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1

Further observations on the gastric secretory depressant in human gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gastric secretory depressant `gastrone' has been previously found in normal gastric juice. These studies show that it is present in the neutralized gastric juice and is not destroyed by peptic digestion in one hour, indicating that this factor is not a protein and would be consistent with the view that it is related to the mucopolysaccharides in gastric juice.

Peter B. Rowe; Barbara H. Fenton; Deborah Beeston

1964-01-01

2

Nitrate and Nitrite in Normal Gastric Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrate and nitrite levels of 75 gastric juice samples from young and healthy fasting volunteers were examined. For both parameters a dependence on the specific pH value of the secretion was detected. The rise of the nitrite level from normal 0.1 ppm in the acid to 1.4 ppm in the neutral range can be explained by the activity of

R. L. Mueller; H.-J. Hagel; H. Wild; H. Ruppin; W. Domschke

1986-01-01

3

Measurement of urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To study the effect of known interference in the measurement of urea and ammonium concentrations in samples of gastric juice. METHODS--The effect of pH and ammonium concentration on the o-pthalaldehyde method, the diacetylmonoxime method, a Berthelot linked method and an enzymatic urease method for the measurement of urea in gastric juice was therefore conducted. An enzymatic method of the measurement of ammonium in gastric juice was also assessed. RESULTS--The o-pthalaldehyde and the enzymatic urease methods were unaffected by a low gastric juice pH, ammonium concentrations of 10 mmol/l, and had interassay coefficients of variation of 3.9-5.6% and 2.8-10.6%, respectively, over a urea concentration of 2.5 mmol/l-20 mmol/l. The Berthelot linked method resulted in low gastric juice urea concentrations. The enzymatic method of ammonium measurement also proved suitable when the effect of low gastric juice pH was controlled. CONCLUSION--Interference by low pH did not explain the differences in reports of gastric juice urea or ammonium concentrations.

Neithercut, W D; el Nujumi, A M; McColl, K E

1993-01-01

4

Azithromycin levels in plasma and gastric tissue, juice and mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azithromycin is the first member of a new class called the azalides. Its distribution in gastric tissues was studied in 27 patients (mean age 66 years) with proven gastric cancer due to be resected. Five groups of patients received a single 500 mg oral dose of azithromycin 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h pre-operatively. Samples of blood, gastric juice,

J. D. Harrison; J. A. Jones; D. L. Morris

1991-01-01

5

Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease.

Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

1997-01-01

6

Measurement of urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To study the effect of known interference in the measurement of urea and ammonium concentrations in samples of gastric juice. METHODS--The effect of pH and ammonium concentration on the o-pthalaldehyde method, the diacetylmonoxime method, a Berthelot linked method and an enzymatic urease method for the measurement of urea in gastric juice was therefore conducted. An enzymatic method of the measurement

W D Neithercut; A M el Nujumi; K E McColl

1993-01-01

7

The Relationship between Gastric Juice Nitrate/Nitrite Concentrations and Gastric Mucosal Surface pH  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration according to mucosal surface pH extent (area) of gastric corpus intimately contacting the gastric juice. Materials and Methods We included ninety-nine patients with dyspepsia. To evaluate gastric mucosal surface pH and its extent, gastric chromosocpy was performed by spraying phenol red dye on the corpus mucosa and estimating the extent of area with color changed. Nitrate/nitrite concentrations and pH of gastric juice were measured by ELISA and pH meter, respectively. Silver staining was done to histologically confirm the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Results Intragastric nitrate/nitrite concentrations in patients, showing phenol red staining mucosa were higher than those of unstaining mucosa (p=0.001): the more extensive in the area of phenol red staining area of corpus, the higher gastric juice pH found (r=0.692, p<0.001). Furthermore, the intragastric nitrate/nitrite concentrations correlated positively with gastric juice pH (r=0.481, p<0.001). Conclusion The changes of mucosal surface pH and its extent in gastric corpus might affect either pH or nitrate/nitrite level of gastric juice.

Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Byung-Wook; Han, Sok-Won; Maeng, Lee So; Kim, Hee Na

2012-01-01

8

The prognostic significance of gastric juice CA 19-9 and CEA levels in gastric carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The usefulness of gastric juice CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma is controversial. There is only one study related with their prognostic value. In this study the clinical significance of gastric juice CA 19-9 and CEA levels in patients with gastric carcinoma was investigated.Methods: Preoperative serum and gastric juice CA 19-9 and

N. Duraker; A. Naci Çelik; N. Gençler

2002-01-01

9

Microbiological findings and protein concentration in gastric juice.  

PubMed

From 17 patients subjected to pentagastrin test, 136 samples of gastric juice (fasting sample, basal secretion, fractions after stimulation) were collected. The concentration of the protein components (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and albumin) in the fasting samples were in excess of those found in the basal secretion, but protein output (volume X concentration) was nearly identical in the two samples. The protein concentration of the fractions obtained in response to pentagastrin stimulation were too low to be measurable. According to correlation analysis, protein concentration in the gastric juice is primarily the function of the microbiological finding. The allergic effect of microorganisms in the gastric juice may give rise to an increase in its immunoglobulin and albumin concentrations. PMID:6674916

Somos, Z; Mózsik, G; Loibl, S; Sélley, E; Czirner, G; Gróf, P

1983-01-01

10

The effect of orange juice on gastric acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Judging from some observations made in vitro it seems probable that one need not worry about giving orange juice to patients\\u000a who have peptic ulcer. If the orange juice should remain in the stomach long enough to have any effect on the acidity of the\\u000a gastric content, this effect almost certainly would have to be a lowering one because orange

Charles Dimmler; Marschelle H. Power; Walter C. Alvarez

1938-01-01

11

The effect of orange juice on gastric acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a We have shown that a test meal of orange juice stimulates a high free gastric acidity which reaches its acme one hour following\\u000a ingestion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a We have shown that orange juice remains in the stomach on an average of one hour and forty-five minutes following its ingestion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a We do not yet know what would happen to gastric

Frank W. Claytor; William L. Smith; Edward L. Turner

1941-01-01

12

Increased gastric juice epidermal growth factor after non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), present in saliva and gastric juice, is a potent mitogen and an important element of mucosal defence. Changes in salivary and gastric juice epidermal growth factor in response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) ingestion were measured to assess the role of EGF in gastric mucosal adaptation to NSAIDs. Patients with arthritis underwent endoscopy with collection of

S M Kelly; J R Jenner; R J Dickinson; J O Hunter

1994-01-01

13

Helicobacter Pylori?associated gastritis and the ascorbic acid concentration in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low ascorbic acid concentration in gastric juice. Low vitamin C intake and Helicobacter pylori infection have been related to an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. This report examines the association between ascorbic acid and Helicobacter pylori in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Elevated gastric pH and the damage to the gastric surface

Jennifer Carlton Rood; Bernardo Ruiz; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham; Gray T. Malcom; Fred M. Hunter; Mahboob Sobhan; William D. Johnson; Pelayo Correa

1994-01-01

14

Use of the refractometer as a tool to monitor dietary formula concentration in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Critically ill patients do not always tolerate nasogastric tube feeding. Gastric residual volumes are widely used to evaluate feeding tolerance, but controversy exists about what constitutes the residual volume (diet formula or digestive juice). In this paper, we describe the use of the refractometer as a tool to monitor dietary formula concentration in gastric juice and evaluate

W.-K. CHANG; M.-Z. CHEN; Y.-C. CHAO

2002-01-01

15

Effects of intravenously administrated omeprazole on gastric juice pH and gastric ulcer scores in adult horses.  

PubMed

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole powder in sterile water, administered intravenously, on gastric juice pH in adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulcers. Omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was administered once daily for 5 days to 6 adult horses with gastric ulcers. Gastric juice was aspirated through the biopsy channel of an endoscope and pH was measured before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole on day 1, and then before and after administration of omeprazole on day 5. Gastric ulcer scores were recorded on day 1 before administration of omeprazole and on day 5, 23 hours after the 4th daily dose. Gastric juice pH and ulcer scores were compared between the times. When compared with the pre-injection value (2.01 +/- 0.42), mean +/- SD gastric juice pH was significantly higher when measured 1 hour after administration of the initial dose (4.35 +/- 2.31), and before (5.27 +/- 1.74) and 1 hour after (7.00 +/- 0.25) administration of omeprazole on day 5. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number score significantly decreased from a mean +/- SD of 3.2 +/- 0.80 to 2.0 +/- 1.1, but nonglandular gastric ulcer severity score remained the same. Few glandular ulcers were seen in the study, and scores did not change. Because of its potent and long duration of action on gastric juice pH, this intravenous formulation of omeprazole may show promise for treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses with dysphagia, gastric reflux, or other conditions that restrict oral intake of omeprazole paste. Aspiration of gastric juice and measurement of pH can be of use to determine whether the desired pH > 4.0 has been reached after omeprazole treatment. PMID:17063717

Andrews, Frank M; Frank, Nicholas; Sommardahl, Carla S; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Elliott, Sarah B; Allen, Vern A

16

Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple

U. E. Inyang; U. J. Abah

1997-01-01

17

Adenosine deaminase, 5?-nucleotidase, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in gastric juices from patients with gastric cancer, ulcer, and atrophic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5?-Nucleotidase (5NT), Xanthine oxidase (XO), Cu-Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities were determined in gastric juices from patients with gastric cancer, ulcer, gastritis and from healthy subjects. Enzyme activities were given as units per ml gastric juice and units per mg protein in gastric juice. ADA, 5NT and XO activities were found lower and protein

Ilker Durak; Necati Örmeci; Ömer Akyol; Orhan Canbolat; Mustafa Kavutçu; Mahmut Bülbül

1994-01-01

18

Concentration of gastric-juice proteins in a patient with Menetrier's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case of Menetrier's disease with hypoproteinemia the gastric-juice protein concentrations (Lowry) were 8.0 and 8.4 mg.\\/ml., more than 4 times the values found in normal, hyper-, and and achlothydric patients.

Irwin Katzka; Joan Glicken; J. Seckler

1967-01-01

19

New technique for analysing conjugated bile acids in gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

A new technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in gastric juice. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and highly specific for bile acid conjugates over the range 30-10,000 mumol/l and is not affected by the presence of food. Ten patients with a variety of common upper gastrointestinal disorders underwent continuous gastric aspiration for 16 hours, including a fasting, post-prandial, and nocturnal period, and aliquots of aspirates were analysed every two hours by the HPLC technique for the six most prevalent bile acid conjugates present in human hepatic bile. Intragastric bile acid concentrations were lowest in the post-prandial period and highest in the early hours of the morning. Conjugated bile acid proportions, or profiles, varied considerably from patient to patient, but tended to remain uniform over time in individual patients. It is concluded that HPLC is superior to enzymatic techniques for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Images

Gotley, D C; Morgan, A P; Cooper, M J

1990-01-01

20

Radioimmunoassay of epidermal growth factor in human saliva and gastric juice.  

PubMed

A sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) in saliva and gastric juice. This method was sufficiently sensitive for an accurate measurement of hEGF in these biological fluids. The minimal detectable concentration of EGF was 30 ng/L. The imprecision profile of EGF standard curve had a CV less than 10% in the range of 0.1-3.0 micrograms/L. Serial dilution curves of saliva and gastric juice paralleled that of standard EGF. The antibody to hEGF showed no cross-reactivity with a large excess of growth factors, such as human transforming growth factor alpha, human insulin-like growth factor I, and platelet-derived growth factor (c-sis). No detectable cross-reactivity was observed with some biological gut peptides: somatostatin, gastrin, secretin or pancreatic polypeptide. The intra-assay CV for saliva and gastric juice was less than 10%, and the recoveries were 93.9 +/- 8.7% and 93.7 +/- 11.3%, respectively for saliva and gastric juice. Gel exclusion chromatography revealed hEGF-like substances, heterogeneous in size in saliva and gastric juice, the origins and physiological functions of which are unknown. PMID:2040084

Orsini, B; Brocchi, A; Calabrò, A; Fedi, P; Tommasi, M S; Surrenti, C

1991-04-01

21

Recent investigations permitting a new interpretation of the results of the conventional titration of gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Titration of gastric juice with a dilute alkali to the lemon yellow end-point of Töpfer’s indicator measures not only the\\u000a free hydrochloric acid but the acid combined with the gastric proteins (chlorides and phosphates) and also free phosphoric\\u000a acid. This fact is of importance in interpreting the results of the smaller titration figures (i. e., below 8–10 c.c.) for\\u000a they

Lay Martin

1934-01-01

22

Lipid composition of commercially canned single-strength orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of commercially canned single-strength orange juice ranged from 84–101 mg\\/100 ml juice (overall mean\\u000a 95 6). Phospholipid phosphorus, expressed as mg\\/100 ml juice, showed a range of from 1.56–1.95, while phospholipid phosphorus\\/lipid\\u000a values (as g-P\\/mg lipid) were within a very narrow range, 18.9 1.1. The percentage distribution of lipid classes in these\\u000a juices was 24–35% neutral lipids,

Steven Nagy; Harold E. Nordby; John M. Smoot

1975-01-01

23

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Synthetic Human Gastric Juice and Acidified Porcine Bile  

PubMed Central

The bactericidal activities of synthetic gastric juice and acidified porcine bile on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed using propidium monoazide (PMA)-mediated quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, which allowed rapid relative quantitative analysis of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells.

Dalton, J. P.

2013-01-01

24

Effects of Juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Gastric Emptying in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml\\/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the

Hsiao-Fung Pu; Wei-Ju Huang; Wen-Min Tseng; Shyi-Wu Wang; Yu-Wen Liu; Ming-Long Doong; Paulus S. Wang

2004-01-01

25

Effect of Berkefeld filtration on the binding activity of human gastric juice  

PubMed Central

The intrinsic factor content of Berkefeld-filtered human gastric juice has been studied. This appears to vary with the pH at which filtration is carried out and also between individual filters. Significant losses of intrinsic factor may result from filtration and complete loss when filtration is carried out at a low pH. The most suitable pH for filtration appears to be in the range pH 7 to 8.

Dellipiani, A. W.; Samson, R. R.; Girdwood, R. H.

1969-01-01

26

Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 ?m and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

2012-12-01

27

Adaptation of Salmonella spp. in juice stored under refrigerated and room temperature enhances acid resistance to simulated gastric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella spp. adapted in juices stored under refrigeration and room temperatures to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Five Salmonella serovars, Agona, Gaminara, Michigan, Montevideo, and Poona were used in this study. Apple, orange, and tomato juices inoculated with five serovars were stored at refrigeration (7°C) and room

H. G. Yuk; K. R. Schneider

2006-01-01

28

Encapsulation in alginate and alginate coated-chitosan improved the survival of newly probiotic in oxgall and gastric juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to develop an optimum composition model for the microencapsulation of a newly probiotic on sodium alginate using response surface methodology. The individual and interactive effects of three independent variables, namely sodium alginate concentration, biomass concentration, and hardening time, were investigated using Box-Behnken design experiments. A second ordered polynomial model was fitted and optimum conditions were estimated. The optimal conditions identified were 2% for sodium alginate, 10(10)UFC/ml for biomass, and 30min for hardening time. The experimental value obtained for immobilized cells under these conditions was about 80.98%, which was in close agreement with the predicted value of 82.6%. Viability of microspheres (96%) was enhanced with chitosan as coating materials. The survival rates of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 during exposure to artificial gastrointestinal conditions were compared. The results revealed that the encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistances to artificial intestinal juice (AIJ) and artificial gastric juice (AGJ). Microencapsulation was also noted to effectively protect the strain from heating at 65°C and refrigerating at 4°C. Taken together, the findings indicated that microencapsulation conferred important protective effects to L. plantarum against the gastrointestinal conditions encountered during the transit of food. PMID:23817092

Trabelsi, Imen; Bejar, Wacim; Ayadi, Dorra; Chouayekh, Hichem; Kammoun, Radhouane; Bejar, Samir; Ben Salah, Riadh

2013-06-29

29

Process for Preserving Raw Fruit and Vegetable Juices Using Cyclodextrins and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruit and vegetable juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of cyclodextrins and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable juices.

K. B. Hicks G. M. Sapers P. A. Seib

1988-01-01

30

Solubilization of lead from crystal dust in protein solution (pseudointerstitial fluid) and gastric juice.  

PubMed

Since several workers engaged in polishing and engraving crystal articles were found to have higher than average blood levels of lead (560 micrograms/liter, range 80-560 micrograms/liter), we investigated the hypothesis that crystal dust releases lead in the human body. To test the hypothesis, two types of crystal polishing dusts, having different lead contents, were mixed with human serum diluted 1:3 (pseudointerstitial fluid), gastric juice, and phosphate buffer at pH 9. After 14 days of contact, the diluted serum had extracted 0.620% of the lead in the crystal dust (particle size < 20 microns) containing 25.2% lead and 0.425% of that containing 19.9% lead. After 48 hr in gastric juice, 0.235 and 0.556% of the lead was extracted from crystal dusts (unsieved crystal dusts) containing 25.2 and 19.9% lead, respectively. After 28 days in alkaline solution, 0.358 and 0.304% of the lead was extracted respectively from the same two crystal dusts (unsieved crystal dusts). PMID:9339230

Sciarra, G; Sartorelli, P; Aprea, C; Scancarello, G; Strambi, F; Palmi, S; Scarselli, R

1997-01-01

31

Conversion of the prodrug etoposide phosphate to etoposide in gastric juice and bile.  

PubMed Central

Etoposide phosphate is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide. It was expected that this prodrug could be used to overcome the solubility limitations and erratic bioavailability of oral etoposide. To investigate the possibility of prodrug conversion to etoposide within the gastrointestinal lumen, etoposide phosphate was dissolved in water and incubated with human gastric juice or human bile in vitro. Samples were collected during 150 min and analysed for etoposide concentration with high-performance liquid chromatography. Conversion of prodrug to etoposide during incubation with gastric juice was negligible. There was significant conversion during incubation with bile at pH 7-8. The percentage of prodrug converted to etoposide at pH 8 after 60 min was 78 +/- 18% (mean +/- S.D.) for a 0.1 mg ml-1 prodrug solution and 36 +/- 26% for 0.5 mg ml-1. At pH 7, after 60 min 22% of prodrug was converted to etoposide when incubated at 0.1 mg ml-1 and 10% at 0.5 mg ml-1. No conversion was found after inactivation of alkaline phosphate (AP) by overnight heating of bile at 65 degrees C or by the addition of disodium edetate to the bile. In conclusion, because of AP in bile, variable conversion of etoposide phosphate to etoposide can be expected within the intestinal lumen after oral administration. This could have important pharmacokinetic consequences.

de Jong, R. S.; Slijfer, E. A.; Uges, D. R.; Mulder, N. H.; de Vries, E. G.

1997-01-01

32

Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

33

[Determination of total mercury and ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice of Tibetan medicine Dangzuo by GAE-AFS].  

PubMed

The mercury in Tibetan medicine has become important focus in the research on medicine safety evaluation. The total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice of Tibetan medicine Dangzuo were detected by Gold Amalgam Enrichment-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GAE-AFS). In the present study, Tibetan medicine Dangzuo was prepared by H2SO4-KNO3 digestion system and artificial gastric juice. The established method and condition of instrument were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions and instrumental operation parameters, the recovery (n=6) of HgS is 99.56$ (RSD = 1.94%), the limit of detection for mercury is 0.2 ng x L(-1), the linear range is 0-500 ng x L(-1), and r = 0.9999. Then, the total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice in Dangzuo samples from different Tibetan regions were assayed. The result showed that the ranges of total mercury and ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice were 3.9980-16.7358 x mg x g(-1) and 45.5377-1033.9850 ng x g(-1), respectively. The analytical method mentioned above is rapid and accurate for determining the amount of mercury in Tibetan medicine Dangzuo. PMID:21942059

Li, Cen; Yang, Hong-xia; Wei, Li-xin; Du, Yu-zhi; Zhang, Guo-ying

2011-07-01

34

Measurement of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in gastric juice by HPLC.  

PubMed

New methods are presented for measuring total vitamin C and the ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid ratio in gastric juice. Extracts are prepared from a gastric juice which are suitable for direct injection onto a Waters Nova-pak C18 Radial-pak cartridge for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultraviolet absorbance at 270 nm for detection. Both enable removal of interfering mucus and mucopolysaccharide breakdown products in a novel way. The first uses mini-columns of Sephadex G-50, run in acidic conditions to remove large molecular weight material while maintaining the ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid ratio as it was in the fresh sample. Addition of dithiothreitol converts the dehydroascorbic acid quantitatively to ascorbic acid, thus enabling measurement of both components. The second method converts all the dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid at the outset. A perchloric acid extract is neutralized and passed through a Sep-Pak C18. A new internal standard, reductic acid, is introduced for ascorbic acid analysis which behaves identically on Sep-Pak C18. Samples are analysed by ion-pair chromatography using 0.02 M NH4H2PO4 buffer (pH 7.1): methanol (80:20 v/v) containing 0.62 g/L tetrapentylammonium bromide. The detection limit was 1 ng ascorbic acid, and chromatography was completed in 5 min. The values obtained by the two independent HPLC methods were in good agreement with each other and with those obtained by the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric method. PMID:3507237

Sanderson, M J; Schorah, C J

1987-01-01

35

Detection of Helicobacter pylori carriers by discriminant analysis of urea and pH levels in gastric juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative approach to the problems inherent in current methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori carriers--that of being generally time-consuming, expensive, and not sufficiently sensitive--was devised by using the urea concentration and pH levels of gastric juices. A linear discriminant analysis of these variables, measured in 54 patients submitted to digestive endoscopy for gastritis, provided a mathematical formula for assigning the

F Ameglio; M R Abbolito; D Giannarelli; F Citarda; A Grassi; G M Gandolfo; V Casale

1991-01-01

36

Airway cellularity, lipid laden macrophages and microbiology of gastric juice and airways in children with reflux oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) can cause respiratory disease in children from recurrent aspiration of gastric contents. GORD can be defined in several ways and one of the most common method is presence of reflux oesophagitis. In children with GORD and respiratory disease, airway neutrophilia has been described. However, there are no prospective studies that have examined airway cellularity in children with GORD but without respiratory disease. The aims of the study were to compare (1) BAL cellularity and lipid laden macrophage index (LLMI) and, (2) microbiology of BAL and gastric juices of children with GORD (G+) to those without (G-). Methods In 150 children aged <14-years, gastric aspirates and bronchoscopic airway lavage (BAL) were obtained during elective flexible upper endoscopy. GORD was defined as presence of reflux oesophagitis on distal oesophageal biopsies. Results BAL neutrophil% in G- group (n = 63) was marginally but significantly higher than that in the G+ group (n = 77), (median of 7.5 and 5 respectively, p = 0.002). Lipid laden macrophage index (LLMI), BAL percentages of lymphocyte, eosinophil and macrophage were similar between groups. Viral studies were negative in all, bacterial cultures positive in 20.7% of BALs and in 5.3% of gastric aspirates. BAL cultures did not reflect gastric aspirate cultures in all but one child. Conclusion In children without respiratory disease, GORD defined by presence of reflux oesophagitis, is not associated with BAL cellular profile or LLMI abnormality. Abnormal microbiology of the airways, when present, is not related to reflux oesophagitis and does not reflect that of gastric juices.

Chang, AB; Cox, NC; Purcell, J; Marchant, JM; Lewindon, PJ; Cleghorn, GJ; Ee, LC; Withers, GD; Patrick, MK; Faoagali, J

2005-01-01

37

Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.  

PubMed

The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

38

Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402

Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

2013-08-01

39

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

1991-01-01

40

Assessment of the validity of maturity metrics for predicting the volatile composition of Concord grape juice.  

PubMed

Total soluble solids (TSS) are typically used as the sole metric for maturity of Concord grapes. However, the reliability of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of finished juice for grapes sourced from multiple sites has not been investigated. This study sought to determine the validity of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of the juice while also investigating other potentially useful indicators, including pH, titratable acidity (TA), and TSS:TA ratio. Grapes were harvested from 9 sites in the Lake Erie Concord Grape Belt and stratified from north to south and east to west. The key aroma compounds methyl anthranilate ("grapey") and trans-2-hexenal ("herbaceous") were quantified along with several other odorants. It was observed that while TSS was a robust predictor of monomeric anthocyanin content across sites, it was a poor predictor of aroma compounds in the finished juice. Conversely, pH, TA, and TSS:TA ratio were all significantly correlated with methyl anthranilate and trans-2-hexenal concentrations (P < 0.05) in samples equal to or exceeding 15 Brix, the industry minimum for grape maturity. These results indicate that parameters related to acidity are better predictors of aroma composition than TSS, which may aid in efforts to minimize herbaceous off-aromas and optimize the aroma composition of the finished juice. PMID:22384957

Iyer, Meera M; Sacks, Gavin L; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2012-03-01

41

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,

Anh Kim T. Bui; Antony Bacic; Filomena Pettolino

2006-01-01

42

Body composition changes following laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports of outcome following obesity surgery report weight and co-morbidity changes only. We studied body composition changes in 17 adult patients (15 F, 2 M, age 43±2 years, range 28–58 years), with morbid obesity (initial BMI 40.4±4.9 kg\\/m 2, range 34.7–48.8) who were managed surgically by laparoscopically inserting an adjustable gastric band. Body composition was studied before and after

B. J. G. Strauss; S. J. Marks; J. P. Growcott; D. B. Stroud; C. S. Lo; J. B. Dixon; P. E. O’Brien

2003-01-01

43

Effects of organic farming on minerals contents and aroma composition of Clemenules mandarin juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers demand organic products because they believe that the organic products are more flavorful and respectful to the\\u000a environment and human health. The effects of organic farming on the minerals contents and aroma composition of Clemenules\\u000a mandarin juices were studied. Minerals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, K, and Na) were quantified using atomic absorption-emission\\u000a spectroscopy, while volatile compounds were

Antonio J. Pérez-López; José Manuel López-Nicolás; Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

2007-01-01

44

Thermal processing, storage conditions, and the composition and physical properties of orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican orange juice bottled without pasteurization and frozen, or orange juice that was pasteurized, bottled, and frozen or orange juice pasteurized and stored at 1°C in plastic bins was sampled monthly for eight months. Juice density, cloud, and fructose levels were all significantly (P<0.05) affected by the method of processing. Pasteurization reduced orange juice ascorbic acid concentrations. The concentrations of

E. R Farnworth; M Lagacé; R Couture; V Yaylayan; B Stewart

2001-01-01

45

Antioxidant activity, color, carotenoids composition, minerals, vitamin C and sensory quality of organic and conventional mandarin juice, cv. Orogrande.  

PubMed

The effects of organic farming on antioxidant activity, CIE L*a*b* color, carotenoids composition, minerals contents, vitamin C and sensory quality of Orogrande mandarin juices were studied. Independent of the farming type, mandarin juices can be considered as good source of some important nutrients, such as potassium and antioxidant chemicals, for example, ?-cryptoxanthin. Organic farming of mandarin resulted in juices with higher antioxidant activity, total carotenoids concentrations, minerals (Ca, K and Fe) contents, vitamin C content, more appealing and intense orange color and better sensory quality. For instance, organic Orogrande juice contained significantly (p < 0.001) higher total carotenoids content (22.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) than conventional juice (15.7 ± 0.4 mg/L); a similar pattern was observed for the antioxidant activity, with values being 0.076±0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.003 mM Trolox m/L in organic and conventional juices, respectively. A trained panel stated that organic Orogrande juices had higher intensities of orange color, fresh mandarin and floral aromas than conventional juices. PMID:21652767

Navarro, P; Pérez-López, A J; Mercader, M T; Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Gabaldon, J A

2011-06-07

46

Effect of storage in juice with or without pulp and\\/or calcium lactate on the subsequent survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and\\/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about

Hyun-Gyun Yuk; Seong-Chun Jo; Hye-Kyung Seo; Sun-Min Park; Seung-Cheol Lee

2008-01-01

47

Juice matrix composition and ascorbic acid fortification effects on the phytochemical, antioxidant and pigment stability of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice matrix composition on the phytochemical stability of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were evaluated by contrasting natural clarified juice systems with isolated polyphenolic and anthocyanin fractions, in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid (500mg\\/l) under accelerated storage conditions (37°C). Polyphenolic (anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenolics) and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using C18 Sep-Pak columns and then re-dissolved

Lisbeth A. Pacheco-palencia; Palo Hawken; Stephen T. Talcott

2007-01-01

48

Effects of fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China.  

PubMed

The effects of four fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel, green tea and low dose vitamin C on endogenous N-nitrosation in 86 subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China were studied using urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) as an indicator. After ingestion of 300 mg L-proline, urinary excretion of NPRO was significantly increased from a baseline of 2.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms/day to 8.7 +/- 6.2 micrograms/day. (P < 0.001). Vitamin C (75 mg) administration significantly reduced NPRO formation (62.3%, P < 0.002) although NPRO excretion remained higher than the baseline level (4.2 +/- 1.3 vs 2.2 +/- 1.2 micrograms/day, P < 0.001). Intake of fruit juices and green tea extracts (containing 75 mg vitamin C) or of orange peel powder (containing 3 mg vitamin C) together with 300 mg L-proline inhibited NPRO formation effectively to the baseline level or to levels significantly lower than the baseline level (P < 0.05-0.005). A processed juice of a number of vegetables (300 ml) significantly catalysed endogenous nitrosation (14.7 +/- 11.8 vs 9.4 +/- 4.7 micrograms/day, P < 0.05). Endogenous N-nitrosation was unaffected by the presence of intragastric lesions. The present study shows that endogenous nitrosation in this population is profoundly affected by environmental factors and that inhibitors, such as vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and other non-nutritive compounds in the foods do inhibit endogenous nitrosation either synergistically or in an additive manner. The significance of fruits and vegetables in prevention of human cancers is discussed. PMID:8358285

Xu, G P; Song, P J; Reed, P I

1993-07-01

49

Effect of fermentation conditions on yeast growth and volatile composition of wine produced from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study mango juice fermentation at laboratory scale with controlled inoculation using selected yeast strain was performed (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 101). Effect of fermentation conditions (temperature, pH, SO2 and aeration) on wine fermentation was evaluated based on yeast growth, duration, fermentation rate and volatile composition. The composition of the major volatile compounds with low boiling points was determined by gas

L. V. A. Reddy; O. V. S. Reddy

2011-01-01

50

The susceptibility of Streptococcus thermophilus 14085 to organic acid, simulated gastric juice, bile salt and disinfectant as influenced by cold shock treatment.  

PubMed

Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium which is used as the starter organism for the fermentation of yoghurt and some cheese. In the present study, S. thermophilus BCRC 14085 was subjected to cold shock treatment by exposure at 10 °C for 2 h. The effect of cold shock on the susceptibility of S. thermophilus in subsequent lethal stress environments such as simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0-3.0), bile solution (2.0%) and various organic acids (0.75 M, pH 3.5) including propionic, lactic, acetic, citric and tartaric acid was investigated. In addition, the survival of cold-shocked and non-shocked S. thermophilus exposed to disinfectants, Clidox-S and Quatricide, were compared. Results revealed that cold shock enhanced the tolerance of S. thermophilus in the presence of simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 and 2.8), while in bile solution, the population increase of cold-shocked cells is higher than that of non-shocked cells after 12 h of incubation. Furthermore, the susceptibility of S. thermophilus, regardless of cold shock, to organic acid varied with the kinds of organic acid examined. The cold-shocked S. thermophilus showed a significantly less survival (P < 0.05) than that of the non-shocked cells when exposed to lactic or acetic acid. Furthermore, cold shock reduced the survival of S. thermophilus when exposed to Quatricide but not Clidox-S. PMID:23122501

Fang, Shiu-Hui; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

2012-09-10

51

Determination of N-nitrosamines in gastric juice and urine and a comparison of endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline and its inhibition in subjects from high- and low-risk areas for oesophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Samples of gastric juice were collected from a high-risk area for oesophageal cancer in China and analysed for N-nitroso compounds. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBzA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) were identified in descending order of concentration. Several unknown compounds were also detected in the fasting gastric juice. A positive correlation was found between the amount of nitrosamines in gastric juice and the degree of severity of lesions of the oesophageal epithelium: the amounts of nitrosamines in gastric juice from subjects with a normal oesophageal epithelium were lower than those in subjects with marked dysplasia or carcinoma of the oesophagus. In addition, 1500 samples of 24-h urine were collected from various communes in six high-risk areas and two low-risk areas for this cancer in China and analysed for N-nitrosamino acids. Subjects in high-risk areas excreted higher levels than those in low-risk areas. Intake of L-proline resulted in marked increases in levels of urinary N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) in inhabitants from both high- and low-risk areas. Intake of moderate doses of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and zinc by high-risk subjects reduced the urinary levels of N-nitrosamino acids to those found in undosed subjects in low-risk areas, suggesting a rational basis for prevention in high-risk areas. PMID:3679439

Lu, S H; Yang, W X; Guo, L P; Li, F M; Wang, G J; Zhang, J S; Li, P Z

1987-01-01

52

Impact of Helicobacter pylori colonization on immunoreactive epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor- ? in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), pivotal in mucosal protection, is partly degraded proteolytically at low pH in the gastric milieu; gastric acid secretion, on the other hand, remains influenced byH. pylori colonization. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the impact of low pH andH. pylori colonization status on immunoreactive EGF and the other member of EGF-family, immunoreactive transforming

Marek Marcinkiewicz; Brian van der Linden; David A. Peura; George Goldin; Stella Parolisi; Jerzy Sarosiek

1996-01-01

53

Development and characterization of a carbon-based composite material for reducing patulin levels in apple juice.  

PubMed

Patulin, a heterocyclic lactone produced by various species of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, is often detected in apple juices and ciders. Previous research has shown the effectiveness of granular activated carbon for reducing patulin levels in aqueous solutions, apple juices, and ciders. In this study, ultrafine activated carbon was bonded onto granular quartz to produce a composite carbon adsorbent (CCA) with a high carbonaceous surface area, good bed porosity, and increased bulk density. CCA in fixed-bed adsorption columns was evaluated for efficacy in reducing patulin levels from aqueous solutions and apple juice. Columns containing 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g of CCA were continuously loaded with a patulin solution (10 microg/ml) and eluted at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results indicated that 50% breakthrough capacities for patulin on 1.0-, 0.5-, and 0.25-g CCA columns were 137.5, 38.5, and 19.9 microg, respectively. The effectiveness of CCA to adsorb patulin and prevent toxic effects was confirmed in vitro using adult hydra in culture. Hydra were sensitive to the effects of patulin, with a minimal affective concentration equal to 0.7 microg/ml; CCA adsorption prevented patulin toxicity until 76% breakthrough capacity was achieved. Fixed-bed adsorption with 1.0 g of CCA was also effective in reducing patulin concentrations (20 microg/liter) in a naturally contaminated apple juice, and breakthrough capacities were shown to increase with temperature. Additionally, CCA offered a higher initial breakthrough capacity than pelleted activated carbon when compared in parallel experiments. This study suggests that CCA used in fixed-bed adsorption systems effectively reduced patulin levels in both aqueous solutions and naturally contaminated apple juice; however, the appearance and taste of apple juice may be affected by the treatment process. PMID:10643778

Huebner, H J; Mayura, K; Pallaroni, L; Ake, C L; Lemke, S L; Herrera, P; Phillips, T D

2000-01-01

54

Effects of various clarification treatments on patulin, phenolic compound and organic acid compositions of apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative clarification techniques in apple juice processing and their effects on the patulin content and some other quality parameters including phenolic compounds and organic acids. The clarification techniques varied significantly in their effects for the removal of patulin from apple juice. Conventional clarification using gelatin, bentonite, and activated charcoal was found

Vural Gökmen; Nevzat Art?k; Jale Acar; Nermin Kahraman; Ender Poyrazo?lu

2001-01-01

55

Antiproliferative activity of Citrus juices and HPLC evaluation of their flavonoid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiproliferative activity of fresh fruit juices extracted from Citrus sinensis (cv. Washington Navel and cv. Sanguinello), C. deliciosa cv. Avana, C. clementina cv. Nules, C. aurantium subsp. myrtifolia , was evaluated against K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia), HL-60 (human leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines. All the juices tested showed antiproliferative activity. Moreover, the pattern of the

Lorenzo Camarda; Vita Di Stefano; Sergio Fatta Del Bosco; Domenico Schillaci

2007-01-01

56

Chemical composition and sensory profile of pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) juice.  

PubMed

Two cultivars (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck PO 51 and PO 52) of Malaysian pomelo juices were studied by examining their physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, °Brix and titratable acidity), volatile and non-volatile components (sugars and organic acids). Using solvent extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction, 49 and 65 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector, respectively. Compared to pink pomelo juice (cultivar PO 52), white pomelo juice (cultivar PO 51) contained lower amount of total volatiles but higher terpenoids. Descriptive sensory evaluation indicated that white pomelo juice was milder in taste especially acidity. Furthermore, principal component analysis and partial least square regression revealed a strong correlation in pomelo juices between their chemical components and some flavour attributes (i.e. acidic, fresh, peely and sweet). Hence, this research enabled a deeper insight into the flavour of this unique citrus fruit. PMID:22980835

Cheong, Mun Wai; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

2012-07-11

57

Airway cellularity, lipid laden macrophages and microbiology of gastric juice and airways in children with reflux oesophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) can cause respiratory disease in children from recurrent aspiration of gastric contents. GORD can be defined in several ways and one of the most common method is presence of reflux oesophagitis. In children with GORD and respiratory disease, airway neutrophilia has been described. However, there are no prospective studies that have examined airway cellularity in

AB Chang; NC Cox; J Purcell; JM Marchant; PJ Lewindon; GJ Cleghorn; LC Ee; GD Withers; MK Patrick; J Faoagali

2005-01-01

58

Effect of Different Wine-Making Techniques on the Composition and Quality of Pinotage Wine. II. Juice\\/Skin Mixing Pra ctices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different juice\\/skin mixing practices (punching-down of the cap, pumping-over of the juice and the rotor action, and the frequency at which these actions were performed) on Pinotage wine composition and quality, was investigated over three seasons (2000 to 2002). Win es were analysed for total polyphenols (flavonoids, tannins, antho- cyanins) and esters, and sensorially evaluated for P

J. Marais

59

Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty

Klaus Ewe; Susanne Bollen; Ilse Schuhn

1991-01-01

60

Effect of pulsed electric fields treatment and mash size on extraction and composition of apple juices.  

PubMed

This study explored the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (E=450 V/cm; tt=10 ms; E<3 kJ/kg) and apple mash size on juice yield, polyphenolic compounds, sugars, and malic acid. Juice yield increased significantly after PEF treatment of large mash (Y=71.4%) and remained higher than the juice yield obtained for a control small mash (45.6%). The acid sweet balance was not altered by PEF. A correlation was established between the decrease of light absorbance (control: 1.43; treated: 1.10) and the decline of native polyphenols yield due to PEF treatment (control: 9.6%; treated: 5.9% for small mash). An enhanced oxidation of phenolic compounds in cells due to electroporation of the inner cell membrane and the adsorption of the oxidized products on the mash may explain both the lower light absorbance and the lower native polyphenol concentration. PMID:20701245

Turk, Mohammad F; Baron, Alain; Vorobiev, Eugene

2010-09-01

61

Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectin Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

62

Blueberry juice used per os in upper abdominal MR imaging: composition and initial clinical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercially available blueberry juice (BJ) both as a positive and negative\\u000a oral contrast agent and to present the exact contents of paramagnetic ions. The concentration of Mn and Fe were determined\\u000a in tinned myrtilles in syrup (atomic absorption). Nine healthy volunteers and 12 patients (age range 20–65 years)

A. H. Karantanas; N. Papanikolaou; J. Kalef-Ezra; A. Challa; N. Gourtsoyiannis

2000-01-01

63

Orange Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A boy named Ben learns that the processing behind fresh-squeezed orange juice is simpler—and more environmentally friendly—than that of bottled orange juice, in this animated video from LOOP SCOOPS.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

64

HPLC determination of organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacity of orange juice and orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of orange juice and orange wine obtained from the cv. Kozan of Turkey were determined. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds. Three organic acids (citric, malic and ascorbic acids) and three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were determined. The major organic acid was found as

Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli; Ahmet Canbas; Turgut Cabaroglu

2009-01-01

65

Does Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Result in a Healthier Body Composition? An Affirmative Answer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bariatric surgery results in sustained weight loss. While weight loss is the goal of bariatric surgery, fat loss\\u000a and muscle conservation are germaine goals. This study investigated the hypothesis that body composition would significantly\\u000a change after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). Methods: Patients undergoing LRYGBP were studied. Percent fat\\u000a and percent water were calculated via bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Atul K. Madan; Sam Kuykendall; Whitney S. Orth; Craig A. Ternovits; David S. Tichansky

2006-01-01

66

Juice HACCP  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Recommendations on Fresh Juice National Advisory Committee on Microbiological ... and Growth Of Human Pathogens within Fruits and Vegetables; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/haccp

67

Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.  

PubMed

Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects. PMID:1988257

Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

1991-02-01

68

The flavonoid composition of flavedo and juice from the pummelo cultivar ( Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) and the grapefruit cultivar ( Citrus paradisi) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of flavedos and juices from four Chinese pummelo cultivars (Citrus grandis ‘Shatianyu’, C. grandis ‘Guanximiyu’, C. grandis ‘Yuhuanyu’, and C. grandis ‘Cuixiangtianyu’) and one grapefruit cultivar (Citrus paradisi ‘Changshanhuyu’), was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI MS\\/MS). Twenty-eight flavonoids were identified. Naringin was the predominant flavanone in these pummelo varieties,

Mingxia Zhang; Changqing Duan; Yanyan Zang; Zhongwen Huang; Guojie Liu

2011-01-01

69

Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis. PMID:18557623

Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

2008-06-17

70

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

71

Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.  

PubMed

Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer. PMID:19468836

Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

2009-06-01

72

Influence of Lansoprazole on Intragastric 24Hour pH, Meal-Stimulated Gastric Acid Secretion, and Concentrations of Gastrointestinal Hormones and Enzymes in Serum and Gastric Juice in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve healthy volunteers (6 females, 6 males) between 26 and 36 years of age were enroled in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. The objective was to determine the influence of lansoprazole (Agopton®, Takeda Pharma GmbH, Aachen), a novel proton pump inhibitor, in doses of 30 and 60 mg, on the intragastric pH, on meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion and

G. Brunner; M. Hell; K. J. Hengels; U. Hennig; W. Fuchs

1995-01-01

73

Pectin Extraction from Lemon By-Product with Acidified Date Juice: Effect of Extraction Conditions on Chemical Composition of Pectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of date and lemon pectins were extracted from lemon by-product with acidified date juice under different conditions\\u000a of temperature, pH and time. Individual pectins from date and lemon, respectively, were also extracted using the same experimental\\u000a conditions, then analysed and compared to pectin mixtures. It was found that the use of extreme conditions resulted in higher\\u000a galacturonic acid content,

Manel Masmoudi; Souhail Besbes; Fatma Abbes; Christelle Robert; Michel Paquot; Christophe Blecker; Hamadi Attia

74

Determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of blood orange juices obtained from cvs. Moro and Sanguinello ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) grown in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of orange juices obtained from cvs. Moro and Sanguinello (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were determined. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds of the orange juices. A total of 18 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in Moro and Sanguinello orange juices, including hydroxybenzoic

Hasim Kelebek; Ahmet Canbas; Serkan Selli

2008-01-01

75

Gastric Secretion of Acid in Patients with Pancreatic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the destruction of pancreatic extract, used in the treatment of pancreatic insufficiency, by gastric juice, we measured the gastric secretory response to pentagastrin in patients with pancreatic disease. The patients with chronic pancreatitis and steatorrhoea secreted as much acid as patients with duodenal ulcer, emphasising the need for therapeutic gastric secretory inhibition to supplement treatment of pancreatic

J. H. B. Sounders; J. M. Cargill; K. G. Wormsley

1978-01-01

76

Grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity in dogs and monkeys.  

PubMed

Platelet aggregation (PA) contributes to both the development of atherosclerosis and acute platelet thrombus formation (APTF) followed by embolization producing cyclic flow reductions (CFR) in stenosed and damaged dog and human coronary arteries. In seven anesthetized dogs with coronary stenosis and medial damage, CFR occurred at 7 +/- 3/30 min and were abolished 127 +/- 18 min after gastric administration of 10 mL of purple grape juice/kg. Collagen-induced ex vivo whole blood PA decreased by 49 +/- 9% after the abolishment of CFR with grape juice. Ten mL of orange juice/kg (n = 5) and 10 mL of grapefruit juice/kg (n = 5) had no significant effect on the frequency of the CFR or on ex vivo PA. In vitro studies have suggested that flavonoids bind to platelet cell membranes and thus may have an accumulative or tissue-loading effect over time. To test this we fed 5 mL of grape juice/kg to 5 cynomologous monkeys for 7 d. Collagen-induced ex vivo PA decreased by 41 +/- 17% compared to control (pre-reatment) after 7 d of feeding. In the same 5 monkeys, neither 5 mL of orange juice/kg nor 5 mL of grapefruit juice/kg given orally for 7 d produced any significant change in PA. Grape juice contains the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, which are known inhibitors of PA in vitro. Orange juice and grapefruit juice, while containing less quercetin than grape juice, primarily contain the flavonoids naringin, luteolin and apigenin glucoside. The flavonoids in grapes were shown in vitro to be good inhibitors of PA, whereas the flavonoids in oranges and grapefruit to be poor inhibitors of PA. The consumption of grape juice, containing these inhibitors of PA, may have some of the protection offered by red wine against the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute occlusive thrombosis, whereas orange juice or grapefruit juice may be ineffective. Thus, grape juice may be a useful alternative dietary supplement to red wine without the concomitant alcohol intake. PMID:9868174

Osman, H E; Maalej, N; Shanmuganayagam, D; Folts, J D

1998-12-01

77

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2011-11-09

78

Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.  

PubMed

Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids. PMID:21834231

Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria

2011-07-01

79

Fluid intake and industrial processing in apple juice induced chronic non-specific diarrhoea.  

PubMed Central

Dietary factors have been shown to contribute to the occurrence or persistence of chronic non-specific diarrhoea (CNSD). Among these are low dietary fat, high fluid consumption, and the consumption of apple juice. Prompted by the clinical impression that freshly pressed and unprocessed ('cloudy') apple juice was less likely to induce diarrhoea than normal, enzymatically processed ('clear') apple juice, both juices were compared in terms of carbohydrate malabsorption, gastric emptying, and effects on defecation patterns. Clear and cloudy apple juice differ in their fibre and non-absorbable monosaccharide and oligosaccharide contents. Ten healthy children aged 3.6 to 5.9 years ingested 10 ml/kg of clear and cloudy apple juice; in five of them it was enriched with 40 mg of [1-13C]-glycine. Clear apple juice resulted in increased (> or = 20 ppm) breath hydrogen excretion in 8/10, compared with 5/10 after cloudy apple juice; peak breath hydrogen was higher in the clear apple juice group (35 (4) and 18 (3) ppm, respectively). Gastric emptying as determined by means of labelled breath carbon dioxide (13CO2) excretion was similar with both juices. In a four week crossover clinical trial 12 children, formerly diagnosed as having CNSD, were given extra clear fluids (excluding fruit juices; > or = 50% over basal consumption), clear apple juice, or cloudy apple juice, for five day periods. Extra fluids and cloudy apple juice did not influence stool frequency and consistency compared with the basal period. In contrast, clear apple juice significantly promoted diarrhoea. It is suggested that, in addition to fructose, the increased availability of non-absorbable monosaccharides and oligosaccharides as a result of the enzymatic processing of apple pulp is an important aetiological factor in apple juice induced CNSD.

Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Ghoos, Y F; Hartemink, R; Kneepkens, C M

1995-01-01

80

FDA Sampling of Domestic Orange Juice/Juice Products for ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FDA Sampling of Domestic Orange Juice/Juice Products for Carbendazim. Carbendazim in Orange Juice Products Main Page. ... 728412. orange juice ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

81

Enhancement of iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide by thiocyanate and accumulation of iron(II)/thiocyanate/nitric oxide complex under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.  

PubMed

Iron(III) ingested as a food component or supplement for iron deficiencies can react with salivary SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+) and can be reduced to iron(II) by ascorbic acid in the stomach. Iron(II) generated in the stomach can react with salivary nitrite and SCN(-) to produce nitric oxide (NO) and FeSCN(+), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to make clear the reactions among nitrite, SCN(-), iron ions, and ascorbic acid under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice. Iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to NO was enhanced by SCN(-) in acidic buffer solutions, and the oxidation product of iron(II) reacted with SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+). Almost all of the NO produced was autoxidized to N(2)O(3) under aerobic conditions. Iron(II)-dependent production of NO was also observed in acidified saliva. Under anaerobic conditions, NO transformed Fe(SCN)(2+) and FeSCN(+) to Fe(SCN)NO(+) in acidic buffer solutions. Fe(SCN)NO(+) was also formed under aerobic conditions when excess ascorbic acid was added to iron(II)/nitrite/SCN(-) systems in acidic buffer solutions and acidified saliva. The Fe(SCN)NO(+) formed was transformed to Fe(SCN)(2+) and iron(III) at pH 2.0 and pH 7.4, respectively, by O(2). Salivary glycoproteins could complex with iron(III) in the stomach preventing the formation of Fe(SCN)(2+). Ascorbic acid reduced iron(III) to iron(II) to react with nitrite and SCN(-) as described above. The above results suggest (i) that iron(II) can have toxic effects on the stomach through the formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species from NO when supplemented without ascorbic acid and through the formation of both reactive nitrogen oxide species and Fe(SCN)NO(+) when supplemented with ascorbic acid, and (ii) that the toxic effects of iron(III) seemed to be smaller than and similar to those of iron(II) when supplemented without and with ascorbic acid, respectively. Possible mechanisms that cause oxidative stress on the stomach through Fe(SCN)NO(+) are discussed. PMID:22145785

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

2011-12-28

82

Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.  

PubMed

Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism. PMID:23631498

Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

2013-04-30

83

Elemental composition of dog foods using nitric acid and simulated gastric digestions.  

PubMed

Eighteen dry dog foods obtained commercially in the United States were digested using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and a simulated gastric digestion. Digests were analysed for 23 elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data, expressed as dry matter concentrations, were compared to published nitric acid digestion results. Nitric acid data obtained in the present study were not statistically different from published data, with the exception of Mo, Sn, Sb, Tl and Th. However, significant differences in individual intra-sample results were observed between published studies and the present work. Simulated gastric digestions demonstrated lower extraction efficiencies (<50% nitric acid digestions) that were statistically significant. Much lower bioavailability was observed for Al, Ba and Pb. In general, elemental concentrations were determined to be lower than the appropriate Mineral Tolerance Limit or consistent with background concentrations in foodstuffs. Evaluation against Reference Doses (RfDs) showed concentrations for many elements obtained by nitric acid digestion to be above RfD levels. However, the respective simulated gastric digestion data were below or only moderately elevated above RfDs. Only arsenic displayed median and maximum concentrations at factors of five and ten above the relevant RfD. PMID:23402861

Kelly, David G; White, Steven D; Weir, Ron D

2013-02-08

84

Does intragastric nitrite concentration reflect gastric carcinogenesis in Japanese Helicobacter pylori-infected patients?  

PubMed

Established risk factors for gastric cancer include a diet high in nitrate or nitrite and low in vitamin C and the presence of achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intragastric nitrite concentration and atrophic change of the stomach or gastric carcinogenesis in Japanese Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Gastric juice pH, nitrite, and total vitamin C concentrations in gastric juice, serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations, and specific Helicobacter pylori antibody were analyzed. Intragastric total vitamin C concentration was decreased by Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa and with progression of the atrophic grade. There was a significant positive correlation between atrophic grade and intragastric nitrite concentration. In conclusion, the levels of nitrite in gastric juice play a causal role in the development of cancer in Helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastric mucosa. PMID:14560992

Tari, Akira; Kodama, Kanji; Sumii, Masaharu; Tani, Hiroshi; Sumii, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

2003-09-01

85

Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.  

PubMed

This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

1978-01-01

86

Fasting gastric pH and its relationship to true hypochlorhydria in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormally low rates of gastric acid secretion (hypochlorhydria) are associated with bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and with hypergastrinemia and an increased risk of gastric neoplasms. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of fasting gastric juice pH measurements to detect true hypochlorhydria. True hypochlorhydria was defined as a peak acid output in response to a maximally effective stimulant of

Mark Feldman; Cora Barnett

1991-01-01

87

Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau

Debra A. Pearson; Christine H. Tan; J. Bruce German; Paul A. Davis; M. Eric Gershwin

1999-01-01

88

Arsenic in Apple Juice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... adults. July 12, 2013. ... Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic (updated July 15, 2013). -. Additional Information. Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

89

Growth and composition of alfalfa fertilized in greenhouse trials with deproteinized juice from low and high saponin alfalfa and from oat herbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) must be fertilized adequately to maintain high herbage yields. The deproteinized alfalfa juice (DAJ) remaining after the protein is extracted from green alfalfa has been used to fertilize alfalfa and other crops, but plant damage has occurred at application depths greater than 1.25 cm. The objective of the current greenhouse studies was to determine the response

David A. Welch; Dale Smith; R. M. Soberalske; H. W. Ream

1979-01-01

90

Efficacy of Cranberry Juice on Helicobacter pylori Infection: a Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study postulated that cranberry juice would be effective in the suppression of H. pylori in an endemically infected population at high risk for gastric cancer. Materials and methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Linqu County of Shandong Province, China, where

Lian Zhang; Junling Ma; Kaifeng Pan; Vay Liang W. Go; Junshi Chen; Wei-cheng You

2005-01-01

91

5.NF Drinking Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had $\\frac{1}{2}$ a liter of juice in a bottle. She drank $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the juice that was in the bottle. How many liters of juice did she dri...

92

Juice HACCP Regulator Training  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... except juice produced at retail establishments, is ... disclose the information to the firm's management. ... food-contact surfaces with clothing or personal ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/haccp

93

Changes on phenolic and carotenoid composition of high intensity pulsed electric field and thermally treated fruit juice–soymilk beverages during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35kV\\/cm with 4?s bipolar pulses at 200Hz for 800 or 1400?s) or thermal (90°C, 60s) treatments over phenolic and carotenoid compounds of a fruit juice–soymilk (FJ–SM) beverage stored at 4°C were evaluated and compared, having the untreated beverage as a reference. Coumaric acid, narirutin and hesperidin were the most abundant phenolic

M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso

2011-01-01

94

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the food is âPineapple juice from concentrateâ if the finished juice has been made from pineapple juice concentrate as specified in paragraph (a) of...Pineapple juiceâ or âPineapple juice from concentrate.â (3) Label...

2010-04-01

95

High concentration of kynurenic acid in bile and pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentrations of KYNA in human gastric juice is 9.91 +/- 0.71 nM in contrast to human bile (832.5 +/- 204.1 and 306.8 +/- 35.2 nM) obtained from patients with cholecystolithiasis and obstructive jaundice, respectively. In pigs, the KYNA levels in bile and pancreatic juice are 1,113.3 +/- 63.34 and 757.0 +/- 394.4 nM, respectively. The KYNA concentration increases along the digestive system, reaching 1,638 nM in the colon content. We suggest that the liver and pancreas affect the content of kynurenic acid in the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:18836681

Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Saran, Tomasz; Schabowski, Janusz; Piedra, Jose L Valverde; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Rengman, Sofia; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Turski, Waldemar A

2008-10-05

96

Adventitious Citrus Juice Vesicles from Pre-Existing Juice Vesicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention comprises adventitious citrus juice vesicles having the unique characteristic that they branch out of pre-existing citrus juice vesicles. This is in contrast to tree-produced citrus juice vesicles which arise from the endocarp of the citrus ...

B. Tisserat

1989-01-01

97

Guar gum benefits duodenal ulcer patients by decreasing gastric acidity and rate of emptying of gastric contents 60 to 120 minutes postprandially.  

PubMed

The effects of increasing the viscosity of a meal on postprandial acidity, acid load, and rate of emptying of gastric contents was studied in 15 duodenal ulcer patients in a double-blind manner by adding five gm of guar gum or placebo evenly to a test meal. The acidity of gastric juices was measured postprandially during a 120-min period using samples drawn via a nasogastric tube. Gastric emptying was measured via assessment of the degrees of dilution of polyethylene glycol added to the test meals. Guar gum decreased the total acid load, gastric juice acidity, and rates of emptying of gastric contents between 60 and 120 min postprandially, probably because of its effects on viscosity and neutralization of gastric acidity and may therefore be beneficial for duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:6095709

Harju, E

1984-12-01

98

Red fruit juice quality and authenticity control by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work used International Federation of Fruit-Juice Producers (IFU) Method No. 71 with minor modifications for the analysis of anthocyanins, betacyanins, synthetic red pigments, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and catechins present in red fruit and vegetable juices and red-purple soft-drinks. The proposed HPLC method has been implemented with simultaneous UV–Visible and fluorescence detection and offers unambiguous composition results for

J. M. Obón; M. C. Díaz-García; M. R. Castellar

2011-01-01

99

High pressure inactivation kinetics of amylase in apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure (HP) inactivation kinetics of commercial amylase in apple juice was evaluated under various test conditions (100–400 MPa, 0–60 min and 6–40 °C) using a central composite design of experiments. The enzyme sample was dissolved in clarified apple juice, sealed in dual peel sterilizable plastic bags and subjected to different HP treatments. Residual enzyme activity was evaluated (spectro-photometrically at

Esmaeil Riahi; Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

2004-01-01

100

Gastric cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

Douglass, H.O. (Dept. of Surgical Research, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, NY (US))

1988-01-01

101

Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.  

PubMed

As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied. PMID:18494487

Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

2008-05-22

102

Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.  

PubMed

Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) ?-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of ?-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and ?-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice. PMID:23043313

Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

2012-10-26

103

Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis  

PubMed Central

Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

Tomasik, Przemyslaw J.; Wedrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zajac, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

2013-01-01

104

Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.  

PubMed

Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis. PMID:23899880

Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; W?drychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zaj?c, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

2013-07-29

105

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from...

2013-04-01

106

Gastric Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is frequently regarded as a pure motor disorder. However, this degenerative illness affects also\\u000a the autonomic as well as the enteric nervous systems. Impairment of gastric motility has been found in 70% of patients with\\u000a PD. Neuropathological changes have been described in patients with PD in all parts of the nervous system responsible for gastric\\u000a motility. Gastric

Tanya Gurevich; Amos D. Korczyn; Nir Giladi

107

Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandins and gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

The radiation induced prodromal syndrome is characterized by nausea and vomiting. Gastric emptying, gastric motility, and gastric secretion were suppressed after total-body exposure to irradiation. The relation between vomiting and gastric function is evaluated, and the possible role of prostaglandins (PG) in these phenomena is explored. The concentration of PG in the plasma and gastric juice was determined using standard radioimmunoassay and gastric-acid output was concurrently measured using a marker dilution techniques in 9 rhesus monkeys. The animals were studied in the basal state and after total-body exposure to 800 cGy /sup 60/Co delivered at a rate of 500 cGy/min. Acid output was abolished from 40 min to 2 hrs after irradiation but had returned to preirradiation levels 2 days later. Plasma PGE2 and PGI2 were not significantly modified by irradiation. In contrast, irradiation produced an immediate increase (p<0.05) in gastric-juice concentration of PGE2 and PGI2; both had returned to basal levels 2 days later. Thus, both PGE2 and PGI2 may be responsible for the immediate suppression of acid output. Observations suggest that measurement of PG concentration in the gastric juice is useful to examine the role of prostaglandins in gastric function.

Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Steel, L.; Fiala, N.P.; Conklin, J.J.

1985-01-01

108

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...manufacture of lemon juice from concentrate. (iii) Preservatives...unconcentrated, undiluted liquid extracted from mature... ) âLemon juice from concentrateâ or âreconstituted...

2009-04-01

109

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon...manufacture of lemon juice from concentrate. (iii) Preservatives...unconcentrated, undiluted liquid extracted from mature... ) âLemon juice from concentrateâ or âreconstituted...

2010-04-01

110

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES ...juice, intended for direct consumption, obtained by mechanical...juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall...content (exclusive of added sugars) shall be not less than...

2013-04-01

111

Effects of Ougan juice on P450 activities using a cocktail method.  

PubMed

Ougan (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka) is an important domesticated fruit which is used medicinally in China. To date, a number of methods for its identification and chemical analysis have been studied. However, the effects of Ougan juice on CYP isozymes have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the potential effects of Ougan juice on the CYP isozymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in rats using a cocktail approach involving the probe drugs phenacetin, tolbutamide, omeprazole and dextromethorphan. These four probe drugs were simultaneously administered to rats after single and multiple dosing of Ougan juice by gastric irrigation. The pharmacokinetics of the probes in the plasma were simultaneously determined by HPLC-MS. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the four probe drugs were not significantly different in rats after single dose of Ougan juice. The t1/2 and AUC(0-infinity) of phenacetin and omeprazole increased significantly and their CL(z) decreased markedly after multiple dosing of Ougan juice. However, the t1/2 of tolbutamide decreased notably, while the t1/2 of dextromethorphan was not changed. The findings of this study suggest that a single administration of Ougan juice had little effect on P450 activities while multiple administration of Ougan juice tended to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 and induce CYP2C9, but did not influence CYP2D6. PMID:22530306

Lin, Guan-Yang; Ma, Jian-She; Xu, Ren-Ai; Hu, Lu-Feng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xian-Qin

2012-03-01

112

Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.  

PubMed

Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies. PMID:18828595

Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

2008-10-02

113

Determination of bioactive compounds in the juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).  

PubMed

The juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was analyzed to determine its composition of flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, coumarins and psoralens. The analyses were carried out by HPLC using columns packed with small diameter Fused-Core C18 particles to achieve high resolution in short analysis time. In addition, the profile of the native carotenoids present in the juice was determined using a C30 column. Identification of flavonoids was achieved by MS with ESI in negative mode; the MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was performed in positive APCI; carotenoids were detected with a PDA detector. Nineteen native carotenoids were determined in pummelo juice for the first time. The composition of this juice is also discussed in comparison with other Citrus juices, especially grapefruit. PMID:23513720

Russo, Marina; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Torre, Germana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2013-02-01

114

The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

Garcinia cambogia extract is a herbal preparation that has been suggested as useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study this drug was tested for its antiulcerogenic effect. Oral pretreatment with Garcinia cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body wt/day) for 5, 10 or 15 days protected the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by indomethacin (20 mg/kg body wt). The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in the pretreated rats. The glycoprotein levels of the gastric contents which were decreased in the untreated rats, maintained near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Protein which was elevated in the gastric juice of untreated rats, showed near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. PMID:11807973

Mahendran, P; Vanisree, A J; Shyamala Devi, C S

2002-02-01

115

Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandin and gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

Early radiation toxicity is characterized by nausea and vomiting. The authors have previously shown that gastric emptying, gastric motility, and gastric secretion were suppressed after total-body exposure to irradiation. In this studies, the authors evaluated the relation between vomiting and gastric function in nine rhesus monkeys and explored the possible role of prostaglandins (PG) in these phenomena. The concentration of PG in plasma and gastric juice was determined using a standard radioimmunoassay, and gastric-acid output was measured concurrently using a marker dilution technique. The animals were studied in the basal state and after total-body exposure to 800 cGy /sup 60/Co delivered at a rate of 500 cGy/min. Acid output was abolished from 40 min to 2 h after irradiation but had returned to preirradiation levels 2 days later. Plasma PGE2 and PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto-PGE determination) were not significantly modified by irradiation. In contrast, irradiation produced an immediate significant increase (P<0.05) in gastric-juice concentration of PGE2 and PGI2; both had returned to basal levels 2 days later. Thus, an increase in gastric-juice concentration of both PGE2 and PGI2 is associated with the radiation-induced suppression of acid output.

Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Steel, L.; Fiala, N.P.; Conklin, J.J.

1987-01-01

116

Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandins and gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

Early radiation toxicity is characterized by nausea and vomiting. We have previously shown that gastric emptying, gastric motility, and gastric secretion were suppressed after total body exposure to irradiation. In the present studies, we evaluated the relation between vomiting and gastric function in nine rhesus monkeys and explored the possible role of prostaglandins (PG) in these phenomena. The concentration of PG in plasma and gastric juice was determined using a standard radioimmunoassay and gastric acid output was measured concurrently using a marker dilution technique. The animals were studied in the basal state and after total body exposure to 800 cGy /sup 60/Co delivered at a rate of 500 cGy/min. Acid output was abolished from 40 min to 2 h after irradiation but had returned to preirradiation levels 2 days later. Plasma PGE2 and PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto-PGF1 alpha determination) were not significantly modified by irradiation. In contrast, irradiation produced an immediate significant increase (P less than 0.05) in gastric juice concentration of PGE2 (318 +/- 80 to 523 +/- 94 pg/ml; mean +/- SE) and PGI2 (230 +/- 36 to 346 +/- 57 pg/ml); both had returned to basal levels 2 days later. Thus, an increase in gastric juice concentration of both PGE2 and PGI2 is associated with the radiation induced suppression of acid output.

Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Steel, L.; Fiala, N.P.; Conklin, J.J.

1987-05-01

117

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOURSOP JUICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is a typical fruit of the Brazilian Northeast states; the fruit has a green skin and an aromatic white pulp, and is principally consumed as a juice. It is also used for preparation of beverages, syrups, shakes and ice creams. The knowledge of the thermal properties of soursop juice is essential for the food industries, especially

A. C. A. Gratão; V. Silveira Jr; J. Telis-Romero

118

Process for Preparing Carrot Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a novel process for preparing carrot juice in such a manner as as to avoid the formation of a coagulum upon further processing. A revised pretreatment procedure is employed; which permits the extraction of juice by conventional me...

T. S. Stephens G. Saldana H. E. Brown

1972-01-01

119

Ultraviolet treatment of orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) with a wavelength of 254 nm tends to inactivate most types of microorganisms. Most juices are opaque to UV due to the high-suspended solids in them and hence the conventional UV treatment, usually used for water treatment, cannot be used for treating juices. In order to make the process efficient, a thin film reactor was designed and constructed

Mai Thu Thi Tran; Mohammed Farid

2004-01-01

120

Gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection, as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there are still 700?000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis. None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates: at present, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%. Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation, injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia. It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating, sustaining and advancing tumor growth. It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic. Additional mutations can be acquired, and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype. Intestinalization of gastric units, which is called “intestinal metaplasia”; phenotypic antralization of fundic units, which is called “spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia”; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis. Also, an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma. However, the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial. Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation, and our paper attempts to highlight recent progress in this field of cancer research.

Gomceli, Ismail; Demiriz, Baris; Tez, Mesut

2012-01-01

121

Juice Challenge Part 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center asks students to figure out the number of individual containers, boxes and pallets of orange juice that will be loaded onto a train car. This activity is the third in a series of three (which may also be found on FL-ATE's site) which ask students to redesign a product's packaging. The lesson asks students to use math, science and engineering to come up with the correct answer. This is the third part of a three-part activity, begun here.

2011-02-22

122

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

... gastric culture, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is diagnosed. Because these bacteria are slow growing, it may take up to 6 weeks to confirm the diagnosis. This test can also be used to detect other forms of bacteria that do not cause tuberculosis.

123

Gastric Banding  

MedlinePLUS

... and certain drugs should not have gastric banding. Surgical Procedure Before Surgery If you are considering whether ... incisions) in the abdomen. A small camera and surgical instruments are placed through the cuts into the ...

124

Manometric evidence of improved early gastric stasis by erythromycin after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

Gastric stasis is a frequent complication of pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). We demonstrated that it might be attributable to delayed recovery of phase III activity of the gastric migrating motor complex due to low concentrations of plasma motilin caused by resection of the duodenum. Leucine 13-motilin is effective for treating gastric stasis, but it is not yet available for clinical use. Whether erythromycin would improve early gastric stasis after PPPD was tested clinically and by manometry. A manometric tube assembly and a gastrostomy tube were inserted in the stomach of 10 patients at PPPD for pressure recording from the gastric antrum and jejunum and for gastric juice drainage, respectively. After baseline recording, erythromycin 5 mg/kg was given intravenously on day 14 and saline as a placebo on day 17 every 4 hours four times a day. The daily volume of gastric juice output and the gastric motility index were measured. The mean period until the return of gastric phase III was 31 +/- 1 days. Erythromycin significantly increased the gastric motility index from 7.9 +/- 1.3 mmHg to 15.7 +/- 1.8 mmHg (p = 0.0005), whereas saline did not (7.2 +/- 1.6 mmHg to 6.5 +/- 1.2 mmHg; p = 0.21). Erythromycin significantly decreased the gastric juice output from 1,080 +/- 190 ml to 738 +/- 199 ml (p < 0.0001), but the saline injections did not (1,064 +/- 174 ml to 1,115 +/- 189 ml; p = 0.35). Erythromycin, a universally available motilin agonist, is a safe, effective, potent drug for the treatment of early gastric stasis after PPPD. PMID:11071469

Matsunaga, H; Tanaka, M; Takahata, S; Ogawa, Y; Naritomi, G; Yokohata, K; Yamaguchi, K; Chijiiwa, K

2000-10-01

125

Amino acid loss in peach juice concentrate during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was focused on the analysis of the change of the free amino acid (AA) composition of peach juice concentrate (PJC) as a result of Maillard reactions, which damage the product quality. In particular, the effect of the storage at 15, 30 and 37°C over 6 weeks was investigated, since these are the conditions likely to be found in

A. P Buedo; M. P Elustondo; M. J Urbicain

2000-01-01

126

Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng, 1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS), TSS\\/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were

Li-ying NIU; Ji-hong WU; Xiao-jun LIAO; Fang CHEN; Zheng-fu WANG; Guang-hua ZHAO; Xiao-song HU

2008-01-01

127

Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfed.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on

Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

128

Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0-4.2), citric acid (6-40 g/L), and ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L). In total, 17 experimental runs were carried out. The initial cell concentration in the model solutions was approximately 1 × 10(8)CFU/mL; the solutions were stored at 4°C for 6 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the stepwise regression demonstrated that a second order polynomial model fits well the data. The results demonstrated that high pH and citric acid concentration enhanced cell survival; one the other hand, ascorbic acid did not have an effect. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate, cranberry and lemon juice. The model predicted well the cell survival in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple, however it failed to predict cell survival in grapefruit and pomegranate, indicating the influence of additional factors, besides pH and citric acid, on cell survival. Very good cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) was observed after 6 weeks of storage in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple juice, all of which had a pH of about 3.8. Cell survival in cranberry and pomegranate decreased very quickly, whereas in the case of lemon juice, the cell concentration decreased approximately 1.1 logs after 6 weeks of storage, albeit the fact that lemon juice had the lowest pH (pH~2.5) among all the juices tested. Taking into account the results from the compositional analysis of the juices and the model, it was deduced that in certain juices, other compounds seemed to protect the cells during storage; these were likely to be proteins and dietary fibre In contrast, in certain juices, such as pomegranate, cell survival was much lower than expected; this could be due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds. PMID:21411170

Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

2011-03-14

129

Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.  

PubMed

Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

2005-12-01

130

[Gastric polyps].  

PubMed

Gastric polyps exist in a wide variety of types, most often benign. Endoscopic discovery of gastric polyps necessitates biopsies - not only of the lesion but also of the antral and fundic mucosa to determine the therapeutic strategy and subsequent surveillance. Fundic gland polyps are the most frequent type; they are asymptomatic with no malignant potential. They require neither treatment nor surveillance. Hyperplastic polyps, adenomas and tumors must be totally resected. Biopsies alone are insufficient to assess the extent of malignancy of adenomas and of hyperplastic polyps more than 5 mm in diameter. These polyps are associated with an elevated frequency of precancerous alterations of the gastric mucosa and consequently by an elevated risk of synchronous or metachronous cancer. Eradication of Helicobacter pylorus may reduce the risk of metachronous gastric cancer and recurrence after resection. Carcinoid tumors of the fundus most often occur in patients with hypergastrinemia during atrophic gastritis of autoimmune origin; they are not serious. The advantages and procedures for endoscopic surveillance of patients with a precancerous condition of the gastric mucosa have not yet been clearly established in populations with a low incidence of cancer. PMID:17482791

Vallot, Thierry

2007-05-07

131

Gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Infection of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella typhi) can lead to various organ diseases. This research first proposed that Salmonella typhi-infection could result in gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcers that were ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Male Wistar rats were given intrajejunally the live culture of Salmonella typhi [1 x 10(10) colony-forming unit (CFU)/rat] and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. Infection of Salmonella typhi produced an aggravation of ulcerogenic factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation and hemorrhagic ulcer as well as an attenuation of mucosal GSH level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P<0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. In conclusion, infection of Salmonella typhi substantially caused gastric oxidative stress and disruption of gastric mucosal barriers, consequently resulted in gastric hemorrhagic ulcerations that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and various antioxidants. PMID:15102534

Hung, Chen-Road; Wang, Paulus S

2004-04-26

132

Does gastric aminopyrine clearance reflect gastric mucosal blood flow or parietal cell function?  

PubMed Central

Gastric aminopyrine clearance was measured in human volunteers and dogs with untreated basal secretion, in human volunteers and dogs treated with secretory inhibitors, in dogs treated with histamine, and in patients with pernicious anaemia. When aminopyrine was given as a bolus to man or dog, aminopyrine clearance and the ratio aminopyrine concentration in gastric juice/aminopyrine concentration in plasma showed an initial peak two to three times over steady state levels. When aminopyrine was given with histamine, the peaks were even higher. No peaks occurred when an aminopyrine bolus was given to patients with pernicious anaemia or to healthy volunteers treated with secretory inhibitors. The height of the peaks paralleled the acid secretory rate. The peaks may best be explained by aminopyrine accumulation in the parietal cells and washing out of aminopyrine by volume flow. The steady state levels might reflect both parietal cell function and gastric mucosal blood flow.

Muller-Lissner, S A; Sonnenberg, A; Blum, A L

1981-01-01

133

21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared...

2013-04-01

134

21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared...

2009-04-01

135

21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared...

2010-04-01

136

Quality Attributes of Cupua?u Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586  

PubMed Central

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity.

Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Duran, Nelson; de Lima Filho, Jose Luiz

2011-01-01

137

Gastric Polyps and Protruding Type Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric protruding lesions are frequently encountered by health screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. They can be classified into epithelial lesion and subepithelial lesion. Epithelial gastric lesions are generally divided into benign and malignant. Benign lesions include some types of polyps, i.e., hyperplastic polyp, fundic gland polyp, and gastric adenoma. Malignant lesions include carcinoid, early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer. They can be accurately diagnosed by magnifying endoscopy or narrow band imaging. Here, I will discuss benign and malignant epithelial lesions of the stomach.

2013-01-01

138

Gastric emptying in non-responders to H 2 -receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary H2-receptor antagonists are known to fail to increase the intragastric pH in some patients (so-called non-responders), and we have recently found a higher frequency of non-responders among cirrhotics. Since intragastric pH is also affected by gastric emptying, in the present study we determined the gastric emptying of 300 ml orange juice labelled with [99mTc]-Solco Nanocoll using a gamma camera.

S. Walker; J. Meinke; U. Klotz; G. Treiber; J. C. Bode

1990-01-01

139

Prevention of HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by Garcinia cambogia extract and its possible mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Oral pretreatment of rats with G. cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body weight/day at interval of 7 and 15 days) protected gastric mucosa against HCl-ethanol induced damage by decreasing the volume and acidity of gastric juice. Increased lipid peroxidation, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, altered levels of protein and glycoproteins in the ulcerated mucosa, and gastric juice were maintained at near normal levels in G. cambogia pretreated rats. The results suggest the anti-ulcer activity of G. cambogia by virtue of its ability to decrease acidity and increase mucosal defense. PMID:12561970

Mahendran, P; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

2002-01-01

140

How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

2011-01-01

141

Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix Search the ... or Too Low Drug Levels Tips for Consumers Grapefruit juice can be part of a healthful diet— ...

142

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices...extraction of such liquid, heat may be applied by any...The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning...temperatures, it is so processed by heat, before or after...

2013-04-01

143

Acute gastric changes in patients with acute stroke. Part 1: with reference to gastroendoscopic findings.  

PubMed

A gastroendoscopic study was performed on 177 patients with acute stroke. Gastric changes were found in 92 among them (52%), including ten with acute ulcer. A high frequency of gastric changes was found in patients with serious stroke and/or in patients whose cerebral lesions were located close to the hypothalamus or its centrifugal tract. The mortality in patients with gastric changes was high, especially in patients with acute ulcers, multiple erosions and petechiae. The frequency of brown gastric juice and coffee grounds at gastroendoscopic examination (gastric hemorrhage) was three times as high as that of melena and/or hematoemesis. On the other hand, the mortality of patients with gastric hemorrhage differed little from that of patients with melena and/or hematoemesis. PMID:1085508

Kitamura, T; Ito, K

144

Flavonoid profile and radical-scavenging activity of Mediterranean sweet lemon ( Citrus limetta Risso) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of crude Citrus limetta Risso (limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon) juice was elucidated by means of reverse-phase HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS\\/MS analysis. In a single course, eight compounds (C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids) were identified, six of which were found for the first time in limetta juice: four C-glucosyl flavones, namely vicenin-2, lucenin-2 4?-methyl ether, orientin 4?-methyl ether and scoparin; the O-glycosyl

Davide Barreca; Ersilia Bellocco; Corrado Caristi; Ugo Leuzzi; Giuseppe Gattuso

2011-01-01

145

Comparison of ‘Verna’ lemon juice quality for new ingredients and food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two clonal selections of lemon trees (‘Verna-62’ and ‘Verna-50-2’), were studied in aiming to ascertain the influence of genetic (clone) and environmental (season) factors on the human-health bioactive compounds of the lemon juice (vitamin C and flavonoids) and the possible relationship between composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) of the juice. The average values determined in

Elena González-Molina; Diego A. Moreno; Cristina García-Viguera

2009-01-01

146

Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.

PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

2009-01-01

147

Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.  

PubMed

Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:15383234

Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

2004-01-01

148

Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice. PMID:10888515

Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

2000-06-01

149

The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–? and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine).

Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

2010-01-01

150

Gastric intramural pH in mechanically ventilated patients.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that gastric intramural pH (pHi) is predictive of outcome in haemodynamically stable, mechanically ventilated patients was tested in 25 patients on assisted mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. METHODS: Simultaneous samples of arterial blood and gastric juice were obtained from patients on assist control, synchronised intermittent and pressure control ventilation during the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Gastric pHi was calculated from the equation: pHi= 6.1 + log HCO3/(gastric PCO2 X 0.03). The outcome was survival or death due to respiratory or circulatory failure within 45 days of admission. RESULTS: Gastric pHi proved to be a better predictor of outcome than all presently utilised parameters. Although all patients included in this study were haemodynamically stable and were similar for all laboratory indices, the only variable capable of accurately predicting outcome was gastric pHi. Patients with a normal arterial pH but a gastric intramural pH of less than 7.25 had an observed mortality of 66%. Standard severity of illness scores grossly underestimated mortality rates. The sensitivity and specificity of a gastric pHi value of less than 7.25 in predicting death were 86% and 83%, respectively. A receiver operator curve for all variables exaggerates the superiority of gastric pHi as a predictor of outcome. CONCLUSION: Low gastric pHi, a marker of gastrointestinal ischaemia, may occur in the presence of normal haemodynamics and may be used to predict severity of illness and mortality accurately.

Mohsenifar, Z; Collier, J; Koerner, S K

1996-01-01

151

An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the current mission science goals do not include any astrophysical observations, we find that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in situ measurements of Interstellar Dust (ISD), due to highly increased flux levels at that time. In case that JUICE carries a dust detector, this could lead to in situ high-resolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Postberg, F.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

2012-10-01

152

An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the mission science goals do not include any astronomical observations, we find by modeling the Interstellar Dust (ISD) trajectories that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in-situ observations of Interstellar Dust, due to highly increased flux levels at that time at the orbit of Jupiter. If JUICE would carry a dust detector, this could lead to exclusive highresolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

2012-09-01

153

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol. PMID:24031124

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-03-01

154

Rebamipide, a cytoprotective drug, increases gastric mucus secretion in human: evaluations with endoscopic gastrin test.  

PubMed

We have previously developed a rapid, simple endoscopic method for evaluating gastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (the endoscopic gastrin test, EGT). In EGT, gastric fluid newly secreted over 10 min after gastrin stimulation is collected under direct endoscopic visualization. In this study, employing the EGT, we evaluated the effect of rebamipide, a cytoprotective anti-ulcer drug, on gastric mucus secretion. In ten Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers, gastric juice was collected by EGT prior to and after 4-week administration of rebamipide. The collected gastric juice was subjected to analysis for gastric mucus output. Total gastric mucin output was significantly increased by 53% by rebamipide administration from 3.2 +/- 1.2 mg hexose/10 min to 4.9 +/- 2.2 mg hexose/10 min (P < 0.01). Further analysis by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that rebamipide administration induced a specific increase in acidic mucin rich in sialic acid. Applying EGT, this study demonstrated that rebamipide administration increased gastric mucus secretion in human. PMID:18975081

Iijima, Katsunori; Ichikawa, T; Okada, S; Ogawa, M; Koike, T; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

2008-10-31

155

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol.

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

156

21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135,...

2013-04-01

157

21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as...

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as...

2009-04-01

159

Stability and enhancement of berry juice color.  

PubMed

Attractive color is one of the main sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products. Unfortunately, the color of red juices is unstable and easily susceptible to degradation, leading to a dull and weak juice color. This study was designed to investigate the color stability and copigmentation of four different berry juices enhanced by phenolic acids and commercial color enhancers. Phenolic acid enrichment improved and stabilized the color of the berry juices during storage. The commercial color enhancers immediately produced an intensive color to the juices, which, however, was not very stable. The color enhancement was intensive in strawberry and raspberry juices and effective in lingonberry and cranberry juices. Sinapic acid induced the strongest color in strawberry juice. Ferulic and sinapic acids improved raspberry juice color equally. Rosmarinic acid enhanced the color of lingonberry and cranberry juices the most. The addition of the simple cinnamic acids produced novel peaks to the end of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram, indicating a formation of new compounds. It can be assumed that sinapic and ferulic acids formed new intramolecular copigmentation compounds with berry anthocyanins whereas rosmarinic acid stabilized anthocyanins intermolecularly. PMID:15137861

Rein, Maarit J; Heinonen, Marina

2004-05-19

160

The Effect of Composition and Gastric Conditions on the Self-Emulsification Process of Ibuprofen-Loaded Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: A Microscopic and Dynamic Gastric Model Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the physical processes involved in the emulsification of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) and\\u000a the use of the Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) as a characterisation tool.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  SEDDSs based on soybean oil, Tween 80, Span 80 and ibuprofen were prepared and their equilibrium phase diagrams established.\\u000a The emulsification behaviour in a range of media was studied using polarised light

Annalisa Mercuri; Antonio Passalacqua; Martin S. J. Wickham; Richard M. Faulks; Duncan Q. M. Craig; Susan A. Barker

2011-01-01

161

The role of endogenous prostaglandins in the regulation of gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins (PG) are known to alter a variety of gastrointestinal functions, but the physiological role of endogenous PG remains unclear. This experiment was designed to evaluate changes in gastric secretion following both acute and chronic inhibition of PG synthesis with indomethacin (5 mg/kg s.c.). Gastric juice was collected by continuous aspiration in 8 conscious chair-adapted male rhesus monkeys following treatment with saline or indomethacin for one or four days. The gastric juice was analyzed for H+, Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. The amount of soluble mucus in the gastric juice was estimated using Alcian Blue dye binding of acidic glycoproteins and Periodic Acid Schiff reaction with neutral glycoproteins. PG levels were measured in the plasma and in biopsy samples of fundus, antrum and duodenum. Both one and four days of indomethacin significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased tissue PG levels in the fundus, antrum and duodenum. Plasma levels of PGF2 alpha were significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased after both one and four days of indomethacin, while PGE2 and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were significantly inhibited only after four days of indomethacin. Both acute and chronic inhibition of PG synthesis was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of sodium and mucus in the gastric juice but by an increase in the output and concentration of hydrogen ion. These changes suggest a possible mechanism by which endogenous PG play a role in the regulation of gastric secretion and in the protection against gastrointestinal damage. PMID:4059577

el-Bayar, H; Steel, L; Montcalm, E; Danquechin-Dorval, E; Dubois, A; Shea-Donohue, T

1985-09-01

162

Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: Comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to determine whether Seville orange juice produces a grapefruit juice–like interaction with felodipine and whether bergamottin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, or other furocoumarins are involved.Methods: In a randomized three-way crossover design, 10 volunteers received a felodipine 10-mg extended-release tablet with 240 mL of Seville orange juice, dilute grapefruit juice (that contained equivalent total molar concentrations of bergamottin plus 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin),

Shefali Malhotra; David G. Bailey; Mary F. Paine; Paul B. Watkins

2001-01-01

163

21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provided, however, that the concentration of orange juice soluble solids is not less...or â___ orange juice concentrate for manufacturing...with the figure showing the concentration of orange juice soluble solids in...

2010-04-01

164

21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Provided, however, that the concentration of orange juice soluble solids is not less...or â___ orange juice concentrate for manufacturing...with the figure showing the concentration of orange juice soluble solids in...

2009-04-01

165

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water...prune solids may be adjusted by the concentration, dilution, or both,...

2010-04-01

166

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water...prune solids may be adjusted by the concentration, dilution, or both,...

2009-04-01

167

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the...

2009-01-01

168

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the...

2010-01-01

169

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 ...154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements...

2009-04-01

170

21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

2013-04-01

171

21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

2010-04-01

172

21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

2009-04-01

173

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food...Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water...

2010-04-01

174

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food...Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water...

2009-04-01

175

21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the food is âConcentrated orange juice for manufacturing, ___â or â___ orange juice concentrate for manufacturingâ, the blank being...figure showing the concentration of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix....

2013-04-01

176

77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely...4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation...

2012-04-13

177

Gastric protection by sucralfate. Role of mucus and prostaglandins.  

PubMed

Sucralfate promotes the healing of peptic ulcers and, in large doses, increases gastric mucosal prostaglandins. The present study was designed to further elucidate the protective effect of sucralfate and to evaluate the role of prostaglandins in this action. Eight chair-adapted rhesus monkeys received a subcutaneous injection of either 150 mg/kg of aspirin or vehicle in combination with either a therapeutic oral dose of sucralfate (50 mg/kg X day) or water. Gastric soluble mucus concentration was determined in samples of gastric juice by Alcian blue dye binding of acidic glycoproteins, and mucus output was determined using a technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dilution technique. Monkeys underwent endoscopy to assess gastric mucosal damage, which was ranked blindly on a scale of 0-5, and to obtain biopsy specimens for determination of mucosal prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha. Aspirin did not alter soluble mucus but did significantly increase gastric mucosal damage and suppress tissue levels of all prostaglandins. Sucralfate significantly increased the output of soluble mucus, even after aspirin treatment, and protected against aspirin-induced damage, although it did not modify aspirin-induced suppression of prostaglandins. These results suggest that the gastric protection afforded by sucralfate is related to a prostaglandin-independent increase in mucus production. PMID:3460926

Shea-Donohue, T; Steel, L; Montcalm, E; Dubois, A

1986-09-01

178

Ordering Juice Drinks (grade 4)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 4 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the number and operations in base ten standards. In this interactive single task students must solve a multi-step problem by completing an order receipt for orange juice. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

179

Solar Still Part II: Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members repeat an experiment designed to separate fresh water from a liquid solution, this time using colored sugar water in one solar still and orange juice in another. The basic still design they employ traps water vapor that is created when the Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. As the vapor cools, it condenses and trickles down to a collection container. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

180

Glycosphingolipids in human pancreatic juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Glycosphingolipids in human pancreatic juice were isolated and purified by DEAE and silica gel column chromatographs, and\\u000a further by HPLC on silica gel and reversed-phase columns. The structures of the glycosphingolipids were determined to be glucosylceramides\\u000a and lactosylceramides by means of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry,1H-NMR spectroscopy, and component analysis involving GLC-mass spectrometry. The ceramide portions of the glucosylceramides\\u000a consist

Yuichiro Hamanaka; Sumiko Hamanaka; Toshio Kaneko; Takashi Suzuki; Minoru Suzuki; Akemi Suzuki

1995-01-01

181

Freeze concentration of fruit juices.  

PubMed

Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

1984-01-01

182

The Development of a Manually operated Cashew Juice Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A manually operated cashew juice extractor operating on screw press principle was designed, constructed and tested. Apple crushing was by pressing a wooden piston against a steel reinforced end plate. Juice output was 1.02 litres\\/hr and the average juice extraction efficiency was 85.38 %. Three samples of the juice (fresh juice, juice stored under ambient conditions for 24hrs and refrigerated

B. S. Ogunsina; E. B. Lucas

2008-01-01

183

Gastric Cancer After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 63-year-old woman with BMI 46 underwent laparoscopic gastric banding. In the standardized follow-up after 14 and 24 months,\\u000a the GI series and gastroscopy showed no pathological signs. The patient had hematemesis 32 months after gastric banding, followed\\u000a by symptoms of obstruction, for which a laparotomy was performed. At operation, peritoneal carcinomatosis due to gastric cancer\\u000a was found. Symptoms after bariatric procedures

C. Stroh; U. Hohmann; H. Urban; Th. Manger

2008-01-01

184

Healthy controls have as much bile reflux as gastric ulcer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on duodenogastric reflux of bile in gastric ulcer are conflicting. We therefore measured intragastric bile acid concentration and its composition from individual bile acids, duodenogastric bile acid reflux rate, gastric emptying rate, and secretion rates of volume and acid in 30 patients with gastric ulcer and in 66 healthy controls, both in the fasting state and after feeding a

N E Schindlbeck; C Heinrich; F Stellaard; G Paumgartner; S A Müller-Lissner

1987-01-01

185

Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. Images p665-a

Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

1995-01-01

186

Identification of a cranberry juice product that inhibits enteric CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 microg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)(0-infinity) of midazolam by approximately 30% (p=0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1'-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC(0-infinity) ratio by approximately 40% (p<0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela D M; Dees, E Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

2008-12-29

187

Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans  

PubMed Central

An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1?-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 ?g/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-? of midazolam by ?30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1?-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-? ratio by ?40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies.

Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

2009-01-01

188

Gastric and intestinal lactobezoars.  

PubMed

Two male full-term infants presented with unusual features of lactobezoar. One had gastric disease while the other had small bowel bezoar. The gastric lactobezoar was managed medically while the intestinal one required surgical intervention. PMID:11400808

Rao PVH; Raveenthiran, V; Dhanalakshmi, M

189

Antioxidant activity versus cytotoxic and nuclear factor kappa B regulatory activities on HT29 cells by natural fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging ability and lipid oxidation inhibitory activity) and the activity in cell\\u000a culture [influence on HT-29 human colon cancer cell viability and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation] of natural fruit\\u000a juices from red grape, strawberry, cherry and sour cherry were investigated in vitro. Analysis of polyphenolic composition\\u000a of fruit juices showed the dominant presence

Tea Kulisic-Bilusic; Kerstin Schnäbele; Ingrid Schmöller; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Anita Krisko; Branka Dejanovic; Mladen Milos; Greta Pifat

2009-01-01

190

Concentration of pineapple juice by osmotic evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the process of osmotic evaporation to concentrate pineapple juice. In order to study the effect of pulp content on the performance, clarified and single strength pineapple juices were successively concentrated up to 57g100g?1 total soluble solids (TSS). Trials were carried out with a laboratory unit using saturated calcium chloride brine as the

Chularat Hongvaleerat; Lourdes M. C. Cabral; Manuel Dornier; Max Reynes; Suwayd Ningsanond

2008-01-01

191

Vinamilk: Fruit Juice for Kids in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruit juice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruit juice product line. The company, while relatively new to the

Adel Fawzi DIMIAN; Kevin Sproule

2012-01-01

192

Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary citrus juices in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our preliminary studies showed that in mildly hypercholesterolemic rats with chemically induced breast cancer, dietary orange juice reduced total plasma cholesterol and dietary grapefruit juice tended to reduce VLDL + LDL cholesterol. We therefore investigated whether orange juice and grapefruit juice (double strength) could influence cholesterol metabolism in rabbits with high LDL cholesterol levels induced by feeding a semipurified, cholesterol-free,

E. M. Kurowska; N. M. Borradaile; J. D. Spence; K. K. Carroll

2000-01-01

193

Viscosity changes in orange juice after ultrafiltration and evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended solids, including cloud and pectin, were removed from orange juice using a hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane (500 kDa). Orange juice serum had a clear amber color with no measurable turbidity. Regular and clarified orange juices were concentrated in a four stage, three effect TASTE (thermally accelerated short time evaporator) evaporator.The viscosity of the clarified juice was appreciably lower than

R. D. Carter

1995-01-01

194

Consumer acceptance of orange juice containing functional ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sensory impact of functional ingredients (e.g., probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, and minerals) on the aroma and taste of orange fruit juices. A trained panel (n=10) performed a descriptive sensory analysis on four functional orange juices and seven conventional orange juices. The functional juices were described as possessing perceptible “dairy”, “medicinal” and “dirty” flavours, distinguishing them from the

T Luckow; C Delahunty

2004-01-01

195

High pressure and foods—fruit\\/vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high pressure pasteurisation is capable to preserve the nutritional substances in juices such as sulforaphane in broccoli juice. This paper deals with the procedures how to maintain the highest content of this compound and other nutritional substances and how to prepare the consumer acceptable form of this juice. The final product—the apple–broccoli juice functional food (food supplement) was experimentally

Milan Houška; Jan Strohalm; Kate?ina Kocurová; Ji?í Totušek; Danuše Lefnerová; Jan T?íska; Nad?žda Vrchotová; Vlasta Fiedrleová; Maria Holasova; Dana Gabrovská; Ivana Paulí?ková

2006-01-01

196

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and...Juices and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented...

2010-04-01

197

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and...Juices and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented...

2009-04-01

198

Response surface optimization of conditions for clarification of carambola fruit juice using a commercial enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for simultaneous analysis of the effects of enzymatic treatment conditions of incubation time, incubation temperature and enzyme concentration on physical characteristics such as turbidity, clarity, viscosity, and color. In this study, a two-factor central composite design was used to establish the optimum conditions for the enzymatic treatment for clarification of carambola fruit juice. Carambola

A. G. Liew Abdullah; N. M. Sulaiman; M. K. Aroua; M. J. Megat Mohd Noor

2007-01-01

199

Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy  

SciTech Connect

Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

1986-01-01

200

Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs.  

PubMed

Grapefruit juice can alter oral drug pharmacokinetics by different mechanisms. Irreversible inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is produced by commercial grapefruit juice given as a single normal amount (e.g. 200-300 mL) or by whole fresh fruit segments. As a result, presystemic metabolism is reduced and oral drug bioavailability increased. Enhanced oral drug bioavailability can occur 24 hours after juice consumption. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a possible mechanism that increases oral drug bioavailability by reducing intestinal and/or hepatic efflux transport. Recently, inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides by grapefruit juice was observed in vitro; intestinal uptake transport appeared decreased as oral drug bioavailability was reduced. Numerous medications used in the prevention or treatment of coronary artery disease and its complications have been observed or are predicted to interact with grapefruit juice. Such interactions may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis when dyslipidemia is treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin. Potential alternative agents are pravastatin, fluvastatin, or rosuvastatin. Such interactions might also cause excessive vasodilatation when hypertension is managed with the dihydropyridines felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, or nitrendipine. An alternative agent could be amlodipine. In contrast, the therapeutic effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan may be reduced by grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice interacting with the antidiabetic agent repaglinide may cause hypoglycemia, and interaction with the appetite suppressant sibutramine may cause elevated BP and HR. In angina pectoris, administration of grapefruit juice could result in atrioventricular conduction disorders with verapamil or attenuated antiplatelet activity with clopidrogel. Grapefruit juice may enhance drug toxicity for antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone, quinidine, disopyramide, or propafenone, and for the congestive heart failure drug, carvediol. Some drugs for the treatment of peripheral or central vascular disease also have the potential to interact with grapefruit juice. Interaction with sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil for erectile dysfunction, may cause serious systemic vasodilatation especially when combined with a nitrate. Interaction between ergotamine for migraine and grapefruit juice may cause gangrene or stroke. In stroke, interaction with nimodipine may cause systemic hypotension. If a drug has low inherent oral bioavailability from presystemic metabolism by CYP3A4 or efflux transport by P-gp and the potential to produce serious overdose toxicity, avoidance of grapefruit juice entirely during pharmacotherapy appears mandatory. Although altered drug response is variable among individuals, the outcome is difficult to predict and avoiding the combination will guarantee toxicity is prevented. The elderly are at particular risk, as they are often prescribed medications and frequently consume grapefruit juice. PMID:15449971

Bailey, David G; Dresser, George K

2004-01-01

201

Production of ethanol by a flocculent Saccharomyces sp. in a continuous upflow reactor using sucrose, sugar-cane juice, and molasses as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A flocculentSaccharomyces sp., isolated from spontaneously fermenting sugar-cane juice, was used to produce ethanol in a continuous upflow reactor. Media of different composition were tested using the same fermentation conditions. The best results were obtained fermenting either sugar-cane juice or molasses. The differences observed could be due to the influence of the medium composition on the growth rate and

C. M. Abate; D. A. S. Callieri; S. Acosta; M. de Vié

1987-01-01

202

Consumer Acceptance of Mayhaw (Crataegus opaca Hook, and Arn.) Juice Blended with Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are among the top 10 products occupying grocery store shelf space. They are also one of the top five consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables. There is a strong potential for growth in blended juices and juice-based beverages. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for mayhaw and muscadine juices to compete in this growing market. Mayhaws

A. F. Trappey; C. E. Johnson; P. W. Wilson

2007-01-01

203

Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus: a sign of gastric hypersecretion  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus on the double-contrast radiograph was investigated in 60 patients. Radiographic findings were correlated with endoscopic features and biochemical analysis of gastric juice as well as with the clinical and endoscopic features of 98 controls with a regular mucosal pattern. The patients with the coarse pattern had more gastric secretion than the control group. Ulcers were seen in 65% of patients, particularly in the duodenum (48%); they were more commonly associated with a coarse pattern and closely related to gastric hyperacidity. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus may be a useful radiographic sign in assessment of gastric secretion.

Watanabe, H. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan); Magota, S.; Shiiba, S.; Ebata, K.; Yoshiya, K.

1983-02-01

204

Prevention of gastroduodenal content reflux and delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy: gastric tube reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus Roux-en-Y anastomosis.  

PubMed

Reflux of gastroduodenal contents and delayed gastric emptying are the most common and serious problems after esophagectomy with gastric reconstruction. However, attempts to reduce the above symptoms, surgically as well as non-surgically, had no or limited effect. To address this issue, we performed retrosternal gastric reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus Roux-en-Y anastomosis (RY) in eight patients with thoracic esophageal cancer and compared the outcomes with control patients who underwent standard reconstruction. The procedure is simple, safe, and not associated with any postoperative complications. The pancreatic amylase concentrations in the gastric juice samples on postoperative day 2 were slightly lower in the non-RY group than in the RY group (1884 ± 2152 vs. 25,790 ± 23,542IU/mL, respectively, P= 0.07). Postoperative endoscopic examination showed neither reflux esophagitis nor residual gastric content in the RY group. Quality of life assessed by the Dysfunction After Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery-32 questionnaire postoperatively was significantly better in the RY group than in the non-RY group for 'decreased physical activity,''symptoms of reflux,''nausea and vomiting,' and 'pain.' The results of this pilot study suggest that gastric reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus RY seems effective in improving both the reflux and delayed gastric emptying. The benefits of this procedure need to be further assessed in a large-scale, randomized controlled trial. PMID:21819481

Yano, M; Motoori, M; Tanaka, K; Kishi, K; Miyashiro, I; Shingai, T; Gotoh, K; Noura, S; Takahashi, H; Yamada, T; Ohue, M; Ohigashi, H; Ishikawa, O

2011-08-05

205

6.NS Drinking Juice, Variation 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had some juice in a bottle. Then she drank $\\frac38$ liters of juice. If this was $\\frac34$ of the juice that was originally in the bottle, how m...

206

Epoxycarotenoids esters analysis in intact orange juices using two-dimensional comprehensive liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

In this work, the native carotenoid pattern of different orange juices was studied by LC x LC-DAD/APCI-IT-TOF-MS for the first time. Special attention was given to the epoxycarotenoids components. It has been already proposed that the relative proportions and composition of these epoxycarotenoids can be used to estimate the age and freshness of an orange juice. Re-arrangements from 5,6- to 5,8-epoxides can occur with time, partially due to the natural acidity of the juices. Thus, the study of these carotenoids in their intact form, that is, esterified with fatty acids, is of great interest. Besides, other free carotenoid and carotenoids esters were identified in seven different monovarietal orange juices and a commercial orange juice. Moreover, the higher separation power of the present LC x LC approach allowed a clearer identification of the compounds contained in the sample compared to the more commonly used approach which uses C(30) stationary phases in conventional LC, thanks to the attainment of clearer MS spectra due to the higher resolution and separation degree obtained in LC x LC. This method could also be used to establish authenticity markers among orange varieties that could be potentially used to prevent or detect adulterations or to establish ripeness indexes. PMID:19266547

Dugo, Paola; Giuffrida, Daniele; Herrero, Miguel; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2009-04-01

207

FDA Statement on Arsenic in Apple Juice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... In fact, 95 percent of the apple juice samples tested were below 10 ppb total arsenic; and 100 percent below 10 ppb for inorganic arsenic, the ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

208

Questions & Answers: Carbendazim and Orange Juice ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... the juice is frozen concentrated (the water is removed) or reconstituted ready-to-drink (the water is added back in to make it liquid.) Note that many ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

209

Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Argentina. If you test enough juice from such a supplier, you will find some lots with higher amounts of arsenic than others. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

210

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mechanical process from the flesh or parts thereof, with or without core material, of sound, ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of...

2009-04-01

211

Guidance for Industry: The Juice HACCP Regulation ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 3. Is juice used in alcoholic beverages (eg, wines, alcoholic cider) covered under the regulation? It depends. The regulation ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

212

Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?  

MedlinePLUS

... such as resveratrol found in wine varies, with higher levels in red wine. Besides grape juice, other grape products may offer health benefits, including dealcoholized wine, grape extracts and grape powder. ...

213

Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The FDA first tests the juice sample for total (organic and inorganic) arsenic to see if the levels are too high. When test results ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

214

HPLC analysis of carotenoids in orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, ?-carotene and ?-carotene have been determined in samples of Brazilian orange juice (Citrus sinensis). The concentrations found in factory-produced concentrates have been compared with those obtained on the Brazilian retail market and with authentic hand-squeezed juices. The analyses of the latter enabled a comparison of varieties to be made. A concentration range of 0.11–1.21mg litre?1 was determined

A. M. Pupin; M. J. Dennis; M. C. F. Toledo

1999-01-01

215

Penetration of meropenem into human pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

This study examined the penetration of meropenem into pancreatic juice in patients who had undergone hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery. The patients received a 0.5-h infusion of 500 mg meropenem. The observed maximum concentration (mean ± standard deviation, n = 5) was 39.1 ± 11.2 ?g/ml at 0.5 h in plasma and 2.12 ± 0.73 ?g/ml at 1.10 ± 0.14 h in pancreatic juice. The pancreatic juice/plasma ratio was 0.06 ± 0.02. The area under the drug concentration-time curve was 73.0 ± 37.5 ?g•h/ml in plasma and 4.24 ± 2.77 ?g•h/ml in pancreatic juice. The pancreatic juice/plasma ratio was 0.06 ± 0.01. The mean drug-exposure times above 0.125 ?g/ml and 0.25 ?g/ml (the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for common pathogens) in pancreatic juice were 99.4% and 87.3%, respectively, for 500 mg meropenem 3 times daily. This commonly used regimen for pancreatitis achieved the drug-exposure time target (40% of the time above the MIC) at the action site, despite the low penetrability of meropenem. PMID:23176150

Ikawa, Kazuro; Kondo, Naru; Nakashima, Akira; Yoshizawa, Kenichi; Morikawa, Norifumi; Ikeda, Kayo; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Sueda, Taijiro

2012-11-26

216

Intestinal Metaplasia --The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis--  

PubMed Central

This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors.

2010-01-01

217

Intestinal metaplasia -the effect of Acid on the gastric mucosa and gastric carcinogenesis-.  

PubMed

This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H(2) receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacterpylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

Watanabe, Hiromitsu

2010-10-05

218

Development and evaluation of a low erosive blackcurrant juice drink 2. Comparison with a conventional blackcurrant juice drink and orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A previous study demonstrated that an experimental low pH blackcurrant juice drink with calcium was markedly less erosive to enamel both in situ and in vitro than orange juice. Further development of the experimental blackcurrant juice drink formula has occurred and the aims of the present studies were two fold. Firstly, to confirm the low erosivity of the modified

N. X. West; J. A. Hughes; D. M. Parker; R. G. Newcombe; M. Addy

1999-01-01

219

Anthocyanic pigment determination in red fruit juices, concentrated juices and syrups using liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of free anthocyanins by liquid chromatography has been investigated to improve a method for quality control of these natural products found in eight red fruit juices, concentrated juices and syrups (black currant, elderberry, sour cherry, strawberry, grape, blueberry, raspberry, and red currant). Among the various experimental possibilities, an isocratic simple method using water, acetonitrile and formic acid as eluting

Jean-Paul Goiffon; Pierre P Mouly; Emile M Gaydou

1999-01-01

220

Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

2005-01-01

221

THE EFFECT OF APPLE JUICE AND ORANGE JUICE ON IRON ABSORPTION IN YOUNG CHILDREN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron deficiency remains a serious problem in young children. Iron absorption is affected by other components of the diet, and may be increased by vitamin C. However, children generally prefer fruit juices that contain low levels of vitamin C (e.g. apple juice)over those that contain more (e.g. oran...

222

Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between…

Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

2011-01-01

223

The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. In industrial and laboratory prepared orange juices their concentration was seen to be related to the intensity of the heat

I. Ekasari

1989-01-01

224

Treatment of gastric carcinoids.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinoid tumors are uncommon, but their percentage among all gastric malignancies has increased to 1.8%. Although they are most often discovered incidentally during endoscopy, gastric carcinoids can present with abdominal pain, bleeding, or symptoms related to the secretion of bioactive substances, most commonly histamine. Gastric carcinoids originate from the foregut and are derived from histamine-containing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Type I gastric carcinoid, the most common, exhibits slow growth and benign behavior. It occurs within the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis with achlorhydria-induced hypergastrinemia. Gastrin acts directly on ECL cells to induce hyperplasia, dysplasia, and, eventually, neoplasia. Type II gastric carcinoid, the least common type, occurs in patients with gastrinoma-associated multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome-type 1 (MEN-1). The overall survival is related more to the underlying MEN-1 syndrome than to the gastric carcinoid. Rodents readily develop gastric carcinoid tumors in response to hypergastrinemia. However, in humans, other factors in addition to hypergastrinemia, such as pernicious anemia or MEN-1, must be present, implying that a genetic predisposition is necessary for the development of these tumors. Type III or sporadic gastric carcinoids exhibit a more malignant behavior, with overall 5-year survival rates of less than 50% and normal serum gastrin concentrations. Treatment of all types of gastric carcinoids is predicated upon accurate classification and staging. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues are superior to conventional radiologic imaging techniques in detecting both primary and metastatic lesions. Treatment of choice for localized disease is excision, either endoscopically or surgically. Antrectomy, by eliminating the trophic effect of gastrin, can be useful for select type I carcinoids. Long-acting somatostatin analogues are excellent palliative agents. PMID:17391627

Hou, Wei; Schubert, Mitchell L

2007-04-01

225

Acute Gastric Dilatation Resulting in Gastric Emphysema Following Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Acute gastric dilatation is a rare entity, with varying aetiologies the majority of which are benign. Delay in diagnosis and treatment could result in sequelae such as gastric emphysema (pneumatosis), emphysematous gastritis, gangrene, and perforation. Gastric emphysema as a result of a benign nongangrenous condition such as gastroparesis, adynamic ileus can be successfully managed conservatively. Here, we present an interesting case of acute gastric dilatation resulting in gastric emphysema following massive postpartum hemorrhage.

Khan, Suhail Aslam; Boko, Edmond; Khookhar, Haseeb Anwar; Woods, Sheila; Nasr, A. H.

2012-01-01

226

Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

2013-01-01

227

A pioneer study on the anti-ulcer activities of copper nicotinate complex [CuCl (HNA)2] in experimental gastric ulcer induced by aspirin-pylorus [corrected] ligation model (Shay model).  

PubMed

This study was planned to look for a more rational mechanism(s) that could explain the anti-ulcer activity of copper nicotinate complex, since the mechanism whereby it prevents ulceration still to be investigated. Ulcer and the preventive indexes were scored, mucin, juice volume, total acidity, luminal haemoglobin, total peroxide and total antioxidant as an oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as total DNA fragmentation (as an apoptotic marker) and its percentage ratio in the juice were evaluated. Results confirmed the antisecretory ability of copper nicotinate, as reflected from the significant reduction of gastric juice volume and acid output. Data confirmed also copper nicotinate has a gastrocytoprotective action against ulcer pathogenesis through; enhancement of mucin secretion, reduction each of ulcer index and the mucosal bleeding rate into the gastric lumen; antioxidant activity through scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS); anti-apoptotic activity through attenuation of the DNA fragmentation in the ulcerous treated group when compared with each of control and aspirin ulcerous untreated groups. This study hypothesized; at least in part, aspirin in the acidic environment of gastric juice become un-ionized and freely penetrate the mucosal barrier reaching to gastric wall. Due to the weak basic nature of cytoplasm of gastric mucosal cells, it accumulates in high concentrations into mucosal cells, and yields a negatively charged anion that is unable to exit the cell. Thus, superficial or deeper erosions are produced and bleeding takes place, within minutes. PMID:18343628

Tuorkey, Muobarak Jaber F-A; Abdul-Aziz, Karolin Kamel

2008-02-21

228

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD...The name of the food is âConcentrated orange juice with preservative...weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed...

2010-04-01

229

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD...The name of the food is âConcentrated orange juice with preservative...weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed...

2013-04-01

230

Agency Impact Analysis: Fruit Juice. The Perception of Ten Firms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency Impact Analysis examines the aggregate effects of FDA activities on the fruit juice industry. It is based on the perceptions, opinions, and experiences reported by fruit juice company executives from ten firms. During meetings with FDA research...

F. H. Dworkin

1984-01-01

231

Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program. ... Back to Arsenic in Apple Juice Main Page. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

232

6?7?-Dihydroxybergamottin Contributes to the Grapefruit Juice Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4.Methods: An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice “serum” and in whole grapefruit juice were measured

Shefali M. Kakar; Mary F. Paine; Paul W. Stewart; Paul B. Watkins

2004-01-01

233

Radio frequency electric fields processing of orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-thermal process of radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be extended to inactivate bacteria in orange juice. An 80 kW RFEF pasteurizer was used to process pulp-free orange juice at flow rates of 1.0 and 1.4 l\\/min. Escherichia coli K12 in orange juice was exposed

David J. Geveke; Christopher Brunkhorst; Xuetong Fan

2007-01-01

234

Premalignant lesions in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a plateau in incidence, gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and causes considerable morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Premalignant gastric lesions are well known risk factors for the development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas.\\u000a In this multistep model of gastric carcinogenesis, Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which slowly progresses through the premalignant stages

Kazuo Yashima; Shuji Sasaki; Masaharu Koda; Koichiro Kawaguchi; Kenichi Harada; Yoshikazu Murawaki

2010-01-01

235

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...The orange juice is so treated by heat as to reduce substantially the enzymatic...sweetenerâ may be used in lieu of the specific name or names of the sweetening...

2013-04-01

236

Concentration of apple juice using direct contact membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct contact membrane distillation process (DCMD) has been used to investigate the concentration of apple juice. Results show that at a constant temperature of juice in the hot cell, an increase in the flux permeates of DCMD resulted in reducing the temperature of cooling water in the cold cell. Increasing the temperature of juice in the hot cell reduces

Sergey Gunko; Svetlana Verbych; Mykhaylo Bryk; Nidal Hilal

2006-01-01

237

Clarification and concentration of melon juice using membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melon juice obtained from fruits discarded by exporters was first clarified by crossflow microfiltration and then concentrated by osmotic evaporation (OE). The resulting clarified melon juice was highly similar to the initial juice, except for insoluble solids and carotenoids, which were concentrated in the retentate. Average permeation flux was relatively high (about 80 L h?1 m?2), with continuous extraction of

Fabrice Vaillant; Mady Cisse; Marco Chaverri; Ana Perez; Manuel Dornier; Floribeth Viquez; Claudie Dhuique-Mayer

2005-01-01

238

RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS PROCESSING OF ORANGE JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nonthermal process of radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be extended to inactivate bacteria in orange juice. An 80 kW RFEF pasteurizer was used to process pulp-free orange juice at flow rates ...

239

Effects of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Fruit juices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days

J. J. Lilja; K. Raaska; P. J. Neuvonen

2005-01-01

240

Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses. No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed.

Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

241

Production of concentrated kiwifruit juice by integrated membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fruit juices is industrially performed in order to reduce storage, packaging, handling and shipping costs. This paper describes the research efforts to develop and optimise an integrated membrane process, on laboratory scale, for the production of concentrated kiwifruit juice as alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation. Fresh depectinated kiwifruit juice was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process.

A. Cassano; B. Jiao; E. Drioli

2004-01-01

242

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the

A. Frandas; V. Surducan; G. Nagy; D. Bicanic

1999-01-01

243

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 ...Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice...

2013-01-01

244

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

245

Criminal injury case using vegetable juice intermixed with triazolam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores an injury case in which a middle-aged male offered two female colleagues vegetable juice containing triazolam. The concentration of triazolam in one subject’s vegetable juice was of a higher concentration than the other. This subject suffered from such symptoms as numbness, sleepiness, visual disturbance and anterograde amnesia. Conversely, despite having consumed a considerable quantity of vegetable juice,

T. Ohshima

2005-01-01

246

Microbiological quality of fruit juices sold in Tripoli–Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are becoming an important part of the modern diet in many communities. Data regarding the microbiological quality of foods, particularly fruit juices, sold in Libya and the neighboring North African countries are few if not lacking. Using standard microbiological procedures, 146 fruit juice samples sold in Tripoli were examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of samples examined ranged between

Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh; Khalifa Belhaj; Widad B. El-Amin; Saleha E. El-Nefathi; Ali Zalmum

2005-01-01

247

Gastric mucosal nerve density  

PubMed Central

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy.

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.

2010-01-01

248

Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.  

PubMed

Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum. PMID:17562219

La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

2007-06-12

249

Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.  

PubMed

Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

Zeiner, Michaela; Juranovi? Cindri?, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

2010-03-24

250

Gastric pneumatosis in infancy.  

PubMed Central

Gastric pneumatosis (gas in the wall of the stomach) is an uncommon but characteristic plain-film radiographic sign. In infancy it is associated either with gastric outlet obstruction, usually hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, or necrotizing gastroenterocolitis. Differential diagnosis is mainly based on associated clinical findings, as exemplified by the 2 cases reported here. Both infants had isolated gastric pneumatosis as the principal radiographic finding. Correct diagnosis was greatly aided by recognition of this x-ray sign so that appropriate therapy was started without delay. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Leonidas, J C

1976-01-01

251

Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Infection with Salmonella typhimurium can produce multiple organ dysfunctions. However, document concerning with gastric hemorrhagic ulcers occur in this infectious disease is lacking. The aim was to study modulation of gastric hemorrhagic ulcer by oxidative stress and mast cell histamine in S. typhimurium-infected rats. Additionally, the protective effects of drugs, such as ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were injected intrajejunally with a live culture of S. typhimurium (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units/rat) and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received sterilized vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. S. typhimurium caused aggravation of offensive factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine release, microvascular permeability and hemorrhagic ulcer, as well as an attenuation of defensive substances, such as mucosal GSH and mucus level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in S. typhimurium infected rats. In conclusion, gastric oxidative stress and histamine play pivotal roles in the formation of hemorrhagic ulcers that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, diamine oxidase and various antioxidants in S. typhimurium-infected rats. PMID:16259743

Hung, Chen-Road

2005-01-01

252

Effects of artichoke leaf extract on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to clarify the effects of an ethanol extract of artichoke leaf on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Oral administration of artichoke leaf extract dose-dependently prevented absolute ethanol-induced (125-500 mg/kg) or restraint plus water immersion stress-induced gastric mucosal injury (1000-2000 mg/kg). The artichoke leaf extract contains 1% cynaropicrin and 0.8% chlorogenic acid as main components and 70% dextrin as a vehicle. Cynaropicrin at doses of 1/100 of artichoke leaf extract [ethanol-induced mucosal injury: 5 mg/kg, per os (p.o.); stress-induced mucosal injury: 20 mg/kg, p.o.] also prevented gastric mucosal injury in both animal models. However, dextrin and chlorogenic acid at doses contained in the leaf extract were ineffective in both models. When artichoke leaf extract was given orally to normal rats, it (500-2000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently increased gastric mucus content. In addition, it (125-500 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content by absolute ethanol. When the effects of artichoke leaf extract on basal gastric acid secretion in rats were evaluated, it (500-2000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently increased the volume of gastric juice in normal rats. However, it was ineffective in decreasing basal gastric acid secretion in normal rats. These results indicate that artichoke leaf extract is effective against acute gastritis and its beneficial effect is due to that of cynaropicrin. The gastric mucus-increasing action of artichoke leaf extract may be, at least in part, related to the anti-gastritic action of the extract. PMID:20118544

Ishida, Kazuo; Kojima, Ryoji; Tsuboi, Makoto; Tsuda, Yuka; Ito, Mikio

2010-01-01

253

Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in

Ángela Suárez-Jacobo; Corinna E. Rüfer; Ramón Gervilla; Buenaventura Guamis; Artur X. Roig-Sagués; Jordi Saldo

2011-01-01

254

Study of natural mango juice spoilage and microbial contamination with Penicillium expansum by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution 1H NMR has been applied to monitor the changes in the composition of natural mango juice subjected to spoilage and to microbial contamination with Penicillium expansum. A vast number of compounds undergoing changes upon these processes have been identified and their variations followed throughout time (132h). Besides the formation of typical fermentation products (e.g. acetate, lactic acid, acetoin

Iola F. Duarte; Ivonne Delgadillo; Ana M. Gil

2006-01-01

255

Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of environmental, host genetic, and bacterial factors associated with risk of gastric cancer, to molecular and cell biology approaches aiming at understanding the interaction between H. pylori and the transforming epithelial cell. In this review an account of the last year’s research activity on the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer will be given.

Ferreira, Antonio Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, Jose Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2011-01-01

256

Rapid Gastric Emptying  

MedlinePLUS

... result of stomach surgery such as fundoplication or gastric bypass. The condition is also seen in people with ... distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about ...

257

Occupation and gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

2003-05-01

258

Optimization of butanol production from tropical maize stalk juice by fermentation with Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed sugars from tropical maize stalk juice were used to carry out butanol fermentation with Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. Batch experiments employing central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) optimization were performed to evaluate effects of three factors, i.e. pH, initial total sugar concentration, and agitation rate on butanol production. Optimum conditions of pH 6.7, sugar concentration 42.2g\\/L

Yi Wang; Hans P. Blaschek

2011-01-01

259

Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

M. N. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

260

Experimental gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Since Sugimura and Fujimura (1967) succeeded in selectively inducing gastric carcinomas in rats by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (1), similar models for the induction of gastric carcinomas in other species by using MNNG and its ethyl derivative N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) have been established. The susceptibility to gastric carcinogenesis, the histologic types of gastric carcinomas induced, and their biological behavior depend on the mode of treatment, species, strain and/or sex. The organ specificity of MNNG correlates well with the level of DNA methylation in target and non-target tissues following oral administration in rats. The high concentration of methylated DNA bases in the stomach mucosa appears to result from thiol-mediated acceleration of the decomposition of MNNG. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis is markedly modified by various factors and agents, including bile reflux, bile acids, sodium chloride, and ulceration, indicating that both host and environmental factors contribute significantly to gastric carcinogenesis by chemical carcinogens. PMID:1742532

Ohgaki, H; Kleihues, P; Sugimura, T

261

Protein sequestration of lipophilic furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice.  

PubMed

The sequestration of grapefruit furanocoumarins by foods was investigated by characterizing the binding between these compounds and foods with contrasting protein, fat, and carbohydrate compositions. Individual grapefruit furanocoumarins exhibited contrasting affinities to foods, where the lipophilic bergamottin and several structurally related dimers bound to foods more tightly than the more polar 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. From the investigation of different classes of macromolecules in foods, water-soluble proteins were found to be the major constituents responsible for furanocoumarin sequestration. Studies using bovine serum albumin as a model protein demonstrated the dissociation of grapefruit furanocoumarins from the insoluble juice cloud particles and the subsequent formation of water-soluble bovine serum albumin-furanocoumarin complexes. Fluorescence binding assays further demonstrated the binding of bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin to bovine serum albumin. These results demonstrate that proteins can be sequestration agents of these important dietary furanocoumarins. PMID:23256844

Myung, Kyung; Manthey, John A; Narciso, Jan A

2013-01-09

262

Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample  

SciTech Connect

Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

1984-01-01

263

Shelflife prediction of fresh blood orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh blood orange juice is successful on the market because of its taste and nutritional value. Yet, it requires accurate control of the cold chain during storage and distribution. A kinetic study was carried out both on growth of spoilage microorganisms (i.e. yeasts) and on decrease of nutritional value (i.e. ascorbic acid and anthocyanin contents) of pasteurised fresh blood orange

B. Zanoni; E. Pagliarini; A. Galli; M. Laureati

2005-01-01

264

DISTRIBUTION OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past several years interactions were reported between prescription medications and grapefruit juice. The generally accepted enzymes implicated in the grapefruit-drug interactions are the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform, in both the intestinal wall and the liver, and the P-glycoprotein transp...

265

The Proteome of Normal Pancreatic Juice  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to characterize the proteome of normal pancreatic juice, to analyze the effect of secretin on the normal proteome, and to compare these results with published data from patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods Paired pancreatic fluid specimens (before and after intravenous secretin stimulation) were obtained during endoscopic pancreatography from three patients without significant pancreatic pathology. Proteins were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry-based protein quantification technology. The human RefSeq (NCBI) database was used to compare the data in normal patient samples with published data from three pancreatic cancer patients. Results A total of 285 proteins were identified in normal pancreatic juice. Ninety had sufficient amino acid sequences identified to characterize the protein with a high level of confidence. All 90 proteins were present before and after secretin administration but with altered relative concentrations, usually by 1-2 folds, after stimulation. Comparison with 170 published pancreatic cancer proteins yielded an overlap of only 42 proteins. Conclusions Normal pancreatic juice contains multiple proteins related to many biological processes. Secretin alters the concentration but not the spectrum of these proteins. The pancreatic juice proteome of normal and pancreatic cancer patients differ markedly.

Doyle, Courtney J; Yancey, Kyle; Pitt, Henry A; Wang, Mu; Bemis, Kerry; Yip-Schneider, Michele T.; Sherman, Stuart; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Goggins, Michael D.; Schmidt, C. Max

2011-01-01

266

Urinary N-nitrosoproline excretion: a further evaluation of the nitrosamine hypothesis of gastric carcinogenesis in precancerous conditions.  

PubMed Central

Measurement of N-nitroso compounds in gastric juice by different methods has given conflicting results. In order to resolve this controversy, we have assessed endogenous nitrosation by the independent N-nitrosoproline excretion test in subjects who had previously undergone gastric juice analysis by one of these methods. Ten Polya gastrectomy, 10 pernicious anaemia and nine matched control subjects were fed 380 mg of nitrate in beetroot juice and 500 mg proline. N-nitrosoproline (N-Pro) synthesised intragastrically from these precursors, and quantitatively excreted by the kidneys, was measured in 24 hour urine samples (collection checked by creatinine clearance). N-Pro excretion (mean +/- SEM) was reduced (p less than 0.01) in pernicious anaemia (1.1 +/- 0.8 ng/day) compared with matched control (18.0 +/- 7.2 ng/day), and also tended to be lower (NS) in polya gastrectomy (3.2 +/- 2.3 ng/day). Twenty four hour intragastric pH was monitored on a separate occasion in 23 of the 29 subjects; 13 were hypoacidic (pH greater than 4 greater than 50% of 24 hours) and 10 were acidic. N-Pro yields were reduced (p less than 0.01) in the hypoacidic group (0.9 +/- 0.6 ng/day) compared with the acidic group (17.9 +/- 6.6 ng/day), and N-Pro was negatively associated with mean intragastric pH (tau = -0.53, p = 0.001). We conclude that endogenous synthesis of this specific N-nitroso compound is favoured by low rather than high pH. These results are concordant with those previously reported in gastric juice from the same subjects and suggest that nitrosation is chemically rather than bacterially mediated, contrary to the nitrosamine hypothesis of gastric carcinogenesis.

Hall, C N; Kirkham, J S; Northfield, T C

1987-01-01

267

Urinary N-nitrosoproline excretion: a further evaluation of the nitrosamine hypothesis of gastric carcinogenesis in precancerous conditions.  

PubMed

Measurement of N-nitroso compounds in gastric juice by different methods has given conflicting results. In order to resolve this controversy, we have assessed endogenous nitrosation by the independent N-nitrosoproline excretion test in subjects who had previously undergone gastric juice analysis by one of these methods. Ten Polya gastrectomy, 10 pernicious anaemia and nine matched control subjects were fed 380 mg of nitrate in beetroot juice and 500 mg proline. N-nitrosoproline (N-Pro) synthesised intragastrically from these precursors, and quantitatively excreted by the kidneys, was measured in 24 hour urine samples (collection checked by creatinine clearance). N-Pro excretion (mean +/- SEM) was reduced (p less than 0.01) in pernicious anaemia (1.1 +/- 0.8 ng/day) compared with matched control (18.0 +/- 7.2 ng/day), and also tended to be lower (NS) in polya gastrectomy (3.2 +/- 2.3 ng/day). Twenty four hour intragastric pH was monitored on a separate occasion in 23 of the 29 subjects; 13 were hypoacidic (pH greater than 4 greater than 50% of 24 hours) and 10 were acidic. N-Pro yields were reduced (p less than 0.01) in the hypoacidic group (0.9 +/- 0.6 ng/day) compared with the acidic group (17.9 +/- 6.6 ng/day), and N-Pro was negatively associated with mean intragastric pH (tau = -0.53, p = 0.001). We conclude that endogenous synthesis of this specific N-nitroso compound is favoured by low rather than high pH. These results are concordant with those previously reported in gastric juice from the same subjects and suggest that nitrosation is chemically rather than bacterially mediated, contrary to the nitrosamine hypothesis of gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:3557192

Hall, C N; Kirkham, J S; Northfield, T C

1987-02-01

268

Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (? 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (?11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (?18%, p?composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet.

2013-01-01

269

Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.  

PubMed

Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively. PMID:23256443

Djordjevi?, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Jankovi?, Teodora; Vuli?, Todor; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

2012-12-20

270

Impact of Label Information on Consumer Assessment of Soy-enhanced Tomato Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of label information on the liking and closeness to ideal of tomato juice beverages was exam- ined by having 100 judges assess 3 tomato juice beverages (Campbell's tomato juice, V8 juice, and an experimental tomato juice enhanced with soy) either with or without labeling information. Judges rated overall liking of each product and then rated appropriateness of various

C. D. Goerlitz; J. F. Delwiche

2006-01-01

271

Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects

Silvia Isabel Rech Franke; Daniel Prá; Raquel Giulian; Johnny Ferraz Dias; Maria Lúcia Yoneama; Juliana da Silva; Bernardo Erdtmann; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

2006-01-01

272

New vegetable and fruit–vegetable juices treated by high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit–vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination

Dana Gabrovská; Jarmila Ouhrabková; Jana Rysová; Ivana Laknerová; Vlasta Fiedlerová; Marie Holasová; Renata Winterová; Ji?ina Pr?chová; Jan Strohalm; Milan Houška; Aleš Landfeld; Vladimír Erban; Eva Eichlerová; Irena N?me?ková; Marie Kejmarová; Pavlína Bo?ková

2012-01-01

273

A review on gastric diverticulum  

PubMed Central

The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future.

2012-01-01

274

Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

2013-01-01

275

Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia. PMID:23442660

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2012-04-13

276

Gastric Epithelial Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells.

MILLS, JASON C.; SHIVDASANI, RAMESH A.

2013-01-01

277

A Dust Spectrometer for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo spacecraft characterised the dust environment in the jovian system. The discoveries included an extended dusty ring system, the nano-metre sized stream particles originating from the moon Io, and the dust exospheres around the Galilean satellites Ganymed, Europa and Callisto. The study of the nanodust-magnetosphere interaction and the compositional analysis of dust particles ejected by the surfaces of Ganymed or Europa offer unique future opportunities. New dust instrumentation is a factor of 10 more sensitive than the former Galileo detector and adds compositional analysis for moon surface studies complementary to neutral gas or ion particle investigations. A dust spectrometer is highly sensitive for organic, salty water ice and mineral particles. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects of this investigation.

Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Krüger, H.; Thissen, R.; Sternosky, Z.; Engrand, C.; Fiege, K.; Hillier, J. K.; Horanyi, M.; Khalisi, E.; Mocker, A.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Grün, E.; Röser, H. P.

2012-09-01

278

Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori is now well known as an important pathogen related to the development of gastric cancer. However, some clinicians still doubt\\u000a the causal association of H. pylori with the development of gastric cancer. To summarize the recent clinical data on the link between H. pylori and gastric cancer, we reviewed related articles published over the past 3 years, after

Hidekazu Suzuki; Eisuke Iwasaki; Toshifumi Hibi

2009-01-01

279

Healthy controls have as much bile reflux as gastric ulcer patients.  

PubMed Central

Data on duodenogastric reflux of bile in gastric ulcer are conflicting. We therefore measured intragastric bile acid concentration and its composition from individual bile acids, duodenogastric bile acid reflux rate, gastric emptying rate, and secretion rates of volume and acid in 30 patients with gastric ulcer and in 66 healthy controls, both in the fasting state and after feeding a liquid meal. Patients had higher gastric bile acid concentrations (p less than 0.05) than controls in the fasting state, but the overlap between the groups was considerable. In fasting patients with corpus ulcer, gastric secretion rates were significantly decreased when compared with controls. There was no difference between patients and controls with respect to gastric emptying rate, bile acid reflux rate, intragastric amount of bile acids, and bile acid composition in the fasting state. Postprandially, all parameters tested were similar in patients and controls. Controls showed high reflux rates with similar frequency as did ulcer patients. We conclude that increased gastric bile acid concentrations in the fasting stomach of patients with gastric ulcer are the result of gastric hyposecretion and not of increased reflux. They probably are pathogenetically irrelevant.

Schindlbeck, N E; Heinrich, C; Stellaard, F; Paumgartner, G; Muller-Lissner, S A

1987-01-01

280

78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability...and ``A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice'' (the risk...for the industry an action level for inorganic arsenic in apple juice that FDA...

2013-07-15

281

Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago. Answer Cranberry juice has been shown to be effective in preventing adhesion of bacteria such as Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelium. Current evidence supports the use of cranberry juice for prevention of UTI in adult women, but no such evidence exists at this time for the prevention of UTI in children. While cranberry juice is very safe for most children, its acidity reduces palatability among children. The dose of cranberry juice to prevent UTI in children has also yet to be determined.

Goldman, Ran D.

2012-01-01

282

77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The grade standards for grapefruit juice have been changed to remove the...

2012-08-27

283

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

284

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

285

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

286

78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period...1\\ See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results...

2013-03-04

287

Gastrin Levels and Gastric Emptying Times in Rhesus Monkeys with a History of Acute Gastric Dilatation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abnormal gastric motility has been suggested as a possible causative factor for acute gastric dilatation observed in nonhuman primates. To evaluate gastric motility in a colony, fasting serum gastrin immunoreactivity and gastric emptying times were assess...

J. W. Fanton D. J. Cosgrove J. G. Golden

1995-01-01

288

Dextransucrase Stability in Cashew Apple Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agriculture waste as substrate for biotechnological process became an interesting alternative to reduce production\\u000a costs and the negative impact of agricultural wastes disposal in the environment. In Brazil, cashew tree cultivation is done\\u000a aiming the cashew nut production, and tons of cashew apples are wasted in the field after the nut removal. Thus, cashew apple\\u000a juice can

Talita L. Honorato; Sueli Rodrigues

2010-01-01

289

Aluminium migration to orange juice in laminated paperboard packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration of aluminium (Al) from aseptic laminated paperboard packages was studied by monitoring the Al content of orange juice (plain juice, no additives) filled into such packages and stored at ambient temperature (23°C) for up to 1 year. Analytical procedure includes MW-assisted digestion of orange juice with concentrated nitric acid followed by determination of Al concentration by double-focusing sector

Ilia Rodushkin; Astrid Magnusson

2005-01-01

290

Stability of Ascorbic Acid in Commercially Available Orange Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the vitamin C content of reconstituted frozen orange juice concentrates at preparation to that of ready-to-drink orange juices purchased 4 to 5 weeks from expiration.Design Juices were unsealed and analyzed for reduced and oxidized vitamin C content at the time of purchase and reanalyzed 3 times weekly for 4 to 5 weeks. Same-lot samples of the ready-to-drink

Carol S Johnston; D. L Bowling

2002-01-01

291

Characterization of Fruit juices treated with Electrical Pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal pasteurization of fruit juices, such as orange juice using electrical pulses is gaining momentum due to their attractive attributes, such as less heating and more retention of taste, flavor and color. Using electrical pusles of suitable intensity (V\\/cm) and duration or pulsewidth (milli\\/micro\\/nano seconds), it is possible to pasteurize the juices to enhance their longevity (at room temperatures). This

R. Sundararajan; D. Campbell; J. Harper; Funian Xiao; Rui Ma; K. Otto

2008-01-01

292

Gastric emptying in non-responders to H2-receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

H2-receptor antagonists are known to fail to increase the intragastric pH in some patients (so-called non-responders), and we have recently found a higher frequency of non-responders among cirrhotics. Since intragastric pH is also affected by gastric emptying, in the present study we determined the gastric emptying of 300 ml orange juice labelled with [99mTc]-Solco Nanocoll using a gamma camera. Measurements were made over a period of 60 min in cirrhotic patients and controls without liver disease who either responded to 300 mg ranitidine or showed no response. The mean (+/- SD) liquid half-emptying time (T1/2) was 26.3 +/- 17.5 min (range, 9-75 min) in responders (n = 10), 20.9 +/- 8.6 min (range, 7-34 min) in non-responders (n = 10), 19.4 +/- 19.2 min (range, 7-75 min) in cirrhotics (n = 11), and 27 +/- 4.6 min (range, 17-33 min) in controls (n = 9). In 19 of the 20 subjects gastric emptying was normal (T1/2, less than 40 min). Since gastric emptying was not delayed in any of the non-responders, it would appear very unlikely that gastric motility plays a major role in the non-response to H2-receptor antagonists. PMID:2232626

Walker, S; Meinke, J; Klotz, U; Treiber, G; Bode, J C

1990-10-01

293

Disturbed gastric emptying in the short bowel syndrome. Evidence for a 'colonic brake'.  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying of liquid (orange juice containing technetium-99m (99mTc) labelled antimony sulphide colloid) and solid (570 kcal pancake containing 0.5 mm resin microspheres labelled with Indium-111 (111-In)) was measured in seven patients with jejunum and no colon (jejunal lengths 30-160 cm), six patients with jejunum in continuity with the colon (jejunal length 25-75 cm), and in 12 normal subjects. In patients with no colon early emptying of liquid was rapid (median 25% emptying: 7 v 25 min, no colon v normal, p < 0.05); early gastric emptying of solid was rapid in two (each with less than 100 cm jejunum) and normal in the other five. Gastric emptying of liquid and solid for patients with jejunum in continuity with the colon was normal for the first three hours. There was increased liquid and solid retained in the stomach at six hours in both groups of patients (p < 0.01). Small bowel transit time was faster than in normal subjects for liquid in both groups of patients (p < 0.05) and for solid in those with no colon (p < 0.05). Rapid gastric emptying of liquid may contribute to the large stomal output in patients with a high jejunostomy. Preservation of the colon after a major small intestinal resection exerts a braking effect on the rate of early gastric emptying of liquid.

Nightingale, J M; Kamm, M A; van der Sijp, J R; Morris, G P; Walker, E R; Mather, S J; Britton, K E; Lennard-Jones, J E

1993-01-01

294

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

295

One year of pomegranate juice intake decreases oxidative stress, inflammation, and incidence of infections in hemodialysis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are well established as nontraditional key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are also involved in the innate immunity dysregulation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study aim was to investigate the effect of 1-year intake of pomegranate juice, an antioxidant source, on oxidative stress, inflammation, and long-term clinical outcomes. A randomized placebo controlled double-blind trial was designed, enrolling 101 chronic HD patients to receive during each dialysis 100 cc of pomegranate juice, or matching placebo, three times a week for 1 year. The primary endpoints were levels of oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. Secondary endpoints were hospitalization due to infections and the progression of atherosclerotic process based on a composite of variables of the carotid arteries: intima media thickness (IMT), number, and structure of plaques. Pomegranate juice intake yielded a significant time response reduction in polymorphonuclear leukocyte priming, protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and inflammation biomarkers levels. These beneficial effects were abolished 3 months postintervention. Pomegranate juice intake resulted in a significantly lower incidence rate of the second hospitalization due to infections. Furthermore, 25% of the patients in the pomegranate juice group had improvement and only 5% progression in the atherosclerotic process, while more than 50% of patients in the placebo group showed progression and none showed any improvement. Prolonged pomegranate juice intake improves nontraditional CV risk factors, attenuates the progression of the atherosclerotic process, strengthens the innate immunity, and thus reduces morbidity among HD patients. PMID:22609423

Shema-Didi, Lilach; Sela, Shifra; Ore, Liora; Shapiro, Galina; Geron, Ronit; Moshe, Goldfeld; Kristal, Batya

2012-05-17

296

The effects of processing technology on the patulin content of juice during commercial apple juice concentrate production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different treatments on the patulin content of apple juice during the production of industrial apple juice\\u000a concentrate were investigated. Conventional clarification using a rotary vacuum precoat filter was found to be more effective\\u000a than using ultrafiltration for the removal of patulin from apple juice. The average losses of patulin were 39% and 25% for\\u000a conventional clarification and

Jale Acar; V. Gökmen; Esma Elden Taydas

1998-01-01

297

Vitamin C Enrichment of Fruit Juice Based ReadytoServe Beverages Through Blending of Indian Gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiconutritional qualities of fruits viz. apple, lime, pome- granate, Perlette grape, and Pusa Navrang grape were analyzed and compared with those of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Indian gooseberry juice contained the highest vitamin C (478.56 mg\\/100 ml). Hence, when gooseberry juice was blended with other fruits’ juice for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) beverages, it boosted their nutritional quality

SHASHI KUMAR JAIN; D. S. KHURDIYA

2004-01-01

298

Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal evolution hypothesis, only cancer stem cells can initiate tumor formation, self-renew, and differentiate into various kinds of daughter cells. Because gastric cancer can originate from gastric stem cells and their self-renewal mechanism can be used by gastric cancer stem cells, we review here how critical signaling pathways, including hedgehog, Wnt, Notch, epidermal growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, may regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells. In addition, the precancerous change of the gastric epithelium and the status of isolating gastric cancer stem cells from patients are reviewed.

Han, Myoung-Eun

2013-01-01

299

Disordered gastric motor function in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of novel investigative techniques has demonstrated that disordered gastric motility occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying is abnormal in about 50% of diabetic patients and delay in gastric emptying of nutrient-containing meals is more common than rapid emptying. The blood glucose concentration influences gastric motility in diabetes. In IDDM patients, gastric emptying is retarded during hyperglycaemia and

M. Horowitz; R. Fraser

1994-01-01

300

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

301

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-05-31

302

Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice.  

PubMed

Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in comparison with raw (R) and pasteurised (PA) apple juice. Several UHPH treatments that include combinations of pressure (100, 200 and 300MPa) and inlet temperatures (4 and 20°C) were assayed. Apple juice was pasteurised at 90°C for 4min. Antioxidant capacity was analysed using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay while total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. According to the FRAP and DPPH assays, UHPH processing did not change apple juice antioxidant capacity. However, significant differences were detected between samples analysed by TEAC and ORAC assays. In spite of these differences, high correlation values were found between the four antioxidant capacity assays, and also with total polyphenol content. The analysis and quantification of individual phenols by HPLC/DAD analytical technique reflects that UHPH-treatment prevented degradation of these compounds. Vitamin C concentrations did not change in UHPH treated samples, retaining the same value as in raw juice. However, significant losses were observed for provitamin A content, but lower than in PA samples. UHPH-treatments at 300MPa can be an alternative to thermal treatment in order to preserve apple juice quality. PMID:23140685

Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Rüfer, Corinna E; Gervilla, Ramón; Guamis, Buenaventura; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Saldo, Jordi

2011-01-09

303

Fermentation of three varieties of mango juices with a mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior and fermentation performance of mixed yeasts in mango juices of three varieties. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500 at a ratio of 1:1000 were simultaneously inoculated into juices of three mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties (R2E2, Harum Manis and Nam Doc Mai). Both yeasts grew well in all juices and there was no early growth arrest of either yeast, but there was late death of W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500 in the Nam Doc Mai juice. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were consumed to trace levels in all juices. Changes in citric, tartaric, malic, acetic and succinic acids varied with mango varieties. While the changes of major volatiles were similar in all varieties, there were significant varietal differences in the volatile composition of the resultant mango wines. The volatiles, especially most of the terpenes, of the juices decreased drastically and new volatiles such as ?-citronellol were formed. R2E2 wine had more fruity, sweet and creamy notes, and retained more of its original character due to a higher retention of ketones/lactones. Harum Manis wine had the lowest aroma intensity with more green and terpenic notes associated with higher levels of residual terpenes than the other two varieties. Nam Doc Mai wine possessed the highest aroma intensity with winey, yeasty, fruity and floral notes attributed to higher amounts of alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters. These findings may help develop different styles of mango wine. PMID:22800660

Li, Xiao; Chan, Li Jie; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

2012-07-02

304

Capsaicin and gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion. PMID:16621751

Satyanarayana, M N

2006-01-01

305

Gastric epithelial stem cells.  

PubMed

Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells. PMID:21144849

Mills, Jason C; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

2010-12-07

306

The effectiveness of gastric bypass over gastric partition in morbid obesity: consequence of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-seven morbidly obese patients were prospectively randomized to two operations: gastric bypass was performed on 42 and gastric partition on 45. Gastric bypass proved to be more effective; gastric bypass patients lost 15% more of their original weight at 12 months and 21% more at 18 months. There were no failures in the gastric bypass group; 28 of the 45 operations failed in the gastric partition group. An additional 60 patients underwent gastric bypass since the completion of the study. In the total series of 147 patients who underwent gastric bypass or gastric partition, there was no mortality, and the surgical complication rate was 12%. Because the gastric pouches and the anastomoses were similar in the two operations, the superiority of the gastric bypass may well be due to a heretofore unexplained effect of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion.

Pories, W J; Flickinger, E G; Meelheim, D; Van Rij, A M; Thomas, F T

1982-01-01

307

Carotenoid profile modification during refrigerated storage in untreated and pasteurized orange juice and orange juice treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields.  

PubMed

A comparative study was made of the evolution and modification of various carotenoids and vitamin A in untreated orange juice, pasteurized orange juice (90 degrees C, 20 s), and orange juice processed with high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (30 kV/cm, 100 micros), during 7 weeks of storage at 2 and 10 degrees C. The concentration of total carotenoids in the untreated juice decreased by 12.6% when the juice was pasteurized, whereas the decrease was only 6.7% when the juice was treated with HIPEF. Vitamin A was greatest in the untreated orange juice, followed by orange juice treated with HIPEF (decrease of 7.52%) and, last, pasteurized orange juice (decrease of 15.62%). The decrease in the concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamin A during storage in refrigeration was greater in the untreated orange juice and the pasteurized juice than in the juice treated with HIPEF. During storage at 10 degrees C, auroxanthin formed in the untreated juice and in the juice treated with HIPEF. This carotenoid is a degradation product of violaxanthin. The concentration of antheraxanthin decreased during storage, and it was converted into mutatoxanthin, except in the untreated and pasteurized orange juices stored at 2 degrees C. PMID:16910715

Cortés, Clara; Torregrosa, Francisco; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

2006-08-23

308

Effect of 2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate (MN-1695) on gastric ulcers and gastric secretion in experimental animals.  

PubMed

The effect of 2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate (MN-1695) on various experimental gastric ulcers and gastric secretion in experimental animals was compared with that of cimetidine and cetraxate. MN-1695 significantly inhibited the formation of Shay, stress-induced, indomethacin-induced, and histamine-induced ulcers and significantly accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. MN-1695 was much more effective in suppressing stress- and acetic acid-induced ulcers than indomethacin-induced, histamine-induced or Shay ulcers. Cimetidine was effective in preventing stress- and acetic acid-induced ulcers but had no significant effect on Shay, indomethacin-induced and histamine-induced ulcers. Cetraxate was effective in preventing only stress-induced ulcers and had almost no effect on other experimental ulcers. MN-1695 inhibited secretion of gastric juice, acid and pepsin in Shay rats, but had no influence on basal and secretagogue-stimulated acid secretion in the perfused stomach of urethanized rats. These findings suggest that MN-1695 is a new type of anti-ulcer agent. PMID:6540106

Ueda, F; Aratani, S; Mimura, K; Kimura, K; Nomura, A; Enomoto, H

1984-01-01

309

Prevention of colon carcinogenesis by apple juice in vivo: impact of juice constituents and obesity.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 75-85% of all chronic diseases are linked to lifestyle-related and environmental factors. The development of colon cancer is positively associated with obesity and inversely associated with the intake of dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable. Apple juice is the most widely consumed fruit beverage in Germany. It contains a specific spectrum of polyphenols and other components that may reduce the risk of colon cancer. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse correlation between apple consumption and colon cancer risk, although the mechanisms for these observations are not clear. The present review summarizes the preventive potential of apple juices and different apple constituents on biomarkers related to colon carcinogenesis with special focus on the in vivo evidence and the cancer promoting condition of obesity. However, under the cancer promoting condition of obesity, apple juice did not show cancer-preventive bioactivity. In our experiments a cancer-preventive bioactivity of apple juice is lacking in rats under the cancer-promoting condition of obesity. To further investigate, whether this lack of efficacy observed in obese rats might be representative for obese individuals human intervention studies on high risk groups such as obese or diabetic individuals are of interest and will be conducted. PMID:19753605

Koch, Tatiana C L; Briviba, Karlis; Watzl, Bernhard; Fähndrich, Christine; Bub, Achim; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Barth, Stephan W

2009-10-01

310

Vitamin C Retention in Orange Juice Imitation Orange Juice, and Orange Beverage from Frozen Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of ascorbic acid to aerobic oxidation and possible loss of vitamin activity prompted a study to (1) determine if the vitamin C content of reconstituted frozen orange juice prepared using an electric blender is different from that prepared by stirring, and (2) to ascer tain the stability of vitamin C in reconstituted frozen orange concentrates (both pure and

Patricia Reynolds; Jean A. Phillips

1981-01-01

311

Fermentation of beet juice by beneficial lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red beets were evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of probiotic beet juice by four species of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum). All the lactic cultures were found capable of rapidly utilizing beet juice for cell synthesis and lactic acid production. However, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum produced a greater amount of

Kyung Young Yoon; Edward E. Woodams; Yong D. Hang

2005-01-01

312

Freeze concentration of sugarcane juice in a jaggery making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pump based Freeze Concentration System (FCS) is proposed to concentrate sugarcane juice from 20 to 40 Brix in a jaggery making process. Further concentration of the juice is carried out in a boiling pan. Inclusion analysis is carried out to estimate sucrose loss in the ice formed in a layer freezing process. A mathematical model is developed taking

Milind V. Rane; Siddharth K. Jabade

2005-01-01

313

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts

V. H. Tournas; J. Heeres; L. Burgess

2006-01-01

314

The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low methoxy pectin formed by pectin esterase. This mechanism was confirmed when the addition

J. J. P. Krop

1974-01-01

315

Effect of supplemental ascorbate and orange juice on urinary oxalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ascorbate intake, in supplemental form and naturally occurring in orange juice, and urinary oxalate was assessed in 6 healthy individuals. An experimental model which allowed a differentiation between endogenously- and exogenously-derived urinary oxalate was used. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected the last day of baseline, supplemental ascorbate, and orange juice treatment periods. Oxalate load tests were

Michael Liebman; Weiwen Chai; Ellen Harvey; Laura Boenisch

1997-01-01

316

HPLC-ESI-MS ANALYSIS OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice inhibit intestinal and liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and are responsible for the effects in humans caused by grapefruit juice consumption on the metabolism of certain prescription drugs. A number of the (furano)coumarins that occur in the highest concen...

317

Trace elements in Australian orange juice and other products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 22 trace elements have been determined in 482 samples of Australian and Brazilian orange juices and Australian peel extracts and deacidified juices using inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Means and ranges of elements have been established over a five year survey. Regional differences were apparent for the levels of one or more

Wayne A. Simpkins; Honway Louie; Michael Wu; Mark Harrison; David Goldberg

2000-01-01

318

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is âOrange juice with preservativeâ. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2013-04-01

319

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is âOrange juice with preservativeâ. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2009-04-01

320

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is âOrange juice with preservativeâ. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2010-04-01

321

EFFECTS OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON FURANOCOUMARIN CONTENT IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been considerable concern in the citrus industry over the last several years over the reported interaction between grapefruit juice and several prescription drugs. The interaction between grapefruit juice and affected drugs varies with the extent a drug is metabolized by CYP3A4 intestinal...

322

Investigation of Some Physical Characteristics of Concentrated Grape Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation is made of the physical characteristics of grape juice with a content of dry substances from 15 to 70 percent with a temperature change from 283 to 353 degrees K. With an increase in temperature the surface tension of grape juice within t...

A. M. Voitko R. I. Kovaleva V. A. Tsaplin

1972-01-01

323

Thermoaciduric Clostridium pasteurianum spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice.  

PubMed

Clostridium pasteurianum BB, a saccharolytic and spore-forming obligate anaerobe, was isolated and identified from shelf-stable apple juice that was responsible for multiple large spoilage outbreaks. The growth and sporulation conditions of C. pasteurianum were atypical compared with those previously published. C. pasteurianum spores were heat resistant in apple juice at pH 3.80, with D-values at 80, 85, and 90°C being 34.4, 15.9, and 4.4 min, respectively, and a z-value of 11°C. The survival curves for thermal inactivation obeyed linear first-order kinetics. Apple juice with varying pH values was used to determine the effect of pH on germination capability of C. pasteurianum spores. The spores were found to be able to germinate at pH as low as 4.3 in pH-adjusted apple juice at low contamination levels. It was confirmed by PCR that C. pasteurianum isolated from spoiled apple juice did not contain the genes for botulinum toxins B and E, which were more commonly found in neurotoxigenic butyric clostridia. Control of finished-juice pH to below 4.0 in combination with mild heating was proposed to prevent potential spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice made with spore-contaminated apple juice concentrate. PMID:21067677

Feng, Guoping; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

2010-10-01

324

Nitric oxide and gastric relaxation.  

PubMed

Pentagastrin enhanced the volume increase caused by isobaric gastric distension in conscious dogs. This effect could be abolished by inhibitors of acid secretion and mimicked by histamine. The increased compliance after pentagastrin was not affected by L-nitroarginine (L-NNA), a blocker of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. L-NNA itself reduced the volume increases caused by isobaric gastric distension. Intralipid administration into the duodenum led to a gastric relaxation sensitive to inhibition by L-NNA. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA was partially reversed by L-arginine. Pentagastrin induces a gastric relaxation via a mechanism that involves gastric secretion but not nitric oxide, whereas intraduodenal intralipid induces a gastric relaxation via a NO-dependent mechanism. PMID:7995223

Schuurkes, J A; Meulemans, A L

1994-12-01

325

Analysis of wines, grape juices and cranberry juices forAlternaria toxins.  

PubMed

Sixty six samples of red and white wine from Ontario (VQA), British Columbia (VQA), Québec ("vins artisanaux"), imported wines (from Italy, South America and USA) and Canadian and US grape and cranberry juices were analysed for theAlternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). After cleanup on aminopropyl SPE columns, AOH and AME were initially determined by reversed phase LC with UV detection. Positive sample extracts were re-analysed by LC-tandem negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in multiple reaction mode. Overall mean method recoveries measured by LC-UV were 93% for AOH and 81% for AME. Limits of detection in wine (and juice) by LC-UV for AOH were 0.8 (0.4) ng/ml and for AME were 0.5 (0.4) ng/ml; they were below 0.01 ng/ml by LC-MS/MS. As determined by LC-MS/MS, AOH was found in 13/17 Canadian red wines at levels of 0.03 to 5.02 ng/ml and in 7/7 imported red wines at 0.27-19.4 ng/ml, usually accompanied by lower concentrations of AME. Red grape juices (5 positive/10 samples) contained only sub ng/ml levels of AOH or AME except for one sample (39 ng AME/ml). White wines (3/23 samples), white grape juices (0/4 samples) and cranberry juices (1/5 samples) contained little AOH/AME (?1.5 ng/ml). PMID:23605587

Scott, P M; Lawrence, G A; Lau, B P Y

2006-06-01

326

Powders of plant green juice and process for their production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Powders of plant green juice having an improved stability and tastiness which are storable for a long period of time, characterized in that said powders comprise: (a) dry powders of the plant green juice obtained by squeezing fresh raw edible green plants and (b) a water-soluble alkaline naturally occurring mineral mixture dispersed uniformly in said dry powder, and the pH of a dispersion at the time of dispersing in water falls into a range of 6.2-9.5. The powders can be produced by adding a water-soluble alkaline naturally occurring mineral mixture to a plant green juice obtained by squeezing fresh raw edible green plants thereby to adjust the pH of said plant green juice to be a range of 6-9 and then spray-drying or lyophilizing the green juice.

1995-08-29

327

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

328

Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, accounting for more than 700,000 deaths\\u000a each year. Recent studies have revealed that infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori plays an essential role in the development of gastric carcinoma. The cagA-encoded CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via the bacterial type IV secretion system, where it

Masanori Hatakeyama

2009-01-01

329

Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

Ortakci, F; Sert, S

2012-09-26

330

Dynamic light-scattering study of gelatin and aggregation of gastric mucin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic light scattering studies show that concentration and pH play important roles in determining pig gastric mucin's (PGM) ability to aggregate and gel. At low concentrations, PGM macromolecules exist in solution predominantly in the form of monomers. At high concentrations, PGM macromolecules aggregate to form supra-macromolecular clusters. When the pH of the high concentration PGM solution is changed from 7.0 to 2.0, the system undergoes a sol-gel transition: from a solution of polydisperse aggregates to a gel. This pH and concentration dependent sol-gel transition of PGM solution may provide a mechanism for the mammalian stomach to protect itself against being digested by the gastric juice.

Bansil, Rama; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Lamont, Jeffrey T.

1997-05-01

331

Epidemiology of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

The most recent estimates of global cancer incidence indicate that in 1990 stomach cancer was the second most frequent cancer in the world (after lung cancer), with about 800,000 new cases diagnosed every year (Parkin et al., 1999). Steady declines in incidence rates of gastric cancer have been observed worldwide in the last few decades. The exact causes of the decline are not well understood, but may include improvements in diet and food storage and a decline in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dietary modifications remain potentially one of the most important tools for the prevention of gastric cancer. Control of H. pylori infection, by indirect means such as improving the general sanitary conditions or by direct intervention such as eradication or immunization, is also likely to offer great potential for prevention. PMID:15055304

Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia

2004-01-01

332

Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.  

PubMed

Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality. PMID:18453295

Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

2008-04-01

333

Development and evaluation of a low erosive blackcurrant juice drink in vitro and in situ1. Comparison with orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether an experimental blackcurrant juice drink with added calcium was less erosive to enamel both in vitro and in situ compared with a proprietary orange juice product.Methods: The study was a single centre, blind, randomised, placebo controlled three cell crossover design. An intra oral appliance capable of retaining one enamel sample

J. A. Hughes; N. X. West; D. M. Parker; R. G. Newcombe; M. Addy

1999-01-01

334

Predictors of Outcome after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background  Weight loss outcome predictions after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery based on individual findings have shown relatively little\\u000a consistency. The present study took a more comprehensive approach, utilizing extensive pre-surgery interview and psychological\\u000a test data both individually and in composite predictors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pre-surgery data were obtained for 131 morbidly obese patients on a 273-item interview and 5 psychological assessment instruments,\\u000a and weight

Richard I. Lanyon; Barbara M. Maxwell

2007-01-01

335

Tricholithobezoar causing gastric perforation.  

PubMed

A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar) is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment. PMID:22379468

Santos Valenciano, Juliana; Nonose, Ronaldo; Bragattini Cruz, Rodrigo; Tiemi Sato, Daniela; Monteiro Fernandes, Felipecappellette; Fabrício Nascimento, Enzo; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto

2012-01-13

336

Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation  

PubMed Central

A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar) is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

Santos Valenciano, Juliana; Nonose, Ronaldo; Bragattini Cruz, Rodrigo; Tiemi Sato, Daniela; Monteiro Fernandes, FelipeCappellette; Fabricio Nascimento, Enzo; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto

2012-01-01

337

Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruit juices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest

William Mullen; Serena C. Marks; Alan Crozier

2007-01-01

338

Fructooligosaccharide fortification of selected fruit juice beverages: Effect on the quality characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortification of selected fruit juice beverages (Pineapple, Mango and Orange juice) with fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), a low calorie prebiotic has been discussed. Results indicated that sucrose which is usually used as a sweetener in fruit juice beverages can be partially substituted with FOS without significantly affecting the overall quality. The fruit juice beverages were evaluated for physicochemical and sensory changes during

B. Renuka; S. G. Kulkarni; P. Vijayanand; S. G. Prapulla

2009-01-01

339

Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, ?-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and ?-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring.

Arunee Apichartsrangkoon; Utaiwan Chattong; Pornprapa Chunthanom

2012-01-01

340

Effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological, nutritional, and sensory properties of fresh vegetable juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation pasteurization process was performed to improve the microbiological quality of fresh vegetable juice. Carrot and kale juice were irradiated and their microbiological, nutritional, and sensory properties were evaluated. The contaminating bacteria in the juices before irradiation ranged from 106 to 107CFU\\/ml. All the aerobic and coliform bacteria in the carrot juice were eliminated by irradiation at a dose

Hyun-Pa Song; Myung-Woo Byun; Cheorun Jo; Cheol-Ho Lee; Kyong-Soo Kim; Dong-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

341

Development of flavor lexicon for fresh pressed and processed blueberry juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A lexicon with thirty-two aroma/flavor, taste, and mouth feel attributes were developed for blueberry juice. Commercial frozen blueberries were thawed and hand pressed to make three juices (P1, P2 or P3), which were compared to four bottled juices (B1, B2, B3 or B4). Fresh pressed juices had signi...

342

Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.Design: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart,

CB Pedersen; J Kyle; AMcE Jenkinson; PT Gardner; DB McPhail; GG Duthie

2000-01-01

343

Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of blood orange juices as influenced by constituents, concentration process and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Antioxidant Activities (TAA) of freshly squeezed and processed blood and blond orange juices were measured using the ABTS radical-cation method. Blood juices have TAA values higher than blond juices, and freshly-squeezed juices are higher than processed. Levels of ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid and anthocyanins were determined in order to calculate relative contributions to TAA by Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity

E Arena; B Fallico; E Maccarone

2001-01-01

344

Production of baker's yeast using date juice.  

PubMed

Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min. PMID:17822056

Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

2007-07-01

345

Capillary electrophoresis analysis of orange juice pectinesterases.  

PubMed

Pectinesterase (PE) was extracted from orange juice and pulp with 1 M NaCl, desalted, and separated using capillary electrophoresis (CE) gel procedures (CE-SDS-CGE) and isoelectric focusing (CE-IEF). PE resolved as a single peak using noncoated fused silica columns with CE-SDS-CGE. CE-IEF separation of PE required acryloylaminoethoxyethanol-coated columns, which had limited stability. Thermal stability of PE extracts before and after heating at 75 degrees C for 30 min and at 95 degrees C for 5 min established heat labile and heat stabile fractions with identical PE migration times by CE-SDS-CGE or CE-IEF. Peak magnitude decreased to a constant value as heating time increased at 75 degrees C. Regression analysis of CE-SDS-CGE peak migration times of molecular weight (MW) standards estimated both heat labile and heat stable PE at MW approximately 36 900. Traditional SDS-PAGE gel separation of MW standards and active PE isolated by IEF allowed estimation of MW approximately 36 000. CE-SDS-CGE allowed presumptive, but not quantitative, detection of active PE in fresh juice. PMID:11262039

Braddock, R J; Bryan, C R; Burns, J K

2001-02-01

346

Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration.

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

347

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

348

Gastric strongyloidiasis as multiple small gastric nodules  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Strongyloidiasis, a common intestinal parasitic infection, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and occurs sporadically in temperate areas. It is endemic in Guilan province, Iran, and especially affects the rural population. Case Report: We report the case of a 43-year-old woman living in Anzali (in the north of Iran), with dyspepsia and epigastric pain for 2 years, unresponsive to H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done and showed multiple small nodules at the stomach. The pathologist reported Strongyloides. Treatment with Ivermectin and antibiotic triple therapy was done. She responded well to treatment and 6 months later an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed no significant lesions and all nodules had disappeared. Strongyloidiasis is usually not severe and frequently is nonspecific. For this reason, the infection is easily ignored by both the patients and physicians. Conclusions: Although gastric involvement shows nonspecific symptoms, the possibility should be carefully considered by clinicians who practice in endemic areas.

Shafaghi, Afshin; Askari, Kurosh; Hajizadeh, Hadi; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz

2012-01-01

349

[Early gastric cancer. Clinical contribution].  

PubMed

The authors report their experience on 37 cases of Early Gastric Cancer on 1978-1990 period. They underline the excellent results obtained with subtotal gastrectomy and lynphectomy without deaths neither returns. They stress the diagnostic precision of endoscopic exam now of first choice in the early diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer. PMID:1298974

Pillitu, A; Carletti, N; Durzi, S; Terzi, G; Menghini, L; Degli Albizi, S

350

Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Erosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims:Helicobacter pylori is considered to be the primary cause of most forms of gastritis, but its role as a causative agent in gastric erosions is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastric erosions and H. pylori infection in asymptomatic volunteers. Methods: 175 asymptomatic subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Antral biopsies were taken for bacterial

Frank S. Lehmann; Eberhard L Renner; Beat Meyer-Wyss; Clive H. Wilder-Smith; Luca Mazzucchelli; Charles Ruchti; Jürgen Drewe; Christoph Beglinger; Hans S. Merk

2000-01-01

351

Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

2000-01-01

352

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: I. Modeling the gastric lumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is poor. The apolar\\u000a nature of carotenoids precludes their simple diffusion from the food structure to the absorption site at the enterocyte. Therefore,\\u000a there is interest in the potential pathways for solubilization in the gut before absorption. We have studied the transfer\\u000a of carotenoids from carrot

Gillian T. Rich; Angela L. Bailey; Richard M. Faulks; Mary L. Parker; Martin S. J. Wickham; Annette Fillery-Travis

2003-01-01

353

Do we need gastric acid?  

PubMed

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage; however, in modern-day humans the need for gastric acid can be questioned in light of the widespread use of safe and effective pharmacologic acid suppression. The Kandahar Working Group addressed questions concerning the need, production and effects of gastric acid, specifically: (1) motility in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract; (2) neuroendocrine factors; (3) digestive and mucosal processes; (4) microbiology, and (5) central processes and psychological involvement. We addressed each topic with the individual models available to answer our questions including animal versus human studies, pharmacologic, surgical as well as pathophysiologic states of acid suppression. PMID:18594142

Pohl, D; Fox, M; Fried, M; Göke, B; Prinz, C; Mönnikes, H; Rogler, G; Dauer, M; Keller, J; Lippl, F; Schiefke, I; Seidler, U; Allescher, H D

2008-07-02

354

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion  

PubMed Central

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

2013-01-01

355

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

2013-07-01

356

Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate possible protective effect of celery juice in doxorubicin treatment. The following biochemical parameters were determined: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity in liver homogenate and blood hemolysate. We examined influence of diluted pure celery leaves and roots juices and their combinations with doxorubicine on analyzed biochemical parameters. Celery roots and leaves juices influenced the examined biochemical parameters and showed protective effects when applied with doxorubicine. PMID:19396021

Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Mikov, Momir; Mitic, Radoslav; Gvozdenovic, Ljiljana

2009-04-24

357

Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics of sonicated orange juice during storage and comparison with thermally pasteurised juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics of sonicated orange juice during storage were determined and compared to thermally pasteurised samples. Acoustic energy densities (AED) ranging from 0.30 to 0.81W\\/mL and treatment times of 2–10min were investigated. The degradation kinetics of sonicated samples followed first-order kinetics (R2?0.91) during processing. During storage ascorbic acid degradation of sonicated samples followed the Weibull model (R2?0.97) with

B. K. Tiwari; C. P. O' Donnell; K. Muthukumarappan; P. J. Cullen

2009-01-01

358

Helicobacter pylori in promotion of gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are considered the earliest phenotypic changes in the cascade of events leading from normal mucosa to intestinal-type gastric cancer, and epidemiological evidence linksHelicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial malignancies. To evaluate any causal relationship between bacterial infection and atrophic metaplastic lesions, gastric pathology was histologically and histochemically evaluated in 267 consecutive, nonulcerous, untreated subjects, with attention

Massimo Rugge; Mauro Cassaro; Gioacchino Leandro; Raffaele Baffa; Claudio Avellini; Pantaleone Bufo; Vincenzo Stracca; Giuseppe Battaglia; Alfredo Fabiano; Antonio Guerini; Francesco di Mario

1996-01-01

359

Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric MALT lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection is implicated in the devel- opment of two different gastric cancers: gastric adeno- carcinoma and gastric MALT lymphoma. The association with the gastric MALT lymphoma is strong and causal. It is currently the only cancer which can be treated by a simple antibiotic treatment. However, the evolution of an H. pylori infection towards lymphoma is exceptional. Host

Lehours P; Mégraud F

2005-01-01

360

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gastric cancer is one of the leading worldwide causes of cancer death with about 866,000 deaths each year. The incidence varies\\u000a tremendously throughout the world, with the highest incidence occurring in South Korea at 66.5–72.5 per 100,000 males and\\u000a 19.5–30.4 per 100,000 females [1]. In contrast, incidence in the United States is about one-tenth that of South Korea, and\\u000a the

Prakash K. Pandalai; Sam S. Yoon

361

Gastric carcinoids (neuroendocrine neoplasms).  

PubMed

Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms of the stomach can be divided into the usually well-differentiated, hypergastrinemia-dependent type I and II lesions and the more aggressively behaving gastrin-independent type III lesions. Studying menin and its complex interrelationship with gastrin may provide insight into tumor biology at the clinical level and in terms of basic cell biology (eg, the role of the epigenome in neuroendocrine cell proliferation), and lead to potential consideration of other targets that are known candidates for molecular-based therapies in other adenocarcinomas. PMID:23639647

Kidd, Mark; Gustafsson, Bjorn; Modlin, Irvin M

2013-03-01

362

Gastric axial forces in experimentally delayed and accelerated gastric emptying.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between altered axial forces and gastric emptying of solids by experimentally inhibiting or stimulating gastric axial forces by intraduodenal lipid or intravenous erythromycin, respectively. In 15 healthy volunteers, we simultaneously measured gastric emptying of solids by scintigraphy, gastroduodenal motility by manometry, and forces along the longitudinal axis of the distal stomach by an axial force transducer. When 25% of the radiolabel had emptied from the stomach, subjects (n = 5 in each group) received normal saline (controls), intraduodenal lipid, or intravenous erythromycin. The test period consisted of the infusion period (10 min) and the subsequent 30 min. Lipid significantly reduced and erythromycin increased axial forces compared with control (lipid: median 0.6 N [0-1.4 interquartile range (IQR)]; erythromycin: median 18.2 N (16.5-20.5 IQR); control: median 4.7 N (3.9-5.2 IQR); P < 0.01). Similarly, antral phasic pressure activities were different relative to control. Gastric axial forces correlated significantly with gastric emptying (Spearman rank correlation = 0.86; P < 0.01). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that axial forces affect gastric emptying of solids and suggest that measurement of axial forces provides an assessment of overall gastric propulsion during the emptying of solids. PMID:8498519

Prather, C M; Camilleri, M; Thomforde, G M; Forstrom, L A; Zinsmeister, A R

1993-05-01

363

Bioflavonoid profile of citrus juices from Greece.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography with confirmation by UV-visible photodiode array detector-positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [HPLC-UV-vis-DAD-(+ESI)-MS] with enhanced fragmentation by appropriate adjustment of the cone voltage was used to determine bioflavonoid content of five citrus species (tangerine, sanguine, sour orange, lemon and grapefruit) cultivated in Greece which come from citrus varieties analyzed for the first time. The main groups of bioflavonoids found in the juice of the citrus species according to HPLC retention times, spectral data and literature references were O-glycosylated flavanones and flavones, C-glucosylated flavones, O-glucosylated flavones, O-C-glucosylated flavones like saponarin and a phenolic derivative. PMID:22334498

Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Kefalas, Panagiotis

2012-02-15

364

Characterization and identification of gastric hyperplastic polyps and adenomas by confocal laser endomicroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Management of gastric polyps depends on their histologic composition. A real-time in vivo histologic diagnosis would be valuable\\u000a to an “on table” management decision. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), a new diagnostic tool, allows real-time in vivo\\u000a histologic evaluations of gastrointestinal lesions. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and practicability of using\\u000a CLE to identify and differentiate gastric hyperplastic polyps

Wen-Bo Li; Xiu-Li Zuo; Fang Zuo; Xiao-Meng Gu; Tao Yu; You-An Zhao; Ting-Guo Zhang; Jian-Ping Zhang; Yan-Qing Li

2010-01-01

365

Results of Arsenic Analysis in Single-Strength Apple Juice ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The data in this table represent the analytical results from 94 samples of single strength apple juice for sale in the US marketplace that were ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

366

Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.  

PubMed

The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. PMID:21669544

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

2011-05-31

367

FDA Testing Orange Juice Imports for Carbendazim, Notifies ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... EPA has concluded that consumption of orange juice with carbendazim at the low levels that have been reported does not raise safety concerns. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

368

21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar, invert sugar sirup, dextrose, corn...

2013-04-01

369

21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, invert sugar, dextrose, dried corn sirup, dried glucose...

2013-04-01

370

Trade Policies in World Apple and Juice Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a theoretical model to examine the effects of trade liberalization in an intermediate and final good framework, and constructs a spatial equilibrium model of apple and juice markets to quantify the effects of free trade.

Stephen Devadoss; William Ridley; Prasana Sridharan

2012-01-01

371

Effect of Caffeine on Bile and Pancreatic Juice Secretion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of experiments on rats demonstrate that caffeine alone has very little effect on bile secretion, but that it does produce a 100% increase in pancreatic flow, although the protein content of the pancreatic juice does not increase proportionately. ...

C. Vaille C. Debray J. Delatour C. Roze M. Souchard

1974-01-01

372

LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

373

Hazard Assessment and Level of Concern - Apple Juice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... As an alternate approach, consumption estimates that took into account consumption of all fruit juices were used as a surrogate for consumption of ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

374

Direct osmotic concentration of tomato juice in tubular membrane – module configuration. II. The effect of using clarified tomato juice on the process performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out by using a new tubular direct osmosis module, constructed by PCI UK and equipped with a novel AFC99 membrane 400?m thick, to investigate the effect of clarifying tomato juice on the rate of direct osmotic concentration. Under virtually the same operating conditions five respective clarifications of juice were tried including full, unclarified, tomato juice. The

Konstantinos B. Petrotos; Peter C. Quantick; Heracles Petropakis

1999-01-01

375

Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity.

Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

376

Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

Kharnas, S. S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, V. Y.; Sclyanskaya, O. A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, A. A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

1996-01-01

377

Palliative management of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Advanced gastric cancer and its palliative treatment have a long and interesting history. Today, gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Unfortunately, many cases are not diagnosed until late stages of disease, which underscores the importance of the palliative treatment of gastric cancer. Palliative care is best defined as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Although endoscopy is the most useful method for securing the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma, computed tomography may be useful to assess local and distant disease. The main indication for the institution of palliative care is the presence of advanced gastric cancer for which curative treatment is deemed inappropriate. The primary goal of palliative therapy of gastric cancer patients is to improve quality, not necessarily length, of life. Four main modalities of palliative therapy for advanced gastric cancer are discussed: resection, bypass, stenting, and chemotherapy. The choice of modality depends on a variety of factors, including individual patient prognosis and goals, and should be made on case-by-case basis. Future directions include the discovery and development of serum or stool tumor markers aimed at prevention, improving prognostication and stratification, and increasing awareness and education. PMID:17881220

Cunningham, Steven C; Schulick, Richard D

2007-09-18

378

Incidence of patulin in apple juice concentrates produced in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 215 apple juice concentrate samples from three different producers in Turkey were analyzed for patulin using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of patulin in single strength apple juice at a sugar content of 11.2°Brix was lower than 5 ?g\\/l. Patulin was detected in all of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 7 to 376

Vural Gökmen; Jale Acar

1998-01-01

379

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

380

Inactivation of Escherichia coli in orange juice using ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aThis research investigated the efficacy of gaseous ozone for the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900 strains in orange juice. Orange juice inoculated with E. coli (106?CFU mL-?1) as a challenge microorganism was treated with ozone at 75-78??g mL-?1 for different time periods (0-18?min). The efficacy of ozone for inactivation of both strains of E. coli was

S. Patil; P. Bourke; J. M. Frias; B. K. Tiwari; P. J. Cullen

2009-01-01

381

Noni juice ( Morinda citrifolia ): Hidden potential for hyperkalemia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a man with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine product known as noni juice (Morinda citrifolia ). The patient presented to the clinic with hyperkalemia despite claiming adherence to a low-potassium diet. The potassium concentration in noni juice samples was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq\\/L, similar to that in orange

Bruce A. Mueller; Meri K. Scott; Kevin M. Sowinski; Kathleen A. Prag

2000-01-01

382

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

383

Pulsed electric field enhanced ultrafiltration of synthetic and fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of electric field assisted clarification of synthetic juice (a mixture of pectin and sucrose) and mosambi (Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice using a 30kDa molecular weight cut-off membrane in cross-flow ultrafiltration mode under laminar flow regime is reported herein. Electric field is applied in both continuous as well as pulse mode. Application of d.c. electric field has

Biswajit Sarkar; Sirshendu De; Sunando DasGupta

2008-01-01

384

Effect of storage on nonenzymatic browning of apple juice concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of nonenzymatic browning in Golden Delicious and Amasya apple juice concentrates during 4 months are investigated. Apple juice concentrates were at 65, 70, 75°Bx of Golden Delicious variety, stored at 5, 20, 37 °C and Amasya variety, stored at 37, 50, 65 °C. Colour development was measured by browning index (A420) and the CIE-Lab colour system. Browning level of all apple

Hande Selen Burdurlu; Feryal Karadeniz

2003-01-01

385

Friction factors and rheological properties of orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological behavior of Brazilian orange juice with different water content (0.34–0.73 w\\/w) was studied at a wide range of temperatures (0.5–62oC) using a concentric cylinder viscometer. The results indicated that the juices behave as pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress, being represented by the Herschel–Bulkley model. The rheological parameters were fitted as functions of both temperature and water content in

J. Telis-Romero; V. R. N. Telis; F. Yamashita

1999-01-01

386

Quantitative assessment of the shelf life of ozonated apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile apple juice inoculated with S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763 (103 CFU\\/mL) was processed in a bubble column with gaseous ozone of flow rate of 0.12 L\\/min and concentration of 33–40 ?g\\/mL for\\u000a 8 min. The growth kinetics of S. cerevisiae as an indicator of juice spoilage was monitored at 4, 8, 12 and 16 °C for up to 30 days. The kinetics was quantitatively

Sonal Patil; Vasilis Valdramidis; Brijesh Tiwari; Patrick Cullen; Paula Bourke

2011-01-01

387

Nanofiltration of concentrated and salted tuna cooking juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna cooking juice from a Tunisian tuna-processing unit has a high level of polluting load: chemical oxygen demand (COD) is comprised between 4 and 20gL?1, nitrogen kjedahl (NK) between 0.6 and 3gL?1 and dry matter between 120 and 160gL?1. The juice has thus to be treated before being rejected into the environment. This paper considers the nanofiltration (NF) of these

K. Walha; R. Ben Amar; P. Bourseau; P. Jaouen

2009-01-01

388

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Wines and Grape Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of eight commercial Brazilian wines and two grape juices was evaluated using the inhibition of lipid oxidation (average 25.75 to 59.66%) and the reducing power methods. The total phenolic content was determined (average 1647, 803 and 305 mg\\/L\\/GAE for red, pink and white wines, respectively, and 1150 mg\\/L\\/GAE for grape juices), and the resulting values were well correlated with

Emília Y. Ishimoto; Carlos K. B. Ferrari; Deborah H. M. Bastos; Elizabeth A. F. S. Torres

2006-01-01

389

Blood orange juice inhibits fat accumulation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze the effect of the juice obtained from two varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Moro (a blood orange) and Navelina (a blond orange), on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD).Methods:Obesity was induced in male C57\\/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD. Moro and Navelina juices were provided instead of water. The

L Titta; M Trinei; M Stendardo; I Berniakovich; K Petroni; C Tonelli; P Riso; M Porrini; S Minucci; P G Pelicci; P Rapisarda; G Reforgiato Recupero; M Giorgio

2010-01-01

390

Gastric Precancerous Lesions and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Relatives of Gastric Cancer Patients from Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to gastric cancer. First-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer have an increased risk of developing the disease. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gastric precancerous gastric lesions and H. pylori infection in first-degree relatives of non-cardia gastric cancer patients. Methods: Gastric cancer relatives (n = 104) from a region with high prevalence of H.

Cícero Roberio A. Motta; Maria P. S. S. Cunha; Dulciene Maria M. Queiroz; Francisco Will S. Cruz; Eder Janes C. Guerra; Rosa Maria S. Mota; Lucia L. B. C. Braga

2008-01-01

391

Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Chronic gastric infection by the gram-negative bacterium H. pylori is strongly associated with the development of distal gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosal lymphoma in humans. Eradication of H. pylori with combination antibiotic therapy cures most cases of gastric lymphoma and slows progression to gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori promotes gastric neoplasia, principally via the induction of an intense gastric inflammatory response that lasts over decades. This persistent inflammatory state produces chronic oxidative stress and adaptive changes in gastric epithelial and immune cell pathobiology that in a minority of infected subjects eventually proceeds to frank neoplastic transformation.

Kim, Sung Soo; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Carroll, Jaqueline D.; Moss, Steven F.

2010-01-01

392

A Case of Gastric Inverted Hyperplastic Polyp Found with Gastritis Cystica Profunda and Early Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

A gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp is a rare type of gastric polyp and is characterized by downward growth of a variety of mucosal components into the submucosa. The polyp consists of columnar cells resembling foveolar epithelium and pyloric gland epithelium and can coexist with gastritis cystica profunda. Frequently, adenocarcinoma can coexist, but the relation is not clear. A 77-year-old male underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection due to early gastric cancer. A gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp was found in the removed specimen and gastric cystica profunda was also found. We report a case of gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp coexisting with gastric cystica profunda and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Hyun Il; Han, Koon Hee; Kim, Young Don; Jeong, Woo Jin; Cheon, Gab Jin; Eom, Dae-Woon

2013-01-01

393

Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

2012-01-01

394

The bioavailability of sulpiride taken as a film-coated tablet with sodium bicarbonate, cimetidine, natural orange juice or hydrochloric acid.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of sulpiride taken in film-coated tablet form with sodium bicarbonate or cimetidine or with natural orange juice or diluted hydrochloric acid was studied. A commercial sulpiride film-coated tablet (100 mg/T) treated with polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA), which remain undissolved at pH above 4-5, was given to four healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. The subjects were divided into two groups, those showing high and low bioavailability of sulpiride from an AEA film-coated tablet. The two high bioavailability subjects took one tablet (100 mg) with 100 ml of water (1) alone, (2) together with 1 g of sodium bicarbonate or (3) during concurrent dosing with cimetidine, 200 mg three times a day. The two low bioavailability subjects swallowed one tablet with 100 ml of (1) water, (2) natural orange juice, or (3) diluted hydrochloric acid. Urine samples were collected over a 48-h period following sulpiride administration to determine sulpiride concentrations by HPLC. The bioavailability was estimated from the cumulative amount excreted unchanged in urine over 48 h (Du48). In the high bioavailability subjects, the bioavailability of sulpiride markedly decreased with the coadministration of sodium bicarbonate or cimetidine compared to when the tablet was taken alone. In the low bioavailability subjects, the bioavailability remarkably increased with the concomitant intake of orange juice or diluted hydrochloric acid over that with only water. These results suggest that the bioavailability of sulpiride from AEA film-coated tablet is influenced by the individual's gastric acidity and by coadministered drug and drink which affect gastric acidity. PMID:2555311

Shinkuma, D; Hamaguchi, T; Kobayashi, M; Yamanaka, Y; Mizuno, N

1989-10-01

395

A sol-gel based solid phase microextraction fiber for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juices.  

PubMed

A new fiber based on titania-chitin sol-gel coated on a silver wire for the headspace solid phase microextraction of aliphatic alcohols from apple juice samples was developed. The influences of fiber coating composition and microextraction conditions (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ionic strength of the sample matrix) on the fiber performance were investigated. Also, the influence of temperature and time on desorption of analytes from fiber were studied. Under the optimized conditions, a porous fiber with a high extraction capacity and good thermal stability (up to 250 degrees C) was obtained. The proposed headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC method was successfully used for the analysis of aliphatic alcohols in apple juice and concentrate samples. The recovery values were from 92.8 to 98.6%. The RSD (n=5) for all analytes were below 7.8%. PMID:19950348

Farhadi, Khalil; Maleki, Ramin; Tahmasebi, Raheleh

2010-01-01

396

Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange ( Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood orange juice samples with two different levels of ascorbic acid content were placed in HDPE plastic bottles, pasteurized, and stored at 4.5 °C. The influence of ascorbic acid retention on color stability of blood orange juice was investigated using CIE L*a*b*, hue, chroma, polymeric color, and browning index during the storage period. Changes in monomeric anthocyanin pigments, total carotenoid contents,

M. H Choi; G. H Kim; H. S Lee

2002-01-01

397

Effect of ingested fluid composition on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of ingested fluid composition on the experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Forty subjects, susceptible to ETAP, completed 4 treadmill exercise trials: a no-fluid trial and flavored water (FW, no carbohydrate, osmolality = 48 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), sports drink (SD, freshly mixed Gatorade, 6% total carbohydrate, 295 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), and reconstituted fruit juice (FJ, BERRI trade mark orange, 10.4 % total carbohydrate, 489 mosmol/L, pH= 3.2) trials. Measures of the experience of ETAP and gastrointestinal disturbances, particularly bloating, were quantified. The FJ was significantly (p =.01) more provocative of both ETAP and bloating than all other trials. There was no difference among the no-fluid, FW, and SD in the severity of ETAP experienced, although the difference between the no-fluid and SD approached significance at the.05 level (p =.056). There was a significant relationship between both the mean (r = 0.40, p =.01) and peak (r= 0.44, p=.01) levels of ETAP and bloating. When the level of bloating was controlled for, the FJ remained significantly (p =.01) more provocative of ETAP than the other conditions, with no difference between the FW and SD (p =.37). The results indicate that in order to avoid ETAP, susceptible individuals should refrain from consuming reconstituted fruit juices and beverages similarly high in carbohydrate content and osmolality, shortly before and during exercise. Further, the mechanism responsible for the heightened experience of ETAP in the FJ trial extends beyond a gastric mass explanation. PMID:15118193

Morton, Darren Peter; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Callister, Robin

2004-04-01

398

75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of...the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of...

2010-02-04

399

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable p...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

400

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

401

Molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinogenesis is a complex and multifactorial process, in which infection with Helicobacter pylori plays a major role. Additionally, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players in gastric cancer (GC) etiology. Gastric cancer development results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic changes during the lifetime of the cancer patient that will activate oncogenic and/or inactivate tumor-suppressor pathways. Numerous studies published last year provided new insights into the molecular phenotypes of GC, which will be the main focus of this review. This article also reviews the recent findings on GC tumor-suppressor genes, including putative novel genes. The understanding of the basic mechanisms that underlie gastric carcinogenesis will be of utmost importance for developing strategies of screening, early detection, and treatment of the disease, as most GC patients present with late-stage disease and have poor overall survival. PMID:24011242

Figueiredo, Ceu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Maria A; Machado, Jose C

2013-09-01

402

Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment.

Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

2006-01-01

403

Contemporary Approaches to Gastric Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gastric carcinoma represents a fascinating disease in terms of the history, development, philosophy, and future of the field\\u000a of surgical oncology. Many facets of gastric carcinoma intrigue us: the long-term decline in incidence in the United States\\u000a and other western countries [1], the rapid improvement in stage that has been seen in Japan as a result of widespread population\\u000a screening

Blake Cady

404

Gastric Dysmotility and Gastroparesis.  

PubMed

Nutrition support in gastroparesis begins with encouraging smaller volume, low-fat, low-fiber meals and, if necessary, liquid caloric supplements. There should be a low threshold for placing a jejunal feeding tube either by laparoscopy or mini-laparotomy. Parenteral nutrition should be used only briefly during hospitalization and not encouraged or sustained as an outpatient. Metoclopramide is now the prokinetic of choice for patients who can tolerate this agent; subcutaneous administration is an important method that allows for continued guaranteed absorption. Low-dosage erythromycin also has a prokinetic role alone or in combination with metoclopramide. Domperidone, a centrally acting antiemetic and prokinetic, is only be available to US citizens who can access sources in Canada or Mexico. Antiemetics should be used extensively because nausea is a very severe debilitating symptom, which is under-appreciated and under-treated by physicians. We recommend scopolamine patches to gain maximal absorption, in spite of vomiting and unpredictable oral intakes. The 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) antagonists ondansetron and granisetron are the most powerful agents. Relief bands using the P6 acupuncture point are useful adjunct. Special vigilance should be paid to situations that can undermine medical therapy or result in breakthrough symptoms, such as hyperglycemic events in patients with diabetes, migraine headaches, cyclic nausea and vomiting, menstrual cycles, rumination syndrome (psychogenic vomiting), and elevated herpes simplex titers. Most excitingly, the era of gastric electrical stimulation has arrived for patients not responding to standard medical therapy. The dramatic improvement in nausea and vomiting, as well as a sustained evidence of improved quality of life, gastric emptying, nutritional status, and decreased hospitalizations by this device are documented by long-term follow-up of more than a year for patients in this country and world-wide. PMID:11469976

McCallum, Richard W.; George, Sabu J.

2001-04-01

405

Multiply recurrent episodes of gastric emphysema.  

PubMed

Introduction. Gastric emphysema can present both a diagnostic challenge and a life-threatening condition for patients and has only once been reported as being recurrent. Background. A 64-year-old male presented with chronic abdominal pain and was found to have gastric pneumatosis on CT scan. The patient was successfully managed conservatively. The cause was attributed to aberrant arterial anatomy and atherosclerosis along with hypotension. The patient has since had 3 episodes of recurrent gastric emphysema, all managed nonoperatively. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of both serial episodes of gastric pneumatosis and gastric mucosal ischemia as a precipitating factor for the development of gastric emphysema. PMID:22606584

Pauli, Eric M; Tomasko, Jonathan M; Jain, Vishal; Dye, Charles E; Haluck, Randy S

2011-09-29

406

Multiply Recurrent Episodes of Gastric Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Gastric emphysema can present both a diagnostic challenge and a life-threatening condition for patients and has only once been reported as being recurrent. Background. A 64-year-old male presented with chronic abdominal pain and was found to have gastric pneumatosis on CT scan. The patient was successfully managed conservatively. The cause was attributed to aberrant arterial anatomy and atherosclerosis along with hypotension. The patient has since had 3 episodes of recurrent gastric emphysema, all managed nonoperatively. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of both serial episodes of gastric pneumatosis and gastric mucosal ischemia as a precipitating factor for the development of gastric emphysema.

Pauli, Eric M.; Tomasko, Jonathan M.; Jain, Vishal; Dye, Charles E.; Haluck, Randy S.

2011-01-01

407

Contactless conductivity detection of sodium monofluoroacetate in fruit juices on a CE microchip.  

PubMed

Rapid and quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in diluted fruit juices (dilution 1:9 v/v in deionized water) and tap water was performed by microchip CE, using contactless conductivity detection. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the monofluoroacetate (MFA) anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. The analyte was very well separated from interfering anionic species present in juices and tap water. LODs in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 microg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. Taking into account the dilution factor, the LODs for juice samples range from 1 to 2 mg/L, which is adequate for monitoring the toxicity of MFA in these juice beverages and tap water. The calibration curves for MFA in diluted fruit juices were linear over the range of 500 microg/L to 80 mg/L. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis. PMID:17768724

Lu, Qin; Wu, Peter; Collins, Greg E

2007-10-01

408

Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study determined the phenolic composition of an over-the-counter cranberry juice (CBJ) with high-performance liquid chromatography and examined the effects of low- and normal-calorie CBJ formulations on the postprandial glycemic response in healthy humans. The CBJ used in this study contained seven phenolic acids, with 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acid being the primary components, and 15 flavonol glycosides, with myricetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-galactoside being the most prevalent. CBJ proanthocyanidins consisted of three different tetramers and a heptamer, which were confirmed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis. Participants received one of the following six treatments: nothing (no water/beverage), water (480 mL), unsweetened low-calorie CBJ (38 Cal/480 mL), normal-calorie CBJ (280 Cal/480 mL), isocaloric normal calorie (high fructose corn syrup [HFCS]), or isocaloric low-calorie beverages. No significant differences in postprandial blood glucose or insulin were observed in the groups receiving nothing, water, or low-calorie treatments. In contrast, the ingestion of normal-calorie CBJ and normal-calorie control beverage resulted in significantly higher blood glucose concentrations 30 minutes postprandially, although the differences were no longer significant after 180 minutes. Plasma insulin of normal-calorie CBJ and control (HFCS) recipients was significantly higher 60 minutes postprandially, but not significantly different 120 minutes postprandially. CBJ ingestion did not affect heart rate or blood pressure. This study suggests that the consumption of a low-calorie CBJ rich in previously uncharacterized trimer and heptamer proanthocyanidins is associated with a favorable glycemic response and may be beneficial for persons with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:18361737

Wilson, Ted; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi; Goettl, Christopher D; Kittleson, Katrina M; Roe, Cindy M; Kastello, Gary M; Ragsdale, Frances R

2008-03-01

409

Quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid during enzymatic browning of potato juice.  

PubMed

The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO(3) (S control). To study the composition of phenolic compounds in potato in their native states, also a potato extract was made with 50% (v/v) methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid (MeOH control). Water-soluble low molecular weight fractions (LMWFs) and high molecular weight fractions (HMWFs) from S and OX extracts were obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis, respectively. Pellets obtained after the OX treatment and the S and MeOH controls were also analyzed for ChA content. Whereas in the S-LMWF all ChA was converted to sulfonic acid adducts, no free ChA was found in the OX-LMWF, indicating its high reactivity upon enzymatic browning. Analysis of protein in the HMWFs showed a higher content of "reacted" ChA in OX (49.8 ± 7.1 mg ChA/100 g potato DW) than in S (14.4 ± 1.5 mg ChA/100 g potato DW), as evidenced by quinic acid release upon alkaline hydrolysis. The presence of quinic acid in S-HMWF was unexpected, but a mass balance incorporating the ChA content of LMWF, HMWF, and pellet for the three extractions suggested that ChA might have been attached to polymeric material, soluble in the aqueous environment of S but not in that of MeOH. Size exclusion chromatography, combined with proteolysis, revealed that ChA reacted with patatin and protease inhibitors to produce brown soluble complexes. PMID:23360289

Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

2013-02-08

410

Metabolite Profiling of Jaboticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora ) and Other Dark-Colored Fruit Juices.  

PubMed

Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora ) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

2012-07-18

411

Suppressive effects of fruit-juice concentrate of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot, Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-induced glandular stomach lesions in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important factor in human gastric disorders, including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Since epidemiologic studies overwhelmingly agree on a protective influence of fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of gastric neoplasia and processed foods made from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot or "Ume" in Japanese) are traditionally known for their miscellaneous medical effects, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (CJA) in the glandular stomach of Hp-infected Mongolian gerbils. Hp-inoculated gerbils were given CJA in their drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 3% for 10 weeks. The microscopic scores for gastritis and mucosal hyperplasia in the CJA groups were significantly lower than in the Hp-inoculated control group, with dose-dependence. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitate Hp by demonstrating urease A gene amount using gerbils glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. Average relative urease A gene dosage in the glandular stomach in the 1 and 3% CJA and Hp-inoculated control groups was 26.6 +/- 11.6% (average +/- SE), 30.3 +/- 10.5%, 100 +/- 40.9%, respectively, the fruit-juice concentrate causing significant lowering (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, with 1 and 3%). These findings suggest that suppressive effects on gastric cancer development might also be expected as a result of decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA. PMID:16235996

Otsuka, Takafumi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Harunari; Inada, Kenichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kumagai, Toshiko; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Miki, Kazumasa; Tatematsu, Masae

412

Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?  

PubMed Central

Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat evaluation of the same X-ray films. Enhanced diagnostic sensitivity would be most rewarding since management consisting of cessation of oral feedings combined with administration of intravenous fluids and gastric lavage is easy and resolves over 85% of gastric lactobezoars. In conclusion, gastric lactobezoar is a disorder of unknown prevalence and is nowadays very rarely published, possibly because of inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and/or not yet identified but beneficial modifications of patient management.

2012-01-01

413

Current Issues in Economics of Food Markets: Consolidated Markets, Brand Competition, and Orange Juice Prices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines how consolidation in the marketing system affects prices for orange juice. The authors isolated the pricing behavior of brand marketers, wholesalers, and retailers by observing the retail prices for specific orange juice products, incl...

J. Binkley J. Eales P. Canning R. Dooley

2002-01-01

414

Pesticides: FDA's (Food and Drug Administration's) Investigation of Imported Apple Juice Concentrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on the volume of imported apple juice concentrate, FDA's testing methodology, and FDA's testing results of its special investigation on imported apple juice concentrate. All FDA district offices were instructed to sample ea...

1986-01-01

415

Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice. PMID:15285108

Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale

2004-06-01

416

Erythromycin stimulates gastric emptying after esophagectomy with gastric replacement: A randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed gastric emptying after esophagogastrectomy can pose a significant early postoperative problem. Because erythromycin, which stimulates the gastric antral and duodenal motilin receptor, has been shown to significantly increase gastric emptying in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, we decided to evaluate its effect on gastric emptying after esophagogastrectomy. Methods: Twenty-four patients (18 men and six women, age range 41 to 79

Michael Burt; Andrew Scott; William C. Williard; Rodney Pommier; Samuel Yeh; Manjit S. Bains; Allan D. Turnbull; Joseph G. Fortner; Patricia M. McCormack; Robert J. Ginsberg

1996-01-01

417

Application of capillary isotachophoresis for fruit juice authentication.  

PubMed

A method using capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) was developed and applied for the determination of the anionic profile of orange juices with the aim to obtain some useful information on the authenticity or adulteration of imported and native beverage products. An EA 100 electrophoretic analyser (Villa-LABECO, Slovak Republic) was used for capillary isotachophoretic determination of anions in tested samples. More systems of leading and terminating electrolytes were used. Detection conductivity and UV detection at 254 nm were used. Sample injection volume was 30 microl. These systems allow one to determinate inorganic anions, organic acids and some additives--adulterants in anionic forms in orange juices. By capillary isotachophoretic determination the lengths or areas of characteristic zones were established and compared to authentic orange juices of different species and origin and with RSK reference values (Code of Practice). Special emphasis was placed on D-isocitric acid ITP determination as a reliable fruit juice authentication marker. The presented multicomponent analysis of orange juice authenticity according to ITP anionic profiles obtained by capillary isotachophoresis presents an alternative information source necessary for deciding about authenticity of the products. PMID:11382290

Jezek, J; Suhaj, M

2001-05-01

418

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-03-20

419

Prevalence of Candida species in fresh fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are popular soft drinks with an important role in human nutrition. Fruit juices are often infested by yeast species that can survive different storage conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of yeast contamination of freshly squeezed juices in three large supermarkets in Zagreb, Croatia. The analysis included 84 juice samples obtained from freshly squeezed orange, lemon, grapefruit, and apples. Their acidity varied between pH 2.1 and pH 4.9. Juice samples were plated directly on Sabouraud 4 % glucose Agar (Merck, 1.05438) and processed according to standardised methods (HRN ISO 7954:2002). Yeasts were isolated in all 84 samples and ranged between 0.005 x 103 and 23 x 103 colony forming units per mL (CFU mL-1). The most common yeasts identified using the API 20C AUX yeast kit included Candida guillermondii, C. krusei, C. famata, C. spherica, C. colliculosa, C. albicans, Trichosporon mucoides, Kloeckera spp. and yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. C. guillermondii prevailed in 55.95 % of all samples. PMID:20061245

Uhitil, Suncica; Hadina, Suzana; Grani?, Kornelija; Jaksi?, Slavica

2009-12-01

420

Fruit juices as perpetrators of drug interactions: the role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides.  

PubMed

Grapefruit juice is widely recognized to cause important drug interactions via inhibition of CYP3A4, and a wider variety of fruit juices have been shown to inhibit influx transporters in enterocytes known as organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). Fruit juice coadministration significantly reduces the oral bioavailability of numerous important medicines relying on this anion transporter pathway for absorption. This article reviews the current literature on interactions between clinically used OATP substrates and fruit juice consumption. PMID:23033114

Dolton, M J; Roufogalis, B D; McLachlan, A J

2012-10-03

421

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice lowers mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA102  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) is a medicinal plant native to Brazil and also yields a nutritious fruit juice. Its large pulpy pseudo-fruit, referred to as the cashew apple, contains high concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. Natural and processed cashew apple juice (CAJ\\/cajuina) are amongst the most popular juices in Brazil, especially in the north-east. Both juices have

Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante; Gabriel Rübensam; Bernardo Erdtmann; Martin Brendel; João A. P. Henriques

2005-01-01

422

Optimizing conditions for enzymatic clarification of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw banana juice is turbid, viscous and gray in colour. This work was initiated to optimize the enzymatic clarification process of banana juice using response surface methodology. Banana juice was treated with pectinase at various enzyme concentrations (0.01–0.1%), temperatures (30–50°C) and time (30–120min) of treatment. The effect of these enzyme treatments on filterability, clarity, turbidity and viscosity of the juice

W. C. Lee; S. Yusof; N. S. A. Hamid; B. S. Baharin

2006-01-01

423

Preparation of a resveratrol-enriched grape juice based on ultraviolet C-treated berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapes are rich in bioactive phenolics. However, most of them remain in the by-product after juice processing, and only a minor part pass to the juice. Our aim was to obtain a resveratrol-enriched white grape juice based on UVC-treated berries in combination with different conditions during juice production. Postharvest UVC treatment of berries enabled the further selective stilbenes enrichment of

R. González-Barrio; M. L. Vidal-Guevara; F. A. Tomás-Barberán; J. C. Espín

2009-01-01

424

Limonene, linalool, ?-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol as quality control parameters in mandarin juice processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers demand commercial citrus juices resembling fresh juices; however, citrus juice elaboration is quite delicate due\\u000a to the formation of off-flavors during heat treatment and storage. Four volatile compounds, d-limonene, linalool, ?-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were extracted using the dynamic headspace technique and were identified\\u000a and quantified by GC-MS in mandarin juices from two Spanish varieties, Fortuna and Clemenules. Our results

Antonio J. Pérez-López; Domingo Saura; José Lorente; Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

2006-01-01

425

Microbial inactivation by ultra high-pressure homogenisation on fresh apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultra high-pressure homogenisation (UHPH) on the microbial shelf life of fresh apple juice immediately after treatment and storage at 4 °C was studied and compared with fresh raw apple juice and a conventional heat treatment (pasteurised apple juice (PA)) used at industrial level (90 °C for 4 min). Apple juice samples were processed using an ultra high-pressure homogeniser (model FPG11300,

A. Suarez-Jacobo; R. Gervilla; B. Guamis; A. X. Roig-Sagues; J. Saldo

2009-01-01

426

Ulcer disease after gastric bypass surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe mechanism of marginal ulceration after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery is poorly understood. We reviewed the incidence, presentation, and outcome of ulcer disease in consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

Ramsey M. Dallal; Linda A. Bailey

2006-01-01

427

Alterations in gastric mucus secretion in rhesus monkeys after exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on soluble gastric mucus. Six conscious chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied once before and twice after exposure to ionizing irradiation (800 rads). Using a marker (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) dilution technique, acidic glycoprotein (AG), neutral glycoprotein (NG), ion, and fluid output were determined during a basal period and after the administration of an 80-ml water load. Irradiation significantly increased the outputs of both AG and NG during the basal period. After the water load, NG output remained elevated but irradiation abolished postload AG output thus inhibiting the normal rise in AG output stimulated by the load. Two days after irradiation NG output had returned to control levels whereas AG output was still suppressed. Sodium and potassium ion outputs were unaltered by irradiation. Chloride and fluid outputs were significantly inhibited on the day of irradiation but had returned to control levels within 3 days. These results indicate that irradiation produces significant changes in both the quantity and nature of the soluble mucus glycoproteins secreted into the gastric juice. It is suggested that these changes may compromise the protective ability of gastric mucus.

Shea-Donohue, T.; Danquechin-Dorval, E.; Montcalm, E.; El-Bayar, H.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

1985-03-01

428

Alterations in gastric mucus secretion in rhesus monkeys after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on soluble gastric mucus. Six conscious chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied once before and twice after exposure to ionizing irradiation (800 rads). Using a marker (99mTc-DTPA) dilution technique, acidic glycoprotein (AG), neutral glycoprotein (NG), ion, and fluid output were determined during a basal period and after the administration of an 80-ml water load. Irradiation significantly increased the outputs of both AG and NG during the basal period. After the water load, NG output remained elevated but irradiation abolished postload AG output thus inhibiting the normal rise in AG output stimulated by the load. Two days after irradiation NG output had returned to control levels whereas AG output was still suppressed. Sodium and potassium ion outputs were unaltered by irradiation. Chloride and fluid outputs were significantly inhibited on the day of irradiation but had returned to control levels within 3 days. These results indicate that irradiation produces significant changes in both the quantity and nature of the soluble mucus glycoproteins secreted into the gastric juice. It is suggested that these changes may compromise the protective ability of gastric mucus. PMID:3881307

Shea-Donohue, T; Danquechin-Dorval, E; Montcalm, E; El-Bayar, H; Durakovic, A; Conklin, J J; Dubois, A

1985-03-01

429

Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients  

SciTech Connect

Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies.

Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

1985-05-01

430

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, and including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_{J} (see also L.~Fletcher et al. in session C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_{J}, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will summarize the science objectives of the JUICE mission, will describe the baseline mission profile and the capabilities of the envisaged spacecraft. The mission would be launched in 2022 and would arrive at Jupiter about 7.5~years later. During its 3.5~years operations at Jupiter, it would perform frequent flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, two Europa flybys, and would finally be placed in an orbit around Ganymede. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

431

Effects of Cranberry Juice on Pharmacokinetics of  Lactam Antibiotics following Oral Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of -lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the -lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxi- cillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated

Meng Li; Marilee A. Andrew; Joanne Wang; David H. Salinger; Paolo Vicini; Richard W. Grady; Brian Phillips; Danny D. Shen; Gail D. Anderson

2009-01-01

432

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)|

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

433

Effects of Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice contains antioxidants such as soluble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins and may have antiatherosclerotic properties. However, no study has investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether daily consumption of pomegranate juice for 3 months would affect myocardial perfusion in 45 patients who had CHD and myocardial ischemia in

Michael D. Sumner; Melanie Elliott-Eller; Gerdi Weidner; Jennifer J. Daubenmier; Mailine H. Chew; Ruth Marlin; Caren J. Raisin; Dean Ornish

434

Role of bittergourd fruit juice in stz-induced diabetic state in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous juice of bittergourd fruit (BF) (Momordica charantia L.) of the family Cucurbitaceae has been shown to possess hypoglycemic activity. However, the mechanism of its action is not known. Hence in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to study the role of BF juice on the diabetic status. The activity of BF juice was tested on STZ

Sandhya L Sitasawad; Yogita Shewade; Ramesh Bhonde

2000-01-01

435

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR DETECTION OF PATULIN IN APPLE JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring of patulin in apple juice, apple juice concentrates and apple juice products is performed to comply with guidelines of the United States Food and Drug Administration. The majority of the current methods are based on AOAC Official Methods involving liquid-liquid extraction of patulin with...

436

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....

2010-04-01

437

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....

2009-04-01

438

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....

2013-04-01

439

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

440

Comparison of Thermal Processing and Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment in Pasteurization of Apple Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple juice is a popular beverage worldwide, which is perceived as a wholesome and nutritious product. Overall quality of apple juice is an important factor to consider in processing, since some attributes, such as aroma, colour and flavour, are well appreciated by the final consumer, and are associated with freshness and authenticity. Non-thermal processing was tested in apple juice pasteurization

A. V. Charles-Rodríguez; G. V. Nevárez-Moorillón; Q. H. Zhang; E. Ortega-Rivas

2007-01-01

441

Identification of Natural Antimicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Enterobacter sakazakii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juices with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. The concentration of total phenolic compounds of commercial baby juices ranged from 176.7 to 347.7 mg/mL. Commercial baby juices showed poor antim...

442

Density of juice and fruit puree as a function of soluble solids content and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of temperature and concentration of soluble solids on density of depectined and clarified peach juice and orange juice and a study of the effect of the temperature on density of apple and quince purees are reported.The densities of the peach and orange juices were determined at concentrations of between 10 and 60 °Brix and temperatures

A. M. Ramos; A. Ibarz

1998-01-01

443

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...imports of concentrated fruit juices, using the procedure set forth...20, HTSUS: Kind of fruit juice Average Brix value (degrees...0 Naranjilla 10.5 Orange 11.8 Papaya 10.2...

2013-04-01

444

Sensory analysis of Spanish mandarin juices. Selection of attributes and panel performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to develop a list of descriptors to evaluate fresh and processed mandarin juices by the conventional sensory profile method and to select a group of assessors for future research in this field. Descriptors to evaluate fresh juices were generated by triadic elicitation (Repertory Grid method) performed by 20 assessors with five samples of juices.

L. Carbonell; L. Izquierdo; I. Carbonell

2007-01-01

445

Bacteriological Analysis of Street Vended Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Nagpur City, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are an important part of the diet of all age groups due to the associated health benefits. Fresh squeezed juices of pineapple, sweet lime and vegetable juices sold by street vendors in Nagpur city were analysed for their microbiological quality. The samples were randomly collected from local vendors in the city. A total of 38 samples were analysed

Ankur Titarmare; Pranoti Dabholkar; Suchitra Godbole

446

Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Raw Fruit and/or Vegetable Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the inhibition of enzymatic browning of raw fruit juice and/or raw vegetable juice by treating juice with an effective anti-browning amount of at least one sulfated polysaccharide to inhibit browning. A promoter selected from the ...

C. B. S. Tong K. B. Hicks

1991-01-01

447

Effect of storage conditions on methanol content of fruit and vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol contents of fresh squeezed juices from 10 fruits and 5 vegetables were determined and the relation of methanol release from stored juices on the physico-chemical properties including degree of esterification (DE), total pectin content, pH value, titratable acidity and the hydrolytic activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase (CE) and pectate lyase (PAL) of fresh squeezed juices were investigated.

Chih-Yao Hou; Yeong-Shenn Lin; Yuh Tai Wang; Chii-Ming Jiang; Ming-Chang Wu

2008-01-01

448

Scale up of fuel ethanol production from sugar beet juice using loofa sponge immobilized bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice, using cells immobilized on loofa sponge was investigated. Based on ethanol productivity and ease of cell immobilization, a flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR2 was selected for ethanol production from sugar beet juice. It was found that raw sugar beet juice was an optimal substrate for ethanol production, requiring neither pH adjustment

James C Ogbonna; Hiroaki Mashima; Hideo Tanaka

2001-01-01

449

No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on

Sara J. Hendrickson; Richard D. Mattes

2008-01-01

450

75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review)] Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China would be likely to...

2010-10-01

451

77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period...Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

2012-05-23

452

Effect of fruit blanching on phenolics and radical scavenging activity of highbush blueberry juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frozen highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were processed into juice, and the influence was studied of a steam blanching step, applied to fruit before milling, on the recovery of anthocyanin pigments and total cinnamates, in relation to the radical-scavenging properties of blueberry juices. Inactivation of PPO induced a significant recovery increase of anthocyanin and cinnamate contents. Furthermore juice from blanched

Margherita Rossi; Elena Giussani; Roberto Morelli; Roberto Lo Scalzo; Renato C. Nani; Danila Torreggiani

2003-01-01

453

Colour and label evaluation of commercial pasteurised red juices and related drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing demand by consumers for healthy beverages, artificial colours are still widely used. Levels of anthocyanins and artificial colours were determined by HPLC with UV-Vis detection in red orange juices and other red beverages (nectar, juice-based, health, carbonated and sports drinks). The contribution of pigments to the visible colour of the beverage was calculated. Red orange juice samples contained

B. Fallico; E. Arena; E. Chiappara; G. Ballistreri

2010-01-01

454

Identification of Natural Animicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Cranonbacter sakazakii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juice with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds identified in red muscadine juice (‘Noble’) were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. Commercial baby juices with high polyphenol content (176.7~347.7 mg/mL), showed poor antimicrobial a...

455

Patulin in apple juices: Incidence and likely intake in an Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty samples of apple juices were investigated for patulin levels using HPLC with UV detection. It was found that 38 (76? samples contained no detectable patulin (LOD = 7.5 µg l), but some samples had high patulin levels (845 µg l) compared to other branded mixed juices (21–70 µg l) and apple juices procured from local vendors (191 µg l).

Neha Saxena; Premendra D. Dwivedi; Kausar M. Ansari; Mukul Das

2008-01-01

456

Ozone Processing for Food Preservation: An Overview on Fruit Juice Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the efficacy of ozone an emerging non-thermal food preservation technique for fruit juices and highlights changes in key microbial, quality and nutritional parameters. Ozonation of fruit juices has been identified as a potential technology to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration's requirement of a 5 log reduction in pertinent microorganisms found in juices. This review

P. J. Cullen; V. P. Valdramidis; B. K. Tiwari; S. Patil; P. Bourke; C. P. ODonnell

2010-01-01

457

Late Gastric Prolapse with Pouch Necrosis after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant complications of the gastric banding procedure is gastric prolapse. However, pouch necrosis after\\u000a gastric prolapse is an extremely rare complication. We present the case of a morbidly obese 41-year-old woman who had had\\u000a a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure 3 years before. She developed a pouch necrosis after a late gastric prolapse.\\u000a After failure of

Sorinel Lunca; Michel Vix; Andrew Rikkers; Francesco Rubino; Jacques Marescaux

2005-01-01

458

Screening of gastric carcinoma cells in the human malignant gastric mucosa by confocal Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal Raman microspectroscopy was used to characterize gastric carcinoma cell in both cultured cells and human gastric mucosa tissues. Based on the spectra of single cultured cell, gastric carcinoma cells were screened out in the malignant gastric mucosa successfully and the positive ratio is about 58.06%. The high SNR (signal-to-noise) spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues and cells were obtained

A. G. Shen; Y. Ye; J. W. Zhang; X. H. Wang; J. M. Hu; W. Xie; J. Shen

2005-01-01

459

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori for primary gastric cancer and secondary gastric cancer after endoscopic mucosal resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most gastric cancers develop from a background of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa, H. pylori plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, eradication of H. pylori may inhibit the incidence of gastric cancers. In experimental studies, H. pylori eradication has proved to act as a prophylaxis against gastric cancer. However, the results of recent randomized controlled\\u000a studies are absolutely

Motosugu Kato; Masahiro Asaka; Shouko Ono; Manabu Nakagawa; Souichi Nakagawa; Yuichi Shimizu; Makoto Chuma; Hiroshi Kawakami; Yoshito Komatsu; Shuhei Hige; Hiroshi Takeda

2007-01-01

460

Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication.  

PubMed

A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit. PMID:22692484

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L

2011-06-17

461

Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit.

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L

2011-01-01

462

Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.  

PubMed

The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

2012-07-19

463

Functional neuroimaging of gastric distention.  

PubMed

This study aimed to measure brain activation during gastric distention as a way to investigate short-term satiety. We estimated regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography (15O-water) during gastric balloon inflation and deflation in 18 healthy young women. The contrast between inflated minus deflated conditions showed activation in the following four key regions that were identified a priori: dorsal brain stem; left inferior frontal gyrus; bilateral insula; and right subgenual, anterior cingulate cortex. Extant neuroimaging literature provides context for these areas as follows: the brain stem represents vagal projection zones for visceral afferent processing; the inferior frontal gyrus serves as a convergence zone for processing food-related stimuli; and both the insula and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex respond to emotional stimulation. The identification of neural correlates of gastric distention is a key step in the discovery of new treatments for obesity. New therapies could intervene by modifying the perception of gastric distention, an important contributor to meal termination and short-term satiety. This first study of brain activation during nonpainful, proximal gastric distention provides the groundwork for future research to discover novel treatments for obesity. PMID:13129550

Stephan, Elke; Pardo, José V; Faris, Patricia L; Hartman, Boyd K; Kim, Suck W; Ivanov, Emil H; Daughters, Randy S; Costello, Patricia A; Goodale, Robert L

464

Gastric mucosal protection by somatostatins.  

PubMed

Somatostatin and somatostatin derivatives were tested for their ability to prevent gastric hemorrhagic erosions induced by ethanol. The somatostatin analogues were cyclohexapeptides with the rearranged amino acids 7-14 of somatostatin (S-14): Phe-Thr-Lys(Z)-Trp-Phe-D-Pro(I), Phe-Thr-Lys-Trp-Phe-D-Pro(II), Phe-Thr-Lys-D-Trp-Phe-Tyr(III) and Tyr-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe(IV). In Spraque-Dawley rats receiving ethanol alone, the lesions involved 18.1 +/- 3.2% of the glandular stomach while after S- 14 (10(-7) mol/rat) the lesioned area was reduced to 6.3 +/- 1.1% (p less than 0.05). Peptide I and peptide II (doses 10(-7) -10(-9) mol/rat) decreased the area of erosions to less than 5%. Peptide III was less active and peptide IV was inactive. In rats with chronic gastric fistula S- 14 and peptide II decreased the cysteamine-stimulated acid secretion without affecting the pepsin output. We also continuously measured the intraluminal pH in the stomach of Wistar rats which develop gastric erosions after subcutaneous injection of cysteamine. The erosions were reduced by S- 14 or SMS while the intraluminal pH did not change under the influence of cysteamine or the combination of cysteamine plus S- 14 or SMS. Thus some of the peptides derived from S- 14 exert prominent gastric mucosal protection without influencing gastric secretion. PMID:2882058

Kusterer, K; Rohr, G; Schwedes, U; Usadel, K H; Szabo, S

1986-01-01

465

Treatment of resectable gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care.

Dikken, Johan L.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Coit, Daniel G.; Shah, Manish A.; Verheij, Marcel

2012-01-01

466

Treatment of resectable gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care. PMID:22282708

Dikken, Johan L; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Coit, Daniel G; Shah, Manish A; Verheij, Marcel; Cats, Annemieke

2012-01-01

467

Gastric cancer: epidemiologic aspects.  

PubMed

A multifactorial and multistep model of gastric cancer (GC) is currently accepted, according to which different environmental and genetic factors are involved at different stages in the cancer process. The aim of this article is to review the most relevant information published on the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Large meta-analyses confirmed the association between IL8, IL10, TNF-b, TP53 and PSCA, while genetic variation at different genes such as XPG, PLCE1, HFE, ERCC5, EZH2, DOC2, CYP19A1, ALDH2, and CDH1 have been reported to be associated with GC risk. Several microRNAs have also been associated with GC and their prognosis. Cohort studies have shown the association between GC and fruit, flavonoid, total antioxidant capacity, and green tea intake. Obesity was associated with cardia GC, heme iron intake from meat with GC risk. Several large meta-analyses have confirmed the positive association of GC with salt intake and pickled foods and the negative association with aspirin use. PMID:24011243

González, Carlos A; Sala, Núria; Rokkas, Theodore

2013-09-01

468

Primary gastric Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Hodgkin's disease of the stomach is an extremely rare entity. Nearly all cases of primary gastric lymphoma are of the non-Hodgkin's variety. Diagnoses in such cases are difficult due to considerable histological similarities between the 2 disease entities. Case presentation We report the case of a 77 year old lady with a 1 year history of weight loss and poor appetite. Physical examination was unremarkable. Subsequent multiple upper GI endoscopies revealed a large malignant looking ulcer which was deemed to be histologically benign. Following CT imaging the patient underwent a radical gastrectomy. Postoperatively histology and immunohistochemistry failed to confirm a diagnosis. As such a second opinion was sought. Employing an extended array of immunohistological staining a diagnosis of 'Classical Hodgkin's' disease of the stomach was achieved. Conclusion Our case illustrates the significant difficulties in achieving a rare diagnosis of primary Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach. The non-specific nature of symptoms and a lack of histological features make a preoperative diagnosis extremely difficult. While immunohistochemistry is widely employed in aiding the evaluation of such cases, one should be wary of the considerable overlap in differentiating between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's disease entities using this technique.

Hossain, Fahad S; Koak, Yashwant; Khan, Farrukh H

2007-01-01

469

Action of pentacaine on gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of pentacaine, a new prospective antiulcer drug with gastric cytoprotective activity, on gastric acid secretion was analysed and compared with the action of other antisecretory drugs. The drugs were given orally or intraduodenally to Wistar rats after pylorus ligation. The gastric acid secretion was studied under basal or stimulated (histamine, pentagastrin, carbachol) conditions. Oral administration of pentacaine, oxethazaine

A. BabuTovfi; V. Nosá?ová; V. Bauer; ?. Buran

1988-01-01

470

Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate.  

PubMed

A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

Lewis, Susan

2003-05-01

471

Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals  

SciTech Connect

To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 ..mu..Ci) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 ..mu..Ci) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences.

Christian, P.E.; Brophy, C.M.; Egger, M.J.; Taylor, A.; Moore, J.G.

1984-01-01

472

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2011-01-01

473</