prior histamine injection, taurine affected the Na+ and K+ concentrations in gastric juice. The greatest changes in the basic indices of gastric secretion were observed 14 hours after administration of taurine. In these experiments the contents of total proteins and components of adenile system in gastric secretes was increased also. Blockade of cholinoreceptors by atropine, benzohexonium and IEM-1678 decreased the effects of taurine on gastric secretion stimulated by histamine. Blockade of a-adrenoreceptors by phentolamine did not prevent the taurine-induced effects on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion. It is established that under conditions of the blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors by obsidane, taurine does not manifest entirely its potentiating influence on the gastric secretion stimulating by histamine. The data obtained indicate that taurine affects gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and realization of this effect occurs through M- and N-cholino- and B-adrenoreceptors. PMID:20968044

Hrinchenko, O A; Ianchuk, P I

2010-01-01

49

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity —(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm....

2012-04-01

50

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity —(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm....

2013-04-01

51

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity —(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm....

2014-04-01

52

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity —(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm....

2011-04-01

53

Changes in Fluid Compartments and Body Composition in Obese Women after Weight Loss Induced by Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Surgical gastric banding procedures induce considerable and rapid weight losses in obese subjects. Nevertheless changes in lean mass and body fluids following these surgical treatments are not well known. Methods: We studied 6 obese women aged 38–42 years, before, and 8 and 24 weeks after laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LAP-BANDTM). Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were

Giuseppe Sergi; Lucia Lupoli; Luca Busetto; Stefania Volpato; Alessandra Coin; Roberta Bertani; Irene Calliari; Adriano Berton; Giuliano Enzi

2003-01-01

54

Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

2010-03-01

55

Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.  

PubMed

As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied. PMID:18494487

Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

2008-06-25

56

Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from skin juice, gel juice and flower of Aloe vera Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from gel juice, skin juice and flowers of Aloe vera. Results indicate that skin juice contained similar amount of polysaccharides to gel juice, suggesting the potential industrial application of A. vera skin rather than discarded. After anion-exchange chromatography, neutral polysaccharides account for more than 95% of the crude polysaccharides from skin juice and gel juice,

X. L. Chang; B. Y. Chen; Y. M. Feng

2011-01-01

57

Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC. PMID:24569566

Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

2014-01-01

58

Effect of amodiaquine on gastric histamine methyltransferase and on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion.  

PubMed Central

1 Amodiaquine was found to be a potent inhibitor in vitro of gastric histamine methyltransferase from human and canine corpus and from pig antrum. The ID50 for the enzyme, purified from pig antrum mucosa by ultracentrifugation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, was 2.5 muM. 2 In six dogs with Heidenhanin pouches the maximum secretory response to histamine (40 mug/kg i.m.) was augmented by i.m. injection of amodiaquine. The augmentation depended on the dose of amodiaquine, the optimum effect (40% increase in volume of gastric juice, 80% in acid output) being achieved with 2 mg/kg. The maximum secretory response to betazole was also enhanced by amodiaquine. 3 It was suggested that amodiaquine may enhance the histamine and betazole stimulated gastric secretion by an inhibition of gastric histamine methyltransferase in vivo. PMID:1203620

Barth, H; Lorenz, W; Troidl, H

1975-01-01

59

Drinking Juice (Illustrative Mathematics)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assessment task, students are challenged to find a fractional part of a fractional part of a bottle of juice. This resource also provides helpful background information on problem solving with various types of fraction problems and standards alignment. It also provides illustrated solutions to the problem using an area model, number line, fractional computation, decimal computation, and Cuisenaire rods. Comments from two of the Common Core authors are also included.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-09-11

60

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2014-04-01

61

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2013-04-01

62

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2012-04-01

63

76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

2011-02-02

64

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2010-04-01

65

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2011-04-01

66

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

67

Protective Effect of Ginger oil on Aspirin and Pylorus Ligation-Induced Gastric Ulcer model in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was performed in aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Wistar rats, in which ability of ginger oil to provide gastric protection was studied at two different doses, 0.5 and 1 g/kg po. Gastric protection was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index, serum ?-GTP levels, total acidity of gastric juice and gastric wall mucus thickness. The results obtained in the present study indicated that ginger oil has a protective action against gastric ulcers induced by aspirin plus pylorus ligation in Wistar rats. PMID:20502577

Khushtar, M.; Kumar, V.; Javed, K.; Bhandari, Uma

2009-01-01

68

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

69

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

The Science House

2014-01-28

70

Juice Challenge Part 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center asks students to figure out the number of individual containers, boxes and pallets of orange juice that will be loaded onto a train car. This activity is the third in a series of three (which may also be found on FL-ATE's site) which ask students to redesign a product's packaging. The lesson asks students to use math, science and engineering to come up with the correct answer. This is the third part of a three-part activity, begun here.

2011-02-22

71

Influence of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 membrane lipid composition, verotoxin secretion, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid.  

PubMed

The effect of organic acid (acetic, citric, and lactic acids) adaptation at equivalent initial pH values (6.4 and 5.4) on changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5, 37 degrees C) was determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (HEC) and an rpoS mutant of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (RM, FRIK 816-3). For HEC, lactic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the greatest D-value (32.2 min) and acetic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the smallest D-value (16.6 min) in simulated gastric fluid. For RM, D-values of citric and acetic acid-adapted cells were similar to those for nonadapted cells grown at pH 7.3, but D-values increased from 13.1 to 27.9 min in lactic acid-adapted cells (from pH 7.3 to pH 5.4). For both strains, the ratio of cis-vaccenic to palmitic acids decreased for citric and lactic acid-adapted cells, but the ratio increased for acetic acid-adapted cells at pH 5.4. Organic acid-adapted cells produced less total verotoxin than did nonadapted cells at approximately 10(8) CFU/ml. Extracellular verotoxin concentration proportionally decreased with decreasing pH for both HEC and RM. Changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in HEC and RM were dependent on both pH and organic acid. Deletion of the rpoS gene did not affect these changes but did decrease acid resistance in citric acid-adapted cells. Results indicate that decreased membrane fluidity may have caused increased acid resistance and decreased verotoxin secretion. PMID:15830655

Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Marshall, Douglas L

2005-04-01

72

Quality Acceptance of Juices of Two Cultivars of Muscadine Grapes Mixed with Other Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juices from 2 cultivars of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.), 'Noble' (dark-skinned) and 'Carlos' (bronze-skinned), were mixed with juices of 'Concord' and 'Niagara' grapes, cranberry or apple. 'Noble' juice, combined with 'Concord' juice, resulted in the highest quality among the dark mixtures prepared. Also, the mixtures retained most color and flavor during a 12 month storage period. 'Carlos' juice rated

W. A. Sistrunk; J. R. Morris

73

Models of gastric emptying.  

PubMed Central

Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

Stubbs, D F

1977-01-01

74

Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

2014-01-01

75

Grapefruit juice-drug interactions.  

PubMed

The novel finding that grapefruit juice can markedly augment oral drug bioavailability was based on an unexpected observation from an interaction study between the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, felodipine, and ethanol in which grapefruit juice was used to mask the taste of the ethanol. Subsequent investigations showed that grapefruit juice acted by reducing presystemic felodipine metabolism through selective post-translational down regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression in the intestinal wall. Since the duration of effect of grapefruit juice can last 24 h, repeated juice consumption can result in a cumulative increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax. The high variability of the magnitude of effect among individuals appeared dependent upon inherent differences in enteric CYP3A4 protein expression such that individuals with highest baseline CYP3A4 had the highest proportional increase. At least 20 other drugs have been assessed for an interaction with grapefruit juice. Medications with innately low oral bioavailability because of substantial presystemic metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 appear affected by grapefruit juice. Clinically relevant interactions seem likely for most dihydropyridines, terfenadine, saquinavir, cyclosporin, midazolam, triazolam and verapamil and may also occur with lovastatin, cisapride and astemizole. The importance of the interaction appears to be influenced by individual patient susceptibility, type and amount of grapefruit juice and administration-related factors. Although in vitro findings support the flavonoid, naringin, or the furanocoumarin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, as being active ingredients, a recent investigation indicated that neither of these substances made a major contribution to grapefruit juice-drug interactions in humans. PMID:9723817

Bailey, D G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; Spence, J D

1998-08-01

76

Grapefruit juice–drug interactions  

PubMed Central

The novel finding that grapefruit juice can markedly augment oral drug bioavailability was based on an unexpected observation from an interaction study between the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, felodipine, and ethanol in which grapefruit juice was used to mask the taste of the ethanol. Subsequent investigations showed that grapefruit juice acted by reducing presystemic felodipine metabolism through selective post-translational down regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression in the intestinal wall. Since the duration of effect of grapefruit juice can last 24 h, repeated juice consumption can result in a cumulative increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax. The high variability of the magnitude of effect among individuals appeared dependent upon inherent differences in enteric CYP3A4 protein expression such that individuals with highest baseline CYP3A4 had the highest proportional increase. At least 20 other drugs have been assessed for an interaction with grapefruit juice. Medications with innately low oral bioavailability because of substantial presystemic metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 appear affected by grapefruit juice. Clinically relevant interactions seem likely for most dihydropyridines, terfenadine, saquinavir, cyclosporin, midazolam, triazolam and verapamil and may also occur with lovastatin, cisapride and astemizole. The importance of the interaction appears to be influenced by individual patient susceptibility, type and amount of grapefruit juice and administration-related factors. Although in vitro findings support the flavonoid, naringin, or the furanocoumarin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, as being active ingredients, a recent investigation indicated that neither of these substances made a major contribution to grapefruit juice-drug interactions in humans. PMID:9723817

Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J

1998-01-01

77

[The role of nitric oxide and taurine in regulation of dogs gastric secretory function].  

PubMed

The influence of taurine and endogenous nitric oxide on the gastric secretion and secretory process alterations by taurine at the nitric oxide synthesis blockade was investigated in chronic experiments on dogs with gastric fistulas. We determined the intensity of gastric secretion during 1,5 hours and quantitative content of hydrochloric acid, pepsine, total proteins and adenile system components. The NO-synthase inhibition by L-NAME evoked an increase of secreted gastric juice volume stimulated by histamine by 160% (P<0,001), the gastric acid content - by 156,4% (P<0,001), pepsine content - by 184,1% (P<0,001) as compared with control. Taurine increases the volume of gastric juice stimulated by histamine on 129,3% (P<0,001), hydrochloric acid - by 151,4% (P<0,001), pepsine - by 172,2% (P<0,001), total proteins - by 60,5% (P<0,001) as compared with control. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis did not alter the effect of taurine on histamine gastric secretion. The present results suggest that the endogenous nitric oxide provides an inhibitory influence on gastric secretion and did not participate in realization of regulatory effects of taurine on gastric secretory function. PMID:23530413

Hrinchenko, O A; Ianchuk, P I

2012-01-01

78

FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reported interactions between grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice and various prescription medications led investigators to suspect a variety of compounds present in grapefruit as responsible for these effects. These investigations amassed evidence that furanocoumarins (also known as psoralens...

79

The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.  

PubMed

A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Rembia?kowska, Ewa

2013-06-01

80

Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36?051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant. PMID:23629613

Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

2013-01-01

81

Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick’s second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75?×?10?11 and 8.72?×?10?11 m2/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid. PMID:21423328

Kong, Fanbin

2010-01-01

82

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-04-28

83

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

84

Reflux of gastric juice and glue ear in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

immunity is not known. To test the hypo- thesis that contacts with children increase exposure to varicella-zoster virus and pro- tect latently infected adults against zoster, we did a case-control study in south Lon- don, UK. Methods: From 22 general practices, we identified patients with recently diagnosed zoster, and control individuals with no his- tory of zoster, matched to patients

Andrea Tasker; Peter W Dettmar; Marguerite Panetti; James A Koufman; John P Birchall; Jeffery P Pearson

2002-01-01

85

Application of central composite design and response surface methodology to the fermentation of olive juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Debaryomyces hansenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NaCl, calcium acetate and calcium lactate in concentrations corresponding to ionic strengths equivalent to 2–10%, w\\/v salt brines as well as the 50% replacement of NaCl contained in the above mixture by KCl. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the maximum specific growth

S Tsapatsaris; P Kotzekidou

2004-01-01

86

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

87

Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

88

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2014-04-01

89

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2012-04-01

90

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

2010-04-01

92

Clarification of apple juice by electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple Juice industry is in search of a simplified technology which enables a quick clarification and stabilisation of apple juice. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of electroflotation as an alternative for the clarification of apple juice. Clarification of apple juice by electroflotation was first done at various current densities (10, 20 and 40 mA\\/cm2) with and without addition of

M. Araya-Farias; M. Mondor; F. Lamarche; S. Tajchakavit; J. Makhlouf

2008-01-01

93

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

95

Spray Drying of Raisin Juice Concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raisin juice concentrate is a natural sweetener in syrup or paste form and it is produced from second-grade dry raisins by leaching them with water. Dried raisin juice, although is easier to handle and has more potential applications than the syrup, is not available in the market. In the present study, raisin juice powder was produced with a lab-scale spray

Spyridon E. Papadakis; Chryssavgi Gardeli; Constantina Tzia

2006-01-01

96

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...practice. Such juice may be homogenized, may be seasoned with salt, and may be acidified with any safe and suitable organic acid. The juice may have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

2011-04-01

97

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practice. Such juice may be homogenized, may be seasoned with salt, and may be acidified with any safe and suitable organic acid. The juice may have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato...

2010-04-01

98

Noni juice is not hepatotoxic  

PubMed Central

Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity. PMID:16773722

West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Westendorf, Johannes

2006-01-01

99

Red grape juice inhibits iron availability: application of an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model.  

PubMed

Adequate bioavailable Fe intake is essential for optimal growth and intellectual development of infants and children. Fruit juices are nutritious and popular drinks for infants and children and are known to contain Fe uptake inhibitors (e.g., polyphenolic compounds) and a dominant promoter, ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is naturally present in fruit juices and is added during processing to almost all juices found in supermarkets. With these facts taken into account, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was developed to compare the effects of apple, pear, white grape, red grape, prune, grapefruir, and orange juices on iron bioavailability. In two series of experiments, juices from a local supermarket were combined with FeCl(3) or commercial infant cereal fortified with elemental iron and subject to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Caco-2 cell ferritin formation in response to exposure to the digests served as the measure of Fe uptake. The pear, apple, grapefruit, orange, and white grape juice significantly increased Fe bioavailability from FeCl(3). For the infant cereal studies, the apple, orange, pear, and white grape juices increased the Fe bioavailability of the infant cereal. In contrast, the red grape juice and prune juice had profound inhibitory effects on iron bioavailability. These inhibitory effects were likely due to high levels of polyphenolic compounds that bind and thereby prevent absorption of soluble Fe. These inhibitory compounds appeared to counteract the promotional effects of ascorbic acid as they were in considerable molar excess relative to ascorbic acid and Fe in the digest. From a nutritional standpoint, the results suggest that individuals in need of optimal Fe absorption should avoid red grape and prune juice or at least vary the types of juices consumed. Alternatively, individuals seeking to limit Fe uptake (e.g., hemochromatitics and astronauts) may be able to utilize red grape or prune juice as effective inhibitors of Fe uptake. Consumers should be aware that the compounds that inhibit Fe availability are also linked to anticancer benefits; thus, a dietary balance of the above juices may be optimal. PMID:12405800

Boato, Francesca; Wortley, Gary M; Liu, Rui Hai; Glahn, Raymond P

2002-11-01

100

Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 ?mol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

2013-12-01

101

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol. PMID:24031124

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

102

The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–? and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine). PMID:20865058

Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

2010-01-01

103

9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with wieners and juice, and similar products. 319.309 Section 319.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309...

2010-01-01

104

9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with wieners and juice, and similar products. 319.309 Section 319.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309...

2011-01-01

105

21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as...

2010-04-01

106

21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as...

2011-04-01

107

Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6?h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600?mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

2012-01-01

108

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of chokeberry juice phenolics during in vitro simulated digestion in the presence of food matrix.  

PubMed

Chokeberry juice was subjected to in vitro gastric digestion in the presence of food matrix in order to determine the changes in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Addition of food matrix immediately decreased the total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, DPPH scavenging activity as well as total reducing power by 36%, 90%, 45% and 44%, respectively. After in vitro digestion, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and reducing power are slightly elevated, but they are still lower than in initial non-digested juice. The effect of digested juice on Caco-2 cells proliferation was also studied, and the reduction of proliferative rate by approximately 25% was determined. Our results suggested that although a large proportion of chokeberry phenolics undergo transformation during digestion they are still potent as antioxidant and antiproliferative agents. PMID:25577114

Stanisavljevi?, Nemanja; Samardži?, Jelena; Jankovi?, Teodora; Šavikin, Katarina; Mojsin, Marija; Topalovi?, Vladanka; Stevanovi?, Milena

2015-05-15

109

Ordering Juice Drinks (grade 4)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 4 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the number and operations in base ten standards. In this interactive single task students must solve a multi-step problem by completing an order receipt for orange juice. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

110

Solar Still Part II: Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members repeat an experiment designed to separate fresh water from a liquid solution, this time using colored sugar water in one solar still and orange juice in another. The basic still design they employ traps water vapor that is created when the Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. As the vapor cools, it condenses and trickles down to a collection container. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

111

Characterization of conventional, biodynamic, and organic purple grape juices by chemical markers, antioxidant capacity, and instrumental taste profile.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and try to classify the samples from the 3 different crop systems. Results were subjected to ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). No statistical significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed among juices from the 3 crop systems. Using PCA and HCA, no clear separation among crop systems was observed, corroborating the ANOVA data. However, PCA showed that the producing region highly affects the chemical composition, electronic tongue parameters, and bioactivity of grape juices. In this sense, when organic and biodynamic were grouped as "nonconventional" juices, SIMCA model was able to discriminate 12 out of 13 organic/biodynamic juices and 17 out of 18 conventional juices, presenting an efficiency of 93.5%, while 11 out of 13 non-conventional and 100% conventional grape juices were correctly classified using PLSDA. The use of electronic tongue and the determination of antioxidant properties and major phenolic compounds have shown to be a quick and accurate analytical approach to assess the quality of grape juices. PMID:25529503

Granato, Daniel; Margraf, Tiago; Brotzakis, Ioannis; Capuano, Edoardo; van Ruth, Saskia M

2015-01-01

112

Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of ?-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

2013-01-01

113

Mythical models of gastric emptying and implications for food consumption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Two of the most important factors governing gastric emptying are meal volume and food composition. These factors have also been demonstrated to influence the secretion of gastric acid, digestive enzymes and gut hormones in both fish and mammals. In mammals, feedback loops involving gastrointestinal hormones have been implicated in the control of gastric motility and enzyme secretion. These findings

Malcolm Jobling

1986-01-01

114

Viscoelastic Properties and Dynamics of Porcine Gastric Mucin Jonathan Celli,, Brian Gregor,, Bradley Turner, Nezam H. Afdhal, Rama Bansil,*, and  

E-print Network

that aggregation/gelation of the mucus layer plays a critical role in the famous auto-digestion paradox:1 the ability of the stomach to not be digested by the digestive gastric juice it secretes. Mucus, in general has been widely studied as a model system due to the anatomy and physiology similarities between pig

115

Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

116

JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

2013-09-01

117

Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

118

Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm  

PubMed Central

We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes. PMID:24008495

HISAKA, TORU; HORIUCHI, HIROYUKI; UCHIDA, SHINJI; ISHIKAWA, HIROTO; KAWAHARA, RYUICHI; KAWASHIMA, YUSUKE; AKASHI, MASANORI; MIKAGI, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; YANO, HIROHISA; TAIRA, TOMOKI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; KINOSHITA, HISAFUMI; SHIROZU, KAZUO

2013-01-01

119

Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

2015-01-01

120

Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer.

Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

2015-01-01

121

Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs.  

PubMed

Grapefruit juice can alter oral drug pharmacokinetics by different mechanisms. Irreversible inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is produced by commercial grapefruit juice given as a single normal amount (e.g. 200-300 mL) or by whole fresh fruit segments. As a result, presystemic metabolism is reduced and oral drug bioavailability increased. Enhanced oral drug bioavailability can occur 24 hours after juice consumption. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a possible mechanism that increases oral drug bioavailability by reducing intestinal and/or hepatic efflux transport. Recently, inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides by grapefruit juice was observed in vitro; intestinal uptake transport appeared decreased as oral drug bioavailability was reduced. Numerous medications used in the prevention or treatment of coronary artery disease and its complications have been observed or are predicted to interact with grapefruit juice. Such interactions may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis when dyslipidemia is treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin. Potential alternative agents are pravastatin, fluvastatin, or rosuvastatin. Such interactions might also cause excessive vasodilatation when hypertension is managed with the dihydropyridines felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, or nitrendipine. An alternative agent could be amlodipine. In contrast, the therapeutic effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan may be reduced by grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice interacting with the antidiabetic agent repaglinide may cause hypoglycemia, and interaction with the appetite suppressant sibutramine may cause elevated BP and HR. In angina pectoris, administration of grapefruit juice could result in atrioventricular conduction disorders with verapamil or attenuated antiplatelet activity with clopidrogel. Grapefruit juice may enhance drug toxicity for antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone, quinidine, disopyramide, or propafenone, and for the congestive heart failure drug, carvediol. Some drugs for the treatment of peripheral or central vascular disease also have the potential to interact with grapefruit juice. Interaction with sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil for erectile dysfunction, may cause serious systemic vasodilatation especially when combined with a nitrate. Interaction between ergotamine for migraine and grapefruit juice may cause gangrene or stroke. In stroke, interaction with nimodipine may cause systemic hypotension. If a drug has low inherent oral bioavailability from presystemic metabolism by CYP3A4 or efflux transport by P-gp and the potential to produce serious overdose toxicity, avoidance of grapefruit juice entirely during pharmacotherapy appears mandatory. Although altered drug response is variable among individuals, the outcome is difficult to predict and avoiding the combination will guarantee toxicity is prevented. The elderly are at particular risk, as they are often prescribed medications and frequently consume grapefruit juice. PMID:15449971

Bailey, David G; Dresser, George K

2004-01-01

122

Interaction of citrus juices with felodipine and nifedipine.  

PubMed

Six men with borderline hypertension took felodipine 5 mg with water, grapefruit juice, or orange juice. The mean felodipine bioavailability with grapefruit juice was 284 (range 164-469)% of that with water. The dehydrofelodipine/felodipine AUC ratio was lower, diastolic blood pressure lower, and heart rate higher with grapefruit juice than with water. Vasodilatation-related side-effects were more frequent. Orange juice had no such effects. Six healthy men took nifedipine 10 mg with water or grapefruit juice; the bioavailability with grapefruit juice was 134 (108-169)% of that with water. PMID:1671113

Bailey, D G; Spence, J D; Munoz, C; Arnold, J M

1991-02-01

123

Consumer Acceptance of Mayhaw (Crataegus opaca Hook, and Arn.) Juice Blended with Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are among the top 10 products occupying grocery store shelf space. They are also one of the top five consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables. There is a strong potential for growth in blended juices and juice-based beverages. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for mayhaw and muscadine juices to compete in this growing market. Mayhaws

A. F. Trappey; C. E. Johnson; P. W. Wilson

2007-01-01

124

Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

2014-04-01

125

Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

2014-01-01

126

Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat gastric mucosal defensive factors in gastric ulcer with co-occurring diabetes. E. jambolana extract was administered orally in the dose of 200 mg/kg once daily for 10 days. E. jambolana extract increased mucin secretion, mucosal glycoprotein and glutathione levels and decreased the lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. Its treatment also reversed the decrease in life span of gastric mucosal cells as indicated by decreased cell shedding in the gastric juice but found to have no effect on cell proliferation, indicating enhanced defensive status. E. jambolana extract was effective in reversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats near to the normal level. E. jambolana showed better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide, because of its both antihyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions. It could thus, be a better choice for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes. PMID:19810572

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2009-01-01

127

Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.  

PubMed

In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast. PMID:17120082

Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

2007-02-01

128

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.  

PubMed

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

129

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit  

PubMed Central

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

130

Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

2014-01-01

131

Interaction Between Warfarin and Cranberry Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Warfarin is commonly used to treat or prevent thromboembolic events. Cranberry juice has been suggested to have an interaction with warfarin. However, there have been few reported cases of warfarin-cranberry juice interaction.Case summary: A 78-year-old, 86-kg man receiving warfarin at a total weekly dose of 45 mg for atrial fibrillation presented at the Bakersfield Healthcare Center of the VA

Christine H. Paeng; Michael Sprague; Cynthia A. Jackevicius

2007-01-01

132

Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass  

PubMed Central

Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40?kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

133

Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.  

PubMed

A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in barrier factors and increase in damage in extreme cold climates may be associated with the seasonal pattern of peptic ulcers. PMID:25452787

Yuan, Xiao-Gang; Xie, Chuan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Zhang, Kun-He; Lu, Nong-Hua

2015-01-01

134

Treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

135

Ramucirumab for gastric cancer.  

PubMed

In recent years, various molecular target agents have been investigated for gastric cancer. VEGF is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signaling molecule secreted by many solid tumors. High VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, thus targeting VEGF is considered a promising strategy for gastric cancer. Ramucirumab, an anti-VEGF receptor antibody, has proven to be effective for previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Details of ramucirumab, including two pivotal Phase III studies, will be discussed in this review. Ramucirumab, with or without chemotherapy, improved survival in gastric cancer after previous systemic chemotherapy, thus becoming the standard of care for this patient population. Optimal timing of ramucirumab use and adequate biomarkers for patient selection as well as mechanism of resistance should be explored in future research. PMID:25431958

Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi

2015-02-01

136

Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

2013-01-01

137

Reappraisal of the Immunophenotype of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)—Gastric Pyloric and Small Intestinal Immunophenotype Expression in Gastric and Intestinal Type IPMNs—  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis. PMID:25221363

Kobayashi, Mikiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ota, Hiroyoshi

2014-01-01

138

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146...Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice...

2011-04-01

139

Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress. PMID:25238454

2014-01-01

140

Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

2005-01-01

141

Increased expression of long intergenic non-coding RNA LINC00152 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.  

PubMed

It has been known that differential expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays critical roles in carcinogenesis. However, the significance of lncRNA, especially long intergenic ncRNA (lincRNA, the main type of lncRNA family), in the diagnosis of gastric cancer is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the expression level of LINC00152, a newfound lincRNA, in gastric carcinoma and its clinical association. The expression of LINC00152 in 71 pairs of tumorous and adjacent normal tissues from patients with gastric cancer was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. And then, the potential associations between its level in gastric cancer tissue and the clinicopathological features were analyzed. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. The results showed that the expression level of LINC00152 in gastric carcinoma was significantly increased, compared with matched normal tissue (P=0.045) and normal mucosa from health control (P=0.004), respectively. Levels of LINC00152 in gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823, MGC-803, and SGC-7901, were significantly higher than those in human normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. In addition, high expression of LINC00152 was correlated with invasion (P=0.042). LINC00152 levels in gastric juice from patients with gastric cancer were further found significantly higher than those from normal controls (P=0.002). Moreover, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was up to 0.645 (95 % CI=0.559-0.740, P=0.003). This study highlights that lincRNA LINC00152 might be a novel biomarker for predicting gastric cancer. PMID:24523021

Pang, Qianqian; Ge, Jiaxin; Shao, Yongfu; Sun, Weiliang; Song, Haojun; Xia, Tian; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming

2014-06-01

142

Gastric conduit perforation.  

PubMed

As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2014-08-16

143

Deacidification of passion fruit juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane after different pretreatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of acidity of passion fruit juice was investigated by electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes (BM) at the laboratory and pre-industrial scale. Four states of juice were tested: initial pulpy juice, juice clarified by tangential microfiltration, twice-concentrated clarified juice, centrifuged juice. The ED performances were compared in terms of deacidification rate, current efficiency, and energy consumption. The deacidification was

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2009-01-01

144

Grapefruit juice increases oral nimodipine bioavailability.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers following oral administration was shown to be increased by concomitant intake of grapefruit juice for all drugs of this class tested up to now. Here we report a randomized crossover interaction study on the effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of nimodipine and its metabolites. Eight healthy young men (4 smokers/4 nonsmokers) were included. Nimodipine was given as a single 30 mg tablet (Nimotop) with either 250 ml of water or 250 ml of grapefruit juice (751 mg naringin/l). Drug concentrations in plasma withdrawn up to 24 hours postdose were measured by GC-ECD, and model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The study was handled as an equivalence problem. Point estimators and ANOVA based 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the test (= grapefruit juice period) to reference (= water period) ratios using dose-normalized concentrations. The absence of a relevant interaction was assumed if the CIs were within the 0.67-1.50 range. Cmax for nimodipine reached 124% of the reference period (90% CI 0.76-2.01), AUC was increased to 151% (90% CI 114%-200%), respectively. The null hypothesis "relevant interaction" thus could not be rejected for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters AUC and Cmax. The ratios of metabolite AUC to parent drug AUC were slightly reduced with grapefruit juice intake. Additionally, there was evidence for a more pronounced hemodynamic response in the grapefruit juice period. To avoid the interaction, nimodipine should not be taken with grapefruit juice. PMID:9562227

Fuhr, U; Maier-Brüggemann, A; Blume, H; Mück, W; Unger, S; Kuhlmann, J; Huschka, C; Zaigler, M; Rietbrock, S; Staib, A H

1998-03-01

145

The Submillimetre Wave Instrument on JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Submillimetre Wave Instrument (SWI) is part of the JUICE (Jupiter ICy moon Explorer) payload. SWI's primary scientific objectives are the investigation of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter and the atmospheres and exospheres of the Galilean satellites. SWI will contribute to the understanding of the circulation regime in the atmosphere of Jupiter as a function of latitude and altitude, how the various atmospheric regions are dynamically coupled, and how the energy originating in Jupiter's interior vertically propagates to the upper layers to be radiated in space. In this sense SWI complements the Juno mission. Furthermore SWI will determine important isotopic radios, monitor and trace known gases and search for new molecules. SWI will - for the first time - investigate the density, structure and distribution of the water atmospheres of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa from ground up to a few hundred km, determine its isotopic composition and general circulation. Io's volcanic atmosphere will be studied through lines of SO2, SO, NaCl, and perhaps other species.. The secondary scientific objectives concerns the determination of thermophysical properties of the Galilean satellite surfaces by radiometric observations. In the proposed configuration SWI will operate in two submm wave bands around 600 GHz and 1200 GHz. Basline however at the present time are two 600 GHz receivers. Both receivers will be tunable within a bandwidth of approximately 20 % around the centre frequency. The antenna has a diameter of 30 cm and will be movable in two dimensions. Two high resolution Chirp Transform Spectrometers with 1 GHz bandwidth and two 5 GHz wide low resolution autocorrelator spectrometer are used for determining the spectral line shapes and for line surveys. The observations geometry includes limb and nadir sounding. The total mass of the instrument is aimed at below 10 kg and the power consumption below 50 W.

Hartogh, P.; Barabash, S.; Beaudin, G.; Börner, P.; Bockeleé-Morvan, D.; Boogaerts, W.; Cavalié, T.; Christensen, U. R.; Dannenberg, A.; Eriksson, P.; Fränz, M.; Fouchet, T.; Frisk, U.; Hocke, K.; Janssen, C.; Jarchow, C.; Kasai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.; Krieg, J.-M.; Krupp, N.; Kuroda, T.; Lellouch, E.; Loose, A.; Maestrini, A.; Manabe, T.; Medvedev, A. S.; Mendrok, J.; Miettinen, E. P.; Moreno, R.; Murk, A.; Murtagh, D.; Nishibori, T.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Sagawa, H.; Steinmetz, E.; Thomas, B.; Urban, J.; Wicht, J.

2013-09-01

146

Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely “FVBH” for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

2014-01-01

147

Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.  

PubMed

The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:24300194

Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

2014-02-01

148

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

149

Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Infection with Salmonella typhimurium can produce multiple organ dysfunctions. However, document concerning with gastric hemorrhagic ulcers occur in this infectious disease is lacking. The aim was to study modulation of gastric hemorrhagic ulcer by oxidative stress and mast cell histamine in S. typhimurium-infected rats. Additionally, the protective effects of drugs, such as ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were injected intrajejunally with a live culture of S. typhimurium (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units/rat) and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received sterilized vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. S. typhimurium caused aggravation of offensive factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine release, microvascular permeability and hemorrhagic ulcer, as well as an attenuation of defensive substances, such as mucosal GSH and mucus level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in S. typhimurium infected rats. In conclusion, gastric oxidative stress and histamine play pivotal roles in the formation of hemorrhagic ulcers that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, diamine oxidase and various antioxidants in S. typhimurium-infected rats. PMID:16259743

Hung, Chen-Road

2005-01-01

150

Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

M. N. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

151

Sulphanilamide as a Preservative for Sweet Juices from Palm Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE sweet juices from palm trees (date, brab, coconut and sago) which grow abundantly in the tropics are collected for toddy (fermented juice) or for conversion into liquor. The fresh juice is found to contain about 10-14 per cent of sucrose and could be a useful source of sugar, thus replacing cane sugar and releasing fertile land for cereals.

D. G. Walawalkar

1950-01-01

152

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended  

E-print Network

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended skim milk powder Ramachandra H are required to explore the feasibil- ity of vitamin C enrichment of milk, which could be effectively achieved by incorporation of orange juice. Blends with different levels of orange juice and skim milk were spray dried, viz

Boyer, Edmond

153

78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

2013-08-01

154

78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

2013-08-02

155

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the

A. Frandas; V. Surducan; G. Nagy; D. Bicanic

1999-01-01

156

Production of concentrated kiwifruit juice by integrated membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fruit juices is industrially performed in order to reduce storage, packaging, handling and shipping costs. This paper describes the research efforts to develop and optimise an integrated membrane process, on laboratory scale, for the production of concentrated kiwifruit juice as alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation. Fresh depectinated kiwifruit juice was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process.

A. Cassano; B. Jiao; E. Drioli

2004-01-01

157

Nutritional study of copper and zinc in grapes and commercial grape juices from Spain.  

PubMed

This paper presents the levels of copper and zinc determined in a total of 66 samples of the most widely consumed varieties of white and red grapes in Spain, as well as those of 60 samples of grape juice (39 from white varieties and 21 from red ones) chosen from the main commercial brands in the country. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used as analytical technique, with electrothermal atomization after digestion of the sample with HNO(3)-H(2)O(2) for grapes and with HNO(3) for grape juice. The mean Zn contents obtained (0.0462 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0460 mg/100 mL in grape juice) are lower than those provided by most of the more commonly used food composition tables. The mean Cu contents were 0.0515 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0063 mg/100 mL in grape juice. On the basis of these data and the official data on consumption of grapes and grape juice in Spain, the contribution of both products to the recommended daily intake of zinc (15 and 12 mg/day for healthy adult men and women, respectively) is estimated to be approximately 0.1%, whereas for Cu, this supply represents rather more than 0.25% of the established ESADDI (1.5-3 mg/day in adults). The growing popularity of these products in recent years, on the basis of its nutritional properties and beneficial effects, requires additional data, and the present findings are of potential use to food composition tables. PMID:15113181

Olalla, Manuel; Fernández, Javier; Cabrera, Carmen; Navarro, Miguel; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

2004-05-01

158

Gastric wall tension determines perception of gastric distention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The primary mechanism that originates symptoms in response to gastric distention remains undefined. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, whether intragastric volume, pressure, or wall tension, determines perception of gastric distention. Methods: Healthy subjects underwent increasing gastric distentions (2-minute duration at 5-minute intervals) either at fixed pressure levels using a conventional barostat (n

Eleonora Distrutti; Fernando Azpiroz; Alfredo Soldevilla

1999-01-01

159

A Comparison of Rabeprazole, Lansoprazole, and Ranitidine for Improving Preoperative Gastric Fluid Property in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid aspiration syndrome at the induction of anesthe- sia is still a potentially life-threatening complication. Its severity is affected by both pH and volume of the gas- tric juice that is aspirated. We compared the effects of rabeprazole (a new proton pump inhibitor), lansopra- zole, and ranitidine on gastric fluid properties in a pro- spective, randomized, double-blinded fashion in 180

Kahoru Nishina; Katsuya Mikawa; Yumiko Takao; Makoto Shiga; Nobuhiro Maekawa; Hidefumi Obara

2000-01-01

160

Development of an orange juice surrogate for the study of dental erosion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to create a synthetic juice (SJ) to be used as a surrogate for natural orange juices in erosion studies, verifying its erosive potential. The SJ was formulated based on the chemical composition of orange juices from different locations. Forty enamel and 40 root dentin specimens were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 10): SJ; 1% Citric Acid (CA); Minute Maid Original® (MM) and Florida Natural Original® (FN). The specimens were immersed in their respective solutions for 5 min, 6x/day for 5 days, in an erosion-remineralization cycling model. Enamel specimens were analyzed by surface Knoop microhardness and optical profilometry and dentin specimens only by optical profilometry. Outcomes were analyzed statistically by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test considering a significance level of 5%. For enamel, the surface loss and microhardness changes found for MM and SJ groups were similar (p>0.05) and significantly lower (p<0.01) than those found in the CA group. For dentin, CA promoted significantly greater (p<0.01) surface loss compared with all the other groups. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in dentin surface loss between MM and SJ. In conclusion, CA was the most erosive solution, and SJ had a similar erosive potential to that of MM natural orange juice. PMID:22189642

Scaramucci, Tais; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T; Ferreira, Stella S; Aoki, Idalina V; Sobral, Maria Angela P

2011-01-01

161

Elevated antimony concentrations in commercial juices.  

PubMed

Antimony concentrations up to a factor of 2.7 above the EU limit for drinking water were found in commercial juices and may either be leached from the packaging material or introduced during manufacturing, pointing out the need for further research on the area. PMID:20383361

Hansen, Claus; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Bak, Søren Alex; Pergantis, Spiros A; Stürup, Stefan; Gammelgaard, Bente; Hansen, Helle Rüsz

2010-04-01

162

Neoplastic autovagotomy causing gastric stasis.  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic autovagotomy causing atonic gastric stasis is extremely rare. Two cases are reported in which marked gastric stasis was complicated by a bezoar and a gastric volvulus respectively. Both cases were associated with a left hilar bronchial carcinoma, and malignant invasion of the vagus nerve may have been the underlying cause. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:482188

Thomas, W. E.; Fletcher, M. S.

1979-01-01

163

Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss

In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

2005-01-01

164

Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition. PMID:24851229

Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol

2014-01-01

165

Protein sequestration of lipophilic furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice.  

PubMed

The sequestration of grapefruit furanocoumarins by foods was investigated by characterizing the binding between these compounds and foods with contrasting protein, fat, and carbohydrate compositions. Individual grapefruit furanocoumarins exhibited contrasting affinities to foods, where the lipophilic bergamottin and several structurally related dimers bound to foods more tightly than the more polar 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. From the investigation of different classes of macromolecules in foods, water-soluble proteins were found to be the major constituents responsible for furanocoumarin sequestration. Studies using bovine serum albumin as a model protein demonstrated the dissociation of grapefruit furanocoumarins from the insoluble juice cloud particles and the subsequent formation of water-soluble bovine serum albumin-furanocoumarin complexes. Fluorescence binding assays further demonstrated the binding of bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin to bovine serum albumin. These results demonstrate that proteins can be sequestration agents of these important dietary furanocoumarins. PMID:23256844

Myung, Kyung; Manthey, John A; Narciso, Jan A

2013-01-23

166

Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

2014-02-21

167

Immunotherapy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

2014-01-01

168

Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (? 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (?11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (?18%, p?composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

2013-01-01

169

Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.  

PubMed

The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

Díaz-García, M C; Obón, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

2013-06-01

170

Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.  

PubMed

Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134)?=?6.09, p?<0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134)?=?4.16, p?<0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134)?=?5.98, p?<0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134)?=?3.29, p?<0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134)?=?4.36, p?<0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4?mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

2015-01-01

171

Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

2014-01-01

172

Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.  

PubMed

Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively. PMID:23256443

Djordjevi?, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Jankovi?, Teodora; Vuli?, Todor; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

2013-01-01

173

Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30) or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30). General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092) respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5). This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol. PMID:25558191

Ullah, Khan Mueen; Aqil, Mansoor; Hussain, Altaf; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Hillis, Marwan

2015-01-01

174

In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE) may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA), as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653931

Ertay, Türkan; Do?an, Amet Semih; Ülker, Özden; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

175

Dysfunctions of the stomach with gastric ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer were studied simultaneously in seven patients with strictly defined type 1 gastric ulcer (single benign ulcer above the incisura of the stomach) and in six healthy controls. After ingestion of an ordinary solid-liquid meal, patients with gastric ulcer demonstrated gastric hyposecretion of acid, pepsin, and water; delayed gastric emptying of solids with

Laurence J. Miller; Juan-R. Malagelada; George F. Longstreth; Vayliang W. Go

1980-01-01

176

Gastric cancer: overview.  

PubMed

This review provides a state of the art description of gastric cancer etiology, the infectious agent, host factors, the precancerous cascade, clinical aspects, and prevention strategies. The biology of Helicobacter pylori, the primary causative agent, is discussed as well as the environmental factors that may modulate its effects. PMID:23639637

Correa, Pelayo

2013-06-01

177

Gastric bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Breathing problems Heart attack or stroke during or after surgery Infection, including in the cut, lungs (pneumonia), bladder, or kidney There are a number of risks for any weight-loss surgery. ... also risks that are more likely after gastric bypass surgery.

178

Role of histamine and acid back-diffusion in modulation of gastric microvascular permeability and hemorrhagic ulcers in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Documentation concerning the pathogenesis of gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella typhi)-infective disease is lacking. This research first proposed that alterations of mast cell histamine release, gastric acid back-diffusion and mucosal microvascular permeability are important in modulating gastric ulcer and hemorrhage in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. Additionally, effects of several histamine-related drugs on this ulcer model were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were deprived food for 36 h. Live cultures of Salmonella typhi (OU 5045, 1 x 10(10) CFU in 1.0 mL of sterilized phosphate buffer saline) were challenged, intrajejunally to rats just before withdrawal of food. Control rats received the same volume of sterilized vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal histamine concentration, microvascular permeability as well as luminal hemoglobin content and ulcer areas were determined. Severe gastric hemorrhage and mucosal ulcerations, particularly in acidic stomachs, were observed in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. A positive correlation of histamine to gastric hemorrhage and ulcer was found in those rats with Salmonella typhi-infection. This hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhi-infected rats was effectively ameliorated by intraperitoneal ketotifen, diphenhydramine and ranitidine but was worsen by exogenous histamine or diamine oxidase. In conclusion, enhancement of acid back-diffusion, mast cell histamine release and microvascular permeability is important in modulating gastric hemorrhage and ulcer in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. PMID:14967197

Hung, Chen-Road; Wang, Paulus S

2004-03-01

179

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Research, Cornell C.

2003-01-01

180

Specific Lignin Accumulation in Granulated Juice Sacs of Citrus maxima.  

PubMed

Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

2014-12-17

181

Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago. Answer Cranberry juice has been shown to be effective in preventing adhesion of bacteria such as Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelium. Current evidence supports the use of cranberry juice for prevention of UTI in adult women, but no such evidence exists at this time for the prevention of UTI in children. While cranberry juice is very safe for most children, its acidity reduces palatability among children. The dose of cranberry juice to prevent UTI in children has also yet to be determined. PMID:22499815

Goldman, Ran D.

2012-01-01

182

Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines.  

PubMed

The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of wines has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in the grape juice and wines, showing no olfactive characteristics. In this way, mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a comparative study between acidic and enzymic hydrolysis of terpene glycosides. Finally, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, and also to fractionate glycosidic precursors, have been discussed. PMID:10905735

Mateo, J J; Jiménez, M

2000-06-01

183

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2010-04-01

184

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2014-04-01

185

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2014-04-01

186

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2011-04-01

187

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2011-04-01

188

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2013-04-01

189

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2013-04-01

190

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2012-04-01

191

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2012-04-01

192

78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of...termination of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

2013-08-07

193

Stability of Ascorbic Acid in Commercially Available Orange Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the vitamin C content of reconstituted frozen orange juice concentrates at preparation to that of ready-to-drink orange juices purchased 4 to 5 weeks from expiration.Design Juices were unsealed and analyzed for reduced and oxidized vitamin C content at the time of purchase and reanalyzed 3 times weekly for 4 to 5 weeks. Same-lot samples of the ready-to-drink

Carol S Johnston; D. L Bowling

2002-01-01

194

Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.  

PubMed

Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

2014-06-01

195

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

196

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

197

[Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].  

PubMed

This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group. PMID:20201286

Belostotski?, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

2009-01-01

198

Gastric Migration and Strangulation After Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of gastric strangulation 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The 45-year-old\\u000a woman presented to our emergency department with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Initial upper gastrointestinal\\u000a studies after emergency department presentation showed no flow through the gastric band and an unusual air\\/fluid level just\\u000a above the band, not communicating with the proximal pouch. The

Gwenyth Fischer; Jonathan A. Myers; Wendy Huang; Vafa Shayani

2008-01-01

199

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

200

Local immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected cats and identification of H. pylori in saliva, gastric fluid and faeces.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori-infected cats were screened by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of H. pylori in salivary secretions, gastric juice, gastric tissue and faeces. H. pylori was cultured from salivary secretions in six of 12 (50%) cats and from gastric fluid samples in 11 of 12 (91%) cats. A 298 base pair polymerase chain reactions (PCR) product specific for an H. pylori 26000 MW surface protein was amplified from dental plaque samples from five of 12 (42%) cats and from the faeces of four of five (80%) cats studied. Analyses of serum and mucosal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, and elevated IgA anti-H. pylori antibody levels in salivary and local gastric secretions. Immunohistochemical analyses of gastric tissue revealed the presence of IgM+ B cells assembled into multiple lymphoid follicles surrounded by clusters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The lamina propria also contained single cells or aggregates of IgA+ and IgM+ B cells. These observations show that H. pylori can be identified in feline mucosal secretions, and that a localized IgA immune response develops in gastric tissue of H. pylori-infected cats. The findings suggest a zoonotic risk from exposure to personnel handling H. pylori-infected cats in vivaria. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8774357

Fox, J G; Perkins, S; Yan, L; Shen, Z; Attardo, L; Pappo, J

1996-01-01

201

Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (inventors)

1981-01-01

202

Characterization of Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum) essential oil and its inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and during mild thermal pasteurization of pineapple juice.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the essential oil (EO) of Eryngium foetidum (EfEO) and assess its activity toward Listeria monocytogenes in broth and during thermal inactivation of the pathogen in pineapple juice. In this respect, EfEO was chemically characterized, and its antilisteria potential in broth as a function of pH, cell load, and EfEO concentration was assessed through a central composite design. Furthermore, the inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes in the juice were assessed by combining EfEO and low pasteurization temperatures. A total of 81 compounds were identified from EfEO. The reduction of pH and cell load increased EO activity. The use of only 15 ppm of EfEO during pasteurization of pineapple juice at 60°C reduced the time required for a 4-log reduction in L. monocytogenes CFU/ml by 74.9% (i.e., from 8.5 to 2.1 min) compared with treatment without EfEO. It could be concluded that EfEO activity toward L. monocytogenes increases with the reduction of pH and that it can be used at sublethal concentrations in combination with low temperatures in pineapple juice pasteurization. This study demonstrates that EO-assisted pasteurization is a promising strategy for the reduction of thermal impact during juice production. EfEO is easily available and compatible with many juices and is thus promising for industrial application. PMID:24674435

Ngang, Jean J Essia; Nyegue, Maximilienne A; Ndoye, Foe C; Tchuenchieu Kamgain, Alex D; Sado Kamdem, Sylvain L; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto; Etoa, François-Xavier

2014-03-01

203

Gastric bezoars: treatment and prevention.  

PubMed

Gastric bezoars may occur in the normal stomach as a result of ingestion of various objects which do not pass through the pylorus. Most gastric bezoars occur as a complication of previous gastric surgery in which there is a loss of normal pyloric function, hypoperistalsis, and low gastric acidity. They may also occur as a complication of cimetidine therapy. Symptoms include epigastric fullness, regurgitation, nausea and vomiting, and epigastric pain. A simple treatment utilizing an ordinary Teledyne Water Pik jet stream through a gastroscope is described to break up a large phytobezoar. This method is probably the treatment of choice and should be used more widely. PMID:6720657

Rider, J A; Foresti-Lorente, R F; Garrido, J; Puletti, E J; Rider, D L; King, A H; Bradley, S P

1984-05-01

204

Inhibition of gastric emptying.  

PubMed

In studies aimed at defining the role of amylin in glucose control, elevations of postprandial glucose concentration were blunted in subjects infused with the human amylin analog, pramlintide (Kolterman et al., 1995, 1996). An effect similar to blunt glucose excursions was observed by Brown and others during infusions of amylin in dogs trained to drink glucose (Brown et al., 1994). The effect of pramlintide in humans was present when glucose was administered orally, but not when administered intravenously, suggesting that the effect was due to a deceleration of glucose uptake from the meal, rather than an acceleration of its metabolism (Kolterman et al., 1995). Since amylin did not affect the rate of glucose transit across exteriorized gut loops (Young and Gedulin, 2000), it was proposed that blunting of postprandial glucose profiles could reflect effects on gastric emptying. Rates of gastric emptying have been determined using three different approaches: (1) by measurement of remnant dye found in acutely excised stomachs, (2) by the systemic appearance of labels that are not significantly absorbed until they leave the stomach (e.g., labeled glucose, acetaminophen, 13C-labeled volatiles), and (3) by following the passage of radiolabeled meal components scintigraphically, with a gamma-camera. Amylin and/or pramlintide were shown to potently inhibit gastric emptying by the first method in animals (Clementi et al., 1996; Young et al., 1995a, 1996b), by the second method in animals (Gedulin et al., 1995; Young et al., 1995a, 1996a) and in humans, including those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Burrell et al., 2003b; Hücking et al., 2000; Kong et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2000; Vella et al., 2002), and by scintigraphy in patients with type 1 diabetes (Kong et al., 1997, 1998) and in nondiabetic subjects (Samsom et al., 2000). Depending upon dose, responses ranged from a slowing of emptying rate (e.g., by approximately 50%) to a complete cessation. In rats, amylin was 15-fold more potent on a molar basis than glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and 20-fold more potent than cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) for inhibition of gastric emptying (Young et al., 1996b). It was the most potent mammalian peptide of 21 tested for this action (Gedulin et al., 1996b). Amylin inhibition of gastric emptying appears to be mediated by a central mechanism (Clementi et al., 1996; Dilts et al., 1997; Young et al.,2000). An intact vagus nerve (Jodka et al., 1996) and an intact area postrema (Edwards et al., 1998) are required for the effect. In rats that underwent total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or surgical ablation of the area postrema, amylin was no longer effective at inhibiting gastric emptying (Edwards et al.,1998). The effect of amylin and amylin agonists (including pramlintide) to inhibit gastric emptying was reversed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (Gedulin and Young, 1998; Gedulin et al., 1997b,c,d; Young et al., 1996a). This suggests the existence of a glucose-sensitive "fail-safe" mechanism that safeguards against severe hypoglycemia; nutrients ingested in response to the hunger that accompanies hypoglycemia can pass rapidly through the stomach for immediate digestion and absorption, unimpaired by the physiological restraint of amylin that would normally prevail at normal glucose concentrations. It seems likely that amylinergic control of gastric emptying is mediated via neurons in the area postrema shown in brain slices to be activated by amylin, and inhibited by low glucose (Riediger et al., 1999). Such neurons have been proposed to mediate glucoprivic gut reflexes (Adachi et al., 1995). PMID:16492543

Young, Andrew

2005-01-01

205

Gastric cancer review  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

Carcas, Lauren Peirce

2014-01-01

206

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We introduced open adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution\\u000a in 1991. It was done in a prospective study comparing ASGB with vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) with regard to weight loss.\\u000a After 200 cases of open ASGB and 210 VBG procedures and the encouraging weight loss results, we started laparoscopic placement\\u000a of the

Mitiku Belachew; Marc Legrand; Vernon Vincent; Michel Lismonde; Nicole Le Docte; Veronique Deschamps

1998-01-01

207

Malnutrition after gastric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of excessive weight loss following gastric surgery. Twelve weight-stable and six weight-losing postoperative subjects were studied. The weight-losing subjects had lesser body mass based upon anthropometric measurements. All weight-losing subjects and six weight-stable subjects excreted excess breath hydrogen after a standard meal. The quantities of hydrogen excreted by the weight-losing subjects and

Donald P. Kotler; Deborah Sherman; Stephen R. Bloom; Peter R. Holt

1985-01-01

208

Ultrafiltration of kiwifruit juice: Operating parameters, juice quality and membrane fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh depectinised kiwifruit juice has been clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process on laboratory scale. In experimental tests performed according to the total recycle mode the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP), axial flow-rate and temperature on permeation flux has been studied. The results showed that flux increased with temperatures from 20 to 30°C and with axial feed flow rate from 300

A. Cassano; L. Donato; E. Drioli

2007-01-01

209

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

2011-04-01

210

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

2013-04-01

211

Lemon juice as an alternative therapy in hypertension in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to learn the frequency of lemon juice usage among the hypertensive patients in a local region of northern Turkey. One hundred fifty six (72.5%) of hypertensive patients were using alternative therapy and eighty six patients (40%) were drinking lemon juice. We think that to gain success in the treatment of hypertension educating the society is important and there

Zelal Adibelli; Melda Dilek; Tekin Akpolat

2009-01-01

212

Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices  

E-print Network

#12;Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Fruit Assortment of Freshly Baked Pastries Fresh Brewed Starbucks Coffee, Decaffeinated & Assorted Tazo Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Fruit Farm Fresh Cage Free Scrambled Eggs Crisp Applewood Smoked Bacon

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

213

The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

1996-01-01

214

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

215

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M.

2007-04-01

216

Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.  

PubMed

Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and ?-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and ?-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma ?-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of ?-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein. PMID:24245891

Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

2013-11-01

217

Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

2013-01-01

218

Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rare in childhood, gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology: congenital absence of intraperitoneal visceral attachments. We report an unusual case of a patient who presented with three episodes of intractable vomiting and abdominal mass but no abdominal pain. A diagnosis could not be made until the third episode because the gastric volvulus resolved each time on

Simon C. Kao; Kathleen D. Sanders; John Lawrence

1998-01-01

219

Gastric MALT lymphoma: a rarity.  

PubMed

Association of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection with gastric 'Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue' (MALT) lymphomas (MALTomas) is well established. In this study the frequency and characteristics of gastric MALToma over a period of 18 years was evaluated. During this period 24 patients with gastric MALToma were diagnosed; out of them, 13 (54.2%) had active H. Pylori infection. The mean and median age was 49.7 and 53.5 years. The male: female ratio was 17:7. The common presenting complaints were epigastric pain (n=10) and dyspepsia (n=9). Endoscopic findings revealed mild gastric hyperemia (n=16), superficial erosions (n=4) and superficial ulcers (n=4). It was concluded that the prevalence of gastric MALToma was very low in contrast to a high H. pylori gastritis in the Pakistani population. PMID:21419026

Pervez, Shahid; Ali, Naureen; Aaqil, Hina; Mumtaz, Khalid; Siddiq Ullah, Syed; Akhtar, Nake

2011-03-01

220

Gastric accommodation assessed by ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Gastric accommodation is important for the under-standing of the pathophysiology in functional dyspepsia and is also relevant for symptom generation in other disorders. The term gastric accommodation has at least three different meanings: The accommodation process, the accommodation reflex, and the accommodation response. The gastric accommodation process is a complex phenomenon that describes how the size of the gastric compartment changes in response to a meal. The electronic barostat is considered the gold standard in assessing gastric accommodation. Imaging methods, including MRI, SPECT, and ultrasonography may also be used, particularly in patients who are stress-responsive, e.g. functional dyspepsia patients, as a non-invasive and less stress-inducing method is favourable. Ultrasonography satisfies these criteria as it does not by itself distort the physiological response in stress-responsive individuals. PMID:16718805

Gilja, Odd Helge; Lunding, Johan; Hausken, Trygve; Gregersen, Hans

2006-01-01

221

MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

2008-01-01

222

Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.Design: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart,

CB Pedersen; J Kyle; AMcE Jenkinson; PT Gardner; DB McPhail; GG Duthie

2000-01-01

223

Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

224

The Presence of Dialkylphosphates in Fresh Fruit Juices: Implication For Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Risk Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were higher, for both apple and orange juices, in

C. Lu; R. Bravo; L. M. Caltabiano; R. M. Irish; G. Weerasekera; D. B. Barr

2005-01-01

225

Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruit juices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest

William Mullen; Serena C. Marks; Alan Crozier

2007-01-01

226

Diagnosis and treatment of gastric motility disorders.  

PubMed

A disorder of gastric motility should be suspected in patients with chronic vomiting. Imaging studies are used to confirm delayed gastric emptying, the most common form of a gastric motility disorder. Other causes of chronic vomiting, for example, metabolic or endocrine disorders, other abdominal disorders, mechanical causes of gastric obstruction, and lower gastrointestinal tract disease, are then ruled out. If no underlying cause is determined, a functional disorder of gastric emptying is presumptively diagnosed. Treatment consists of dietary management and gastric prokinetic agents. Cisapride is the drug of choice for treating delayed gastric emptying followed by erythromycin and ranitidine or nizatidine. PMID:10202795

Hall, J A; Washabau, R J

1999-03-01

227

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

The effects of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non-pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week of gestation. Acid output was determined by titration of the gastric perfusate. Basal secretion was collected for 45 min before a 30 min infusion of pentagastrin (8 micrograms/ml/300 g body weight). Concentration of plasma GIP was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The immunoreactivity of GIP-like substance in the extract of the rat placenta collected from the rat at day 21 of gestation was examined by RIA. The biological activity of GIP-like substance in the rat placenta extract was tested by the reduction of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in male rats. The basal level of gastric secretion was higher in late pregnancy as compared with the non-pregnant rats. Pentagastrin induced a greater increase of gastric acid secretion in early but not late pregnant rats as compared with the non-pregnant animals. The basal and post-pentagastrin level of plasma GIP was higher in rats in late pregnancy. Both immunoreactivity and biological activity of GIP exist in the rat placenta extract. These results suggest that the normalization of gastric acid secretion in late pregnant rats is at least in part due to the production of GIP-like substance from placenta. PMID:7716131

Chen, T S; Yeh, G H; Pu, H F; Doong, M L; Lu, C C; Liu, S R; Young, T K; Ho, L T; Chang, F Y; Wang, P S

1995-01-01

228

The gastric precancerous cascade.  

PubMed

Invasive gastric carcinoma is preceded by a cascade of precancerous lesions. The first recognized histologic change is active chronic inflammation, which may persist as such: non-atrophic chronic gastritis (no gland loss), or advance to multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG), the first real step in the precancerous cascade. The following steps are: intestinal metaplasia (first "complete" and then "incomplete"); dysplasia, first low grade and then high grade (equivalent to "carcinoma in situ"). The following step is invasive carcinoma, which is thought to be associated with degradation of the intercellular matrix. PMID:22188910

Correa, Pelayo; Piazuelo, M Blanca

2012-01-01

229

Plaque and salivary pH changes after consumption of fresh fruit juices.  

PubMed

The concept of health has prevailed for centuries and the dietary habits are apparently changing with modernization. "Healthy eating" is now perceived to be important. The desirability of a healthful lifestyle has led to an increased consumption of juices. Drinking large amount of fruit juice is frequently practiced these days and the consumption of these juices is further modified with behavioral habits such as swishing and frothing the drinks around the mouth, sucking frozen fruit juices, use of feeder cups at bed time etc. Hence this study was conducted to find the acidogenic potential of the commonly consumed fresh fruit juices (Grapes, orange, and pineapple) and the juices stored at various temperatures (room temperature, refrigerator and freezer) on the plaque and saliva at various intervals. It was observed that grape juice was more acidogenic compared to orange and pineapple juice. Frozen fruit juices caused a greater drop in plaque and salivary pH followed by the refrigerated juice. PMID:16302592

Banan, Lata Kiran; Hegde, Amitha M

2005-01-01

230

Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.  

PubMed

The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²?/Mn²? and PO?³?/K?, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and ?-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while ?-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

2014-02-01

231

Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with

Carla Oliveira; Gianpaolo Suriano; Paulo Ferreira; Paulo Canedo; Pardeep Kaurah; Rita Mateus; Ana Ferreira; António C Ferreira; Maria Oliveira; Céu Figueiredo; Fátima Carneiro; Gisela Keller; David Huntsman; José Machado; Raquel Seruca

2004-01-01

232

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

233

Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.  

PubMed

A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene). PMID:19807162

Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

2009-10-14

234

A method to preserve extracellular surfactant-like phospholipids on the luminal surface of rodent gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Previous results from our laboratory employing the phospholipid-selective cytochemical stain iodoplatinate (IP) suggest that surfactant-like phospholipids (SLPL) are intracellularly contained within rodent gastric mucous cells and are occasionally seen extracellularly within the mucous gel layer. This hydrophobic lipid coating may provide the stomach with a protective water-repellent lining against the corrosive gastric juice in the lumen. Extracellular SLPL are frequently removed during tissue processing for electron microscopy. In this study, we developed a simple method employing an agarose-embedding technique to retain these extracellular SLPL in gastric mucosa excised from rats pre-treated with prostaglandin (to stimulate gastric surfactant/mucus secretion). With the help of polypropylene supporting screens and cassette carriers, thin slices of agarose-embedded gastric mucosa were well preserved and uniformly stained with IP. Extracellular myelin figures were well retained over the interfoveolar surface as well as in the pit region. The IP-reactive substances were seen within or coating the surface of the mucous gel. Our results also indicate that agarose is useful not only for supporting soft tissue while preparing sections with a microslicer but also for preservation of extracellular lipoidal material for electron microscopic observation. PMID:1689341

Kao, Y C; Lichtenberger, L M

1990-03-01

235

Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave\\u000a distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery)\\u000a and were evaluated for the ?(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the ?-glucan\\/mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control).

Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga; Javier Arrizon; Jesús Ramirez; Josué Solis-Pacheco

2007-01-01

236

Lemon juice as an alternative therapy in hypertension in Turkey.  

PubMed

We aimed to learn the frequency of lemon juice usage among the hypertensive patients in a local region of northern Turkey. One hundred fifty six (72.5%) of hypertensive patients were using alternative therapy and eighty six patients (40%) were drinking lemon juice. We think that to gain success in the treatment of hypertension educating the society is important and there should be clinical studies about the effect of lemon juice on blood pressure, which is one of the most common alternative therapies in our country. PMID:18597876

Adibelli, Zelal; Dilek, Melda; Akpolat, Tekin

2009-06-26

237

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion  

PubMed Central

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

2013-01-01

238

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

2013-07-01

239

Analysis of gastric emptying data  

SciTech Connect

How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

1982-12-01

240

Role of Gastric Acid in Stomal Ulcer after Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenetic mechanisms of stomal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are unclear. In order to study\\u000a the role of gastric acid, we measured acidity in the proximal pouch using a pH-sensitive probe. Methods: 6 patients (5 females,\\u000a mean age 45 years old at time of operation) with endoscopically confirmed stomal ulcer, were studied 2 to 6 years after

Jakob Hedberg; Hans Hedenström; Sven Nilsson; Magnus Sundbom; Sven Gustavsson

2005-01-01

241

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal results may be due to: Gastric cancer Gastritis, when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2010:chap 40. Lee EL, Feldman M. Gastritis and gastropathies. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

242

Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.  

PubMed

The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

2015-01-01

243

Identification of tobacco-derived compounds in human pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

Cancer of the pancreas is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA with an estimated 28 900 deaths in 2001. Several factors have been implicated in the etiology of this disease. However, at present, only cigarette smoking has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer. It is our working hypothesis that tobacco-derived compounds can be delivered to the pancreas where, upon metabolic activation, they can initiate carcinogenesis. Our current investigation was conducted to determine whether cotinine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are present in human pancreatic juice. Smoking status was assessed by the determination of levels of urinary cotinine and was further supported by quantifying nicotine in hair. The TSNA were extracted from the pancreatic juice of 18 smokers and 9 nonsmokers by supercritical carbon dioxide that contained 10% methanol. The extracts were analyzed for TSNA, namely, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection using a selected ion monitoring technique (GC-SIM-MS). Twenty-three extracts of human pancreatic juice were also analyzed for the presence of the NNK metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) by GC-SIM-MS and by gas chromatography interfaced wit a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA; TEA, a nitrosamine-specific detector). Cotinine was detected in all analyzed samples of pancreatic juice from smokers (129 +/- 150 ng/mL juice; mean +/- standard deviation) and was present in only two of the nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers. Its levels in these two samples were 7 and 9 ng/mL juice. NNK was detected in 15 of 18 samples (83%) from smokers at levels from 1.37 to 604 ng/mL pancreatic juice. In nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers, NNK ranged from not detected (in three samples) to 96.8 ng/mL juice. In pancreatic juice from smokers the mean level of NNK (88.7 +/- 161 ng/mL juice) was significantly higher (p < 0.04) than in that from nonsmokers (12.4 +/- 31.7 ng/mL juice). In addition to NNK, NNN was found in two samples of pancreatic juice of smokers at levels of 68.1 and 242 ng/mL juice; NNN was not detected in any other sample. NNAL was present in 8 of 14 pancreatic juice samples (57%) from smokers and in three of nine samples (33%) from nonsmokers. This research presents preliminary data that supports the hypothesis that pancreatic tissue is exposed to TSNA and that they may be important contributors to pancreatic carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:12018989

Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Hoffmann, Dietrich; Bologna, Matthew; Cunningham, A John; Trushin, Neil; Akerkar, Shobha; Boyiri, Telih; Amin, Shantu; Desai, Dhimant; Colosimo, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Leder, Gerhard; Ramadani, Marco; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Beger, Hans G; El-Bayoumy, Karam

2002-05-01

244

Infection control. The therapeutic uses of cranberry juice.  

PubMed

This article considers the treatment of recurrent cystitis. It examines the evidence for drinking cranberry juice to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections and discusses the nursing issues raised, drawing conclusions from the evidence presented. PMID:7612429

Nazarko, L

245

Cyclic AMP and gastric secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports have appeared in the literature implicating cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion (1-4). Although no direct correlation has yet been established between the intracellular levels of the cyclic nucleotide and gastric secretion in vivo, the generally accepted view is that elevated intracellular levels of cyclic AMP possibly trigger increased levels of acid

M. Samir Amer

1972-01-01

246

Gastric colonization with Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapted a rat model of gastrointestinal candidiasis for studies of in vivo gastric colonization withCandida albicans. Whereas normal rats cleared a single intragastric inoculum of 5×106C. albicans from the stomach within 4 hours, rats pretreated with chloramphenicol and gentamicin achieved stable gastric colonization for at least 5 days after administration of this inoculum. We next used this model to

Ronald A. Greenfield; Wnedy A. Joyce

1993-01-01

247

Functional neuroimaging of gastric distention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to measure brain activation during gastric distention as a way to investigate short-term satiety. We estimated\\u000a regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography (15O-water) during gastric balloon inflation and deflation in 18 healthy young women. The contrast between inflated minus deflated\\u000a conditions showed activation in the following four key regions that were identified a priori: dorsal

Elke Stephan; José V. Pardo; Patricia L. Faris; Boyd K. Hartman; Suck W. Kim; Emil H. Ivanov; Randy S. Daughters; Patricia A. Costello; Robert L. Goodale

2003-01-01

248

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

249

Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30°C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled

Kyung Young Yoon; Edward E. Woodams; Yong D. Hang

2006-01-01

250

Efficacy of ozone against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris survives during the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of fruit juices thanks to its spore forming and thermo-acidophilic nature. In recent years, A. acidoterrestris has become a major concern to the fruit juices industry worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate ozone for the reducing number of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was bubbled with continuous stream of two different constant concentrations (2.8 and 5.3mg/L) of ozone at 4 and 22 °C up to 40 min. Level of A. acidoterrestris spores in juice decreased by 2.2 and 2.8 log after 40 min of ozonation at 4 °C with concentrations of 2.8 and 5.3mg/L, respectively. Treatments at 22 °C for 40 min with 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L ozone resulted in 1.8 and 2.4 log reductions of spore viability, respectively. At the ozone concentration of 5.3 mg/L, significant (P<0.05) reductions were observed in total phenolic content of juice at both temperature levels. However, treatments performed at 2.8 mg/L were observed to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on total phenolic content. The results presented in this study indicate that over the 2 log reduction in the count of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice can be achieved by bubbling ozonation at 4 °C without causing a significant decrease in total phenolic content of product. Therefore, it can be suggested that bubbling ozonation is a promising method for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. PMID:24361826

Torlak, Emrah

2014-02-17

251

Noni juice ( Morinda citrifolia ): Hidden potential for hyperkalemia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a man with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine product known as noni juice (Morinda citrifolia ). The patient presented to the clinic with hyperkalemia despite claiming adherence to a low-potassium diet. The potassium concentration in noni juice samples was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq\\/L, similar to that in orange

Bruce A. Mueller; Meri K. Scott; Kevin M. Sowinski; Kathleen A. Prag

2000-01-01

252

Comments on 'Elevated antimony concentrations in commercial juices'.  

PubMed

The recent J. Environ. Monit. communication 'Elevated antimony concentrations in commercial juices' contains several inaccuracies and misrepresentations about PET packaging as well as food safety and risk assessment. None of the data indicates that "elevated" or unsafe levels of antimony were found in any of the commercial juices or that the variations in antimony levels were attributable to either PET or the other packaging materials. PMID:21057684

Vasami, Ralph

2010-12-01

253

Gene methylation in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

2013-09-23

254

Endovascular Management of Gastric Varices.  

PubMed

Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications. PMID:25438286

Saad, Wael E

2014-11-01

255

Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation.  

PubMed

Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25 years. PMID:23329705

Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

256

Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation  

PubMed Central

Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25?years. PMID:23329705

Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

257

Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C? and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C? and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

2012-07-01

258

Antiviral effects on bacteriophages and rotavirus by cranberry juice.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to investigate the antiviral effects of comestible juices, especially cranberry juice, on non-related viral species. After exposure of bacteriophage T2 to a commercially available cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice cocktail (CJ), virus infectivity titer was no longer detectible. After a 60-min exposure to orange (OJ) and grapefruit juices (GJ), phage infectivity was reduced to 25-35% of control, respectively. Similar data were observed for the bacteriophage T4. CJ inactivation of phage T4 was rapid, dose-dependent, and occurred at either 4 or 23 degrees C. Neither pH nor differences in sugar/carbohydrate levels among the juices may be ascribed to the recognized antiviral effects. Further studies were performed to identify the occurrence of antiviral activity by CJ to a mammalian enteric virus. The treatment of the simian rotavirus SA-11 with a 20% CJ suspension was sufficient to inhibit hemagglutination. Under scanning and transmission electron microscopy, CJ was observed to inhibit the adsorption of phage T4 to its bacterial host cells and prevented the replication of rotavirus in its monkey kidney (MA-104) host cells, respectively. The data suggest, for the first time, a non-specific antiviral effect towards unrelated viral species (viz., bacteriophages T2 and T4 and the simian rotavirus SA-11) by a commercially available cranberry fruit juice drink. PMID:17140784

Lipson, S M; Sethi, L; Cohen, P; Gordon, R E; Tan, I P; Burdowski, A; Stotzky, G

2007-01-01

259

Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, participate in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice constituents potently inactivate intestinal CYP3A4 and have been shown to inhibit CYP2C19 as well. In a randomized crossover study, 14 healthy volunteers ingested 200?ml of grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 600-mg dose of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice reduced the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of the active metabolite of clopidogrel to 13% of the control (range 11-17%, P < 0.001) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 3?h to 14% (range 12-17%, P < 0.001) of the control, but it had no significant effect on the parent clopidogrel. Moreover, grapefruit juice markedly decreased the platelet-inhibitory effect of clopidogrel, as assessed with the VerifyNow P2Y12 test in two of the participants. In conclusion, concomitant use of grapefruit juice may impair the efficacy of clopidogrel. Therefore, the use of grapefruit juice is best avoided during clopidogrel therapy. PMID:24067745

Holmberg, M T; Tornio, A; Neuvonen, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T; Niemi, M

2014-03-01

260

Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-? and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver. PMID:22876038

Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

2012-01-01

261

Supercritical carbon dioxide-treated blood orange juice as a new product in the fresh fruit juice market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work described here deals with the effectiveness of using high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment (HPCD) to stabilise freshly squeezed blood orange juice. Technical planning of a continuous high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide pilot system, suitable for development on an industrial scale, was carried out in our lab. To determine the optimal operating conditions (temperature, pressure, and CO2\\/juice ratio), three different experimental

Simona Fabroni; Margherita Amenta; Nicolina Timpanaro; Paolo Rapisarda

2010-01-01

262

Culturable bacterial microbiota of the stomach of Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastric disease patients.  

PubMed

Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

2014-01-01

263

Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

2014-01-01

264

77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico. On September...antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico, pursuant...TCCC'') and Procimart Citrus (``Procimart''), within...Antidumping Investigation of Lemon Juice from Mexico:...

2012-12-26

265

76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To...Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-24

266

77 FR 73021 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina. The Department has...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina, pursuant to...

2012-12-07

267

Effects of aging and gastric lipolysis on gastric emptying of lipid in liquid meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Lipid delays gastric emptying, and aging is associated with changes in gastric motor function and transit. However, little\\u000a is known about the effect of lipid on gastric emptying time in the elderly. To determine the effect of aging on lipid gastric\\u000a emptying, we used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to study gastric emptying of liquid meals with or without lipid

Yasuyuki Nakae; Hatsumi Onouchi; Mieko Kagaya; Takaharu Kondo

1999-01-01

268

Prognostic study of gastric cancer without serosal invasion: reevaluation of the definition of early gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Early gastric cancer, a term defined by Japanese researchers in the 1960s, is equivalent to pT1 tumor stage regardless of nodal status. Recently, there were suggestions to exclude node-positive pT1 gastric cancer from this entity and to consider node-negative pT2 gastric cancer as early gastric cancer.Study Design:A survival analysis was conducted of 294 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancers

Chia-Siu Wang; Swei Hsueh; Tzu-Chieh Chao; Long-Bin Jeng; Yi-Yin Jan; Shin-Cheh Chen; Tsann-Long Hwang; Pang-Chi Chen; Miin-Fu Chen

1997-01-01

269

Multifactorial Etiology of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gastric cancer is associated with several factors including geographical location, diet, and genetic background of the host. However, it is evident that infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is crucial for the development of the disease. Virulence of the bacteria is also important in modulating the risk of the disease. After infection, H. pylori gains access to the gastric mucosa and triggers the production of cytokines that promote recruitment of inflammatory cells, probably involved in tissue damage. Once the infection is established, a cascade of inflammatory steps associated with changes in the gastric epithelia that may lead to cancer is triggered. H. pylori-induced gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastric cancer have been the focus of extensive research aiming to discover the underlying mechanisms of gastric tissue damage. This research has led to the association of host genetic components with the risk of the disease. Among these is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes, including cytokine genes, which are able to differentially modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and then modulate the risk of gastric cancer. Interestingly, the frequency of some of these SNPs is different among populations and may serve as a predictive factor for gastric cancer risk within that specific population. However, the role played by other genetic modifications should not be minimized. Methylation of gene promoters has been recognized as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation without changing the primary structure of the DNA. Most DNA methylation occurs in cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotide, but it can also be found in other DNA bases. DNA methyltransferases add methyl groups to the CpG dinucleotide, and when this methylation level is too high, the gene expression is turned off. In H. pylori infection as well as in gastric cancer, hypermethylation of promoters of genes involved in cell cycle control, metabolism of essential nutrients, and production of inflammatory mediators, among others, has been described. Interestingly, DNA changes like SNPs or mutations can create CpG sites in sequences where transcription factors normally sit, affecting transcription. In this chapter, we review the literature about the role of SNPs and methylation on H. pylori infection and gastric cancer, with big emphasis to the H. pylori role in the development of the disease due to the strong association between both. PMID:22359309

Zabaleta, Jovanny

2013-01-01

270

Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

2014-01-01

271

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

272

Gastric dysrhythmias and nausea of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric dysrhythmias have been recorded from patients with a variety of nausea syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectric activity in women with and without nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 32 pregnant women gastric myoelectric activity was recorded for 30–45 min with cutaneous electrodes that yielded electrogastrograms (EGGs). Frequencies of the EGG waves

K. L. Koch; R. M. Stern; M. Vasey; J. J. Botti; G. W. Creasy; A. Dwyer

1990-01-01

273

Acute measles gastric infection.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 44-year-old man who was referred for gastroscopy because of abdominal pain. During endoscopy, inflammatory changes of the antrum and corpus mucosa were clearly visible, and biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa were taken. At histology, routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed characteristics indicative of so-called ex-Helicobacter pylori-gastritis that had developed after antibiotic treatment 2 years ago. Additional large, bizarre inclusion bodies and clusters of multinucleated giant cells were located in the surface epithelium and within the lamina propria. These giant cells had an appearance similar to that of Warthin-Finkeldey cells, which can be found during the prodromal phase of measles infection. Anti-measles virus immunochemistry showed a strong positivity for measles virus antigen within the giant cells. Based on these results, the final diagnosis of morbilliform gastritis was made. To our knowledge, no case of measles gastritis has been described in the literature. Our case report confirms the systemic character of measles virus infection and confirms that measles viral replication can involve the gastric mucosa in addition to the conjunctiva, lung, and intestina. PMID:11176076

Vieth, M; Dirshmid, K; Oehler, U; Helpap, B; von Luckner, A G; Stolte, M

2001-02-01

274

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

2010-04-01

275

Effect of ingested fluid composition on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of ingested fluid composition on the experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Forty subjects, susceptible to ETAP, completed 4 treadmill exercise trials: a no-fluid trial and flavored water (FW, no carbohydrate, osmolality = 48 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), sports drink (SD, freshly mixed Gatorade, 6% total carbohydrate, 295 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), and reconstituted fruit juice (FJ, BERRI trade mark orange, 10.4 % total carbohydrate, 489 mosmol/L, pH= 3.2) trials. Measures of the experience of ETAP and gastrointestinal disturbances, particularly bloating, were quantified. The FJ was significantly (p =.01) more provocative of both ETAP and bloating than all other trials. There was no difference among the no-fluid, FW, and SD in the severity of ETAP experienced, although the difference between the no-fluid and SD approached significance at the.05 level (p =.056). There was a significant relationship between both the mean (r = 0.40, p =.01) and peak (r= 0.44, p=.01) levels of ETAP and bloating. When the level of bloating was controlled for, the FJ remained significantly (p =.01) more provocative of ETAP than the other conditions, with no difference between the FW and SD (p =.37). The results indicate that in order to avoid ETAP, susceptible individuals should refrain from consuming reconstituted fruit juices and beverages similarly high in carbohydrate content and osmolality, shortly before and during exercise. Further, the mechanism responsible for the heightened experience of ETAP in the FJ trial extends beyond a gastric mass explanation. PMID:15118193

Morton, Darren Peter; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Callister, Robin

2004-04-01

276

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications in the treatment of juice or... To reduce the level of volatile acidity in wine (used with ion exchange) This process must use permeable membranes...

2013-04-01

277

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications in the treatment of juice or... To reduce the level of volatile acidity in wine (used with ion exchange) This process must use permeable membranes...

2012-04-01

278

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications in the treatment of juice or... To reduce the level of volatile acidity in wine (used with ion exchange) This process must use permeable membranes...

2014-04-01

279

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications in the treatment of juice or... To reduce the level of volatile acidity in wine (used with ion exchange) This process must use permeable membranes...

2011-04-01

280

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications in the treatment of juice or... To reduce the level of volatile acidity in wine (used with ion exchange) This process must use permeable membranes...

2010-04-01

281

77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration, International...order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International...the antidumping duty order on OJ from...

2012-04-20

282

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs... § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange...

2010-04-01

283

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-10-01

284

Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.  

PubMed

Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked. PMID:25537500

Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

2015-01-21

285

Analytical monitoring of citrus juices by using capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoretic method was developed to analyze simultaneously most citrus juice components in a single procedure. After filtration, sample components are separated with an uncoated capillary tubing and a 35 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.3) containing 5% (v/v) acetonitrile. Analyses were run at 21 kV and 23 degrees C. Compounds monitored regularly were the biogenic amine synephrine, some flavonoids (didymin, hesperidin, narirutin, neohesperidin, and naringin), the polyphenol phlorin, 3 UV-absorbing amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine), ascorbic acid, an unidentified peak generated by heat and storage, and the preservatives sorbate and benzoate that can be added to citrus products. Separation can be achieved in 20 min, and each compound can be subsequently quantitated. Didymin, narirutin, and phlorin peaks were used with an artificial neural network to assess the volume of added pulp wash, a by-product of juice preparation. This method allows rapid monitoring of citrus juices, giving information on quality, freshness, and possible adulteration of the product. Similar procedures could be used to monitor other fruit juices and quantitate diverse juice blends. PMID:10028677

Cancalon, P F

1999-01-01

286

Primary gastric tuberculosis – report of 5 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

2003-01-01

287

[Ménétrier's disease and gastric carcinoma].  

PubMed

The authors report 4 cases of Menetrier's disease associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and one case of low-grade dysplasia. The patients (3 men and 2 women) were aged between 53 and 81 years. In three cases the diagnosis was established by histological examination of the exicised tumor; in one case it was based on microbiopsy specimen; and in another case on a gastric tissue specimen. The authors review the anatomo-clinical features of this association and raise the problem of the relationship between Menetrier's disease, dysplasia and cancer. PMID:16238281

Sâadia, Bouraoui; Salna, Ben Haha-Bellil; Mohamed, Jouili; Amina, Mekni; Aida, Ayadi; Latifa, Ouertani; Mohamed, Moncef Zitouna; Slim, Haouet

2005-08-01

288

Gastric cancer in Italy.  

PubMed

Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis. PMID:1742542

Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

1991-01-01

289

78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation...duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to the continuation...Antidumping Investigation on Lemon Juice from Mexico (the ``Agreement''). DATES:...

2013-08-07

290

Effects of Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice contains antioxidants such as soluble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins and may have antiatherosclerotic properties. However, no study has investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether daily consumption of pomegranate juice for 3 months would affect myocardial perfusion in 45 patients who had CHD and myocardial ischemia in

Michael D. Sumner; Melanie Elliott-Eller; Gerdi Weidner; Jennifer J. Daubenmier; Mailine H. Chew; Ruth Marlin; Caren J. Raisin; Dean Ornish

291

Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and ?-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-11-01

292

75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. This review covers two producers/exporters...with respect to certain orange juice from Brazil produced and exported by Sucocitrico...

2010-08-18

293

An innovative process for extraction of fruit juice using microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the possibility of extracting juice from selected fruits (plum, apricot, grape) using microwaves and gravity, and to characterize this process. The process uses microwaves for hydrodiffusion of juice from the inside to the exterior of fruit material and earth gravity to collect the fruit juice outside the microwave cavity. The extraction kinetics

Aurélie Cendres; Farid Chemat; Jean-François Maingonnat; Catherine M. G. C. Renard

2011-01-01

294

Colour and label evaluation of commercial pasteurised red juices and related drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing demand by consumers for healthy beverages, artificial colours are still widely used. Levels of anthocyanins and artificial colours were determined by HPLC with UV-Vis detection in red orange juices and other red beverages (nectar, juice-based, health, carbonated and sports drinks). The contribution of pigments to the visible colour of the beverage was calculated. Red orange juice samples contained

B. Fallico; E. Arena; E. Chiappara; G. Ballistreri

2010-01-01

295

7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section...Osbeck) § 51.1176 U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges...requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each...

2011-01-01

296

7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section...Osbeck) § 51.1176 U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges...requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each...

2012-01-01

297

7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section...Osbeck) § 51.1176 U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges...requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each...

2013-01-01

298

7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section...Osbeck) § 51.1176 U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges...requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each...

2014-01-01

299

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

300

Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.  

PubMed

This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS?(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS?(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. PMID:21874188

Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

2011-09-01

301

Ozone Processing for Food Preservation: An Overview on Fruit Juice Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the efficacy of ozone an emerging non-thermal food preservation technique for fruit juices and highlights changes in key microbial, quality and nutritional parameters. Ozonation of fruit juices has been identified as a potential technology to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration's requirement of a 5 log reduction in pertinent microorganisms found in juices. This review

P. J. Cullen; V. P. Valdramidis; B. K. Tiwari; S. Patil; P. Bourke; C. P. ODonnell

2010-01-01

302

Integrated membrane process for the production of highly nutritional kiwifruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study has been to design, on a laboratory scale, an integrated membrane process for the production of concentrated kiwi juice and its aroma recovery. Fresh depectinised kiwifruit juice was clarified by the ultrafiltration (UF) process. The clarified juice was concentrated by osmotic distillation (OD), as an alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation, up to a total

A. Cassano; A. Figoli; A. Tagarelli; G. Sindona; E. Drioli

2006-01-01

303

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food...that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21...

2012-04-01

304

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food...that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21...

2013-04-01

305

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food...that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21...

2014-04-01

306

A New Approach to Predict Acidity of Bayberry Juice by Using Vis\\/Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 76 bayberry juices were collected and their spectra features were got by using a vis\\/NIR spectroscopy. One mixed algorithm was used to predict the acidity (pH) of bayberry juice with partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN). PLS was used to find some sensitive spectra actives to acidity in juice, before doing this, the influence

Yongni Shao; Yong He; Yidan Bao

2007-01-01

307

Microbial Changes in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Juices.  

PubMed

Juice freshly expressed from Sorghum bicolor for making sweet sorghum syrup contained 10 microorganisms per ml. The dominant bacterium was Leuconostoc mesenteroides, followed by gram-negative rods. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and nonfecal coliform bacteria each comprised about 1% of the microbial population. Spoilage of juice, manifested by a sour odor, discoloration, and foaming, occurred between 5 and 12 h at ambient temperatures. Spoilage was correlated with a drop in pH from 4.9 to 4.5 L. mesenteroides was the dominant spoiling agent at 20 degrees C, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant spoiling agent at 32 degrees C, as determined by pure culture studies. Juice may be stored for 14 days at 4 degrees C if promptly refrigerated. PMID:16345838

Daeschel, M A; Mundt, J O; McCarty, I E

1981-08-01

308

Interaction of grapefruit juice and calcium channel blockers.  

PubMed

Drug-drug interactions are commonly recognized occurrences in the hypertensive population. Drug-nutrient interactions, however, are less well appreciated. The grapefruit juice-calcium channel blocker interaction is one that has been known since 1989. The basis for this interaction has been diligently explored and appears to relate to both flavanoid and nonflavanoid components of grapefruit juice interfering with enterocyte CYP3A4 activity. In the process, presystemic clearance of susceptible drugs decreases and bioavailability increases. A number of calcium channel blockers are prone to this interaction, with the most prominent interaction occurring with felodipine. The calcium channel blocker and grapefruit juice interaction should be incorporated into the knowledge base of rational therapeutics for the prescribing physician. PMID:16814135

Sica, Domenic A

2006-07-01

309

JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

2014-05-01

310

Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.  

PubMed

In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. PMID:22796769

de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

2013-01-01

311

Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 ?l solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis. PMID:17919315

Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

2007-01-01

312

Effect of grapefruit juice, naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin on the intestinal carrier-mediated transport of talinolol in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of two varieties of grapefruit juice (white and ruby red) and its selected components (naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin) was investigated on the activity of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Talinolol, a nonmetabolized P-gp substrate, was used as a marker compound. The white grapefruit juice (GFJ) had a minor effect on talinolol pharmacokinetics, but the ruby red GFJ reduced the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) by 60% and 50% of the control, respectively. However, among the GFJ constituents tested, bergamottin (0.22 mg/kg) was the most potent component augmenting the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) of talinolol by 2.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, if compared to the control group. The flavonoids naringenin (0.7 mg/kg) and naringin (2.4 and 9.4 mg/kg) had a similar effect increasing the talinolol C max and AUC (0-infinity) by 1.5- to 1.8-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the effect of GFJ on P-gp activity seems to depend on the variety, the concentration of compounds in the juice, and the composition of different ingredients. PMID:18494494

de Castro, Whocely Victor; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

2008-06-25

313

Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

2013-10-01

314

Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

2013-11-01

315

Stem cells in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

2015-01-01

316

Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

Mayfield, Ryan T.

317

Effects of citrus fruit juices on cytotoxicity and drug transport pathways of Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to correlate the taxonomy of grapefruit, pummelo, orange, lime and lemon with fruit juice-mediated cytotoxicity, modulation of epithelial permeability and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux using 0-50% juice concentrations. Lime and lemon juices at 30% enhanced the absorption of [14C]-mannitol across Caco-2 cell monolayers by six- and eight-fold, respectively, but grapefruit and pummelo juices did not modulate the paracellular [14C]-mannitol transport even at 50%. Orange juice at 30% increased mannitol absorption to a comparable level as lime juice, but had minimal effects on TEER. All five juices did not modulate the passive diffusional pathway as exemplified by their negligible effects on [3H]-propranolol absorption. Grapefruit, pummelo and orange juices showed P-gp inhibitory activity by reducing rhodamine-123 (R-123) efflux and elevating R-123 cellular accumulation, but lime and lemon juices did not. Lime and lemon juices at >or=30% were cytotoxic towards Caco-2 cells. Grapefruit and pummelo juices at 10% did not affect Caco-2 cell viability, but they enhanced cell growth at concentrations of >or=30%. Orange juice increased cell viability only at lower concentrations. On the basis of these data, lime and lemon juices could be regarded as a group distinct from grapefruit and pummelo juices, while orange juice appeared to belong to a bridging group. This grouping was consistent with the categorization of the citrus fruits according to their dominant flavonoid pattern and taxonomy. PMID:16260103

Lim, Siok-Lam; Lim, Lee-Yong

2006-01-01

318

64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

2015-01-09

319

Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

320

Flavone-di- C-glycosides in citrus juices from Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

6,8-Di-C-glucopyranosylapigenin and 6,8-di-C-glucopyranosyldiosmetin were detected by HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS–MS in a variety of Southern Italian Citrus juices (orange, lemon, bergamot, citron, mandarin, clementine). In some juices, the amounts of C-glycosides detected were significant. 6,8-Di-C-glucopyranosylapigenin is characteristic of orange juice, while 6,8-di-C-glucopyranosyldiosmetin is the most important C-glycoside in lemon and citron juice. In bergamot juice the concentrations of 6,8-di-C-glucopyranosylapigenin and 6,8-di-C-glucopyranosyldiosmetin are similar.

Corrado Caristi; Ersilia Bellocco; Claudia Gargiulli; Giovanni Toscano; Ugo Leuzzi

2006-01-01

321

Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%. PMID:25172702

Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

2015-02-01

322

Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.  

PubMed

We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. PMID:20145582

Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

2010-05-01

323

Genotoxic effects of crude juices from Brassica vegetables and juices and extracts from phytopharmaceutical preparations and spices of cruciferous plants origin in bacterial and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude juices of eight Brassica vegetables as well as juices and extracts of spices and phytopharmaceutical preparations from cruciferous vegetables were tested for induction of point mutations in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, repairable DNA damage in E.coli K-12 cells and clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. In bacterial assays, all juices caused genotoxic effects in the absence of metabolic activation, the

Fekadu Kassie; Wolfram Parzefall; Stephen Musk; Ian Johnson; Günther Lamprecht; Gerhard Sontag; Siegfried Knasmüller

1996-01-01

324

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not less than the composite color produced by spinning the Munsell color discs in the following combination... (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks...Determine strength and redness of color as specified in §...

2012-04-01

325

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...not less than the composite color produced by spinning the Munsell color discs in the following combination... (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks...Determine strength and redness of color as specified in §...

2014-04-01

326

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not less than the composite color produced by spinning the Munsell color discs in the following combination... (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks...Determine strength and redness of color as specified in §...

2013-04-01

327

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

328

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

329

Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice. PMID:18704729

Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

2009-09-01

330

Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.  

PubMed

We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens. PMID:15366861

Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

2004-09-22

331

A Modified Grapefruit Juice Eliminates Two Compound Classes as Major Mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo ‘Connect’  

PubMed Central

The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p?0.008 and p?0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction. PMID:23878024

Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.

2014-01-01

332

Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by Argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.  

PubMed

Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24372267

Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

2013-01-01

333

Cornelian cherry (cornus MAS L.) juices as a source of minerals in human diet.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the mineral content of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), as this fruit and its preservatives may be considered as important nutritional supplements. Potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) were present in Cornelian cherry juice as measured by atomic absorption. Compared to other juices obtained from plum, pear, and apple, Cornelian cherry juice contained high levels of Ca, reaching 10-fold higher (323 mg/L) levels than other juices (14-77 mg/L). With respect to the remaining elements, K, Na, Fe, Zn, and Mn, the levels noted for Cornus mas juice were also higher than in other juices studied. The reverse was true for Cu, for which levels were lower. Data indicate that Cornelian cherry juices are rich in various essential elements and might be considered as an important dietary mineral supplementation for individuals deficient in nutritional elements. PMID:20706938

Kro?niak, M; Gasto?, M; Sza?kowski, M; Zagrodzki, P; Derwisz, M

2010-01-01

334

Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.  

PubMed

Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

2015-03-01

335

Package images modulate flavor perception for orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most food packages contain images as well as textual information. While the influence of textual information on flavor evaluation has been well studied, the influence of images remains unexplored. Thus, this study investigated how the valence and congruency of images on juice packages influence flavor evaluations. There were 85 participants divided between four experimental conditions: (1) pleasant\\/congruent, with pleasant orange

Nanami Mizutani; Masako Okamoto; Yui Yamaguchi; Yuko Kusakabe; Ippeita Dan; Toshimasa Yamanaka

2010-01-01

336

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

337

Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

338

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

339

Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the first four-week period. After a two-week washout period, they consumed natural CSJ for another four weeks. The procedure was reversed in group B. The participants were asked to drink 500 ml/day of either natural or commercial CSJ twice a day with breakfast and dinner. The effects of orange juice on blood pressure were evaluated. RESULTS After drinking commercial CSJ, diastolic and systolic blood pressure were significantly decreased (5.13%; P = 0.03 and -5.91%; P = 0.003, respectively). However, consumption of natural CSJ did not have significant effects on either diastolic or systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION Commercial CSJ significantly decreased blood pressure. Higher flavonoid, pectin, and essential oils content of concentrated products compared to natural juice might have been responsible for this finding. Nevertheless, further studies to focus on dose-response effects are recommended. PMID:23696766

Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab

2013-01-01

340

Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and

Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner

2006-01-01

341

Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:25384245

Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

2014-12-01

342

Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice  

PubMed Central

Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

2014-01-01

343

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

344

Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

345

Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...

346

Priapism, pomegranate juice, and sildenafil: Is there a connection?  

PubMed Central

We report the development of low flow priapism in three patients related to simultaneous consumption of sildenafil with pomegranate (Punica granatum) (POM) juice. There were no other concurrent diseases, intake of drugs, and chemicals or other risk factors in these patients. We want to create awareness among patients and practitioners for recognition and timely intervention. Probable mechanisms are highlighted. PMID:22629009

Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Suresh, Ponuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

2012-01-01

347

Photothermal and optical investigation of haze formation in fruit juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spoilage of fruit juices is studied using spectrophotometry, light scattering, and the OW (optothermal window) instrument. It is shown that the latter has the unique capability to yield information on both absorption and scattering from the same frequency characteristic, relevant for the spoilage process.

Chirtoc, M.; Frandas, A.; Bicanic, D.; Mioscu, H.; Nagy, G.; Notingher, I.

1999-03-01

348

Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice.  

PubMed

Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

Nair, Sreeja; George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

2014-01-01

349

Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.  

PubMed

Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest. PMID:24343262

Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-01

350

Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

351

1997 Economic Census - Frozen Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 39-page report from the Census Bureau gives the economic status of frozen fruit, juice, and vegetable manufacturing in the United States. Seven tables include Produce Statistics 1997 and 1992, Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997, and Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997.

352

Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

353

Laparoscopic gatrojejunostomy for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in unresectable gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Gastric bypass through laparotomy is required traditionally when gastric outlet obstruction occurs secondary to\\u000a a disease process (e.g., unresectable cancer). The recent trend toward minimally invasive procedures has led us to apply laparoscopic\\u000a bypass surgery for gastric obstruction caused by unresectable advanced gastric cancer. Methods: From March 1998 to February\\u000a 2000, 78 gastrojejunostomies (GJ) (45 open [OGJ] and 33

Y.-B. Choi

2002-01-01

354

Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2014-01-01

355

Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

356

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production  

PubMed Central

Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

2014-01-01

357

Starvation Injury after Gastric Reduction for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Gastric reduction operations are designed to control body weight by establishing a small, meal-size juxtaesophageal,\\u000a gastric pouch that empties into the jejunum (gastric bypass) or the larger portion of the stomach (gastroplasty). If the outlet\\u000a of the pouch is too small, a patient may be limited to ingesting clear liquids. Vomiting then occurs if heavier liquids or\\u000a normal foods

Edward E. Mason

1998-01-01

358

Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

Toshifusa Nakajima

2002-01-01

359

Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis  

SciTech Connect

Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis.

Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

1983-12-01

360

Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

361

Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2014-01-01

362

Gravity Science with The JUICE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) is a European mission to the Jovian system, proposed in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision program. The spacecraft will reach the Jovian system and fly several times by the moons Callisto and Europa before being inserted in a nearly circular, polar orbit around Ganymede. After its arrival in 2030, the mission timeline entails two Europa flybys (2030), twelve Callisto flybys (2031) and the orbital phase at Ganymede (2033) [1]. Gravity measurements will provide crucial information on the interior structure of the three satellites. If the bodies are in hydrostatic equilibrium, the radial density distribution may be constrained from their moment of inertia factor and low-degree gravity field coefficients [2]. Furthermore, the determination of the high-degree harmonics will provide the distribution of gravity anomalies. Evidence for subsurface oceans within Ganymede and Callisto, one of the main scientific goals of the mission, will be obtained by the determination of the tidal Love number k2 as part of a global solution for the static and variable gravity field. Gravity fields and tidal deformations will be determined by means of precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft in Ka-band (32.5-34 GHz). The Radio Science Instrument (RSI) is enabled by a Ka-band transponder which, complemented by suitable ground instrumentation, will enable a radio link with a very high phase stability. The main observable quantity for gravity field determination is the range rate (to 3 micron/s at 1000 s integration time, two-way). The spacecraft range (accurate to 20 cm, two-way) will be used to improve the ephemerides of the Jupiter system. Gravity science at Ganymede will be carried out during the orbital phase. According to the mission profile (subject to change), the first 102 days will be spent at an altitude of 500 km. The orbit will be lowered to 200 km in the last 32 days of the mission. If the spacecraft will be endowed with a steerable medium gain antenna, gravity measurements can be carried out also during the Europa and Callisto flybys. For Europa, the two planned flybys will enable the unconstrained determination of the quadrupole field and polar moment of inertia (if the body is found in hydrostatic equilibrium). For Callisto, thanks to the considerable number of flybys, the k2 Love number can be determined, in addition to the low-degree gravity field and geoid. Numerical simulations of the gravity experiment by means of a multi-arc least square filter have been performed for the orbital phase around Ganymede and for the Europa and Callisto flybys. Range rate data have been simulated by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise corresponding to the expected end-to-end performances of the radio link. We report on the results of the simulations and provide our current best estimate of the attainable accuracies in the gravity harmonics and the spacecraft position.

Parisi, M.; Finocchiaro, S.; Iess, L.

2012-04-01

363

Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.  

PubMed

Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing. PMID:23859722

Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

2013-01-01

364

Quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in dhaka city, bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in Dhaka City. The highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. In this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango juices than in orange juices. The pH of all samples varied from 3.50±0.10 to 4.70±0.05. Vitamin C content was comparatively higher in mango juices. The levels of metals tested namely, arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in the juices were within the limits of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) for fruit juices. The microbiological qualities of all the products were within the limits of the Gulf standards (the recommended Microbiological Standards for any fruit juice sold in the Gulf Region). Based on the above results, it is suggested that processed juices be prepared under hygienic conditions. PMID:22691996

Tasnim, F; Anwar Hossain, M; Kamal Hossain, M; Lopa, D; Formuzul Haque, K M

2010-12-01

365

Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.  

PubMed

Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands. PMID:23270108

Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

2012-12-01

366

Analysis of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices by using nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector.  

PubMed

Nano-LC and conventional HPLC techniques were applied for the analysis of anthocyanins present in commercial fruit juices using a capillary column of 100 ?m id and a 2.1 mm id narrow-bore C(18) column. Analytes were detected by UV-Vis at 518 nm and ESI-ion trap MS with HPLC and nano-LC, respectively. Commercial blueberry juice (14 anthocyanins detected) was used to optimize chromatographic separation of analytes and other analysis parameters. Qualitative identification of anthocyanins was performed by comparing the recorded mass spectral data with those of published papers. The use of the same mobile phase composition in both techniques revealed that the miniaturized method exhibited shorter analysis time and higher sensitivity than narrow-bore chromatography. Good intra-day and day-to-day precision of retention time was obtained in both methods with values of RSD less than 3.4 and 0.8% for nano-LC and HPLC, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed by external standard curve calibration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside standard. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges studied, 0.1-50 and 6-50 ?g/mL for HPLC-UV/Vis and nano-LC-MS, respectively. LOD and LOQ values were good for both methods. In addition to commercial blueberry juice, qualitative and quantitative analysis of other juices (e.g. raspberry, sweet cherry and pomegranate) was performed. The optimized nano-LC-MS method allowed an easy and selective identification and quantification of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices; it offered good results, shorter analysis time and reduced mobile phase volume with respect to narrow-bore HPLC. PMID:21246720

Fanali, Chiara; Dugo, Laura; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Lirangi, Melania; Dachà, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2011-01-01

367

Survival of microencapsulated probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LBC-1e during manufacture of Mozzarella cheese and simulated gastric digestion.  

PubMed

An erythromycin-resistant strain of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei LBC-1 (LBC-1e) was added to part-skim Mozzarella cheese in alginate-microencapsulated or free form at a level of 10(8) and 10(7)cfu/g, respectively. Survival of LBC-1e and total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated through the pasta filata process of cheese making (in which the cheese curd was heated to 55 °C and stretched in 70 °C-hot brine), followed by storage at 4 °C for 6 wk and simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. This included incubation in 0.1 M and 0.01 M HCl, 0.9 M H(3)PO(4), and a simulated intestinal juice consisting of pancreatin and bile salts in a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Some reductions were observed in both free and encapsulated LBC-1e during heating and stretching, with encapsulated LBC-1e surviving slightly better. Changes in total LAB losses during heating and stretching did not reach statistical significance. During storage, a decrease was observed in total LAB, but no statistically significant decrease was observed in LBC-1e. Survival during gastric digestion in HCl was dependent on the extent of neutralization of HCl by the cheese, with more survival in the weaker acid, in which pH increased to 4.4 after cheese addition. The alginate microcapsules did not provide any protection against the HCl. It is interesting that survival of the encapsulated LBC-1e was greater during incubation in H(3)PO(4) than in the HCl gastric juices. Proper selection of simulated gastric digestion media is important for predicting the delivery of probiotic bacteria into the human intestinal tract. Neither free nor encapsulated LBC-1e was affected by incubation in the pancreatin-bile solution. Based on the level of probiotic bacteria in cheese needed to provide a health benefit and its survival during simulated gastric digestion, as determined in this study, it should theoretically be possible to lower the amount that needs to be ingested in cheese by up to a factor of 10(3) compared with other fermented dairy foods or when consumed as supplements. PMID:22981567

Ortakci, F; Broadbent, J R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

2012-11-01

368

Antioxidant and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.  

PubMed

The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 ?g GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 ?g AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 ?g VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 ?g TEAC/g sample), and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics. PMID:25198055

Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

2014-10-01

369

Palliative radiation therapy for primary gastric melanoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary gastric melanoma is an exceedingly rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding). Prior reports of primary gastric melanoma have mostly been treated with surgery with utilization of radiation therapy being unreported. Radiation therapy has been used to palliate bleeding of other cancers including lung, bladder, cervix, and more recently primary gastric cancers. Case presentation This case documents an 87-year-old male who presented with fatigue and melena, and was found to have severe anemia. Endoscopy with biopsy revealed an isolated focus of melanoma. After discharge, he presented two days later and was found to have continued bleeding. Because he was deemed a poor surgical candidate he elected to undergo palliative radiation therapy for bleeding control. Discussion The diagnosis of primary verses metastatic melanoma is a topic of debate. Case reports of patients with no known extra-gastric primary have undergone surgical treatment with varying outcomes. Patients with metastatic gastric melanoma have relied on chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery, with radiation being used in the palliative setting. The use of radiation to control bleeding in other cancers including primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been previously studied. This case documents the utilization of radiation therapy in bleeding due to primary gastric melanoma. Conclusions Radiation therapy can provide adequate bleeding palliation in patients with primary gastric melanoma. PMID:24490048

Slater, Jason M.; Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry D.

2014-01-01

370

Simple atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric carcinoma was detected nine, 10, 18, and 21 years after the biopsy diagnosis of atrophic gastritis in four patients of a group of 40. The gastritis was presumed to be of the simple type. Tests of vitamin B12 absorption in three patients gave normal results, no gastric autoantibodies were detected in the two patients tested, in all patients histological

I. R. Walker; R. G. Strickland; B. Ungar; I. R. Mackay

1971-01-01

371

Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

372

Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  

PubMed

The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

2014-04-01

373

Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Fruit and Vegetable Juices 1  

PubMed Central

18O/16O ratios from the juices of a number of fruits and vegetables were measured and found to be isotopically more enriched than the water in which they grew. Fast-growing high-water-content vegetables exhibited less enrichment than slower growing fruits such as apples, pears, and plums. 18O/16O measurements were also made on the water from various sections of several plants, and the enrichment was found to occur in the following order: leaves > fruit > stem ? ground water. D/H and 18O/16O measurements were made on a series of grape juice samples and, when plotted against each other, gave a slope of 3.9, indicating that the physical process causing this enrichment was probably evaporation, i.e. evapotranspiration. PMID:16663074

Dunbar, John; Wilson, A. T.

1983-01-01

374

Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.  

PubMed

The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(?), a(?), b(?), ?E(?), Cab(?) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of ?-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage. PMID:25308677

Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

2015-03-15

375

Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

1982-03-01

376

Gastric acid secretion: Changes during a century.  

PubMed

The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use. PMID:25439063

Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

2014-12-01

377

Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of regular intake of cranberry juice beverage on bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women. DESIGN--Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SUBJECTS--Volunteer sample of 153 elderly women (mean age, 78.5 years). INTERVENTION--Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 300 mL per day of a commercially available standard cranberry beverage or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink that was indistinguishable in

Jerry Avorn; Mark Monane; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Robert J. Glynn; Igor Choodnovskiy; Lewis A. Lipsitz

1994-01-01

378

Package images modulate flavors in memory: Incidental learning of fruit juice flavors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of package images on incidental flavor memory for fruit juice was investigated. Ninety-two participants were allocated to three experimental conditions: (1) apple-label, (2) peach-label, and (3) control-label. In each condition, participants tasted a target flavor stimulus, a 1:1 mixture of 100% pure apple juice and 100% pure peach juice with pictures attached to the cups. Ten minutes later,

Nanami Mizutani; Ippeita Dan; Yasushi Kyutoku; Daisuke Tsuzuki; Lester Clowney; Yuko Kusakabe; Masako Okamoto; Toshimasa Yamanaka

379

Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic\\u000a absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape,\\u000a pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal\\u000a levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu,

Akan B. Williams; Olusegun O. Ayejuyo; Adekunle F. Ogunyale

2009-01-01

380

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

381

Ultra high pressure treatment of orange juice: a kinetic study on inactivation of pectin methyl esterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra high pressure treatments ranging from 0 to 720 min were applied to freshly squeezed, non-pasteurized orange juice and reconstituted frozen orange juice at pressures in the range 100 to 400 MPa to investigate the pressure inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity. Freshly squeezed orange juice was adjusted to pH 3.7 or 3.2 (12.6 ° Brix) while the

S. Basak; H. S. Ramaswamy

1996-01-01

382

The growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in fruit juices and its survival following elevated temperature treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in orange juice over a temperature range from 4 to 40°C and its ability to multiply in tomato, grapefruit, apple, pineapple and cranberry juices at 30 and 35°C. Survival after 10min exposure to 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95°C in culture medium and in orange juice was also assessed.In orange

Michelle Walker; Carol A. Phillips

2007-01-01

383

Detection and location of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To define the infection status of Helicobacter pylori in 109 patients with gastric cancers and H pylori localization in gastric carcinoma tissues in South China. METHODS: The incidence of H pylori infection in gastric carcinomas was estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), simultaneously; both morphological features and the localization of H pylori in gastric carcinomas

Yun-Lian Tang; Run-Liang Gan; Bi-Hua Dong; Ri-Chen Jiang; Rong-Jun Tang

2005-01-01

384

Rapid method for proline determination in grape juice and wine.  

PubMed

Proline is typically the most abundant amino acid present in grape juice and wine. The amount present is influenced by viticultural and winemaking factors and can be of diagnostic importance. A method for rapid routine quantitation of proline would therefore be of benefit for wine researchers and the industry in general. Colorimetric determination utilizing isatin as a derivatizing agent has previously been applied to plant extracts, biological fluids, and protein hydrolysates. In the current study, this method has been successfully adapted to grape juice and wine and proved to be sensitive to milligram per liter amounts of proline. At sugar concentrations above 60 g/L, interference from the isatin-proline reaction was observed, such that proline concentrations were considerably underestimated in grape juice and dessert wine. However, the method was robust for the analysis of fermentation samples and table wines. Results were within ±10% agreement with data generated from typical HPLC-based analyses. The isatin method is therefore considered suitable for the routine analysis required to support research into the utilization or release of proline by yeast during fermentation. PMID:22480274

Long, Danfeng; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Poole, Kate; Taylor, Dennis K; Warren, Tristan; Astorga, Alejandra M; Jiranek, Vladimir

2012-05-01

385

Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose. PMID:24505984

Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

2013-07-01

386

Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

387

Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

388

Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice.  

PubMed

Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of OH conditions. The effects of voltage gradient and temperature (independent variables) were investigated on PME activity (response) of orange juice. After optimization orange juice was produced and compared with untreated control juices and conventional thermally heated juices on the aspect of PME inactivation and some quality characteristics. Reduction of PME activities was found approximately 96 % in OH groups where conventional thermally heated juice has 88.3 % reduction value. Total pectin content was increased 1.72-2 % after OH applications. Ascorbic acid contents of OH samples were found between 43.08-45.20 mg/100 mL where conventional thermally heated juice has 42.9 mg/100 mL. As a result, it was determined that OH can be applied as a thermal treatment on orange juice production in moderate temperatures for PME inactivation and may improve functional properties of orange juice. PMID:25190836

Demirdöven, Asl?han; Baysal, Taner

2014-09-01

389

Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood. PMID:25408758

Mahu, C; Purcarea, A P; Gheorghe, C M; Purcarea, M R

2014-09-15

390

Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer  

SciTech Connect

Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

1981-01-01

391

Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

Singh, Shree Ram

2013-01-01

392

Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

2014-05-01

393

Inhibition of gastric secretion in treatment of pancreatic insufficiency.  

PubMed Central

The content of pancreatic enzymes in the duodenum was studied in two patients with pancreatic achylia after a standard meal supplemented with commercial pancreatic extract. Gastric transit of the enzymes, with appearance of near-normal amounts in the duodenal contents, occurred only after inhibition of gastric secretion and buffering of residual gastric acid with antacids. Gastric inhibition and neutralisation of acid are therefore necessary for the satisfactory treatment of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency but normal gastric function. PMID:13906

Saunders, J H; Drummond, S; Wormsley, K G

1977-01-01

394

Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

Schirmer, B D

1989-01-01

395

Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening  

PubMed Central

AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66 patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food, etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD). RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%. Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory. It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer. PMID:15655813

Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei-Ping; Song, Liang; Zhu, Yi-Min

2005-01-01

396

Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

397

Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

2009-08-01

398

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

399

Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

Kay?l?o?lu, Selami Ilgaz; Akyol, Cihangir; Esen, Ebru; Cans?z-Ersöz, Cevriye; Kocaay, Ak?n F?rat; Genç, Volkan; Kepenekçi, ?lknur; Demirer, Seher

2014-01-01

400

Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro  

PubMed Central

In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit maturation. PMID:21994171

Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

2012-01-01

401

Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.  

PubMed

This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be explored for the clarification of the association between diabetes and gastric cancer. PMID:24587649

Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

2014-02-21

402

Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference  

PubMed Central

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

403

Survival and inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blueberry juice by high-pressure homogenization.  

PubMed

Human noroviruses (HNoV) have been implicated in gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with fresh produce, juices, and ready-to-eat foods. In order to determine the risk of HNoV transmission by contaminated blueberry juice, survival characteristics of cultivable HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77) after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration temperatures (4°C) were studied. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied as a novel processing method for noroviral surrogate inactivation in blueberry juice. Blueberry juice or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2 as control) was inoculated with each virus, stored over 21 days at 4°C or subjected to HPH, and plaque assayed. FCV-F9 (?5 log(10) PFU/mL) was undetectable after 1 day in blueberry juice at 4°C. MNV-1 (?4 log(10) PFU/ml) showed minimal reduction (1 log(10) PFU/mL) after 14 days, with greater reduction (1.95 log(10) PFU/mL; p < 0.05) after 21 days in blueberry juice at 4°C. Bacteriophage MS2 (?6 log(10) PFU/mL) showed significant reduction (1.93 log(10) PFU/mL; p < 0.05) after 2 days and was undetectable after 7 days in blueberry juice at 4°C. FCV-F9 remained viable in PBS for up to 21 days (2.28 log(10) PFU/mL reduction), while MNV-1 and MS2 survived after 21 days (1.08 and 0.56 log(10) PFU/mL reduction, respectively). Intriguingly, FCV-F9 and bacteriophage MS2 showed reduction after minimal homogenization pressures in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77), possibly due to the combination of juice pH, juice components, and mechanical effects. MNV-1 in blueberry juice was only slightly reduced at 250 (0.33 log(10) PFU/mL) and 300 MPa (0.71 log(10) PFU/mL). Virus surrogate survival in blueberry juice at 4°C correlates well with the ease of HNoV transmission via juices. HPH for viral inactivation in juices is dependent on virus type, and higher homogenization pressures may be needed for MNV-1 inactivation. PMID:23113725

Horm, Katie Marie; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico M; D'Souza, Doris Helen

2012-11-01

404

Alternative Technique for Creation of a Proximal Gastric Pouch in Laparoscopic Adjustable Silicone Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LASGB) has become a widely used procedure for the treatment\\u000a of morbid obesity. The original operation, as described by Kuzmak, has been subjected to modifications. Construction of a\\u000a proximal gastric pouch is an important part of the operation. Until now, we used the technique of Niville. Since this was\\u000a often complicated by gastric bleeding

Anne Cardon; Frido Berrevoet; Uwe Hesse; Bernard de Hemptinne

1999-01-01

405

Effects of Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding on Glucose Kinetics and Gut Hormone Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Bariatric surgery markedly improves glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes even before any significant weight loss is achieved. Procedures that involve bypassing the proximal small bowel, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), are more efficient than gastric restriction procedures such as gastric banding (GB).Objective:To evaluate the effects of RYGBP and GB on postprandial glucose kinetics and gastro-intestinal hormone

Frédérique Rodieux; Vittorio Giusti; David A. D'Alessio; Michel Suter; Luc Tappy

2008-01-01

406

Influence of sumatriptan on gastric fundus tone and on the perception of gastric distension in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIn animals, activation of 5-HT1 like receptors causes a relaxation of the gastric fundus through the activation of intrinsic inhibitory neurones.AIMSTo investigate the effect of sumatriptan, an agonist at enteric neuronal 5-HT1receptors, on fasting fundus tone and sensitivity to gastric distension in man.METHODSA gastric barostat was used to study the effect of placebo and sumatriptan, 6 mg subcutaneously, on basal

J Tack; B Coulie; A Wilmer; A Andrioli; J Janssens

2000-01-01

407

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of gastric lymphoma: Comparisons with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in numerous malignant tumors, including gastric lymphoma, is well-established. However, there have been few studies with regard to the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma, which were compared with those of gastric cancer. Prior to treatment, 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 24 patients with gastric lymphoma and 43 patients with gastric cancer. The 18F-FDG PET/CT pattern of gastric wall lesions was classified as one of three types: Type I, diffuse thickening of the gastric wall with increased FDG uptake infiltrating more than one-third of the total stomach; type II, segmental thickening of the gastric wall with elevated FDG uptake involving less than one-third of the total stomach; and type III, local thickening of the gastric wall with focal FDG uptake. The incidence of the involvement of more than one region of the stomach was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with gastric cancer. Gastric FDG uptake was demonstrated in 23 of the 24 patients (95.8%) with gastric lymphoma and in 40 of the 43 patients (93.0%) with gastric cancer. Gastric lymphoma predominantly presented with type I and II lesions, whereas gastric cancer mainly presented with type II and III lesions. The maximal thickness was larger and the maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma compared with those with gastric cancer. A positive correlation between the maximal thickness and SUVmax was confirmed for the gastric cancer lesions, but not for the gastric lymphoma lesions. There was no difference in the maximal thickness and SUVmax of the gastric wall lesions between the patients without and with extragastric involvement, for gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Overall, certain differences exist in the findings between gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer patients on 18F-FDG PET/CT images, which may contribute to the identification of gastric lymphoma. PMID:25202405

WU, JIANG; ZHU, HONG; LI, KAI; WANG, XIN-GANG; GUI, YI; LU, GUANG-MING

2014-01-01

408

Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566

Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

2014-04-01

409

77 FR 67833 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105 and 1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination...determine whether termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead to...

2012-11-14

410

Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

2006-01-01

411

Gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the predominant entity within the primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori represents the decisive pathogenetic factor for gastric MALT lymphoma. The goal of treating gastric MALT lymphoma should be complete cure. The first choice of treatment is H pylori eradication. Patients with histologically persistent residual lymphoma after successful H pylori eradication and normalization of endoscopic findings should be managed by a watch-and-wait strategy. Patients who do not respond to H pylori eradication should be referred for radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:23639646

Fischbach, Wolfgang

2013-06-01

412

Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal factors in rats.  

PubMed

Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats. To study the mechanism of its ulcer protective/healing actions, effects of AIE (500 mg/ kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA, 5 microg/kg/hr)-stimulated acid secretion and gastric mucosal proton pump activity and defensive mucin secretion including life span of gastric mucosal cells in rats. AIE was found to inhibit acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligated rats. Continuous infusion of PENTA significantly increased the acid secretion after 30 to 180 min or in the total 3 hr acid secretion in rat stomach perfusate while, AIE pretreatment significantly decreased them. AIE inhibited the rat gastric mucosal proton pump activity and the effect was comparable with that of omeprazole (OMZ). Further, AIE did not show any effect on mucin secretion though it enhanced life span of mucosal cells as evidenced by a decrease in cell shedding in the gastric juice. Thus, our present data suggest that the ulcer protective activity of AIE may be due to its anti-secretary and proton pump inhibitory activity rather than on defensive mucin secretion. Further, acute as well as sub acute toxicity studies have indicated no mortality with 2.5 g/kg dose of AIE in mice and no significant alterations in body or tissues weight, food and water intake, haematological profile and various liver and kidney function tests in rats when treated for 28 days with 1 g/kg dose of AIE. PMID:17193895

Dorababu, M; Joshi, M C; Bhawani, G; Kumar, M Mohan; Chaturvedi, Aditi; Goel, R K

2006-01-01

413

Improvement of juice expression after separation of sweet sorghum pith from rind leaf  

SciTech Connect

Sweet sorghum stalks were chopped, the pitch separated from the rind-leaf, and the pitch portion only was fed through a screw press for juice expression. Maximum juice yield was achieved with 75% of the fresh weight in the pitch fraction. The screw press capacity decreased as fiber content of the material increased.

Weitzel, T.; Cundiff, J.F.; Vaughan, D.H.

1987-01-01

414

Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05). PMID:24490932

Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

2014-02-01

415

Quantification of Las gene by qPCR from orange juice extracted from Huanglongbing infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...

416

Welfare, Market Power, and Price Effects of Product Diversity: Canned Juices  

E-print Network

line of Punica fruit juice drinks in Germany by launching a canned carbonated drink called Punica 1 "Fruit Beverages Scope," Beverage World, February, 2000, p. 26. 2 "P&G Launches Carbonated FruitWelfare, Market Power, and Price Effects of Product Diversity: Canned Juices Jeffrey M. Perloff

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

417

ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF WASTE PRODUCTS REMAINING AFTER JUICE PRESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomace (skin, seeds and flesh) remaining after juice pressing is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic phytochemicals and could have potential antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. In our study, aqueous and methanol extracts made from the pomace of six fruits, used widely in juice making (Fragaria x ananassa, Prunus cerasus, Ribes nigrum, R. rubrum, Rubus idaeus, R. fruticosus), were tested for

Judit KRISCH; László GALGÓCZY; Tamás PAPP; Csaba VÁGVÖLGYI

2009-01-01

418

Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and Total Phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ella...

419

Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fermented juice and seed oil flavonoids were studied. The pomegranate fermented juice (pfj) and cold pressed seed oil (pcpso) showed strong antioxidant activity close to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and green tea (Thea sinensis), and significantly greater than that of red wine (Vitis vitifera). Flavonoids extracted from pcpso

Shay Yehoshua Schubert; Ephraim Philip Lansky; Ishak Neeman

1999-01-01

420

Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is a rich source of potent flavonoid antioxidants, was tested for its capacity to protect nitric oxide (NO) against oxidative destruction and enhance the biological actions of NO. Employing chemiluminescence headspace analysis, PJ was found to be a potent inhibitor of superoxide anion-mediated disappearance of NO. PJ was much more potent than Concord grape juice, blueberry

Louis J. Ignarro; Russell E. Byrns; Daigo Sumi; Filomena de Nigris; Claudio Napoli

2006-01-01

421

The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg\\/l and this was found to decrease by 74 and 104 mg\\/l

Katherine Zerdin; Michael L. Rooney; Joost Vermuë

2003-01-01

422

Clarification and concentration of citrus and carrot juices by integrated membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of integrated membrane processes for the clarification and the concentration of citrus (orange and lemon) and carrot juices is proposed as an alternative to the traditional techniques of the agro-food industry.The ultrafiltration (UF) process was studied on a pilot plant unit to clarify the raw juice. A limpid phase was produced in this step and it was used

A Cassano; E Drioli; G Galaverna; R Marchelli; G Di Silvestro; P Cagnasso

2003-01-01

423

76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review covers four producers...antidumping duty order with respect to OJ from Brazil produced and exported by Sucocitrico...

2011-08-12

424

77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review covers four producers...antidumping duty order on certain OJ from Brazil.\\1\\ Also in April 2012, the...

2012-10-16

425

Determination and comparison of the total polyphenol contents of fresh and commercial fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to study the importance of polyphenols in human health and, based on recommendations on the replacement of carbonated drinks with nutritious beverages, like fruit juices, seeks to compare the polyphenol contents of natural and commercial juices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The total polypheol content of 39 fresh and 159 commercial (100 percent and less than 50 percent)

Reza Mahdavi; Zeinab Nikniaz; Maryam Rafraf; Abolghasem Jouyban

2011-01-01

426

Fermentative capability and aroma compound production by yeast strains isolated from Agave tequilana Weber juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast strains isolated from agave juice were studied for their fermentative and aromatic capacity. The experiments were performed using agave juice supplemented with ammonium sulphate, as is commonly done in tequila distilleries. Three strains classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed high biomass and ethanol production, as well as higher ethanol tolerance than those classified as Kloeckera africana and Kloeckera apiculata,

Dulce M. Díaz-Montaño; Marie-Line Délia; Mirna Estarrón-Espinosa; Pierre Strehaiano

2008-01-01

427

Threshold values for off flavor compounds in a deodorized orange juice (pumpout) matrix  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The data presented is part of a continuing study to provide the industry with threshold guidelines more adequate for use of flavors in citrus juices. The Best Estimate Threshold (BET) of volatile compounds reported to generate off-flavor in orange juice (OJ) was determined in a deodorized OJ matrix...

428

STORAGE STABILITY OF A STIMULANT COCONUT WATER-CASHEW APPLE JUICE BEVERAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides flavor, appearance and overall impression, food consumers seek foods rich in nutrients. Fruits are a rich source of nutrients and minerals, and fruit juices are a popular way of consuming them. Development of new prod- ucts, where two or more kinds of fruit juices are blended to obtain a product that combines the nutritional value of both fruits, which

JOELIA MARQUES DE CARVALHO; GERALDO ARRAES MAIA; RAIMUNDO WILANE DE FIGUEIREDO; EDY SOUSA DE BRITO; SUELI RODRIGUES

2007-01-01

429

Using Prune Juice Concentrate in Whole Wheat Bread and Other Bakery Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

to elucidate their functional properties in bakery products. In this article, we discuss the results of laboratory tests to examine and quantify prune juice concentrate baking qualities, mold-inhibiting properties, and effects on final product quality of yeast-leavened baked goods, as well as suggestions as to how these properties might be used in development of new products. Prune juice concentrate is

Scott W. Sanders

430

Improving the stability of probiotic bacteria in model fruit juices using vitamins and antioxidants.  

PubMed

This study examined the survival of probiotic bacteria in a model fruit juice system. Three different strains of probiotic bacteria were used in this study: HOWARU Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, HOWARU Bifidobacterium lactis HN001, and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC 37. The probiotic bacteria were inoculated into model juice with various vitamins and antioxidants, namely white grape seed extract, green tea extract, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E. The model juice without any additives was used as a control. Their viability was assessed on a weekly basis using plate count method. The model juice was made with sucrose, sodium citrate, citric acid powder, and distilled water and was pasteurized before use. Our findings showed that probiotic bacteria did not survive well in the harsh environment of the model fruit juice. However, the model juice containing vitamin C, grape extract, and green tea extract showed better survival of probiotic bacteria. The model juice containing grape seed extract, green tea extract, and vitamin C had the same initial population of 8.32 log CFU/mL, and at the end of the 6-wk storage period it had an average viability of 4.29 log CFU/mL, 7.41 log CFU/mL, and 6.44 log CFU/mL, respectively. Juices containing all other ingredients tested had viable counts of <10 CFU/mL at the end of the 6-wk storage period. PMID:20629884

Shah, N P; Ding, W K; Fallourd, M J; Leyer, G

2010-06-01

431

Consumer liking of fruit juices with different açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) concentrations.  

PubMed

Overall liking, flavor, and perceived healthiness of one newly developed fruit juice with high açaí content (40% açaí) and 5 commercially available fruit juices with lower (4% to 20%) açaí concentrations were evaluated by consumers in Belgium. General trends for the overall sample were examined by means of analysis of variance, whereas individual consumer preferences were evaluated using internal preference mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis. The relative contribution of flavor and perceived health benefits as predictors of consumers' overall liking of the 6 açaí-based fruit juices was estimated through linear regression analysis. The results showed a negative relationship between the juices' overall liking and their açaí concentrations. Although the vast majority of consumers preferred the juices having a low açaí content (4% to 5% açaí), a small consumer segment liked the juice with 40% açaí. Flavor or taste experience superseded consumers' perceived health benefits as the primary determinant of the fruit juices' overall liking. The impact of perceived health benefits on the overall liking of the açaí juices decreased with higher taste dissatisfaction. PMID:19646053

Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia M; Van Damme, Patrick

2009-06-01

432

Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

433

A comparison of processed and fresh squeezed ‘Hamlin’ orange juice - flavor quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted by a commercial food service juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to processed juice for flavor quality. There was much higher peel oil content (introduced from the flavedo), but lower insoluble solids and pectin content (introduced from albedo and s...

434

Global Competition for the Japanese Fruit Juice Market: A Uniform Substitute Demand Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the competitiveness of countries exporting fruit juices into Japan through market structure analysis (MSA) within the context of the theory of consumer demand using the relative price version of the Rotterdam model and the block-wise dependent uniform substitute Rotterdam model. The models were estimated for six different types of fruit juices (orange, grapefruit, other citrus, apple, pineapple

Shiferaw T. Feleke; Richard L. Kilmer

2007-01-01

435

Pervaporation of a model apple juice aroma solution: comparison of membrane performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of concentrated apple juice is associated with major physical and chemical losses of aroma compounds, due mainly to evaporation, which results in a product with an inferior sensory quality. One method of improving the sensory quality of the juice is to recover the lost aromas by pervaporation and to feed them back to the final product. The purpose

Jenny Börjesson; Hans O. E. Karlsson; Gun Trägårdh

1996-01-01

436

Role of limonin and nomilin in bitterness of juice from Huanglongbing affected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Besides the physical defects due to the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus greening disease on oranges, the infected fruit and resulting juice have been perceived as being more sour, bitter and off-flavored. In the symptomatic juice, the off-flavor was correlated with lower sugars, and sometimes...

437

Orange juice consumed regularly decreased the Insulin Resistance in normal subjects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange juice is a natural source of citrus flavonoids, that can protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer, and it can be easily incorporated into a healthy diet. In spite of this, orange juice is also associated with high sugar intake (glucose and fructose) that can increase insulin re...

438

A microarray-based gastric carcinoma prewarning system  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop a microarray-based prewarning system consisting of gastric cancer chip, prewarning data and analysis software for early detection of gastric cancer and pre-cancerous lesions. METHODS: Two high-density chips with 8 464 human cDNA sites were used to primarily identify potential genes specific for normal gastric mucosa, pre-cancerous lesion and gastric cancer. The low-density chips, composed of selected genes associated with normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesion and gastric cancer, were fabricated and used to screen 150 specimens including 60 specimens of gastric cancer, 60 of pre-cancerous tissues and 30 of normal gastric mucosa. CAD software was used to screen out the relevant genes and their critical threshold values of expression levels distinguishing normal mucosa from pre-cancerous lesion and cancer. All data were stored in a computer database to establish a prewarning data library for gastric cancer. Two potential markers brcaa1 and ndr1 were identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A total of 412 genes associated with three stages of gastric cancer development were identified. There were 216 genes displaying higher expression in gastric cancer, 85 genes displaying higher expression in pre-cancerous lesion and 88 genes displaying higher expression in normal gastric mucosa. Also 15 genes associated with metastasis of gastric cancer and 8 genes associated with risk factors were screened out for target genes of diagnosis chip of early gastric cancer. The threshold values of 412 selected genes to distinguish gastric cancer, pre-cancerous lesion from normal gastric mucosa were defined as 6.01±2.40, 4.86±1.94 and 5.42±2.17, respectively. These selected 412 genes and critical threshold values were compiled into an analysis software, which can automatically provide reports by analyzing the results of 412 genes obtained by examining gastric tissues. All data were compiled into a prewarning database for gastric cancer by CGO software. Northern blot and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that gene and protein of brcaa1 displayed lower expression in normal gastric mucosa and higher expression in gastric cancer tissues, conversely, ndr1 displayed lower expression in gastric cancer and higher expression in normal gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: The microarray-based prewarning system for gastric cancer was developed. This system consisted of gastric cancer-associated gene chip, prewarning data and analysis software, which has a high potential for applications in the early detection of gastric cancer. The two potential markers brcaa1 and ndr1 identified may be used to distinguish cancer status fand non-cancer status. PMID:15761963

Cui, Da-Xiang; Zhang, Li; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ling-Xia; Xu, Jun-Rong; Guo, Yan-Hai; Jin, Gui-Qiu; Gomez, Giovani; Li, Ding; Zhao, Jin-Rong; Han, Fen-Chan; Zhang, Ju; Hu, Jia-Le; Fan, Dai-Ming; Gao, Hua-Jian

2005-01-01

439

Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

2005-01-01

440

76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review...Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

2011-07-20

441

77 FR 72384 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling...Concerning the Suspended Investigations on Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY...termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would...

2012-12-05

442

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella in Cranberry, Lemon, and Lime Juice Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of thermally concentrated fruit juices uses temperatures high enough to achieve at least a 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria that can occur in raw juice. However, the transportation and storage of concentrates at low temperatures prior to é nal packaging is a common practice in the juice industry and introduces a potential risk for postconcentration contamination with pathogenic

MARA C. L. NOGUEIRA; OMAR A. OYARZABAL; DAVID E. GOMBAS

443

Gastric dysreflexia after acute experimental spinal cord injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Gastric reflexes are mediated mainly by vago-vagal reflex circuits in the caudal medulla. Despite the fact that brainstem vago-vagal circuitry remains intact after spinal cord injury (SCI), patients with SCI at the cervical level most often present gastric stasis with an increased risk of reflux and aspiration of gastric contents. Using a miniature strain gauge sutured to the gastric surface; we tested gastric motility and reflexive gastric relaxation following oesophageal distension (oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex) in animals 3 days after a severe spinal contusion at either the third or ninth thoracic spinal segment (acute T3- or T9 SCI, respectively). Both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were significantly diminished in animals with T3 SCI. Conversely, both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were not significantly reduced in T9 SCI animals compared to controls. The reduced gastric motility and oesophageal-gastric reflex in T3 SCI rats was not ameliorated by celiac sympathectomy. Our results show that gastric stasis following acute SCI is independent of altered spinal sympathetic input to the stomach caudal to the lesion. Our data suggest that SCI may alter the sensitivity of vagal reflex function, perhaps by interrupting ascending spinosolitary input to brainstem vagal nuclei. PMID:19126185

Tong, M.; Holmes, G. M.

2009-01-01

444

Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

1978-01-01

445

Computed tomographic recognition of gastric varices  

SciTech Connect

The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 13 consecutive patients with proven gastric varices were analyzed and correlated with the radiographic, angiographic, and gastroscopic evaluations. In 11 patients, CT clearly identified large (five) or smaller (six) varices located mainly along the posteromedial wall of the gastric fundus and proximal body of the stomach. Well defined rounded or tubular densities that enhanced during intravenous administration of contrast material and could not be distinguished from the gastric wall were identified. Dense, enhancing, round or tubular, intraluminal filling defects were seen in the cases where the stomach was distended with water. In seven patients, the CT examination correctly diagnosed the pathogenesis of gastric varices by identifying hepatic cirrhosis, calcific pancreatis, and carcinoma of the pancreas.

Balthazar, E.J.; Megibow, A.; Naidich, D.; LeFleur, R.S.

1984-06-01

446

Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis of primary gastric malignant melanoma without a primary lesion detected in the body. To the best of our knowledge, primary gastric malignant melanoma is extremely rare, and this is the first case reported in our country. According to the literature, it has aggressive biologic activity compared with adenocarcinoma, and curative resection is the only promising treatment strategy. In our case, the patient received an early diagnosis and underwent curative gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy, and no recurrence was noted for about two years. PMID:25580362

Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han

2014-01-01

447

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

448

Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound. PMID:24117835

Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

2014-01-01

449

Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods.  

PubMed

Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that was only 10 and 3%, respectively, of the activity of the fresh apples. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in the juice were reduced to between 50% (chlorogenic acid) and 3% (catechins). Most of the antioxidants were retained in the pomace rather than being transferred into the juice. Apparently, most of the antioxidant compounds are absorbed to the solid matter of the pomace. In apple juice, 45% of the total measured antioxidant activity could be ascribed to the analyzed antioxidants. For three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold), the processing methods had similar effects. The results indicate that processing can have a major impact on the bioactivity of products. PMID:12452634

Van Der Sluis, Addie A; Dekker, Matthijs; Skrede, Grete; Jongen, Wim M F

2002-12-01

450

Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

451

A consumer panel test of Texas fortified red grapefruit juice  

E-print Network

, naringin (the bitter rrinciple of the grapefruit)z and other anality factors were essential for the production of a canned grapet'ruit juice with high color and flavor qualities, Iuring the research, lt became apparent that the stability of color... teat the pu'p, not the '?iea, was t! e cruin color carrier. Therefore, exreri-e?tati n folio;cd to ravelop means of i. troch e?~ e'r'sd rn lp Airin the 'uico ean?dnc &rocess. "ines pulp ce?tr&i?c ". -: I""~? ? a ?& tts? agent - -. li . itins factor...

Price, Carter

2012-06-07

452

Molecular marker from pancreatic 'juices' helps identify pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Mayo Clinic have developed a promising method to distinguish between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis — two disorders that are difficult to tell apart. A molecular marker obtained from pancreatic "juices" can identify almost all cases of pancreatic cancer, their study shows. The findings were being presented at Digestive Disease Week 2013 in Orlando, Fla. Pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis both produce the same signs of disease in the pancreas, such as inflammation, but cancer in the organ is a life-threatening disorder that must be treated immediately and aggressively.

453

Optimizing conditions for E-and Z-ajoene formation from garlic juice using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The optimum conditions for the formation of E- and Z-ajoene from garlic juice mixed with soybean oil were determined using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables temperature (°C, X 1), reaction time (hours, X 2), and oil volume (multiplied by weight, X 3). The dependent variables were Z-ajoene (Y 1) and E-ajoene (Y 2) in oil-macerated garlic. The optimal conditions for E- and Z-ajoene using ridge analysis were 98.80°C, 6.87 h, and weight multiplied by weight 2.57, and 42.24°C, 9.71 h, and weight multiplied by weight 3.08, respectively. These conditions resulted in E- and Z-ajoene compound predicted values of 234.17 and 752.62 ?g/g from garlic juice, respectively. The experimental values of E- and Z-ajoene were 222.75 and 833.59 ?g/g, respectively. The estimated maximum values at the predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values. PMID:25473520

Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sunyoung; Shin, Dongbin

2014-09-01

454

Gastric Acid Secretions, Treatments, and Nutritional Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objectives of this chapter are to provide an overview of the roles of gastric acid in health and disease, the use of acid-suppressive\\u000a therapies to mitigate prevalent excess acid symptoms and\\/or diseases, and to review potential detrimental consequences related\\u000a to their use. Particular emphasis is placed on the nutritional consequences of gastric acid imbalance as it is related to

Ronit Zilberboim; Adrianne Bendich

455

Swedish Adjustable Gastric Banding: a Preliminary Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The authors have been performing bariatric surgery for 15 years; since February 1992 they have carried out laparoscopic\\u000a gastric banding (LGB) with a silastic band. Good experience with the LGB combined with everyday laparoscopic activity in their\\u000a institution persuaded them to try laparoscopic placement of the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB). Methods: The surgical\\u000a procedure is the same as

A. Catona; L. La Manna; A. La Manna Mfl; C. Sampiero

1997-01-01

456

Acute gastric dilatation with infarction and perforation  

PubMed Central

This is a report of a 22-year-old woman with treated anorexia nervosa who died of complications of acute gastric dilatation—that is, infarction and perforation with severe and irreversible shock. Binge eating and drinking, precipitated by emotional crises, contributed to her acute gastric dilatation. This complication of anorexia nervosa has been previously reported, but, unlike the others, this case ended fatally. The literature is reviewed. ImagesFigure PMID:7308853

Saul, S H; Dekker, A; Watson, C G

1981-01-01

457

Definition for idiopathic gastric acid hypersecretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and other gastric acid hypersecretory states in which a specific etiology is identified are defined as a basal acid output of greater than 15.0 meq\\/hr. To determine the level of basal acid output that defines idiopathic gastric hypersecretion, basal acid outputs were investigated in normal subjects and patients with duodenal ulcers, and functional and statistical definitions for idiopathic

Martin J. Collen; Michael J. Sheridan

1991-01-01

458

Simultaneous Paraesophageal Hernia Repair and Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a hiatal hernia is generally considered a contraindication to gastric banding in the morbidly obese, despite\\u000a recent reports indicating favorable outcomes following simultaneous repair of sliding hernias and laparoscopic adjustable\\u000a gastric banding (LAGB). A 66-year-old woman weighing 120 kg (BMI 45) with arterial hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux-related\\u000a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent repair of a large paraesophageal

Serge Landen

2005-01-01

459

Identification of DNA methylation changes associated with human gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic alteration of gene expression is a common event in human cancer. DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic process, but verifying the exact nature of epigenetic changes associated with cancer remains difficult. Methods We profiled the methylome of human gastric cancer tissue at 50-bp resolution using a methylated DNA enrichment technique (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with a genome analyzer and a new normalization algorithm. Results We were able to gain a comprehensive view of promoters with various CpG densities, including CpG Islands (CGIs), transcript bodies, and various repeat classes. We found that gastric cancer was associated with hypermethylation of 5' CGIs and the 5'-end of coding exons as well as hypomethylation of repeat elements, such as short interspersed nuclear elements and the composite element SVA. Hypermethylation of 5' CGIs was significantly correlated with downregulation of associated genes, such as those in the HOX and histone gene families. We also discovered long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) regions in gastric cancer tissue and identified several hypermethylated genes (MDM2, DYRK2, and LYZ) within these regions. The methylation status of CGIs and gene annotation elements in metastatic lymph nodes was intermediate between normal and cancerous tissue, indicating that methylation of specific genes is gradually increased in cancerous tissue. Conclusions Our findings will provide valuable data for future analysis of CpG methylation patterns, useful markers for the diagnosis of stomach cancer, as well as a new analysis method for clinical epigenomics investigations. PMID:22133303

2011-01-01

460

Nizatidine and gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

In clinical practice, H2-receptor antagonists, including nizatidine, in addition to their use in the treatment of peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux, are also useful in alleviating dyspeptic symptoms. Patients with functional dyspepsia show a tendency to delayed gastric emptying. Results of preliminary studies have demonstrated that nizatidine has a prokinetic effect due to its cholinergic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nizatidine on gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia. Sixteen patients with dyspeptic symptoms referred for gastroscopy by primary care physicians were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study. They received nizatidine 150 mg twice daily or placebo for 2 months. After a 1-month washout period, the 2-month treatment was repeated, with these patients acting as their own controls. Gastric emptying was measured by scintigraphy, and dyspeptic symptoms and quality of life were evaluated at the end of both treatment periods. Gastric emptying of solids during nizatidine therapy was prolonged (T1/2 110.1 +/- 76.7 vs. 65.6 +/- 23.2 min, P = 0.03), but nizatidine had no effect on gastric emptying of liquids. Nizatidine improved the symptom scores and seven of eight aspects of quality of life - but not significantly. In conclusion, nizatidine decreases the gastric emptying rate of solids without having a significant effect on symptoms or quality of life in functional dyspepsia. PMID:17682943

Koskenpato, Jari; Punkkinen, Jari Matti; Kairemo, Kalevi; Färkkilä, Martti

2008-02-01