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Sample records for gastric juice composition

  1. Effects of simulated gastric juice on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of laboratory-processed composites.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Seda; Sarac, Sinasi; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Medical problems such as gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause considerable damage to restorations in the oral environment. This study evaluated the effects of gastric juice on the surface characteristics of different types of laboratory-processed indirect composites with different filler particles and polymerization modes. Specimens were prepared from Tescera (TES; Bisco), Sinfony (SIN; 3M ESPE), Solidex (SOL; Shofu), and Adoro (AD; Ivoclar Vivadent). Before exposing the specimens to simulated gastric juice for 24 h, color, surface roughness, and microhardness were measured on one half of the polished flat surface of each specimen. After exposure to the simulated gastric juice, the same tests were repeated on the other half of specimen surface. Results indicated that gastric juice had a significant impact on color change (p<0.001). AD showed the largest surface roughness change among the resins (p<0.001). Gastric juice also significantly affected the microhardness of the materials, and AD and TES showed statistically similar change in microhardness (p>0.05). PMID:24882109

  2. Gastric juice acidity in upper gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Jung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hsiao, Michael; Chang, Wei-Chao; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Lin, Kung-Hung; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To search the independent factors determining gastric juice acidity and to investigate the acidity of gastric juices in various benign and malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: Fasting gastric juice acidity of 165 healthy subjects and 346 patients with esophageal ulcer (n = 21), gastric ulcer (n = 136), duodenal ulcer (n = 100) or gastric cancer (n = 89) were measured and compared. Additionally, gastric specimens were taken from the antrum and body for rapid urease test and histological examination. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that bile stain of gastric juice, high acute inflammatory score of the corpus, and atrophy of the corpus were independent risk factors for the development of gastric hypoacidity with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3-7.3), 3.1 (95% CI: 1.2-7.9) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.3-9.2). Esophageal ulcer and duodenal ulcer patients had a lower pH level (1.9 and 2.1 vs 2.9, both P < 0.05) of gastric juices than healthy subjects. In contrast, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients had a higher pH level (3.4 and 6.6 vs 2.9, both P < 0.001) than healthy controls. Hypoacidity existed in 22%, 5%, 29%, 5% and 88% of healthy subjects, esophageal ulcer, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bile reflux, atrophy and dense neutrophil infiltrate of the corpus are three independent factors determining the acidity of gastric juice. PMID:21086570

  3. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations. PMID:26377936

  4. A chemometric optimization of method for determination of nitrosamines in gastric juices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, ?evket; Dinç, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A chemometrically optimized isolation procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection technique has been proposed for quantitative determination of trace levels of nitrosamines in gastric juice samples of patients with the gastrointestinal tract problems. The extraction conditions of each nitrosamine were optimized using regression modelling based on central composite design. The extraction conditions for all nitrosamines were selected to be 10.7min for extraction time, 4.2 for pH and 23 for 2-propanol percentage in extraction solution. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 94.0 (NDMA) to 99.3 (NDPheA) %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations was within the range of 0.7 (NDPheA) and 2.6 (NDMA) %. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 0.3 to 1.1pg/mL. Total nitrosamine concentrations were found at the highest concentration up to 2431.12pg/mL in cancer patients, whereas they were found at the lowest concentration down to 12.18pg/mL in gastritis patients. The classification results of the gastric juice samples in different patient groups were very satisfactory, allowing 100% of patients to be correctly grouped. A new mathematical model has been developed allowing for the classification of gastric juices with a 93.1% success rate based on just the ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ. The ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ might be considered as a biomarker for the classification of gastric juices of patients and might act as an indicator of increased risk for stomach cancer. PMID:26342445

  5. Effect of pancreatic juice on basal pancreatic and gastric secretion in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Magee, D F; Naruse, S

    1982-01-01

    1. The effect of duodenal infusion of pancreatic juice on basal pancreatic and gastric secretion was studied in five conscious dogs provided with pancreatic fistulae, gastric fistulae and Heidenhain fundic pouches. 2. Pancreatic juice and trypsin stimulated a pancreatic secretion rich in protein. 3. Autodigested juice without proteolytic activities also stimulated the secretion. Boiling the juice or addition of trypsin inhibitor to the juice diminished the augmented secretion. 4. It seems, therefore, that trypsin is necessary even in proteolytically inactive autodigested juice for pancreatic stimulation. 5. In dogs, unlike rats and pigs, basal pancreatic secretion is not under negative feed-back control by duodenal tryptic activity. 6. Basal gastric secretion was not significantly changed by duodenal infusion of pancreatic juice. PMID:7175754

  6. Exposure to gastric juice may not cause adenocarcinogenesis of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Yong-Zhong; Gong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of gastric juice on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: A animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established in Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy. The development of EAC and forestomach adenocarcinoma was investigated 40 wk after the treatment. Intraluminal pH and bile of the forestomach were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pH (t = 0.117, P = 0.925) or bile (?2 = 0.036, P = 0.85) in the forestomach before and 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. There were also no significant differences between the model and controls during esophagoduodenostomy or 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia (88%) and intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (28%) in the esophagus in the model was higher than in the controls 40 wk after surgery (?2 = 43.06, P < 0.001 and ?2 = 9.33, P = 0.002, respectively) and in the forestomach in the model (?2 = 32.05, P < 0.001 and ?2 = 8.14, P = 0.004, respectively). The incidence rates of inflammation in the esophagus and forestomach were 100% and 96%, respectively (?2 = 1.02, P = 0.31) in the model, which was higher than in the esophageal control (6.8%) (?2 = 42.70, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Gastric juice exposure may not cause intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia or adenocarcinoma of the forestomach and may not be related to EAC. PMID:23613638

  7. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

  8. Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

  9. Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

  10. Measurement of pancreatic blood flow to prevent pancreatic juice leakage after pancreas-preserving total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Konno, H; Baba, M; Maruo, Y; Tanaka, T; Kanai, T; Nishino, N; Suzuki, S; Nakamura, S; Baba, S

    1997-01-01

    In patients with gastric cancer, distal pancreatectomy was frequently performed for complete removal of the lymph nodes along the splenic artery, but this procedure sometimes induced pancreatic juice leakage, subphrenic abscess, and postoperative diabetes. To avoid these complications, pancreas-preserving total gastrectomy (PP) was developed by Maruyama et al. [World J Surg 1995; 19:552-536], with which the spleen, splenic artery, and fatty connective tissue including lymph nodes could be removed completely without distal pancreatectomy. From 1988 to 1995, 36 patients underwent PP in our department. Although there were no operative deaths and no patient developed postoperative diabetes, pancreatic juice leakage was observed in 4 patients (11.1%). We assumed that ischemia of the distal pancreas may have caused this pancreatic juice leakage and investigated the relationship between pancreatic blood flow (PBF) and this complication in 12 recent patients. A significant negative correlation between PBF in the pancreatic tail and the peak amylase level (PAL) in the drain fluid was demonstrated. Two patients with PBF values of 4.5 and 5.2 ml/min/100 g tissue, respectively, and a PAL of more than 2 x 10(5) U/l developed pancreatic juice leakage, whereas the 10 patients without this complication had PBF values above 6 ml/min/100 g tissue and a PAL of less than 2 x 10(4) U/l. These results suggest that measurement of PBF may be useful to predict the leakage of pancreatic juice after PP and that distal pancreatectomy may be preferable when PBF is extremely low. PMID:9257101

  11. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products. PMID:22225414

  12. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID:26673084

  13. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

  14. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), ?-caryophyllene (8.04%) and ?-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

  15. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Bravo, Luis E; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; Wilson, Keith T; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  16. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

  17. Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  18. Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina

    2012-08-17

    Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip. PMID:22835229

  19. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

  20. [Effects of composite xueliting on four gastric ulcer models in rats and mice].

    PubMed

    Yang, J R; Chen, G X; Li, W M

    1995-07-01

    Composite Xueliting (CXLT) was found to be an effective anti-ulcer agent in four experimental models in rats and mice, namely, the stress restraint-induced, histamin-induced, salicylic acid-induced and reserpine-induced ulcers. In above-mentioned models, CXLT (0.214-0.856 g/kg, 1/d x 5, per os) could inhibit gastric ulcer by 40%-63%, 48%-85%, 68%-87% and 27%-65% respectively. Among these, the salicylic acid-induced ulcer was more markedly inhibited. The result suggested that CXLT had the protective function against the gastric ulcer. PMID:7580064

  1. Processing effects on the composition of sea buckthorn juice from Hippophae rhamnoides L. Cv. Indian Summer.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T; Harrison, J E; Drover, J

    2002-01-01

    Sea buckthorn juice is one product that can be derived from the sea buckthorn berry, a new alternative crop for the Canadian western provinces. Fresh pressed juice separates into three phases when allowed to stand overnight in the refrigerator: an upper cream phase, juice in the middle portion, and a sediment at the bottom. Enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial, broad spectrum carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme preparations reduced the juice viscosity, assisted juice separation, and provided an opalescent juice. Soluble solids averaged 10.2 degrees Brix, pH averaged 3.13, ascorbic acid averaged 174.2 mg/100 mL, and titratable acidity averaged 1.97% as malic acid all determined on centrifuged (10 000 rpm, 15 min) juice. Soluble sugars included glucose, fructose, and an unidentified component that was not sucrose or other common soluble monomeric or dimeric sugar. Quinic acid was quantitatively most important, while malic was next, and oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids were minor components. Washing berries by dipping reduced soluble solids (degrees Brix) in juice suggesting uptake of wash water. PMID:11754553

  2. Orosensory profiles and chemical composition of black currant (Ribes nigrum ) juice and fractions of press residue.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Mari; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvinen, Riikka; Rostiala, Nina; Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Tiitinen, Katja; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-05-13

    Fractionation of black currant ( Ribes nigrum ) by juice pressing, four ethanol extractions, ethanol evaporation, and supercritical fluid extraction was studied. Phenolic compounds, sugars, and acids of the fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Sensory properties of the fractions were studied using generic descriptive analysis. Most of the sugars and acids were located in the juice, whereas the majority of the phenolic compounds were in the press residue. Ethanol extracted nearly all of the phenolic compounds from the press residue, leaving only fibers and seeds. The juice was dominant in most of the sensory attributes, whereas the extracts were perceived as most astringent. Three flavonol glycosides [kaempferol-3-O-(6''-malonyl)glucoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside, and an unknown kaempferol glycoside] were discovered to be the compounds especially contributing to astringency. Ethanol extraction appeared to be an efficient and simple way to isolate phenolic compounds from black currant juice press residue. PMID:19317461

  3. [Gastric secretion in dogs following three day fasting and resumed feeding].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    The investigation into the influence of a three-day starvation on the gastric secretion in dogs with Pavlov pouches stimulated by meat, histamine and pentagastrin, was carried out. A 72-hour starvation did not change the summary volume of the gastric juice, debit of the gastric acid, and quantity of pepsin. At the same time the starvation decreased the average rate of gastric juice secretion, gastric acid and pepsin secretion in response to histamine and decreased the pepsin secretion in response to pentagastrin. In this way re-feeding enhanced the average rate of gastric juice secretion and gastric acid secretion on 3-day and pepsin on 5-day in response to meat. The average rate of gastric juice secretion increased on the 5-day after refeeding in response to histamine and the average rate of gastric juice, gastric acid and pepsin secretion in response to pentagastrin. PMID:15143498

  4. Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

  5. Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

  6. Comparison of stem damage and carbohydrate composition in the stem juice between sugarcane and sweet sorghum harvested before and after late fall frost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  9. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  10. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  11. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  12. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  13. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-? associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. PMID:25471339

  14. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Subjects/Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5?h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Results: Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Conclusions: Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations. PMID:25226819

  15. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  16. Effect of storage period under variable conditions on the chemical and physical composition and colour of Spanish refrigerated orange juices.

    PubMed

    Esteve, M J; Frígola, A; Rodrigo, C; Rodrigo, D

    2005-09-01

    The effects of the physicochemical and quality characteristics of various minimally pasteurized refrigerated orange Spanish juices and their changes with storage time and temperature were investigated. Essential oils, acidity, conductivity, diacetyl index, hydroxymethylfurfural, formol index, viscosity and ascorbic acid varied with storage time more significantly at 10 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. Density, colour and pectinmethylesterase did not vary at 4 degrees C. Some of the parameters could be used as indicators of quality loss or spoilage of the juices. The degradation kinetics of the concentration of remaining ascorbic acid against time follows a straight line whose slope indicates the degradation rate. A period of at least 42 days at 4 degrees C and 35 days at 10 degrees C was established as the shelf life of the juices. PMID:15919147

  17. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

  18. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

    2009-06-01

    Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer. PMID:19468836

  19. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro?esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000?fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  20. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric stump carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Gastric stump carcinoma after gastric surgery for benign disease is now widely recognized as a distinct clinical entity. The stump carcinoma was often found to be localized to the anastomosis, known to be the site with severe duodenogastric reflux. For this reason, duodenogastric reflux, including the reflux of bile and pancreatic juice, after a Billroth II procedure for benign disease is frequently discussed as an important factor related to the development of stump carcinoma. Many experiments have implicated bile acids, the main component of the duodenal juice, in gastric carcinogenesis. In particular, rat models without the use of the carcinogen, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), showed adenocarcinoma in the remnant stomach that was related to the severity of duodenogastric reflux. However, human data are, inevitably, much less consistent. Whether the incidence of stump carcinoma is higher than that of gastric carcinoma in general is still controversial. Concerning the histogenesis of stump carcinoma after benign disease, a relationship between gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) and gastric type adenocarcinoma has been suggested. Recently, the population at risk of gastric stump carcinoma for benign disease has been diminishing significantly, and the incidence of gastric stump carcinoma after surgery for malignant disease has been increasing. The influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric remnant after malignant disease may differ from its influence in the gastric remnant after benign disease. Further clinical study is needed to elucidate the pathogenetic factors involved in gastric stump carcinoma. PMID:12021855

  1. Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-02-01

    Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

  2. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  3. Gastric conditions control both the evolution of the organization of protein-stabilized emulsions and the kinetic of lipolysis during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne-Domguia, Hernan Brice; Meynier, Anne; Viau, Michèle; Llamas, Geneviève; Genot, Claude

    2012-12-01

    During digestion, lipids undergo modifications of their colloidal and molecular structures, which depend on the digestive conditions and the composition of the digestive juices. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether gastric pH and pepsin modulate the colloidal evolution and the bioacessibility of fatty acids of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by a protein during in vitro digestion. The fate of BSA-stabilized rapeseed oil-in-water emulsion during gastric phase at pH 2.5 or 4.0 with or without pepsin and its consequences on intestinal lipolysis was measured in the simulated gastric and duodenal conditions. The pH had limited impact but pepsin favoured flocculation and coalescence of the droplets, modulating the early stage of lipolysis but not its final extent. PMID:22918290

  4. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  5. Campylobacter-like organisms and gastritis: histopathology, bile reflux, and gastric fluid composition.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, T; Niemelä, S; Lehtola, J; Heikkilä, J; Mäentausta, O; Räsänen, O

    1987-05-01

    We studied a prospective series of 107 randomly chosen dyspepsia patients without gastric ulcer for the association of spiral Campylobacter-like organisms (CLO) with features of antral and fundal gastritis and duodenogastric reflux. CLO were observed in 38% of the patients. The scores for all classes of inflammatory cells in both antral and body mucosa were significantly higher in the CLO-positive patients than in the CLO-negative ones (p less than 0.001), and foveolar hyperplasia was also associated with CLO (p less than 0.05). Metaplasia and glandular atrophy in the antral mucosa were significantly commoner in the CLO-positive group (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively). The body gastritis score correlated significantly with age in the CLO-negative patients (R = 0.33, p less than 0.01) but not in the CLO-positive ones. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to duodenogastric reflux or intragastric pH. The results confirm that CLO are associated with gastritis, most notably superficial gastritis in the body and atrophic gastritis in the antrum, but their aetiological significance remains to be proved. PMID:3602928

  6. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  7. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Naomi

    2009-12-01

    From many findings, it has been established that persistent infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic active gastritis and subsequently causes the gastric mucosa of the high risk for gastric cancer development. On the other hand, recent Japanese-study results have shown the possibility of gastric cancer prevention by H. pylor eradication. Moreover the development of gastric cancer in uninfected subjects is very rare; therefore, prevention of gastric cancer by H. pylori eradication becomes a topic in Japan. To get rid of gastric cancer from Japan, the risk of gastric cancer should be determined by presence of H. pylori infection in a young fellow, on the other hand, the risk by the examination that combined serum PG method with serum antibody method in subjects after middle aged. It is now expected that eradication treatment should be performed for these high-risk subjects. PMID:19999121

  8. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  9. Effects of bile reflux and intragastric microflora changes on lesions of remnant gastric mucosa after gastric operation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhan-Kui; Yu, Pei-Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of bile reflux and intragastric microflora changes on lesions of remnant gastric mucosa after gastric operation. METHODS: Concenration of bile acid and total bacterial counts (TBC) in gastric juice were measured in 49 patients with peptic ulcer before and after gastrectomy. One year after the operation, sample of gastric mucosa taken from all the patients were used for histological examination. RESULTS: The concentration of gastric bile acid was significantly increased in group B-I, or B-II and SV + A than that in group HSV (P < 0.05-0.01). The abnormal histological changes in the remnant gastric mucosa were more common in the first 2 groups than in the last group. CONCLUSION: The type of gastrtectomy can affect bile reflux. The abnormal histological changes in the remnant gastric mucosa are closely related to the elevation of bile acid concentration and increase of TBC in gastric juice. HSV can effectively prevent bile reflux and keep the gastric physiological functions stable. PMID:15133869

  10. Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dicken, Bryan J.; Bigam, David L.; Cass, Carol; Mackey, John R.; Joy, Anil A.; Hamilton, Stewart M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This update reviews the epidemiology and surgical management, and the controversies of gastric adenocarcinoma. We provide the relevance of outcome data to surgical decision-making and discuss the application of gene-expression analysis to clinical practice. Summary Background Data: Gastric cancer mortality rates have remained relatively unchanged over the past 30 years, and gastric cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Well-conducted studies have stimulated changes to surgical decision-making and technique. Microarray studies linked to predictive outcome models are poised to advance our understanding of the biologic behavior of gastric cancer and improve surgical management and outcome. Methods: We performed a review of the English gastric adenocarcinoma medical literature (1980–2003). This review included epidemiology, pathology and staging, surgical management, issues and controversies in management, prognostic variables, and the application of outcome models to gastric cancer. The results of DNA microarray analysis in various cancers and its predictive abilities in gastric cancer are considered. Results: Prognostic studies have provided valuable data to better the understanding of gastric cancer. These studies have contributed to improved surgical technique, more accurate pathologic characterization, and the identification of clinically useful prognostic markers. The application of microarray analysis linked to predictive models will provide a molecular understanding of the biology driving gastric cancer. Conclusions: Predictive models generate important information allowing a logical evolution in the surgical and pathologic understanding and therapy for gastric cancer. However, a greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with gastric cancer is needed to guide surgical and medical therapy. PMID:15621988

  11. Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Molina-Infante, Javier; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1983, the stomach was no longer considered a sterile environment. In 2015, evolving data shows that H. pylori is not the only inhabitant of the gastric mucosa. Using culture-independent methods of analysis, a non-H. pylori microbial community has been recently observed in the human stomach, the so-called human gastric microbiota, along with H. pylori itself. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that although H. pylori may be the most relevant, it is not the only local bacterial culprit leading to gastric diseases. Further studies are warranted to offer a better picture of the role and functions of gastric microbiota and to identify the best therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota for the management of gastric diseases. PMID:26372828

  12. Effect of leucine 13-motilin (KW5139) on early gastric stasis after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, H; Tanaka, M; Naritomi, G; Yokohata, K; Yamaguchi, K; Chijiwa, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a hypothesis that exogenously administered motilin would improve early gastric stasis after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prolonged gastric stasis is a frequent complication after PPPD. We demonstrated that this might at least in part be attributable to delayed recovery of phase III activity of the gastric migrating motor complex due to low concentrations of plasma motilin caused by resection of the duodenum. METHODS: Ten patients with a mean age of 54 years (range, 33-70) who underwent PPPD were studied. An assembly of manometric tubes was placed in the gastric antrum and jejunum (neoduodenum) at surgery. A gastrostomy tube was added for drainage and volume measurements of the gastric juice. After baseline recording, saline as a placebo was given intravenously on day 14 and 0.5 microg/kg of KW5139 (leucine-13 motilin) was given on days 17 and 18 every 2 hours, 6 times a day. The daily volume of gastric juice output and a gastric motility index were measured. RESULTS: The mean period until the first appearance of phase III activity in the stomach was 41 +/- 2 days. The injection of saline did not change the gastric motility index (7.3 +/- 1.1 to 7.1 +/- 1.3 mmHg; p = 0.72). In contrast, motilin resulted in a significant increase in the gastric motility index (7.5 +/- 1.0 to 17.7 +/- 2.0 mmHg; p < 0.001). The saline injection produced no change in the daily gastric juice output (1175 +/- 140 to 1393 +/- 193 mL; p = 0.09). Motilin significantly decreased the gastric juice output (1387 +/- 157 to 934 +/- 142 mL; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that KW5139 is a safe and effective prokinetic drug for the treatment of early gastric stasis after PPPD. PMID:9563538

  13. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  14. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  15. Gastric culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  16. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins. PMID:26299317

  17. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100?gL(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6?gL(-1) and from 4.9 to 26?gL(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  18. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  1. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  2. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  3. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of...

  4. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of...

  5. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  6. [Gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Güller, R

    1977-03-01

    Gastric emptying can be measured by three basically different means: Intubation -x-ray - Isotopes, X-ray methods may be neglected as they do not permit quantitative measurement of the exptying process. Intubation methods offer the advantage of exact determinations of emptying rates, but disadvantages are the limitation to liquid meals and patient discomfort. Radioisotopes can be used as marker both of liquid and solid foodstuffs with minimal patient discomfort. However problems often neglected wtih isotopes are reliability of their attachement to the marked meal and radiation dose to the probands. The most important indications of measuring gastric emptying is determination of alterations induced by peptic ulcer surgery and drugs. PMID:871058

  7. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied. PMID:18494487

  8. Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

    2010-03-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality. PMID:23572618

  9. Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) ?-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of ?-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and ?-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice. PMID:23043313

  10. Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of digestion kinetics of solid foods in human stomach, as affected by food processing methods, is critical in establishing processing conditions at the manufacturing stage to achieve desirable release of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate how roasting affected disintegration and solid release properties of almond in simulated gastric environment. In vitro trials were performed for raw and roasted almonds by using static soaking method and a model stomach system. The changes in sample weight, dry mass, and moisture during the trials were determined. Both compression and penetration tests were used to investigate the texture of almonds with a focus on the influence of absorption of gastric juice. Light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the change in microstructure of the raw and roasted almonds after simulated digestion. The results suggested that the slow disintegration rate and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. Roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and increased loss of solids during simulated digestion, which is well correlated with the decrease in the rigidity of almond samples after absorbing gastric juice. Microstructure of digested almonds showed breakage and breach of cell walls due to acid hydrolysis. Intercellular and intracellular channels formed in almonds during roasting are important for penetration of gastric juice that may facilitate an effective digestion.

  11. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  12. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested. RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcero-genic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats. CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats. PMID:16270397

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be...

  14. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may...

  15. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

  16. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...

  17. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132...

  18. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange...

  19. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange...

  20. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185...

  1. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132...

  2. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...

  3. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  4. Usual Intake of Fruit juice

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

  5. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

  6. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco... WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or...

  7. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco... WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or...

  8. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  9. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  10. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato...

  11. Grapefruit juice–drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J

    1998-01-01

    The novel finding that grapefruit juice can markedly augment oral drug bioavailability was based on an unexpected observation from an interaction study between the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, felodipine, and ethanol in which grapefruit juice was used to mask the taste of the ethanol. Subsequent investigations showed that grapefruit juice acted by reducing presystemic felodipine metabolism through selective post-translational down regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression in the intestinal wall. Since the duration of effect of grapefruit juice can last 24 h, repeated juice consumption can result in a cumulative increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax. The high variability of the magnitude of effect among individuals appeared dependent upon inherent differences in enteric CYP3A4 protein expression such that individuals with highest baseline CYP3A4 had the highest proportional increase. At least 20 other drugs have been assessed for an interaction with grapefruit juice. Medications with innately low oral bioavailability because of substantial presystemic metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 appear affected by grapefruit juice. Clinically relevant interactions seem likely for most dihydropyridines, terfenadine, saquinavir, cyclosporin, midazolam, triazolam and verapamil and may also occur with lovastatin, cisapride and astemizole. The importance of the interaction appears to be influenced by individual patient susceptibility, type and amount of grapefruit juice and administration-related factors. Although in vitro findings support the flavonoid, naringin, or the furanocoumarin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, as being active ingredients, a recent investigation indicated that neither of these substances made a major contribution to grapefruit juice-drug interactions in humans. PMID:9723817

  12. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  13. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the risk of ... may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins , or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. For ...

  14. Should peri-gastrectomy gastric acidity be our focus among gastric cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Li, Tuan-Jie; Han, Wen-Xiu; Xu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the necessity and correctness of acid suppression pre- and post-gastrectomy among gastric carcinoma (GC) patients. METHODS: From June 2011 to April 2013, 99 patients who were diagnosed with GC or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (type II or III) and needed surgical management were enrolled. They all underwent gastrectomy by the same operators [35 undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) plus Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 34 distal gastrectomy (DG) plus Billroth I reconstruction, and 30 proximal gastrectomy (PG) plus gastroesophagostomy]. We collected and analyzed their gastrointestinal juice and tissues from the pre-operational day to the 5th day post-operation, and 6 mo post-surgery. Gastric pH was detected with a precise acidity meter. Gastric juice contents including potassium, sodium and bicarbonate ions, urea nitrogen, direct and indirect bilirubin, and bile acid were detected using Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. Data regarding tumor size, histological type, tumor penetration and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage were obtained from the pathological records. Reflux symptoms pre- and 6 mo post-gastrectomy were evaluated by reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GERD-Q). SPSS 16.0 was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Before surgery, gastric pH was higher than the threshold of hypoacidity (4.25 ± 1.45 vs 3.5, P = 0.000), and significantly affected by age, tumor size and differentiation grade, and potassium and bicarbonate ions; advanced malignancies were accompanied with higher pH compared with early ones (4.49 ± 1.31 vs 3.66 ± 1.61, P = 0.008). After operation, gastric pH in all groups was of weak-acidity and significantly higher than that pre-gastrectomy; on days 3-5, comparisons of gastric pH were similar between the 3 groups. Six months later, gastric pH was comparable to that on days 3-5; older patients were accompanied with higher total bilirubin level, indicating more serious reflux (r = 0.238, P = 0.018); the TG and PG groups had higher RDQ (TG vs DG: 15.80 ± 5.06 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000; PG vs DG: 15.37 ± 3.49 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000) and GERD-Q scores (TG vs DG: 10.54 ± 3.16 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.039; PG vs DG: 11.00 ± 2.07 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.001) compared with the DG group; all gastric juice contents except potassium ion significantly rose; reflux symptom was significantly associated with patient’s body mass index, direct and indirect bilirubin, and total bile acid, while pH played no role. CONCLUSION: Acidity is not an important factor causing unfitness among GC patients. There is no need to further alkalify gastrointestinal juice both pre- and post-gastrectomy. PMID:24944492

  15. Gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.

    1996-01-01

    We are gaining a clearer insight into the causes and mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, and may be able to reduce the incidence in the future by Helicobacter pylori eradication, perhaps in conjunction with nutritional supplements. The work required to establish this kind of prevention programme still has a long way to go. Surveillance and early detection are a key area, and current hopes rest with an increasingly low threshold for gastroscopy together with improved awareness in both patients and general practitioners. Identification of a high-risk group for surveillance would be a major advance, and may become possible due to advances in molecular biology. In terms of treatment, surgery remains the mainstay, but for useful analysis of its' efficacy, uniform and detailed pathological staging is vital. Pre-operative assessment has improved greatly in recent years, resulting in fewer nontherapeutic laparotomies, thanks to a combination of improved imaging techniques and laparoscopy. Limited endoscopic surgery is now feasible for very early disease. The extent of radical surgery remains controversial: a strong argument can be made for concentrating this kind of surgery in the hands of a limited number of specialist units who will have the numbers and the expertise to answer the outstanding questions. Chemotherapy has yet to prove its value, but there are hopes that the newest regimes may do this. Treatment results in the West remain unsatisfactory, but they have improved in the last two decades, and should be capable of considerable further improvement. Images Figure PMID:8796206

  16. Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program

    PubMed Central

    Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36?051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant. PMID:23629613

  17. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klewicka, El?bieta; Zdu?czyk, Zenon; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the ?-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  18. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, El?bieta; Zdu?czyk, Zenon; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  19. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food...

  2. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  3. Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; de Lima Filho, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in §...

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in §...

  6. Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability. PMID:24298443

  7. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  8. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  9. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element. PMID:26579582

  10. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. (iii) The ratio of the degrees Brix to total acidity... this section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice, determined...

  11. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. (iii) The ratio of the degrees Brix to total acidity... this section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice, determined...

  12. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. (iii) The ratio of the degrees Brix to total acidity... this section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice, determined...

  13. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. (iii) The ratio of the degrees Brix to total acidity... this section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice, determined...

  14. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. (iii) The ratio of the degrees Brix to total acidity... this section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice, determined...

  15. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may also be less effective if taken with orange or apple juice, so the drug label states “ ... sure they don’t contain grapefruit juice. Seville oranges (often used to make orange marmalade) and tangelos ( ...

  16. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

  17. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

  18. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

  19. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132 Grapefruit...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) Optional ingredients....

  20. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) Optional ingredients....

  1. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) The name of the food is “Pineapple...

  2. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) The name of the food is “Pineapple...

  3. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) Optional ingredients....

  4. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132 Grapefruit...before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (2) Optional ingredients....

  5. Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

  6. Carcinogenic potential of duodenal reflux juice from patients with long-standing postgastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhe-Fu; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Ran; Gong, Peng; Chen, Hai-Long

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether study on the carcinogenic potential of reflux juice from patients with remote gastrectomy could clarify the inherent relationship between duodenal reflux and gastric stump cancer. METHODS: A total of 37 reflux juice samples (13 Billroth I, 24 Billroth II) were employed in the present study. A two-stage transformation assay using BALB/c 3T3 cells was carried out to test the initiating or promoting activity of these samples. RESULTS: Two of 18 (11.1%) reflux samples exerted initiating activities, whereas 9/19 (47.4%) samples enhanced the MNNG-initiating cell transformation, suggesting the duodenal reflux juice might more frequently possess the tumor-promoter activity (P = 0.029). In addition, there was no difference in initiating activities of the samples irrespective of surgical procedures (P = 0.488), while Billroth II samples exhibited stronger tumor-promoter activity than Billroth I samples (P = 0.027). Furthermore, the promoter activities were well correlated with the histological changes of the stomas (rs = 0.625, P = 0.004), but neither their cytotoxicities nor initiating activities had this correlation (Probabilities were 0.523 and 0.085, respectively). CONCLUSION: The duodenal reflux juice from patients with remote postgastrectomy did have carcinogenic potential, and suggested that tumor-promoting activity should principally account for the high incidence of gastric cancer in gastrectomy patients. In contrast, it is difficult to explain the high stump-cancer incidence with the "N-nitroso compounds" theory-a popular theory for the intact stomach carcinogenesis, and it seemed to be justified to focus chemoprevention of this cancer on the tumor-promoting potential of reflux juice. PMID:11819793

  7. Red grape juice inhibits iron availability: application of an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Boato, Francesca; Wortley, Gary M; Liu, Rui Hai; Glahn, Raymond P

    2002-11-01

    Adequate bioavailable Fe intake is essential for optimal growth and intellectual development of infants and children. Fruit juices are nutritious and popular drinks for infants and children and are known to contain Fe uptake inhibitors (e.g., polyphenolic compounds) and a dominant promoter, ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is naturally present in fruit juices and is added during processing to almost all juices found in supermarkets. With these facts taken into account, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was developed to compare the effects of apple, pear, white grape, red grape, prune, grapefruir, and orange juices on iron bioavailability. In two series of experiments, juices from a local supermarket were combined with FeCl(3) or commercial infant cereal fortified with elemental iron and subject to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Caco-2 cell ferritin formation in response to exposure to the digests served as the measure of Fe uptake. The pear, apple, grapefruit, orange, and white grape juice significantly increased Fe bioavailability from FeCl(3). For the infant cereal studies, the apple, orange, pear, and white grape juices increased the Fe bioavailability of the infant cereal. In contrast, the red grape juice and prune juice had profound inhibitory effects on iron bioavailability. These inhibitory effects were likely due to high levels of polyphenolic compounds that bind and thereby prevent absorption of soluble Fe. These inhibitory compounds appeared to counteract the promotional effects of ascorbic acid as they were in considerable molar excess relative to ascorbic acid and Fe in the digest. From a nutritional standpoint, the results suggest that individuals in need of optimal Fe absorption should avoid red grape and prune juice or at least vary the types of juices consumed. Alternatively, individuals seeking to limit Fe uptake (e.g., hemochromatitics and astronauts) may be able to utilize red grape or prune juice as effective inhibitors of Fe uptake. Consumers should be aware that the compounds that inhibit Fe availability are also linked to anticancer benefits; thus, a dietary balance of the above juices may be optimal. PMID:12405800

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing...

  9. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing...

  11. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either...

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and...

  14. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    PubMed Central

    West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Westendorf, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity. PMID:16773722

  15. Primary gastric tuberculosis mimicking gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eray, ?smail Cem; Rencüzo?ullar?, Ahmet; Yalav, Orçun; Dalc?, Kubilay; Kakil, Erdem; Ba??r, Emine; Parsak, Cem Kaan

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient with no previous known diseases who had complaints of postprandial epigastric pain and weight loss and who could not be diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, although gastric cancer was suspected radiologically and endoscopically, was diagnosed with primary gastric tuberculosis by laparotomy and frozen section. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, a complete clinical, radiological, and endoscopic response was achieved. PMID:26504425

  16. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities. PMID:15991215

  17. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  18. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  19. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

  20. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while ?-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of ?-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice. PMID:25996796

  1. [The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenogastric reflux on the histology of gastric mucosa in peptic ulcers].

    PubMed

    Kopa?ski, Z; Ciencia?a, A; Brandys, J; Zastepa, P; Micherdzi?ski, J; Witkowska, B; Czajecki, K

    1996-01-01

    In a group of 96 patients with peptic ulcer (36 patients with ulcer of the stomach, 60 patients with ulcer of the duodenum) we analysed the alterations of the mucosa of the stomach associated with the ulcer. A significantly frequent occurrence was shown of the athropic gastritis and of the dysplasia in patients with ulcer of the stomach in comparison with the group of patients with ulcer of the stomach in the comparison with the group of the patients with ulcer of the duodenum. Among the patients analysed we also appraised the alterations on the picture of the stomach mucosa of the Helicobacter pylori infection, of the duodeno-gastric reflux as well as of the concentration of the bile acids and of lysolecithin contained in the gastric juice in the ulcerous disease of the stomach and of the duodenum. The presence of the Helicobacter pylori infection was identified bacteriologically, the duodeno-gastric reflux was diagnosed with the radionucleide method and the concentration of the bile acids and lysolecithin in gastric juice was determined chromatographically. It was confirmed that the Helicobacter pylori infection as well as the bile acids and the lysolecithin the concentration of which in the gastric juice in patients with an ulcer in the stomach were significantly higher in comparison with patients with and the ulcer in the duodenum, were a decisive factor for more exacerbated histological alterations of the mucosa of the stomach in case of ulcer of the stomach. PMID:9312525

  2. Cashew juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Moreira; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2014-09-01

    The enzyme dextransucrase in a medium containing sucrose and an acceptor as substrate synthesizes prebiotics oligosaccharides. The cashew apple juice works as a source of acceptors because it is rich in glucose and fructose (enzyme acceptors). The use of cashew apple juice becomes interesting because it aims at harnessing the peduncle of the cashew that is wasted during the nut processing, which is the product of greater economic expression. The production of dextransucrase enzyme was done by fermentative process by inoculating the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F into a culture medium containing sucrose as the only carbon source. Thus, the aim of this work was the production of prebiotic oligosaccharides by enzymatic process with addition of the dextransucrase enzyme to the clarified cashew apple juice. Dextran yield was favored by the combination of low concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars. The formation of oligosaccharides was favored by increasing the concentration of reducing sugars and by the combination of high concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars, the highest concentration of oligosaccharides obtained was 104.73 g/L and the qualitative analysis showed that at concentrations of 25 g/L and 75 g/L of sucrose and reducing sugar, respectively, it is possible to obtain oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization up to 12. The juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharide is a potential new functional beverage. PMID:25190866

  3. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  4. Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.

    PubMed

    Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2015-04-22

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and ?-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for ?-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than ?-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

  5. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  6. A Direct Role for Secretory Phospholipase A2 and Lyso-Phosphatidylcholine in the Mediation of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Elizabeth J.; Tran, Duy M.; Romero, Jimmy J.; Zayat, Mayssa; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Endotoxemia from sepsis can injure the GI tract through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. We have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an increase in gastric permeability in parallel with the luminal appearance of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and its product, lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). We proposed that sPLA2 acted on the gastric hydrophobic barrier, composed primarily of PC, to degrade it and produce lyso-PC, an agent that is damaging to the mucosa. In the present study we have tested whether lyso-PC and/or sPLA2 have direct damaging effects on the hydrophobic barriers of synthetic and mucosal surfaces. Methods Rats were administered LPS (5 mg/kg, ip), and gastric contents were collected 5 h later for analysis of sPLA2 and lyso-PC content. Using these measured concentrations, direct effects of sPLA2 and lyso-PC were determined on: 1) surface hydrophobicity as detected with an artificial PC surface and with intact gastric mucosa (contact angle analysis); and 2) cell membrane disruption of gastric epithelial cells (AGS). Results Both lyso-PC and sPLA2 increased significantly in the collected gastric juice of LPS-treated rats. Using similar concentrations to the levels in gastric juice, the contact angle of PC-coated slides declined after incubation with either pancreatic sPLA2 or lyso-PC. Similarly, gastric contact angles seen in control rats were significantly decreased in sPLA2 and lyso-PC treated rats. Additionally, we observed dose-dependent injurious effects of both lyso-PC and sPLA2 in gastric AGS cells. Conclusions An LPS-induced increase in sPLA2 activity in the gastric lumen, and its product lyso-PC, are capable of directly disrupting the gastric hydrophobic layer and may contribute to gastric barrier disruption and subsequent inflammation. PMID:19940811

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  9. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  11. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  12. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  13. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  15. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  16. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  18. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  19. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is...

  1. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract...

  2. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152...

  3. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151...

  6. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152...

  7. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract...

  8. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  9. Oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen to evaluate gastric emptying profiles of Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Aboubakr, Mohamed; Khalil, Waleed Fathy; Shimoda, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was investigated following oral dosing to Shiba goats in order to evaluate the properties of gastric emptying. Acetaminophen was intravenously and orally administered at 30 mg/kg body weight to goats using a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The stability of acetaminophen in rumen juice was also assessed. Acetaminophen concentrations were measured by HPLC. Since acetaminophen was stable in rumen juice for 24 hr, the extremely low bioavailability (16%) was attributed to its hepatic extensive first-pass effect. The mean absorption time and absorption half-life were unexpectedly short (4.93 and 3.35 hr, respectively), indicating its marked absorption from the forestomach, which may have been due to its smaller molecular weight. Therefore, acetaminophen was considered to be unsuitable for evaluating gastric emptying in Shiba goats. PMID:26018358

  10. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  11. Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    HISAKA, TORU; HORIUCHI, HIROYUKI; UCHIDA, SHINJI; ISHIKAWA, HIROTO; KAWAHARA, RYUICHI; KAWASHIMA, YUSUKE; AKASHI, MASANORI; MIKAGI, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; YANO, HIROHISA; TAIRA, TOMOKI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; KINOSHITA, HISAFUMI; SHIROZU, KAZUO

    2013-01-01

    We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes. PMID:24008495

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135...of the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata...found in unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in §...

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.140...

  14. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange...

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange...

  16. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen...

  17. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153...

  18. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153...

  20. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen...

  1. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned...

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154...

  3. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154...

  5. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange...

  6. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange...

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen...

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned...

  9. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange...

  10. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

  11. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

  12. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

  13. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress. PMID:25238454

  14. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  15. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  16. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  17. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  18. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56?gL?1) and fructose (57.06?gL?1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34?mgL?1), Vitamin C (112?mg/100?mL), and total protein (1.78?gL?1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39?ppm), copper (2.18?ppm), magnesium (4.32?ppm), iron (1.32?ppm), sodium (5.44?ppm), and manganese (1.24?ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  19. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562229

  20. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5?cm × 2?cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  1. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

  2. Identification of a cranberry juice product that inhibits enteric CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela D M; Dees, E Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2009-03-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 microg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)(0-infinity) of midazolam by approximately 30% (p=0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1'-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC(0-infinity) ratio by approximately 40% (p<0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  3. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  4. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  5. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  6. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  7. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  8. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  9. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  10. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  11. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  12. Gastric Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity. Background Gastroparesis - Epidemiology Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women. The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously. Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes. The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest. GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP. The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. Treatment for Gastroparesis To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients. Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP. For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying. Few small studies

  13. Characterization of dopamine receptor subtypes involved in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1999-02-01

    There are conflicting reports about the role of dopamine in gastric and duodenal ulcers. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the specific subtypes of dopamine receptor involved in gastric and duodenal ulceration. Administration of dopamine D1 agonist fenoldopam and dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride elicited a significant decrease in acid secretion, total acid output, pepsin output and histamine content in the gastric juice, and reduced ulcer-index values, in pylorus-ligated rats. However, dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H -benzo (d) naptho -(2,1-b) azepine) and the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole led to significant augmentation of these parameters compared with respective controls. In the restraint plus water-immersion stress model the score for intraluminal bleeding and the cumulative gastric lesion length was significantly lower for rats treated with fenoldopam and sulpiride. The opposite effects were observed after pretreatment of rats with SCH 39166 and quinpirole. In the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model the mean ulcer area and the score for intensity were significantly lower for fenoldopam and sulpiride and higher for SCH 39166 and quinpirole. Our data suggest that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have opposite effects on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Whereas stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors inhibits the formation of gastric and duodenal ulcers, stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors has a pro-ulcerogenic effect. PMID:10217318

  14. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  15. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  16. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing....

  20. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150...

  1. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative....

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative....

  3. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146...

  4. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing....

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146...

  6. Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

  7. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. ?Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. ?Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. ?Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. ?Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. ?? Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  8. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  9. Effect of kiwifruit juice on beef collagen.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Sumi; Hirota, Aya; Okada, Chikako; Yorita, Taeko; Sato, Kenji; Ohtsuki, Kozo

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify the difference in susceptibility to protease digestion by kiwifruit juice between collagen domains under different conditions. In addition, the effect of pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice on collagen in meat during cooking processes was examined. Kiwifruit juice can degrade denatured collagen, but it can not cleave the triple helical domain of collagen. Thus, kiwifruit juice does not have collagenase activity. On the other hand, the cross-linked subunits of acid-soluble collagen were converted to monomeric subunits by kiwifruit juice treatment at acidic pH, suggesting that the globular domains, in which cross-links preferentially occur, can be degraded by kiwifruit juice. The pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice significantly decreased the shear force of connective tissue in comparison with other pre-treatments without protease activity, but inversely increased the liberation of collagen-related peptides in the outer solution by heating processes at 50 and 70 degrees C or by a shorter heating time at 100 degrees C. This can be explained by the protease-mediated degradation of globular domains. However, this effect was not observed with a prolonged heating period at 100 degrees C, and the liberation of collagen-related peptides by pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice at 100 degrees C was less than that at 70 degrees C for all heating periods. Thus, it can be suggested that the pre-treatment with kiwifruit juice might be useful in meat softening under vacuum-cooking and grilling, but not under stewing. PMID:15915665

  10. Healthy controls have as much bile reflux as gastric ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Schindlbeck, N E; Heinrich, C; Stellaard, F; Paumgartner, G; Müller-Lissner, S A

    1987-01-01

    Data on duodenogastric reflux of bile in gastric ulcer are conflicting. We therefore measured intragastric bile acid concentration and its composition from individual bile acids, duodenogastric bile acid reflux rate, gastric emptying rate, and secretion rates of volume and acid in 30 patients with gastric ulcer and in 66 healthy controls, both in the fasting state and after feeding a liquid meal. Patients had higher gastric bile acid concentrations (p less than 0.05) than controls in the fasting state, but the overlap between the groups was considerable. In fasting patients with corpus ulcer, gastric secretion rates were significantly decreased when compared with controls. There was no difference between patients and controls with respect to gastric emptying rate, bile acid reflux rate, intragastric amount of bile acids, and bile acid composition in the fasting state. Postprandially, all parameters tested were similar in patients and controls. Controls showed high reflux rates with similar frequency as did ulcer patients. We conclude that increased gastric bile acid concentrations in the fasting stomach of patients with gastric ulcer are the result of gastric hyposecretion and not of increased reflux. They probably are pathogenetically irrelevant. PMID:3428684

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  14. Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:24021428

  15. Modelling of NIM/PEP/JUICE measurements of Callisto's ice-sputtered exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Galli, A.; Mousis, O.; Barabash, S.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission[1], which is currently in implementation by the European Space Agency (ESA), is intended for the detailed investigation of the giant gaseous planet Ju- piter and its three largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. The Particle Environment Package (PEP), part of JUICE's science payload, contains 6 sensors for comprehensive in situ measurements of electrons, ions and neutrals found in the Galilean moons' vicinity [2]. One of the suite's sensors, the Neutral and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM), will measure the neutral and ion composition of the exospheres of the three satellites during flybys and in orbit.

  16. Grapefruit juice and verapamil: a toxic cocktail.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Muzaffar, Jameel; Sen, Sandeep; Yancey, Abigail

    2009-03-01

    The US public consumes grapefruit juice in large quantities, with 14% of the population drinking the juice at least weekly. Grapefruit juice is a well-documented inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, which is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of commonly prescribed drugs. Here we report an unusual case of verapamil toxicity in a 42-year-old female, which resulted from accidental ingestion of only three tablets of the sustained release preparation (120 mg each) over 24 hours which resulted in severe toxicity. PMID:19204629

  17. Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  18. Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2014-04-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  19. Mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong; Nam, Ki Taek

    2014-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  20. Effect of GABA and baclofen on gastric mucosal protective factors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, W R; Maiti, R N; Goel, R K; Bhattacharya, S K

    1998-02-01

    GABA and baclofen (BAC), a GABA-mimetic agent, were investigated for antiulcerogenic activity. Orally administered GABA (100 mg/kg) and BAC (10 mg/kg) showed significant ulcer protection when given either alone for one day or for 4 days, or when given together with aspirin (ASP; 200 mg/kg x 3 days) in their 4 days treatment time in pylorus-ligated rats. Both the drugs showed a tendency to increase acid and decrease peptic output, and increased gastric mucus secretion in terms of total carbohydrate to protein ratio (TC:P) in both the above treatment groups. ASP tended to decrease acid and increase peptic output and significantly decreased TC:P ratio. Both GABA and BAC tended to reverse aspirin-induced effects, though they had little per se effect on TC:P ratio of gastric mucosal glycoproteins except an increase in sialic acid content both after one day or four days treatment. No, per se, effect on cell shedding (DNA and protein content of gastric juice) or cell proliferation (DNA/mg protein) was noted with GABA or BAC but the enhanced cell shedding induced by ASP was attenuated by them. ASP was found to enhance cell proliferation. However, neither of drug showed any effect on cell proliferation when given either alone or in combination with ASP. The antiulcerogenic effect of GABA and BAC may be due to their predominant effects on mucosal defensive factors like enhanced mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding or mucosal damage. PMID:9754049

  1. Gastric digestion of ?-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of ?-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of ?-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of ?-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between ?-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  2. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-? cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise I?B-?, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-?B, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing. PMID:26540032

  3. Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit

    PubMed Central

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

  4. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromski?, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  5. Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.

    PubMed

    Lorente, José; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Luís; Hernández, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-11-01

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values. PMID:24874375

  6. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  7. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  8. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...obtained by mechanical process from sound, mature grapefruit (Citrus paradisi ...of the unfermented juice obtained from mature hybrids of grapefruit. The...unconcentrated, undiluted liquid extracted from mature grapefruit; or (2 ) if the food...

  9. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  10. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... it Email Print July 15, 2013 What is arsenic? Arsenic is present in the environment as a ...

  11. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) Determine the total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180(b)(2)(ix) of this chapter. (iii) Divide the degrees Brix...

  12. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) Determine the total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180(b)(2)(ix) of this chapter. (iii) Divide the degrees Brix...

  13. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

  14. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  15. Duodenogastric reflux in children: measurement of phospholipids and trypsin in gastric content.

    PubMed

    Mouterde, O; Foucaud, P; Vatier, J; Dupont, C; Navarro, J

    1990-04-01

    The duodenogastric reflux (DGR) is a suspected cause in some esogastric pathologies in adults: esophagitis, peptic gastric ulcers, stress ulcers, ulcers secondary to drugs, gastric cancer, and gastritis. The toxic substances of the reflux are essentially bile acids, lysolecithin, and trypsin. A number of diagnostic methods have been proposed in the adult. This study suggests a diagnosis technique for DGR in the child. Fasting gastric juice was collected by gastric intubation during 1 h and three substances were measured: phospholipids as markers of biliary reflux, trypsin as a marker of pancreatic reflux, and sialic acid as a marker of the degradation of gastric mucus. The sialic acid enabled us to evaluate some of the toxicity of DGR on the stomach. The study of 49 child subjects permitted us to show the existence, in the normal child, of biliopancreatic markers in the stomach under fasting conditions through a physiological DGR; to define the norms in the child, varying according to three age groups: 0-2 months, 2-12 months, and 1-4 years (the maximum values for an age above 4 years seemed to correspond to those in the adult); and to suggest the existence of a pathological DGR in children with antral gastritis or ulcers. PMID:2324893

  16. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  17. Gastric form of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Coulbois, J; Galian, P; Galian, A; Couteaux, B; Danon, F; Rambaud, J

    1986-01-01

    A case of alpha chain disease, involving the stomach only, is reported in an Algerian man suffering from epigastric pains. Upper digestive tract fibreoptic endoscopy showed two antral ulcers and an ulcerative gastritis pattern, which promptly disappeared with cimetidine treatment. Antral biopsies at a distance from the ulcers, but not of the ulcer crater itself, disclosed a dense infiltration of antral lamina propria by mature or sometimes atypical plasma cells. On transmural surgical antral biopsy, the infiltrate spread to the superficial part of the submucosa. No other localisation of the disease was found in spite of multiple biopsies obtained by endoscopy, with a peroral capsule and during staging laparotomy. The alpha chain disease protein was absent from serum and urine, but found in the gastric juice and in the cytoplasma of the cellular infiltrate (alpha 1 subclass). A complete clinical, endoscopic, histological and immunological remission was observed after a six months' course of oral tetracycline. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3087826

  18. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  19. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  20. Effects of histamine acid phosphate and pentagastrin on gastric secretion in normal human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, D. A.; Forrest, A. P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Six normal subjects were tested with various doses of histamine acid phosphate (1, 10, 40, and 80 ?g/kg/hr) and pentagastrin (0·15, 1·5, 6·0, and 12·0 ?g/kg/hr), the different doses of the stimulants being administered by separate continuous intravenous infusions. In each sample of gastric juice, which was collected at 15-minute intervals, we estimated the concentrations of the H+, Na+, K+, and Cl? and the concentration of pepsin. The drugs elicited equal maximal outputs of acid and pepsin. Pentagastrin was more potent than histamine in stimulating acid and pepsin secretion, and the rate of the responses was faster with pentagastrin than with histamine. Apart from this, however, the patterns of secretion of the various constituents of the gastric juice and the interrelationships between the concentrations of the electrolytes were identical with the two drugs. We therefore concluded that the actions of histamine acid phosphate and pentagastrin on human gastric secretion were identical. PMID:4913624

  1. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  2. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  3. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  4. [Primary gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Guerrera, C; Marzola, R; Fabi, P; Salomoni, C; Zandi, G; Pozza, E; Rubbini, M; Ortolani, M

    1990-10-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma (P.G.L.), though rare, is nevertheless the most frequent non-epithelial neoplasm of the stomach. The Authors report their experience based on 18 cases of lymphoma observed from 1975 throughout 1989. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems related to the disease are stressed, uncertain in the results the former, still discussed the latter. The crucial role of surgery, either diagnostic or therapeutic, even in advanced stages, is underlined. PMID:2288849

  5. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On...Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review). Issued: April 10, 2012. By order of the...

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

  8. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

  10. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned...before or after sealing, so as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange...after sealing in containers, as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange...after sealing in containers, as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food is...

  15. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. (b) The preservatives...

  16. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned...before or after sealing, so as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. It may be heat-treated to reduce...

  18. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. It may be heat-treated to reduce...

  19. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange...after sealing in containers, as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. It may be heat-treated to reduce...

  1. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned...before or after sealing, so as to prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when...

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. (b) The preservatives...

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated...that a preservative is added to inhibit spoilage. (b) The preservatives...

  4. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations. PMID:10716568

  5. RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS PROCESSING OF ORANGE JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonthermal process of radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be extended to inactivate bacteria in orange juice. An 80 kW RFEF pasteurizer was used to process pulp-free orange juice at flow rates ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture...Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

  7. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241...Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations...decolorizing material to remove color from juice or wine, the following conditions...

  8. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241...Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations...decolorizing material to remove color from juice or wine, the following conditions...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture...Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

  10. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

  11. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution...concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY...termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would...

  12. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

  13. Not only smoking is deadly: fatal ingestion of e-juice-a case report.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Svenja; Mercer-Chalmers-Bender, Katja; Beike, Justus; Rothschild, Markus A; Jübner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A fatal case of nicotine intoxication by oral intake of a nicotine solution, sold via the Internet, is reported. The concentrated nicotine solution (72 mg/mL) is usually diluted with polypropylene, polyethylene glycol or glycerine, respectively, in order to allow the user to generate their own solution for vaporisation in electronic cigarettes (e-juice). A 34-year-old man was found lifeless by his parents, who reported that their son had been in good health and had shown no hints of suicidal behaviour. The medicolegal autopsy revealed unspecific findings. Toxicological analysis revealed nicotine concentrations of 5.5 mg/L in femoral venous blood, 136 mg/L in heart blood, 12.0 mg/kg in brain tissue, 42.6 mg/kg in kidney tissue, 89.5 mg/kg in lung tissue and a total amount of 3,950 mg in the gastric contents. Cotinine concentrations were 0.9 mg/L in femoral venous blood, 7.6 mg/L in heart blood, 0.4 mg/kg in brain tissue, 0.9 mg/kg in kidney tissue and 0.8 mg/kg in lung tissue. No cotinine was detected in the gastric contents. The nicotine level measured in the femoral blood was in good accordance with the levels reported in other fatal cases caused by oral or patch application of nicotine. Moreover, the high level of nicotine in lung and kidney tissue, compared to that within femoral blood, strikingly emphasises the strong effect of post-mortem redistribution, underlined by the comparably low concentration of nicotine in the brain. The extremely high level of nicotine in the heart blood is more likely due to the high concentration in the gastric contents, due to oral intake, and by accumulation of the basic substance in the acidic gastric contents. This further highlights the effect of post-mortem redistribution. The mother of the deceased later admitted that her son had been suffering from psychosis and that she found a package containing five nicotine solution vials of the brand "Titanium Ice" (of 50 mL each). Three of the vials were empty. The nicotine concentration in the e-juice Titanium Ice was confirmed by HPLC analysis. PMID:25239221

  14. Hereditary aspects of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Keller, G

    2002-10-01

    Although the etiology of gastric cancer and the mechanisms involved in its carcinogenesis are still poorly understood, dietary habits and life style as well as bacterial infections have been suggested to be important in the tumorigenic process. However, there is also an increasing evidence that a genetic predisposition in at least a subset of patients, plays an important role. Germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene have been described to be the molecular genetic cause of an hereditary diffuse type gastric cancer syndrome. In addition, gastric cancer is observed more frequently in association with some hereditary tumor syndromes which are mainly characterized by tumors in other organs. This article will summarize recent findings about the hereditary diffuse type gastric cancer syndrome and about gastric cancer in association with hereditary tumor syndromes with a known molecular genetic basis. PMID:12417969

  15. Gastric and ectopic varices.

    PubMed

    Henry, Zachary; Uppal, Dushant; Saad, Wael; Caldwell, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Although often considered together, gastric and ectopic varices represent complications of a heterogeneous group of underlying diseases. Commonly, these are known to arise in patients with cirrhosis secondary to portal hypertension; however, they also arise in patients with noncirrhotic portal hypertension, most often secondary to venous thrombosis of the portal venous system. One of the key initial assessments is to define the underlying condition leading to the formation of these portal-collateral pathways to guide management. In the authors' experience, these patients can be grouped into distinct although sometimes overlapping conditions, which can provide a helpful conceptual basis of management. PMID:24679501

  16. Dynamic light-scattering study of gelatin and aggregation of gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; LaMont, Jeffrey T.

    1997-05-01

    Dynamic light scattering studies show that concentration and pH play important roles in determining pig gastric mucin's (PGM) ability to aggregate and gel. At low concentrations, PGM macromolecules exist in solution predominantly in the form of monomers. At high concentrations, PGM macromolecules aggregate to form supra-macromolecular clusters. When the pH of the high concentration PGM solution is changed from 7.0 to 2.0, the system undergoes a sol-gel transition: from a solution of polydisperse aggregates to a gel. This pH and concentration dependent sol-gel transition of PGM solution may provide a mechanism for the mammalian stomach to protect itself against being digested by the gastric juice.

  17. Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Momma, K; Hashimoto, W; Ozawa, S; Kawai, S; Katsube, T; Takaiwa, F; Kito, M; Utsumi, S; Murata, K

    1999-02-01

    The composition of nutritionally and physiologically important molecules in transgenic rice with the soybean glycinin gene was determined and compared with that of a non-transgenic control. Except for the levels of protein, amino acids and moisture, no marked differences were found between the two kinds of rice. The protein content of the transgenic rice was about 20% higher than the control (control, 6.5 g/100 g; transgenic, 8.0 g/100 g) with a concomitantly lower moisture content. This increased protein content mainly resulted from the increased glycinin expressed in the transgenic rice, and the protein was susceptible to gastric and intestinal digestion juices. In parallel with the increased protein content, some important amino acids lacking in quantity in normal rice were replenished. PMID:10192912

  18. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance. PMID:25892778

  19. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Archana, B S; Singh, Asha; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 experiments at centre point. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression technique and the quadratic equations (R(2), 98.14-99.89 %) were found to fit well in describing the effect of variables on responses studied. An optimum condition for the coconut water beverage was obtained at 13.5°Brix blended with 2 % lemon juice. The mature coconut water beverage blended with lemon juice showed a shelf-life of 6 months in packed conditions at low (5 °C), ambient (25?±?2 °C) and high (37 °C) temperatures on the basis of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. PMID:26396331

  20. Proanthocyanidins and Their Contribution to Sensory Attributes of Black Currant Juices.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar A; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Kallio, Heikki P; Yang, Baoru

    2015-06-10

    Black currant juices from five different cultivars were analyzed for composition, content, and mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of proanthocyanidins (PA) by UPLC-MS/MS. Juices contained both procyanidins (PC) and prodelphinidins (PD), but the PC-% varied significantly, from 28 to 82% of the total PA. In addition, high PD-% was related to high mDP and total PA content. Enzyme-assisted processing increased significantly total PA (5-14-fold), PD-% (12-65%), and mDP (1.8-6.2-fold) in the juices of all cultivars. Enzymatic treatment increased the contents of large PAs more than those of small PAs. The contents of PA and mDP were positively associated with the mouth-drying and puckering astringent characteristics. However, the PA content did not contribute to the bitter taste. Juices from the most bitter cultivars had the lowest contents of proanthocyanidins regardless of the processing method. This finding indicates the existence of other bitter compounds in black currants in addition to PA. PMID:25984593

  1. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  2. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  3. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  4. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  5. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  6. Toxicological and analytical investigations of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, Johannes; Effenberger, Katharina; Iznaguen, Hassan; Basar, Simla

    2007-01-24

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) is known to contain genotoxic anthraquinones in the roots. Because of the widespread use of noni juice, the possible genotoxic risk was examined through a battery of short-term tests. Noni juice was also chemically analyzed for the possible presence of anthraquinones. Noni juice extract in the Salmonella microsome assay showed a slight mutagenic effect in strain TA1537, due to the presence of flavonoids. No mutagenicity was observed in the mammalian mutagenicity test with V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Rats treated with a noni juice concentrate did not show DNA repair synthesis (UDS) in primary rat hepatocytes, nor could DNA adducts or DNA strand breaks be observed. HPLC analysis of noni juice for anthraquinones was negative, with a sensitivity of <1 ppm. In summary, chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests reveal that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice. PMID:17227089

  7. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Department of Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of certain orange juice from Brazil (71 FR... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  8. The Proteome of Normal Pancreatic Juice

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Courtney J; Yancey, Kyle; Pitt, Henry A; Wang, Mu; Bemis, Kerry; Yip-Schneider, Michele T.; Sherman, Stuart; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Goggins, Michael D.; Schmidt, C. Max

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to characterize the proteome of normal pancreatic juice, to analyze the effect of secretin on the normal proteome, and to compare these results with published data from patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods Paired pancreatic fluid specimens (before and after intravenous secretin stimulation) were obtained during endoscopic pancreatography from three patients without significant pancreatic pathology. Proteins were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry-based protein quantification technology. The human RefSeq (NCBI) database was used to compare the data in normal patient samples with published data from three pancreatic cancer patients. Results A total of 285 proteins were identified in normal pancreatic juice. Ninety had sufficient amino acid sequences identified to characterize the protein with a high level of confidence. All 90 proteins were present before and after secretin administration but with altered relative concentrations, usually by 1-2 folds, after stimulation. Comparison with 170 published pancreatic cancer proteins yielded an overlap of only 42 proteins. Conclusions Normal pancreatic juice contains multiple proteins related to many biological processes. Secretin alters the concentration but not the spectrum of these proteins. The pancreatic juice proteome of normal and pancreatic cancer patients differ markedly. PMID:22129531

  9. Role of nitrosamides in the high risk for gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Deng, D J; Chen, Y; Wu, H Y; Chen, C S

    1991-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in China. Samples of fish sauce, a traditional seasoning, were collected in the high-risk area for gastric cancer in the Fuzhou area, Fujian Province. When fish sauce samples were nitrosated at pH 2.0, direct mutagenicity and high contents of N-nitrosamide were detected (30.9-78.0 microM); the N-nitrosamide content of three samples of fish sauce made in Guangdong and purchased from a market outside Fujian were low (2.1-6.0 microns). When the nitrosated fish sauce extract was given to newborn rats by gavage, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were induced in the glandular stomach in the 4th and 16th experimental week, respectively. N-Nitrosamides were also found in fasting gastric juice from patients with chronic gastritis in the high-risk area of Putian. The mean concentration of total N-nitrosamides in the extracts correlated with the severity of gastritis in the stomach. These findings indicate that N-nitrosamides may play an important role in causing gastric cancer in China. PMID:1855840

  10. Diagnosis of Pancreatic Neoplasms Using a Novel Method of DNA Methylation Analysis of Mucin Expression in Pancreatic Juice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitamoto, Sho; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Yuko; Hara, Taro; Ikebe, Dai; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Niihara, Toru; Nishimata, Hiroto; Tanaka, Sadao; Takaori, Kyoichi; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel ‘methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)’ method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:24714692

  11. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (? 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (?11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (?18%, p?composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

  12. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the stomach or to other ...

  14. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the stomach or to other ...

  15. Neonatal zygomycosis with gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, N B; Gupta, Aashima

    2013-07-01

    Zygomycosis is a rare infection in neonates. The clinical presentation is non-specific and diagnosis most often is made at autopsy. Surgical debridement performed early improves survival. We report a case of neonatal zygomycosis with gastric perforation. PMID:23942436

  16. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... other fruit juices.”) (d) In a diluted multiple-juice beverage or blend of single-strength juices...

  17. Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selection.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Ada; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Bertolo, Gianni; Torreggiani, Danila

    2008-04-23

    High-quality standards in blueberry juice can be obtained only taking into account fruit compositional variability and its preservation along the processing chain. In this work, five highbush blueberry cultivars from the same environmental growing conditions were individually processed into juice after an initial blanching step and the influence was studied of the cultivar on juice phenolic content, distribution and relative antioxidant activity, measured as scavenging capacity on the artificial free-radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). A chromatographic protocol was developed to separate all main phenolic compounds in berries. A total of 15 glycosylated anthocyanins, catechin, galactoside, glucoside, and rhamnoside quercetin 3-derivatives, and main benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified. The total content and relative distribution in anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin of each juice were dependent upon cultivar, and the total content was highly correlated (rxy=0.97) to the antioxidant capacity. A selective protective effect of berry blanching in juice processing can be observed on more labile anthocyanin compounds. PMID:18370394

  18. Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Díaz-García, M C; Obón, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

    2013-06-01

    The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

  19. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  20. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  1. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  2. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  3. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed

    Heinz-Erian, Peter; Gassner, Ingmar; Klein-Franke, Andreas; Jud, Veronika; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Niederwanger, Christian; Mueller, Thomas; Meister, Bernhard; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat evaluation of the same X-ray films. Enhanced diagnostic sensitivity would be most rewarding since management consisting of cessation of oral feedings combined with administration of intravenous fluids and gastric lavage is easy and resolves over 85% of gastric lactobezoars. In conclusion, gastric lactobezoar is a disorder of unknown prevalence and is nowadays very rarely published, possibly because of inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and/or not yet identified but beneficial modifications of patient management. PMID:22216886

  4. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  5. UCR CONTINENTAL -$9 Petit assorted muffins, Danish pastries, and fresh fruit. Accompanied by orange juice,

    E-print Network

    TM Apple or Cranberry Juice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2 Bottled Naked JuiceTM Smoothies, breakfast breads, fresh fruit, and fruit preserves. Accompanied by orange juice, coffee and assorted teas Preserves . . . . .$17 Petite Scones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$18

  6. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...deflavored, de-colored grape juice”). (f) If the product is a beverage that contains a juice whose color, taste, or other organoleptic properties have been modified to the extent that the original juice is no longer recognizable...

  7. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  10. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148...

  13. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148...

  14. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been...

  15. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been...

  16. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The grade standards for grapefruit juice have been changed to remove the parameters...

  17. 77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The proposal includes changes to the grade standards for grapefruit juice to remove the parameters for...

  18. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results...antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period of...1\\ See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results and...

  19. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco...180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

  20. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco...180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

  1. 76 FR 51343 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. AMS received a petition from the Florida...U.S. grade standards for grapefruit juice to account for advances in industry...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

  5. 78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to...Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Lemon Juice from Mexico (the...

  6. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of...termination of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

  7. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  8. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  9. The Proteome of Postsurgical Pancreatic Juice

    PubMed Central

    Marchegiani, Giovanni; Paulo, Joao A.; Sahora, Klaus; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the proteome of the pancreatic juice after pancreatectomy. Methods Pancreatic juice samples were obtained during surgery and the postoperative period. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry–based protein quantification technology and compared with published data of the nonoperated pancreas. Subgroup analyses were done in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and in smokers. Results Five hundred eighteen proteins were identified in the postoperative pancreatic juice, encompassing all of the main organ functions. Sixty-seven of these were also present in the published data of the nonoperated pancreas and 7 of these had significant variation of concentration after surgery. Growth factors that have been described in postsurgical regeneration of the liver were not found to be overexpressed, whereas clusterin did, confirming the finding of previous experimental studies on pancreatic regeneration. Several proteins involved in immunomodulation and organ functions were differently expressed, depending on PDAC, neoadjuvant therapy, and smoking. Conclusions The proteome of the pancreas after surgical resection contains factors related to all main organ functions, changes over time, and is different in patients with PDAC receiving neoadjuvant therapy and in smokers. The pancreas reacts to the surgical trauma by producing proteins that protect the organ and stimulate the restoration of its function. PMID:25875796

  10. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the risk of ... may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins , or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. For ...

  12. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds. PMID:488012

  13. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the ?-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  14. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the ?-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  15. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  16. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. PMID:26694339

  17. Gastric necrosis after fundoplication: a novel approach for esophageal preservation.

    PubMed

    Bass, K D; Meagher, D P; Haase, G M

    1998-11-01

    An 11-year-old boy presented moribund, with massive abdominal distension. A Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy tube had been established at age 2 years. After attempts to pass a nasogastric tube were unsuccessful, the old gastrostomy site was used to gain percutaneous access to the stomach resulting in release of gastric contents and stabilization of blood pressure and perfusion. During operation, massive gastric distention with gastric necrosis was found. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed with stapled closure of the distal intraabdominal esophagus and prepyloric region. Sump suction was placed in the proximal esophagus and the abdomen was drained widely. A distal esophageal perforation was apparent on postoperative day 19 confirmed by imaging and endoscopy. A nasoesophageal tube was passed into the abdomen, tied to a Jackson-Pratt drain, and the composite tube repositioned in the midesophagus allowing controlled proximal and distal drainage. Six months later, a Hunt-Laurence esophagojejunal pouch was created. At age 13, the child is clinically well, and enjoys 50% of his nutritional needs orally, with the remainder delivered overnight via tube feedings. This case describes gastric necrosis after gas bloat syndrome as a late complication of Nissen fundoplication. A novel approach to the management of distal esophageal perforation allowed preservation of a functional, intact native esophagus. PMID:9856904

  18. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

  19. Large Gastric Perforation Sealed by Splenic Lysis: Emphasis on Indirect Signs – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Lalit; Jain, Mansi; Taori, Kishor; Patil, Ajinky; Hatgaonkar, Anand; Rathod, Jawhar; Shah, Swenil; Patwa, Darshan; Kasat, Akshat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Gastric perforation is a life-threatening condition, requiring early and reliable discovery. The delay before surgical treatment is a strong determinant of poor outcome, associated complications and hospitalization costs. By using ultrasound and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) we can further evaluate undiagnosed cases of silent gastric perforations presenting with non-specific acute abdomen. Here we bring forth the role of a radiologist in cases of perforation which present with indirect signs involving the organs forming the stomach bed, like the spleen, pancreas and kidney. Case Report A 25-year-old male patient presented with an acute onset of severe upper abdominal pain radiating to the back and vomiting. MDCT of the abdomen was done which revealed atrophic pancreas with organized collection in the sub-capsular location indenting the superior pole of the left kidney. Spleen was not visualized. The most striking imaging finding in that case was destruction of the splenic parenchyma with protrusion of the remaining tissue into the stomach lumen. The hypothesis behind this was a cascade of events which started with gastric perforation, spillage of highly destructive gastric juice over the stomach bed and finally becoming silent with rapid sealing of the defect by the omentum and the spleen. Conclusions Acute abdomen is a diagnostic challenge to a clinician and radiologist with gastric perforation being a great mimicker of other urgent abdominal pathologies. To avoid a delayed diagnosis or a misdiagnosis, familiarity with typical and atypical imaging features is essential as in our case of splenic lysis. It acted as the 2nd policeman and provided a great clue to solve the diagnostic dilemma.

  20. [Gastric volvulus: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Bedioui, Heykal; Bensafta, Zoubeir

    2008-03-01

    Gastric volvulus is defined as an abnormal rotation of all or part of the stomach around one of its axes. It is a diagnostic emergency and therapeutic challenge because in acute forms it may lead to gastric strangulation with a high risk of ischemia and necrosis. Organoaxial and mesentericoaxial volvulus are distinguished according to the direction of rotation. The most common cause of gastric volvulus is hiatal hernia, but the principal predisposing factor is ligamentous laxity. The diagnosis is suspected when erect chest radiograph images show a high air-fluid level in the chest. Moreover a barium swallow is essential to confirm the diagnosis. Nonetheless, a computed tomography (CT) scan now provides a comprehensive description of the thoracic lesion, including stomach vitality. Gastric volvulus requires surgical treatment, specifically volvulus reduction, reintegration of the stomach into the abdominal cavity in cases of intrathoracic migration, and correction of causal factors. Resection of the hernial sac and the role of gastropexy for preventing recurrence remain controversial. Advances in laparoscopic surgery have made possible a laparoscopic approach to most cases of chronic gastric volvulus. PMID:17587536

  1. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  2. Characterization of Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum) essential oil and its inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and during mild thermal pasteurization of pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Ngang, Jean J Essia; Nyegue, Maximilienne A; Ndoye, Foe C; Tchuenchieu Kamgain, Alex D; Sado Kamdem, Sylvain L; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the essential oil (EO) of Eryngium foetidum (EfEO) and assess its activity toward Listeria monocytogenes in broth and during thermal inactivation of the pathogen in pineapple juice. In this respect, EfEO was chemically characterized, and its antilisteria potential in broth as a function of pH, cell load, and EfEO concentration was assessed through a central composite design. Furthermore, the inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes in the juice were assessed by combining EfEO and low pasteurization temperatures. A total of 81 compounds were identified from EfEO. The reduction of pH and cell load increased EO activity. The use of only 15 ppm of EfEO during pasteurization of pineapple juice at 60°C reduced the time required for a 4-log reduction in L. monocytogenes CFU/ml by 74.9% (i.e., from 8.5 to 2.1 min) compared with treatment without EfEO. It could be concluded that EfEO activity toward L. monocytogenes increases with the reduction of pH and that it can be used at sublethal concentrations in combination with low temperatures in pineapple juice pasteurization. This study demonstrates that EO-assisted pasteurization is a promising strategy for the reduction of thermal impact during juice production. EfEO is easily available and compatible with many juices and is thus promising for industrial application. PMID:24674435

  3. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  4. Carotenoid profile modification during refrigerated storage in untreated and pasteurized orange juice and orange juice treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Clara; Torregrosa, Francisco; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2006-08-23

    A comparative study was made of the evolution and modification of various carotenoids and vitamin A in untreated orange juice, pasteurized orange juice (90 degrees C, 20 s), and orange juice processed with high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (30 kV/cm, 100 micros), during 7 weeks of storage at 2 and 10 degrees C. The concentration of total carotenoids in the untreated juice decreased by 12.6% when the juice was pasteurized, whereas the decrease was only 6.7% when the juice was treated with HIPEF. Vitamin A was greatest in the untreated orange juice, followed by orange juice treated with HIPEF (decrease of 7.52%) and, last, pasteurized orange juice (decrease of 15.62%). The decrease in the concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamin A during storage in refrigeration was greater in the untreated orange juice and the pasteurized juice than in the juice treated with HIPEF. During storage at 10 degrees C, auroxanthin formed in the untreated juice and in the juice treated with HIPEF. This carotenoid is a degradation product of violaxanthin. The concentration of antheraxanthin decreased during storage, and it was converted into mutatoxanthin, except in the untreated and pasteurized orange juices stored at 2 degrees C. PMID:16910715

  5. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked preventative effect on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in vivo, as a result of its antioxidative capacity. PMID:26170959

  6. Megaduodenum associated with gastric strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Amanda Pinter Carvalheiro; Boteon, Yuri Longatto; Tercioti, Valdir; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Coelho Neto, João; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2014-01-01

    Gastric strongyloidiasis and megaduodenum are rare diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyloidiasis has many clinical features. One of them is megaduodenum. We describe a case of a 32-years-old man who has come to us from an endemic area for Strongyloides stercoralis. He had had megaduodenum diagnosed in his childhood. We submitted him to two surgeries. He has recovered just after the second surgery, a Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy. After that, his follow-up was uneventful and the patient has gained 10 kg in weight. Histopathology confirmed gastric strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, if patients arrive from an endemic area of S. stercoralis and if they present GI symptoms or a previous diagnosis of megaduodenum, they must be considered for a histological evaluation for gastric strongyloidiasis. PMID:25951613

  7. Obstructing Gastric Carcinoma Complicating Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Edward H.; Schlater, Theodore L.; Sims, Maureen; Lou, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    Although gastric cancer has not been reported in association with pregnancy, the authors encountered it in a paraplegic young pregnant woman presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Fiberoptic gastroscopy and biopsy provided the surprising tissue diagnosis. Ultrasound was helpful in assessing the size and position of the fetus. Intravenous fluid therapy and total parenteral nutrition enabled the authors to correct the negative nitrogen balance and metabolic derangement, and to improve the operative risk to both the mother and the fetus. Cesarean section delivered a viable baby. A high gastrectomy relieved the patient of her obstruction and tumor burden. Although the long-term prognosis of gastric cancer remains grim, having saved the mother and the baby through such an ordeal is a rewarding experience. PMID:7373660

  8. Megaduodenum associated with gastric strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Amanda Pinter Carvalheiro; Boteon, Yuri Longatto; Tercioti, Valdir; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Coelho Neto, João; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2015-01-01

    Gastric strongyloidiasis and megaduodenum are rare diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyloidiasis has many clinical features. One of them is megaduodenum. We describe a case of a 32-years-old man who has come to us from an endemic area for Strongyloides stercoralis. He had had megaduodenum diagnosed in his childhood. We submitted him to two surgeries. He has recovered just after the second surgery, a Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy. After that, his follow-up was uneventful and the patient has gained 10kg in weight. Histopathology confirmed gastric strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, if patients arrive from an endemic area of S. stercoralis and if they present GI symptoms or a previous diagnosis of megaduodenum, they must be considered for a histological evaluation for gastric strongyloidiasis. PMID:25951613

  9. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  10. Enzyme and temperature effect on juice recovery in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making blueberry juice has multiple steps, and to evaluate how these steps influence juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In lab scale trials, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberries were pressed at varying temperatures. Temperatures included fresh, frozen then ...

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  14. Thermoaciduric Clostridium pasteurianum spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guoping; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    Clostridium pasteurianum BB, a saccharolytic and spore-forming obligate anaerobe, was isolated and identified from shelf-stable apple juice that was responsible for multiple large spoilage outbreaks. The growth and sporulation conditions of C. pasteurianum were atypical compared with those previously published. C. pasteurianum spores were heat resistant in apple juice at pH 3.80, with D-values at 80, 85, and 90°C being 34.4, 15.9, and 4.4 min, respectively, and a z-value of 11°C. The survival curves for thermal inactivation obeyed linear first-order kinetics. Apple juice with varying pH values was used to determine the effect of pH on germination capability of C. pasteurianum spores. The spores were found to be able to germinate at pH as low as 4.3 in pH-adjusted apple juice at low contamination levels. It was confirmed by PCR that C. pasteurianum isolated from spoiled apple juice did not contain the genes for botulinum toxins B and E, which were more commonly found in neurotoxigenic butyric clostridia. Control of finished-juice pH to below 4.0 in combination with mild heating was proposed to prevent potential spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice made with spore-contaminated apple juice concentrate. PMID:21067677

  15. HPLC-ESI-MS ANALYSIS OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice inhibit intestinal and liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and are responsible for the effects in humans caused by grapefruit juice consumption on the metabolism of certain prescription drugs. A number of the (furano)coumarins that occur in the highest concen...

  16. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  17. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  18. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  19. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  20. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  1. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  2. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  3. DEAERATION AND PASTEURIZATION EFFECTS ON THE ORANGE JUICE AROMATIC FRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study between the aromatic profile in fresh orange juice versus deaerated and pasteurized juices respectively was conducted in order to understand the evolution of volatile components after deaeration and pasteurization processes. Analysis of the aromatic fraction was carried out using...

  4. Microbial inactivation in cloudy apple juice by multi-frequency Dynashock power ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2012-03-01

    The study determined the efficacy of Dynashock wave power ultrasound as an alternative processing technique for apple juice against a number of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The effects of several implicit, intrinsic and extrinsic properties on the Dynashock wave inactivation of the microorganisms were also investigated. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. but decreased that of Listeria monocytogenes. Spoilage yeast mixed inoculum composed of Debaryomyces hansenii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be more resistant than any of the adapted or non-adapted pathogens. Among the individual, acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7, the MN-28 isolate was found most resistant; while three other individual isolates had greater resistance than the composited E. coli inoculum. Increased in pulp content decreased the efficacy of Dynashock waves, but co-treatment with ultraviolet-C rays significantly enhanced inactivation in the cloudy apple juice. The results demonstrated the potential of Dynashock wave technology, together with other antimicrobial hurdles as alternative juice processing technique/s. PMID:21802974

  5. Clarification of pomegranate juice with chitosan: changes on quality characteristics during storage.

    PubMed

    Tastan, Ozge; Baysal, Taner

    2015-08-01

    In this study, for the first time, the use of chitosan as a clarifying agent in the production of clear pomegranate juice was evaluated and its effects on quality characteristics of juice were investigated. A central composite face centered design was used to establish the optimum conditions for clarification of pomegranate juice (PJ) using response surface methodology. The three factors were concentration of chitosan (10-120 mg/100ml), process temperature (10-20°C), and process time (30-90 min) and their effects on turbidity and a(?) values were investigated. Using a desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were found to be 68.93 mg/100ml chitosan at a process temperature and time of 10°C and 30 min, respectively. PJ was produced using the optimum conditions and the quality characteristics such as turbidity, colour characteristics (L(?), a(?), b(?), C(?)), titratable acidity, total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanin, and protein contents were evaluated during storage at 4 and 20°C for 6 months. PMID:25766820

  6. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign. PMID:15563212

  7. Rapid discrimination of Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mengshi; Al-Holy, Murad; Chang, Su-Sen; Huang, Yiqun; Cavinato, Anna G; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Rasco, Barbara A

    2005-12-15

    Alicyclobacillus spp. are thermoacidophilic, spore-forming bacteria. Some of which cause spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products through the production of guaiacol. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between eight Alicyclobacillus strains (WAC, 81-2, Oly#21, 51-1, KF, 1016, 1101, and A-Gala A4) in apple juice. FT-IR vibrational combination bands reflected compositional differences in the cell membranes of Alicyclobacillus strains in the "fingerprint region" at wavenumbers between 1500 and 800 cm(-1). Distinctive segregation among spectral sample clusters of different Alicyclobacillus strains was observed using principal component analysis (PCA). Two closely related strains (1016 and 1101) of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris could be distinguished, suggesting that this method can be highly selective. Results of soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) demonstrated that guaiacol-producing and non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus strains could be differentiated up to 89% of the time. This technique may provide a tool for fruit juice producers to detect Alicyclobacillus rapidly and to monitor and control guaiacol formation. PMID:16126293

  8. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  9. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  10. Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

    2014-06-01

    Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemys?aw; Lewandowicz, Gra?yna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; B?aszczak, Wioletta; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  12. Microbial modeling of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 growth in orange juice with nisin added.

    PubMed

    Peña, Wilmer Edgard Luera; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez

    2006-08-01

    The adaptation time of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice was determined as a response to pH (3 to 5.8), temperature (20 to 54 degrees C), soluble solids concentration ((o)Brix; 11 to 19 (o)Brix), and nisin concentration (0 to 70 IU/ ml) effects. A four-factor central composite rotational design was used. Viable microorganisms were enumerated by plating on K medium (pH 3.7). Two primary models were used to represent growth and adaptation time. A second-order polynomial model was applied to analyze the effects of factors. Results showed that the Baranyi and Roberts model was better than the modified Gompertz model, considering the determination coefficient (R2) for experimental data description. Inhibition of bacteria can be obtained through several studied combinations for at least 47 days of storage. The shortest period of adaptation was observed between 37 to 45 degrees C, with pHs between 4 and 5, yet the longest periods of adaptation could be obtained around 20 degrees C with pHs close to 3.0. Statistical analysis of the quadratic model showed that the adaptation time increased as temperature or pH decreased, and as nisin concentration or soluble solids increased. The model showed that adaptation time has a minimum value for juice without nisin added, with 13.5% soluble solids, pH 5.0, and incubated at 43.8 degrees C. The statistical parameters that validated this model were an R2 of 0.816, a bias factor of 0.96, and an accuracy factor of 1.14. Manipulation of more than one factor, as well as the use of an antimicrobial agent, can be an alternative to preventing the development of A. acidoterrestris in orange juice, thus contributing to increased orange juice shelf life. PMID:16924916

  13. The etiology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Forman, D

    1991-01-01

    We review recent evidence concerning risk factors for gastric cancer. An overview of analytical studies shows convincing evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetables. The specific protective constituents have not been firmly established, but micronutrients, especially ascorbic acid, are probably of importance. Other dietary factors that show a consistent pattern of effect in different studies are the moderate risks associated with high intake of preserved foods and salt. Evidence also indicates that gastric cancer is associated with tobacco consumption, although even in continuing heavy smokers the risk does not exceed two fold. Another non-dietary factor of potential importance is infection with the bacterium, Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori. The model of Correa and co-workers currently offers the best working hypothesis to explain the etiology of gastric cancer. Although the endogenous synthesis of N-nitroso compounds is central to the model, it is not yet clear what the rate-limiting steps are. Exposure to nitrate per se does not directly cause gastric cancer. PMID:1855854

  14. Changes in vitamin C, phenolic, and carotenoid profiles throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of a blended fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bioaccessibility of vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity in a blended fruit juice (BFJ) containing orange, pineapple, and kiwi. Vitamin C and most of the analyzed phenolic compounds were quite stable under gastric conditions (recovery > 75%), whereas carotenoids diminished significantly (to 64%). The concentration of all the evaluated compounds decreased during small intestinal digestion. The bioaccessibility of hydrophilic constituents was higher than that of lipophilic constituents. Flavonoids, vitamin C, and phenolic acids showed bioaccessibilities of 20.1, 15.0, and 12.7%, respectively. However, carotenes and xanthophylls were around 7.6 and 17.4% available for absorption. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that BFJ is an important source of bioaccessible constituents. PMID:23374081

  15. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-02

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  16. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ankur; Jaiswal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional medicine healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other diseases. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice leading to severe vomiting and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As emergency physicians we need to be aware of this very rare poisoning specially in India. METHODS: We present a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of hematemesis and shock to the emergency department (ED) after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and shifted to the intensive care unit (ICU) under the care of a gastroenterology team for urgent endoscopy and further management. RESULTS: The patient received intravenous fluids, antibiotics, antiemetics, and antacids and underwent upper gastroenterologic endoscopy during the hospitalization. She was discharged in a stable condition 4 days later. CONCLUSIONS: As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only. It is important to educate the public about the harmful effects of this potentially life-threatening toxicity. PMID:26693268

  17. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry...

  18. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry...

  19. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice...raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry...

  20. Quality characteristics of freshly squeezed orange juice in comparison to commercial products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted with a fresh-squeeze juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to commercially processed juice for the flavor and nutritional quality. Fresh juice had much higher peel oil content, but lower insoluble solids and pectin contents than in the commercial juic...

  1. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  2. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  3. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  4. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  5. Advances in gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  6. Abnormal gastric morphology and function in CCK-B/gastrin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Langhans, N.; Rehfeld, J. F.; Beinborn, M.; Kopin, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Mice lacking the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptor have been generated by targeted gene disruption. The roles of this receptor in controlling gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth have been assessed. The analysis of homozygous mutant mice vs. wild type included measurement of basal gastric pH, plasma gastrin concentrations as well as quantification of gastric mucosal cell types by immunohistochemistry. Mutant mice exhibited a marked increase in basal gastric pH (from 3.2 to 5.2) and about a 10-fold elevation in circulating carboxyamidated gastrin compared with wild-type controls. Histologic analysis revealed a decrease in both parietal and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, thus explaining the reduction in acid output. Consistent with the elevation in circulating gastrin, antral gastrin cells were increased in number while somatostatin cells were decreased. These data support the importance of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor in maintaining the normal cellular composition and function of the gastric mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10461365

  7. Structure-antioxidant efficiency relationships of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn juice.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Daniel; Bergmann, Meike; Knorr, Dietrich; Kroh, Lothar W

    2003-07-16

    The phenolic composition of juice derived from fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array and electrochemical detection. Flavonols were found to be the predominating polyphenols while phenolic acids and catechins represent minor components. Of the seven flavonols identified, isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides were the most important representatives quantitatively. However, because of their structural properties, they were poor radical scavengers as shown by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Phenolic compounds such as quercetin 3-O-glycosides, catechins, and hydroxybenzoic acids with a catechol structure exhibited good antioxidant capacities, but their concentration in sea buckthorn juice was small. These phenolic compounds, determined by HPLC, accounted for less than 5% of the total antioxidant activity of the filtered juice. Ascorbic acid was shown to be the major antioxidant in sea buckthorn juice. Because of its high concentration of 1.22 g/L, it contributes approximately 75% to total antioxidant activity. The remaining difference can be attributed to higher molecular weight flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins), which were determined photometrically after acid depolymerization to colored anthocyanidins. PMID:12848490

  8. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  9. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  10. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  11. White and colored grapefruit juice produce similar pharmacokinetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Uesawa, Y; Abe, M; Mohri, K

    2008-08-01

    Colored (pink and red) grapefruit pulp contains lower amounts of the furanocoumarin derivatives that cause pharmacokinetic interactions than white grapefruit pulp. However, few studies have examined interactions with colored juice products. Therefore, we examined the potential interactions of both white and colored grapefruit products by measuring the concentrations of furanocoumarin derivatives and inhibition of the metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, the target of the furanocoumarins. We measured concentrations of three major furanocoumarin derivatives, bergaptol, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, with high-performance liquid chromatography in 21 brands of grapefruit juice sold in Japan, including 14 white and 7 colored brands. The mean difference in bergaptol, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin concentrations in white grapefruit juice samples was 1.59, 0.902, and 1.03 times, respectively, the amounts in colored samples. White samples inhibited CYP3A-mediated testosterone-6beta oxidation in human liver microsomes by 1.04 and 0.922 times (whole juice and furanocoumarin, respectively) the inhibition by colored juice. Thus, colored grapefruit juice may produce drug interactions at the same rate as white grapefruit juice. PMID:18771009

  12. Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Ryan T.

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

  13. Cancer Gastric Chemoprevention: Isolation of Gastric Tumor-Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Federica; Canu, Valeria; Lorenzon, Laura; Garofalo, Alfredo; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an important healthcare problem and represents the second leading cause of death for malignant disease worldwide. In the Western world, the diagnosis is done at late stage when treatments can be only palliative. Searches for new therapeutic regimens as well as for new biomarkers are in progress.To reduce cancer mortality is crucial the prevention of the lesion at earlier stages. Therefore, new bullets to prevention are needed.Nowadays, studies relating to different kinds of tumor are unanimous in considering cancer stem cells (CSCs) as "the core" of the tumor and the responsible of tumor chemoresistance and relapse.This chapter aims to provide the instructions to (1) isolate, (2) grow, and (3) validate, both in vivo and in vitro, the gastric CSC subpopulation. PMID:26608296

  14. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-10-14

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  15. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  16. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Kao, John Y.; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mönkemüller, Klaus E.; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of retinol synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric DCs. Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  17. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; V Singh, Satyavir

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

  18. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhan-Kui

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer. PMID:14606062

  19. Bioflavonoid profile of citrus juices from Greece.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2012-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with confirmation by UV-visible photodiode array detector-positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [HPLC-UV-vis-DAD-(+ESI)-MS] with enhanced fragmentation by appropriate adjustment of the cone voltage was used to determine bioflavonoid content of five citrus species (tangerine, sanguine, sour orange, lemon and grapefruit) cultivated in Greece which come from citrus varieties analyzed for the first time. The main groups of bioflavonoids found in the juice of the citrus species according to HPLC retention times, spectral data and literature references were O-glycosylated flavanones and flavones, C-glucosylated flavones, O-glucosylated flavones, O-C-glucosylated flavones like saponarin and a phenolic derivative. PMID:22334498

  20. Food-drug interactions: grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Camelia Harapu; Cuciureanu, Magdalena; Vlase, L; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Food-drug interactions are increasingly recognized as important clinical events which may change significantly the bioavailability of oral administrated drugs. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) demonstrated multiple interactions with drugs leading to loss of the therapeutic effects or increased side-effects. GFJ decreases pre-systemic metabolism through a) competitive or mechanism-based inhibition of gut wall CYP3A4 isoenzymes and b) P-glycoprotein (P-gp), c) multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP2) or d) organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibition. Although, GFJ presents high amounts of flavonoids (e.g. naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (e.g. 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) are the main chemicals involved in the pharmacokinetic interactions. As compounds of GFJ show additive or synergistic effects, all the major furanocoumarins are necessary for the maximal inhibitory effect. Also, related citrus fruits (sweeties, pummelo and sour orange) or various plants containing furanocoumarins may present pharmacological interactions, yet to be discovered. PMID:21682192

  1. [Rare causes of acute gastric hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Petrova, N N

    1975-06-01

    According to the author's findings rare causes of acute gastric hemorrhages (the Mallory-Weiss syndrome, cancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal organs, excluding the stomach, esophageal and duodenal diverticulum, prolapse of gastric mucosa into the duodenum, necrosis of the gastric wall, its traumatic rupture, the Rendu-Osler disease, rupture of the renal artery aneurysm) made 3.2% of other causes. Profuse hemorrhage was noted in 12 of 32 patients under consideration. In 8 of 32 patients (25%) the diagnosis was established only at autopsy. In other more frequent causes of acute gastric hemorrhage the diagnosis proved to be feasible in 90-95% of cases. PMID:1080309

  2. Gastric pseudolymphoma. A challenging clinical problem.

    PubMed Central

    Orr, R K; Lininger, J R; Lawrence, W

    1984-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is a benign inflammatory condition that is usually associated with chronic gastric ulcer and often mimics gastric carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. Our experience with 12 histologically documented gastric pseudolymphomas at the Medical College of Virginia is presented with an emphasis on the approach to both diagnosis and surgical management. Preoperative diagnoses in this series ranged from benign gastric ulcer to gastric cancer. Treatment was by gastric resection in all cases and it included, as a minimum, antrectomy and excision of the lesion with an adequate gross margin. Of 11 cases with adequate follow-up, there are eight asymptomatic patients without recurrence and one patient who died of other causes without recurrence 5 years after gastrectomy. One patient developed recurrent pseudolymphoma in the proximal gastric remnant 39 months after a distal subtotal gastrectomy for pseudolymphoma. Another patient subsequently developed Hodgkin's disease of the gastric remnant, with regional lymph node and liver involvement, and died 35 months after the earlier subtotal gastrectomy for pseudolymphoma. Our clinical experience with this confusing and uncommon entity is compared with that previously reported in the medical literature. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:6465973

  3. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  4. Evaluation of the anthocyanin release and health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir grape juices after pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir juices (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained at different maceration times after pulsed electric fields (PEF) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and human intestinal Caco-2 cells assays. Juice quality, anthocyanins, total phenolics and vitamin C were also determined. The evaluation of bioprotective capacity of the juice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells was determined using biomarkers for cellular health and integrity: cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compared to untreated grape juice, PEF pre-treatment on grapes enhanced the release of the major anthocyanin found in Pinot Noir, i.e. malvidin-3-O-glucoside (+224%). Increase in the content of total phenolic (+61%) and vitamin C (+19%) as well as improvement in the DPPH scavenging activity (+31%) and bioprotective capacity (+25% for cell viability and +30% for LDH leakage) were observed in grape juices following PEF treatment. Bioprotective capacity determined by the cellular biomarkers had significant linear correlations with malvidin-3-O-glucoside content (0.71?r?0.73) whereas DPPH scavenging activity was not well correlated with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (r=0.30) and total phenolics (r=0.30). Therefore, evaluation of the bioprotective capacities using Caco-2 cell assay performed in this study makes a novel contribution to the current knowledge that demonstrates the capability of PEF technology to produce plant-based foods with better phytochemical composition and exhibiting the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26593562

  5. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. PMID:20145582

  6. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress. PMID:25724149

  7. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:44432

  8. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...° Brix, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100...-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually found in unfermented juice obtained from...

  9. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...° Brix, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100...-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually found in unfermented juice obtained from...

  10. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...° Brix, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100...-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually found in unfermented juice obtained from...

  11. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...° Brix, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100...-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually found in unfermented juice obtained from...

  12. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...° Brix, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100...-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually found in unfermented juice obtained from...

  13. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  14. Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

    2014-11-01

    Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

  15. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  16. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

  17. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  18. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ? potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ? potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  19. Beet Juice Boosts Muscle Power in Heart Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_154738.html Beet Juice Boosts Muscle Power in Heart Patients Researchers say dietary nitrate ... its high concentration of nitrates, may help boost muscle strength among heart patients, a small study has ...

  20. "Meat juice" is not a homogeneous serological matrix.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Camilla; Frössling, Jenny; Vågsholm, Ivar; Burrells, Alison; Lundén, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Meat juice samples are used in serological assays to monitor infectious diseases within the food chain. However, evidence of inferior sensitivity, presumably due to low levels of antibodies in the meat juice compared to serum, has been presented, and it has been suggested that adjusting the dilution factor of meat juice in proportion to its blood content could improve sensitivity. In the present study, the agreement between Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in meat juice and serum was evaluated, and whether the level of immunoglobulins in meat juice was dependent on its blood content. Serum and meat juice from diaphragm, heart, tongue, Musculus triceps brachii and M. semitendinosus were collected from 20 pigs experimentally infected with T. gondii. Analysis of total IgG, heme-containing proteins (hematin), and hemoglobin (Hb) revealed significant differences between samples from different muscles, with the highest levels in samples from heart and tongue, and the lowest in samples from leg muscles. Comparison of T. gondii-specific antibody titers in meat juice and serum revealed a strong positive correlation for meat juice from heart (rs=0.87; p<0.001), while it was lower for M. semitendinosus (rs=0.71; p<0.001) and diaphragm (rs=0.54; p=0.02). Meanwhile, the correlation between total IgG and T. gondii titer ratio (meat juice/serum) was highest in diaphragm (rs=0.77; p<0.001) followed by M. semitendinosus (rs=0.64; p=0.005) and heart (rs=0.50; p=0.051). The correlation between Hb and T. gondii titer ratio was only significant for diaphragm (rs=0.65; p=0.008), and for hematin no significant correlation was recorded. In conclusion, the specific IgG titers in meat juice appeared to depend on the total IgG level, but the correlation to blood (Hb or hematin) was poor. Importantly, large significant differences in total IgG levels as well as in specific antibody titers were recorded, depending on the muscle the meat juice had been extracted from. PMID:25562377

  1. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  2. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  3. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  4. Efficacy of ozone against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Torlak, Emrah

    2014-02-17

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris survives during the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of fruit juices thanks to its spore forming and thermo-acidophilic nature. In recent years, A. acidoterrestris has become a major concern to the fruit juices industry worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate ozone for the reducing number of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was bubbled with continuous stream of two different constant concentrations (2.8 and 5.3mg/L) of ozone at 4 and 22 °C up to 40 min. Level of A. acidoterrestris spores in juice decreased by 2.2 and 2.8 log after 40 min of ozonation at 4 °C with concentrations of 2.8 and 5.3mg/L, respectively. Treatments at 22 °C for 40 min with 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L ozone resulted in 1.8 and 2.4 log reductions of spore viability, respectively. At the ozone concentration of 5.3 mg/L, significant (P<0.05) reductions were observed in total phenolic content of juice at both temperature levels. However, treatments performed at 2.8 mg/L were observed to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on total phenolic content. The results presented in this study indicate that over the 2 log reduction in the count of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice can be achieved by bubbling ozonation at 4 °C without causing a significant decrease in total phenolic content of product. Therefore, it can be suggested that bubbling ozonation is a promising method for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. PMID:24361826

  5. Effects of ultrasound treatments on quality of grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Rana Muhammad; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Sonication is recognised as a potential technique for improvement in the quality of fruit juices. This study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effect of sonication treatments on some important quality parameters of grapefruit juice such as physico-chemical (pH, acidity and °Brix), Hunter colour values (L(*), a(*) and b(*)), cloud value, electrical conductivity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Sonication of grapefruit juice was done in a bath type sonicator at a frequency of 28 kHz by maintaining a constant temperature of 20 °C. Results showed that there was significant improvement in the cloud value, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols in all the juice samples sonicated for 30, 60 and 90 min but no changes occurred in the pH, acidity and °Brix value as compared to control. Some differences in all the colour values were also observed but overall quality of grapefruit juice was improved, suggesting that sonication technique may successfully be implemented an industrial scale for the processing of grapefruit juice. PMID:23871078

  6. Duodeno-gastric reflux and gastric adenomas: a scintigraphic study in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, A D; Granowska, M; Phillips, R K

    1991-01-01

    To test whether the presence of gastric adenomas (dysplasia) was associated with gastric reflux of duodenal contents, six patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who had gastric adenomas and nine matched FAP patients without gastric adenomas underwent scintigraphic duodeno-gastric reflux scanning. Reflux was graded 0-6, where 0 = no reflux, 1 = intermittent reflux into antrum only, 2 = prolonged reflux into antrum only, 3 = intermittent reflux into body, 4 = prolonged reflux into body, 5 = intermittent reflux into body and fundus, and 6 = prolonged reflux into body and fundus. FAP patients with gastric adenomas had more severe reflux (median 6, range 4-6) than did controls (median 3, range 0-6; P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U test). These results are consistent with a role for bile in the development of gastric adenomatous polyps and suggest that bile is involved in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:1653358

  7. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori. PMID:23570997

  8. The biological relevance of gastric neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Clemens, A.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumors were originally thought to have a low incidence (three percent). Since endoscopic diagnostic procedures have become clinical routine, they are now found more frequently (relative incidence up to 41 percent). In recent years, classifications have been developed that attempt to consider the biological relevance of these tumors. Four types of gastric neuroendocrine tumor may be distinguished: Type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is most common. It is associated with chronic atrophic fundus gastritis, hypergastrinemia and often with pernicious anemia. Usually it is multicentric and smaller than one cm, does not produce any symptoms and has an excellent prognosis. Type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is second in frequency. It has no association with other diseases, is solitary and has no predilection for a particular localization. It may be larger than 1 cm, produce a carcinoid syndrome or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and have a metastasis rate of up to 30 percent. Type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is rare and always associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. It occurs as multiple lesions in the gastric body fundus and has a lower metastatic rate than type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor. Type 4 gastric neuroendocrine tumor corresponds to a small-cell carcinoma. PMID:9041691

  9. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  10. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30...for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. ...concentrated, full-strength, diluted, or contain no juice. For example, a soft...

  11. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of...the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of...

  12. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  14. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To...Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

  15. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. 319.309 ...frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...Sauce,” “Sauerkraut with Wieners and Juice,” and similar products shall...

  16. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. 319.309 ...frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...Sauce,” “Sauerkraut with Wieners and Juice,” and similar products shall...

  17. 77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico. On September 19, 2012...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico, pursuant to...

  18. 77 FR 73021 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina. The Department has...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina, pursuant to...

  19. 78 FR 38944 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico. The Department finds...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico, pursuant to...

  20. [Gastrointestinal hormones and blood circulation in the gastric mucosa].

    PubMed

    Koch, H

    1976-03-01

    The gastrointestinal hormones influence gastric mucosal blood flow in different ways. Gastrin, secretin and pancreocymin increase gastric mucosal blood flow, glucagon, vip and somatostatin decrease it. Motilin has a special position. Given alone motilin improves gastric mucosal blood flow, wheras it reduces gastric mucosal blood flow after previous administration of pentagastrin or histamin. PMID:960910

  1. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-10-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  2. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  3. Targeted therapy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Elizabeth C; Cunningham, David

    2012-09-01

    For patients with advanced gastric cancer, traditional double or triplet cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens result in a median survival of 9-11 months. As combination therapy is associated with increased survival, but also increased toxicity in a patient population whose performance status often compromised by their malignancy, development of more effective and less toxic treatment choices is mandated. Emerging data from gene expression profiling suggests that differences in pathological appearance and clinical behavior may be due the presence of unique molecular phenotypes. Characterization of the gastric cancer genomic landscape reveals the presence of multiple alterations in expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, which in conjunction with their ligands and downstream effector molecules represent potentially druggable pathways for future drug development. Treatment of HER2 positive gastric cancer with trastuzumab has led to significant gains in overall survival, and further manipulation of this pathway using the novel anti-HER2 directed agents pertuzumab and T-DM1 in addition to dual EGFR/HER2 blockade with lapatinib may yield positive results. In contrast, targeting of the EGFR pathway in combination with chemotherapy in unselected patients has not been fruitful to date, with no significant gains over standard chemotherapy yet demonstrated. Similarly, use of the anti-angiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab was not successful in a large global randomized trial; however intriguing regional variations were seen with respect to efficacy of this drug, leading to calls for a second, regionally stratified study. Careful selection of patient subsets will become a key factor in future clinical trials, as novel targeted agents such as those targeting the MET/HGF and FGFR axes move forward into clinical development. It is hoped that treatment of patients in such molecularly defined groups is will lead to significant gains in survival compared to current treatment paradigms. PMID:22552927

  4. [Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments. PMID:17992984

  5. Robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2015-09-01

    Robotic surgery for gastric cancer overcomes technical difficulties with laparoscopic gastrectomy. Its benefits include reduced intraoperative bleeding and shorter hospital stays; it is also easier to learn. Because accuracy increases during lymphadenectomy, a larger number of lymph nodes is likely to be retrieved using robotic gastrectomy. Higher costs and longer operation times have hindered the widespread adaptation and use of robotic surgery. In this review, we summarize the current status and issues regarding robotic gastrectomy. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015; 112:271-278. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26031408

  6. Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mahu, C; Purcarea, AP; Gheorghe, CM; Purcarea, MR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood. PMID:25408758

  7. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  8. [Bilateral chylothorax after gastric surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Anguiano, M P; Agudo, O; Lobo, J; Tihista, J A; Alonso, I; Calvo, A

    2005-01-01

    Chylothorax is a lymphatic effusion of chylous in the pleural space due to thoracic duct obstruction or injury. The most frequent aetiology is cancer; it is also related to chest trauma and iatrogenic. We describe the case of bilateral chylothorax in a 76-year-old woman, right predominant, during the post-operational phase of gastric surgery. This presented itself with respiratory insufficiency and tachycardia without initial haemodynamic compromise. It presented a favourable evolution after conservative treatment, cessation of oral intake and TPN and chest tube during 10 to 14 days. PMID:16421622

  9. Pneumobilia with gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kakked, Gaurav A; Bhatt, Nikita R; Bhatt, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) like gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and biliary fistula have become extremely rare with the advent of proton-pump inhibitors.This is a case of PUD presenting with GOO, a cholecystoduodenal fistula discovered incidentally on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the presence of pneumobilia on a contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. A gastrojejunostomy with internal pyloric exclusion was performed. Since the patient did not have any signs of biliary tract disease,we decided not to operate on the fistula to prevent injury to the bile duct. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:26552878

  10. Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

  11. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer: A pharmacological assessment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaccob, Ausama Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Since there is an increasing need for gastric ulcer therapies with optimum benefit-risk profile. This study was conducted to investigate gastro-protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models in mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 mice were allocated into six groups consisted of 7 mice each. Groups 1 (normal control) and 2 (ulcer control) received distilled water at a dose of 10 ml/kg, groups 3, 4 and 5 were given NAC at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and the 6th group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg). All drugs administered orally once daily for 7 days, on the 8th day absolute ethanol (7 ml/kg) was administrated orally to all mice to induce the acute ulcer except normal control group. Then 3 h after, all animals were sacrificed then consequently the stomachs were excised for examination. Results: NAC administration at the tested doses showed a dose-related potent gastro-protective effect with significant increase in curative ratio, PH of gastric juice and mucus content viscosity seen with the highest dose of NAC and it is comparable with that observed in ranitidine group. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that, oral NAC shows significant gastro-protective effects comparable to ranitidine confirmed by anti-secretory, cytoprotective, histological and biochemical data, but the molecular mechanisms behind such protection are complex. PMID:26401392

  12. Long noncoding RNAs as potential biomarkers in gastric cancer: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziguo; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Guimei; Shi, Yulong; Li, Leping

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major threat to human health, and its prognosis is poor due to the lack of appropriate biomarkers. LncRNAs are a group of non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level. LncRNAs play essential roles in GC initiation and development in the same way as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. Recent investigations have revealed that lncRNAs are often aberrantly expressed in GC; are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion; and correlate with the malignant phenotype of GC. LncRNAs, especially the lncRNAs present in the blood and gastric juice, show potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of GC or for determining disease prognosis. However, there are still many challenges to be faced before lncRNAs can be used in clinical applications. In this review, we summarise lncRNAs as the potential biomarkers for GC and the current challenges associated with the clinical application. PMID:26577810

  13. [Study of gastric emptying by dual isotopes. Corrections due to contamination].

    PubMed

    Nos, P; Garrigues, V; Caballero, E; Cano, M C; Sopena, R; Ponce, J

    1998-10-01

    The evaluation of gastric emptying by the double isotope technique involves some methodologic conditioning. Among them contamination correction or interference in the energy windows of the activity of the two isotopes used in the marking of the solids and fluids of the test food are important. The results of an experiment in which a phantom was used to evaluate the contamination between indio 111 (DTPA-Ca111In) and technecium 99m (colloid99mTc). Three test studies were posteriorly performed in healthy volunteers and 27 studies in a control group (13 males, mean age of 33 years, mean body mass index 39.02 kg/m). In these studies the contamination was corrected with the acquisition, following an initial swallow of juice marked with 111In, of activity in the windows of both isotopes. The contamination of 111In (isotope of greatest radiation energy) in the window of 99mTc was 24% in the phantom and 20%, 23% and 26% in the three initial study tests. The mean contamination in the control group was of 22% with limits of 19% to 29% and a standard deviation of 3%. Despite the comparable results, the usefulness of the individualized contamination calculation in the studies of gastric emptying with dual isotope to minimize the methodologic errors of this technique is discussed. PMID:9844276

  14. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric histology after cholecystectomy with or without sphincteroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, D; Pezzolla, F; Montesani, C; Giorgio, P; Caruso, M L; Cavallini, A; Guerra, V; Misciagna, G

    1990-11-01

    Sixteen patients who had undergone cholecystectomy plus sphincteroplasty, 14 cholecystectomized patients and ten control patients were studied to evaluate whether differences existed in duodenogastric reflux and whether these were related to morphological damage of the gastric mucosa. Duodenogastric bile reflux during fasting was evaluated by measuring the concentration of total bile acids (by an enzymatic method) and single bile acids in the gastric juice by high performance liquid chromatography. The damage was evaluated histologically by systematic endoscopic biopsy of the antrum and body of the stomach. There was a statistically significant difference in fasting bile reflux between the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, P less than 0.001), and the group that underwent cholecystectomy plus sphincteroplasty had a significantly higher median value than the cholecystectomized group (P less than 0.05) and the control group (P less than 0.01). The distribution of chronic antral atrophic and superficial gastritis was different in the three groups (chi 2 test, P less than 0.005). Chronic atrophic gastritis was associated with cholecystectomy plus sphincteroplasty (P less than 0.01), while chronic superficial gastritis was more frequent in cholecystectomized patients. These results suggest that there may be more duodenogastric reflux after cholecystectomy plus sphincteroplasty than after cholecystectomy alone, and that there may be a correlation between the amount of duodenogastric reflux and the severity of mucosal damage. PMID:2253017

  15. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  16. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration, International...order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International...the antidumping duty order on OJ from...

  17. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing, cold pressing, pasteurization, and filling-packing. Two major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), two phenolic acids (3- and caffeoylquinic acid) and 3 flavonols (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside) were identified using LC-QTOF-MS and were quantified using HPLC. Approximately, 60-70% of the fruit anthocyanins were retained in the final juice, which also contained high levels of caffeoylquinic acids, relative to the fruit. Mashing and pressing were the steps which were effective for the recovery of fruit polyphenolics into the juice fraction. Moreover, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, applied to determine the effect of processing on the bioavailability of mulberry antioxidants, indicated a higher anthocyanin bioavailability for the fruit matrix than for the juice matrix. PMID:25976822

  18. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked. PMID:25537500

  19. Effect of ethanol upon gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, S E; Kaye, M D

    1979-01-01

    The effect of ethanol upon gastric emptying in healthy human subjects was studied by measuring the gastric emptying rates of three 750 ml meals, the osmolalities, energy densities, and pH of which were similar. Meal A, which contained 80 ml alcohol, emptied more rapidly than meal B, which contained 40 ml ethanol and 63.3 g dextrose; and meal B emptied more rapidly than meal C, which contained 126.6 g dextrose but no ethanol. The slower rate of emptying of the dextrose meal (C) was not due to an increased gastric secretory rate, as serial measurements of gastric pH were substantially and significantly higher with this than with the other two meals; nor was it due to a greater degree of duodenogastric reflux, as serial measurements of gastric bile acid concentrations were similar for the three meals. We conclude that the duodenal osmoreceptor mechanism is relatively insensitive to ethanol; that the relationship between energy density and gastric emptying rate does not hold in the case of ethanol; and that the gastro-oesophageal reflux which occurs in response to ethanol is not due to impairment of gastric emptying. PMID:39879

  20. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  1. Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

  2. [Progress in chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Hua; Teng, Kai-Yuan

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development in cytotoxic agents and molecular targeting drugs, some progress in palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer has been achieved and the median survival of advanced gastric cancer patients is prolonged to about one year. In this review, we summarized the application of new agents, such as docetaxel, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, capecitabine, S1 and targeting drugs in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. We focused on the results of phase III clinical trials and concluded that till now no standard regimens for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer are available. New combination regimens such as docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil (DCF), epirubicin-oxaliplatin-capecitabine (EOX), fluorouracil-leucovorine-oxaliplatin (FLO), irinotecan, leucovorin and 5-FU (ILF), cispaltin plus xeloda, S1 plus cisplatin are considered as new options for the first-line chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer. Due to uncertain efficacy and safety concerns, the role of molecular targeting agents in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer needs further investigation. It is suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a suitable choice for locally advanced gastric cancer. PMID:19799823

  3. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  4. Chemoprevention of gastric cancer: current status.

    PubMed

    Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Wong, Benjiamin Chun-Yu; Lam, Shiu-Kum

    2003-01-01

    The development of gastric cancer is a multi-factor process. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors including smoking, low gastric acidity, excessive intake of salt or salty food and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables all contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Of particular interest, epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is causally linked to gastric cancer. Most studies using micronutrient supplementation have failed to demonstrate any preventive effect against the development of gastric cancer. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been consistently observed to protect against the development of gastric cancer. Recently, eradication of H. pylori infection by a chemopreventative approach is being studied in a number of trials. Studies using precancerous lesions as an end point of the treatment have produced conflicting and mostly negative results. Trials using cancer as an end point are being cautiously carried out in high-risk populations, and will provide the definitive answer to this important question. In the end, vaccination may be proven to be the optimal strategy in human for the management of H. pylori infection and prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:12667378

  5. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  6. Chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Fernando; Vega-Villegas, M Eugenia; López-Brea, Marta F

    2007-06-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the world. Approximately 84% of patients with gastric cancer will have advanced disease and median survival of these patients without chemotherapy is only 3-4 months. "Classical" chemotherapy regimens, mainly CF (cisplatin plus infusional 5FU) and ECF (cisplatin plus infusional 5FU plus Epirubicin) obtain responses in 20-40% of the patients and improve quality of life. Nevertheless, duration of these responses is short with very few complete responses. Median time to tumor progression (TTP) with these regimens is only about 4-5 months and median survival does not exceed 7-10 months. Moreover, benefit seems to be limited to patients with good performance status and treatment toxicity and discomfort are not negligible, specially that of regimens with cisplatin or infusional 5FU. Trying to improve these results, the incorporation of new drugs has been explored. Among the new combinations, the more developed ones are those with Docetaxel (DCF), oxaliplatin (EOX, FLO), Capecitabine (EOX, cisplatin-Xeloda) and irinotecan (ILF). We have final results from Phase III trials that suggest that all these regimens could have a role in the treatment of these patients but survival is still very poor and toxicity remains important. It would be interesting to investigate other new combinations and the incorporation of drugs directed against new therapeutic targets in this setting. It would be of utmost interest that these clinical trials would also explore clinical and molecular prognostic and predictive factors. PMID:17376598

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  9. Gastric Cancer: New Drugs – New Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Nadin; Ebert, Matthias P; Härtel, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are large geographic variations in the incidence of these tumors, with 60% occurring in East Asia. For patients with resectable disease, surgery and perioperative treatment can be effective. For patients with advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy regimens result in a median survival of 9-11 months. In general, the prognosis for advanced disease is poor and 5-year overall survival rates are around 15%. Combination therapies yield better survival rates, albeit with increased toxicity. Therefore, more effective and less toxic treatment regimens are needed. Summary The molecular aberrations that characterize the different subgroups of gastric cancer have been used as therapeutic targets. However, the heterogeneity and complexity of gastric cancers is a major challenge for the development of effective targeted therapies. This review examines the main molecular targets in the treatment of gastric cancer, namely the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Key Message The molecular aberrations characteristic of gastric cancer are being explored for the development of targeted therapies, including the VEGF, HER2, HGF/c-Met, EGFR and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Practical Implications Trastuzumab, an antibody which targets HER2, is the first approved targeted therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer. However, trastuzumab is only effective in HER2-positive tumors (about 10-20% of all gastric cancers). Ramucirumab, which targets the VEGF receptor 2, has yielded benefits with respect to overall survival in a phase III trial and is an effective treatment for advanced gastric cancer with approval in second-line treatment. Apatinib and rilotumumab are another two promising new agents currently under development.

  10. Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2014-02-21

    This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be explored for the clarification of the association between diabetes and gastric cancer. PMID:24587649

  11. A case report of localized gastric amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Lou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Jian; Fei, Lun; Liu, Gui-Jie; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Han-Ting

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the clinical and laboratory features of localized gastric amyloidosis via a rare report along with a review of related literatures. METHODS: The clinical manifestations, laboratory results and surgical treatment of a female patient with localized gastric amyloidosis in our hospital were summarized. The relevant literatures were reviewed on the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. RESULTS: The patient was lack of specific clinical manifestations and positive laboratory results. Prior to the treatment, she was suspected to be of malignization from gastric ulcer by both gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography, which was denied by the gastric biopsy. The patient was treated with subtotal gastrectomy and clearance of perigastric lymph nodes. The postoperative pathological diagnosis determined the lesion to be the deposition of amyloid materials in the gastric mucosa, submucosa and blood vessel walls with intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the gastric glands, in which no malignant tumor was found. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the AA type of amyloid in this case. Multiple biopsies from esophagus, remnant stomach, duodenum, colon and bone marrow in the follow-up survey showed no amyloidal deposition in these tissues and organs. Up to the present, no signs of recurrence have been found in this patient. CONCLUSION: Localized gastric amyloidosis, being rare in incidence, should be considered in the differentiation of gastric tumors, in which biopsy is the only means to confirm the diagnosis. Currently, surgical resection of pathological tissue and circumambient lymph nodes may be a preferable therapeutic strategy for the localized amyloidosis to prevent possible complications. Although with a benign prognosis, gastric amyloidosis possesses a recurrent tendency as suggested by the literatures. PMID:14606114

  12. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  13. Diabetes and gastric cancer: The potential links

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be explored for the clarification of the association between diabetes and gastric cancer. PMID:24587649

  14. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

  15. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

  16. Suppression of gastric acid increases the risk of developing Immunoglobulin E-mediated drug hypersensitivity: human diclofenac sensitization and a murine sensitization model

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, A. B.; Gruber, S.; Pali-Schöll, I.; Kinaciyan, T.; Untersmayr, E.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Hypersensitivity reactions towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are common, although true allergies are detectable only in a subgroup of patients. The current study was prompted by a case observation, where a patient experienced generalized urticaria following his second course of diclofenac and proton pump inhibitor medication, and was found to have diclofenac-specific IgE. During recent years, our group has been investigating the importance of gastric digestion in the development of food allergies, demonstrating anti-acid medication as a risk factor for sensitization against food proteins. Objective Here, we aimed to investigate whether the mechanism of food allergy induction described can also be causative in NSAID allergy, using diclofenac as a paradigm. Methods We subjected BALB/c mice to several oral immunization regimens modelled after the patient’s medication intake. Diclofenac was applied with or without gastric acid suppression, in various doses, alone or covalently coupled to albumin, a protein abundant in gastric juices. Immune responses were assessed on the antibody level, and functionally examined by in vitro and in vivo crosslinking assays. Results Only mice receiving albumin-coupled diclofenac under gastric acid suppression developed anti-diclofenac IgG1 and IgE, whereas no immune responses were induced by the drug alone or without gastric acid suppression. Antibody induction was dose dependent with the group receiving the higher dose of the drug showing sustained anti-diclofenac titres. The antibodies induced triggered basophil degranulation in vitro and positive skin tests in vivo. Conclusion Gastric acid suppression was found to be a causative mechanism in the induction of IgE-mediated diclofenac allergy. PMID:19817752

  17. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  18. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix, and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  19. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix, and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  20. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix, and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...