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1

Hydroxyl radical formation in human gastric juice.  

PubMed

The hydroxyl radical is the most potent free radical derived from oxygen, and has been implicated in damage caused to the gastroduodenal mucosa. The ability of human gastric juice to generate hydroxyl radicals has been investigated in 54 adults with endoscopically normal gastroduodenal mucosa and in 39 patients with chronic duodenal ulcer. Hydroxyl radical production was measured by the formation of formaldehyde from dimethylsulfoxide. Unlike other body fluids, this reaction could proceed without the extraneous addition of catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbate and iron. Measurement of H2O2, iron and ascorbate showed that these catalysts are already present in the gastric juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of these components in gastric juice between normal subjects and patients with duodenal ulcer, except that H2O2 levels were slightly higher in duodenal ulcer patients. Although generation of free radicals has been investigated in other body fluids, this is the first reported case regarding the production of these active species in normal human gastric juice. Since hydroxyl production is not significantly enhanced in duodenal ulcer, we suggest that attention may be turned to mucosal antioxidant defences in this disease. PMID:1327262

Nalini, S; Ramakrishna, B S; Mohanty, A; Balasubramanian, K A

1992-01-01

2

Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease. PMID:9389979

Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

1997-01-01

3

Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric

S. Banerjee; C. Hawksby; S. Miller; S. Dahill; A D Beattie; K E McColl

1994-01-01

4

Transfer and distribution of amoxicillin in the rat gastric mucosa and gastric juice and the effects of rabeprazole  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the distribution of amoxicillin in the gastric juice and gastric mucosa of rats and to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole on amoxicillin concentrations in various compartments. Methods: One hundred and sixty anesthetized rats were divided into five groups, and given intravenously different doses of amoxicillin or amoxicillin and rabeprazole. The pH value and volume of gastric juice was aspirated were measured and separated gastric mucosa was homogenized. The concentrations of amoxicillin in the plasma, gastric juice and gastric mucosa were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The maximum concentrations of amoxicillin in gastric juice and gastric mucosa were significantly lower than those in plasma (P<0.001). Concentrations in the glandular stomach mucosa were higher than those in the forestomach mucosa. Rabeprazole did not significantly change the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin in the plasma and did not alter gastric antibiotic clearance or the gastric transfer fraction of amoxicillin in gastric juice. However, rabeprazole did increase the amoxicillin concentration and pH value in gastric juice and reduced the volume of the gastric juice. Conclusion: Amoxicillin could penetrate the gastric mucosa and achieve therapeutic concentrations at the target site after transfer from the blood to the stomach. Rabeprazole increased the amoxicillin concentration in gastric juice by decreasing the gastric juice volume but did not affect its concentration in blood or gastric mucosa. PMID:20305682

Zheng, Hai-lun; Hu, Yong-mei; Bao, Jun-jun; Xu, Jian-ming

2010-01-01

5

The effect of preoperative apple juice on gastric contents, thirst, and hunger in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 3 ml·kg-1 of apple juice given 2.6 ± 0.4 hours preoperatively was investigated in 80 healthy children of ages five to ten years in\\u000a this prospective, randomized, single blind study. The children who drank apple juice preoperatively had decreased gastric\\u000a volume, thirst, and hunger (p -1 and in the patients who received apple juice the gastric volume

William M. Splinter; James A. Stewart; John G. Muir

1989-01-01

6

Gastric juice protects against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the rat.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of gastric juice on tumorigenesis in a rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In rats treated with the carcinogen methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, squamous cancer of the esophagus develops in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine treatment is preceded by an operation to induce reflux of duodenal and gastric juice into the esophagus, there is an increased yield of esophageal tumors, many of which are adenocarcinomas. When only gastric juice refluxes into the esophagus, the tumor yield is less and adenocarcinomas are not found. METHODS: Two hundred seventy 8-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Twenty unoperated rats served as controls. The remaining rats underwent the following operations: esophagoduodenostomy with gastric and vagal preservation to induce duodenogastroesophageal reflux (n = 48); esophagoduodenostomy with antrectomy and Billroth 1 reconstruction to produce reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the antrum (n = 53); esophagoduodenostomy with proximal gastrectomy to induce hypergastrinemia and reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the body and forestomach (n = 51); esophagoduodenostomy plus total gastrectomy to produce reflux of duodenal juice alone (n = 50); and esophagoduodenostomy with vagal and gastric preservation but with division of the duodenum just beyond the pylorus and reimplantation into the jejunum, 13 cm distal to the esophagoduodenostomy. This produced reflux of duodenal juice with gastric juice diverted downstream, (n = 48). At 10 weeks of age, all rats were given 4 weekly doses of carcinogen (methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and survivors were killed at 36 weeks of age. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 30% in rats with duodenogastroesophageal reflux and 87% in rats with reflux of duodenal juice alone. Fifty-six percent of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the antrum and 72% of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the body and forestomach developed adenocarcinoma, showing a progression increase in the prevalence of adenocarcinoma as less gastric juice was permitted to reflux with duodenal juice into the esophagus. CONCLUSION: In this rat model, the presence of gastric juice in refluxed duodenal juice against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The protective effect appears to be due to acid secretion from the stomach. Continuous profound acid suppression therapy may be detrimental by encouraging esophageal metaplasia and tumorigenesis in patients with duodenogastroesophageal reflux. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8813264

Ireland, A P; Peters, J H; Smyrk, T C; DeMeester, T R; Clark, G W; Mirvish, S S; Adrian, T E

1996-01-01

7

High concentrations of D-amino acids in human gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The concentrations of free D- and L-amino acids were determined in the gastric juice from four groups: patients suffering\\u000a from early gastric carcinoma with or without Helicobacter pylori infection, and patients without carcinoma but with peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers or chronic gastritis with or without H. pylori infection. H. pylori is a bacterium associated with gastric inflammation and peptic ulcers

Y. Nagata; T. Sato; N. Enomoto; Y. Ishii; K. Sasaki; T. Yamada

2007-01-01

8

How accurate is the determination of blood in gastric juice? Comparison of peroxidase and porphyrin methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mucosal bleeding is frequently used as a measure of gastric mucosal integrity. We compared the orthotolidine method for quantifying haemoglobin in gastric juice with a method based on measurement of fluorescent porphyrins extracted from haem. We also investigated whether acid or pepsin had a deleterious effect on the results of either method.\\u000aMETHODS: We compared the effects of pH

K. L. Woods; Catarina I. Kiefe; D. Y. Graham

1996-01-01

9

Closed Suctioning System Reduces Cross-Contamination Between Bronchial System and Gastric Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this prospective, randomized study, we evaluated whether a closed suctioning (CS) system (Trach- Care™) influences crossover contamination between bronchial system and gastric juices when compared with an open suctioning system (OS). The secondary aims were an analysis of the frequency of ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP) and an analysis of alter- ation in gas exchange. Antibiograms were performed from tracheal

Werner Rabitsch; Wolfgang J. Kostler; Wolfgang Fiebiger; Christoph Dielacher; Heidrun Losert; Camillo Sherif; Thomas Staudinger; Edith Seper; Walter Koller; Florian Daxbock; Ernst Schuster; Paul Knobl; Heinz Burgmann; Michael Frass

10

Dietary Glutamate Signal Evokes Gastric Juice Excretion in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dietary-free L-glutamate (Glu) in the stomach interacts with specific Glu receptors (T1R1\\/T1R3 and mGluR1–8) expressed on surface epithelial and gastric gland cells. Furthermore, luminal Glu activates the vagal afferents in the stomach through the paracrine cascade including nitric oxide and serotonin (5-HT). Aim: To elucidate the role of dietary Glu in neuroendocrine control of the gastrointestinal phase of gastric

Raisa Khropycheva; Julia Andreeva; Hisayuki Uneyama; Kunio Torii; Vasiliy Zolotarev

2011-01-01

11

Lack of agreement between tonometric and gastric juice partial carbon dioxide tension  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In recent years there has been growing interest in tonometric estimation of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi). More recently, attention has focused on the gradient between intraluminal and arterial PCO2. pHi appears to be a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool in critically ill patients, and may also be used as a therapeutic guide. However, intraluminal PCO2 is the parameter measured to calculate pHi, and it is assumed as equivalent to the PCO2 of the upper layers of the gastric mucosa. Direct measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice might offer advantages over tonometry. Tonometer costs could be saved, and equilibration time would no longer be necessary. Additionally, preanalytic factors that account for poor reproducibility, such as inadequate volume of saline in the tonometer, errors in the dwell time of the sample or in the technique used to aspirate saline, mixing of the sample with tonometer dead space and delay in analysis, could be prevented. Nevertheless, to our knowledge few experimental or clinical studies have examined PCO2 in gastric juice. Moreover, no comparison with simultaneous tonometric samples has been performed. Our goal was to compare simultaneous measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice and in saline samples from a tonometer. Data from the present study show that gastric juice PCO2 is systematically higher. Furthermore, differences widen at high PCO2 values, and data dispersion becomes even more striking. Therefore, tonometric PCO2 and gastric juice PCO2 are not interchangeable. Patients and methods: The present study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from the next of kin of each patient. We studied 15 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients from a medical/surgical intensive care unit, in whom tonometric monitoring was indicated by attending physicians. All patients were receiving 50 mg intravenous ranitidine every 8 h. Gastric tonometers were filled with saline, which was extracted after 90 min of equilibration time. At the same time, gastric juice was anaerobically extracted from the aspiration port of the tonometer. The initial 20 ml was discarded. PCO2 in both samples was measured using a blood gas analyzer (AVL 945; AVL List GMBH, Gratz, Austria). These measurements were taken at various time points in each patient, and under various haemodynamic and oxygen transport conditions, All measurements were performed with the patient fasted. Correlation between the two measurements was examined using the Bland-Altman technique. We also performed an in vitro study to quantify the precision and bias for the AVL 945. For this purpose, a stable PCO2 in saline solution was achieved by bubbling 5% carbon dioxide calibration gas. Results: We performed 112 pairs of measurements in 15 patients. Table 1 shows clinical data and the first values of arterial, tonometered and gastric juice PCO2 for each patient. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between both methods of measuring PCO2 (r 2 =0.43; gastric juice PCO2 = -28.79 + [2.55 × tonometric PCO2]; P < 0.0001; Fig. 1). However, the bias calculated as the mean difference of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 was 51 mmHg. The 95% limits of agreement were 315 mmHg (Fig. 2). For mean PCO2 values lesser than 100 mmHg, the bias and the 95% limits of agreement were 19 and 102 mmHg, respectively. As mean PCO2 increased, the scattering of differences widened (r 2 =0.71; P < 0.0001). In an effort to prevent the bias related to multiple measurements per patient, we performed Bland-Altman analysis with the first measurement of each patient. After this the results remained similar (bias 55 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement 216 mmHg). The AVL 945 blood gas analyzer showed a negative bias of 0.97 mmHg and a precision of 2.13 mmHg. This bias was considered negligible, so no further correction was made to saline tonometric values. Discussion: The results of the present study show that tonometric PCO2 and gastric juice PCO2 are not interchangeable. Gastric juice PCO2 is systematically higher. At hi

Dubin, Arnaldo; Badie, Julio; Fernandez, Sofia; Estenssoro, Elisa; Canales, Hector; Bordoli, Guillermo; Palizas, Fernando

2000-01-01

12

Helicobacter pylori Infection Affects Eosinophilic Cationic Protein in the Gastric Juice of Patients with Idiopathic Chronic Urticaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer, has been associated with idiopathic chronic urticaria (ICU), an immunological skin disorder of unknown origin. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of ICU. We assessed serum\\/gastric juice ECP levels and gastric mucosal eosinophil infiltration in ICU patients infected or

V. Ojetti; A. Armuzzi; A. De Luca; E. Nucera; F. Franceschi; M. Candelli; G. F. Zannoni; S. Danese; S. Di Caro; M. Vastola; D. Schiavino; G. Gasbarrini; G. Patriarca; P. Pola; A. Gasbarrini

2001-01-01

13

Large volumes of apple juice preoperatively do not affect gastric pH and volume in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on gastric pH and volume of 0, 6 and 10 ml · kg?1, of apple juice given 2.5 hours before surgery to children aged five to ten years was investigated in this prospective, randomized,\\u000a single-blind study. Gastric contents were aspirated after induction of anaesthesia, and the volume measured. The pH of the\\u000a gastric aspirate was then assessed using

William M. Splinter; James A. Stewart; John G. Muir

1990-01-01

14

Encapsulation in alginate and alginate coated-chitosan improved the survival of newly probiotic in oxgall and gastric juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to develop an optimum composition model for the microencapsulation of a newly probiotic on sodium alginate using response surface methodology. The individual and interactive effects of three independent variables, namely sodium alginate concentration, biomass concentration, and hardening time, were investigated using Box-Behnken design experiments. A second ordered polynomial model was fitted and optimum conditions were estimated. The optimal conditions identified were 2% for sodium alginate, 10(10)UFC/ml for biomass, and 30 min for hardening time. The experimental value obtained for immobilized cells under these conditions was about 80.98%, which was in close agreement with the predicted value of 82.6%. Viability of microspheres (96%) was enhanced with chitosan as coating materials. The survival rates of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 during exposure to artificial gastrointestinal conditions were compared. The results revealed that the encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistances to artificial intestinal juice (AIJ) and artificial gastric juice (AGJ). Microencapsulation was also noted to effectively protect the strain from heating at 65 °C and refrigerating at 4 °C. Taken together, the findings indicated that microencapsulation conferred important protective effects to L. plantarum against the gastrointestinal conditions encountered during the transit of food. PMID:23817092

Trabelsi, Imen; Bejar, Wacim; Ayadi, Dorra; Chouayekh, Hichem; Kammoun, Radhouane; Bejar, Samir; Ben Salah, Riadh

2013-10-01

15

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: I. Modeling the gastric lumen.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is poor. The apolar nature of carotenoids precludes their simple diffusion from the food structure to the absorption site at the enterocyte. Therefore, there is interest in the potential pathways for solubilization in the gut before absorption. We have studied the transfer of carotenoids from carrot juice and homogenized spinach into lipid phases that mimic the intestinal lumen at the start of digestion. In this paper we report on their transfer into olive oil under conditions pertaining to the gastric environment. A comparison between preparations of raw spinach and of carrot, in which the intact cells have been largely broken, suggests that the membrane-bound carotenoids of spinach are more resistant to transfer than the crystalline carotenoids of carrot. Lowering the pH and pepsin treatment enhance the transfer from raw vegetables. The process of blanching and freezing spinach destroys the chloroplast ultrastructure and leads to (i) a substantial increase in transfer of the carotenoids to oil and (ii) an attenuation or reversal of the enhancement of transfer seen with reduced pH or with pepsin treatment. Similar effects are seen after blanching carrot juice. Our results show that removal of soluble protein and denaturation of membrane proteins enhances the partition of carotenoids into oil. For both vegetables there is no evidence of preference in the extent of transfer of one carotenoid over another. This suggests that partitioning into oil under gastric conditions is not the stage of digestion that could lead to differences in carotenoid bioavailability. PMID:14584601

Rich, Gillian T; Bailey, Angela L; Faulks, Richard M; Parker, Mary L; Wickham, Martin S J; Fillery-Travis, Annette

2003-09-01

16

Modulating polyphenolic composition and organoleptic properties of apple juices by manipulating the pressing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial crushing and pressing operations have a major influence on the polyphenolic composition of apple juice, therefore, we have tested the impact of variations of this step using three cider apple cultivars of contrasting polyphenolic composition: Guillevic, Kermerrien and Dous Moen. Under inert atmosphere, increased temperature (between 5°C and 24°C), increased the extraction of procyanidins from fruit to juice. The

Catherine M. G. C. Renard; J.-M. Le Quéré; R. Bauduin; R. Symoneaux; C. Le Bourvellec; A. Baron

2011-01-01

17

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

1991-01-01

18

Increasing gastric juice pH level prior to anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy may be beneficial to the healing of duodenal ulcers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy of clarithromycin-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected duodenal ulcer when combined with different pH levels of gastric juices. A total of 160 patients with Hp-infected duodenal ulcers were randomly allocated into two groups. Patients in the treatment group (n=80) were administered a 20-mg dose of omeprazole twice daily for 1 week and then the treatment and control groups (n=80) received therapy for Hp infection and duodenal ulcers. We observed the ulcer healing stage, the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice and the Hp eradication rate before and after proton pump inhibitor therapy in the two groups. Results revealed that the Hp eradication rate in the treatment group was 93% compared with 81% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The ulcer healing rate in the treatment group was 93%, compared with 70% in the control group (P<0.05). A positive linear correlation was observed between gastric pH and the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice (P<0.05). Increasing gastric pH prior to anti-Hp therapy may be beneficial to the eradication of Hp and for promoting the healing of duodenal ulcers. PMID:23408776

FAN, HONG-YUN; WANG, JUAN; YAN, GUO-CHAO; HUO, XIAO-HUI; MU, LI-JUAN; CHU, JIAN-KUN; NIU, WEI-WEI; DUAN, ZHI-YING; MA, JIN-CHENG; WANG, JING; WANG, ZHI-YU

2013-01-01

19

The use of election paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in early preformulation experiments: the impact of different experimental formulations on the release of a lipophilic spin probe into gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipophilic spin probe TEMPOL-benzoate was dissolved in different experimental formulations, including polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Miglyol, glycerol monooleate (GMO), and Cremophor RH-40. Samples were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy before and after addition to human gastric juice. The distance between the first and the third peak in the EPR spectrum (2aN) was measured to monitor the

Beate Bittner; Hugues Isel; Richard J. Mountfield

2001-01-01

20

Dramatic diurnal variation in the concentration of the human trefoil peptide TFF2 in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDTFF2, a member of the trefoil factor family of proteins, is a glycosylated protein of 106 amino acids. It is secreted by gastric antral and pyloric glands and by Brunner's glands of the duodenum. TFF2 is found in high concentrations around sites of ulceration. It stimulates cell motility and is probably the principal cytoprotective trefoil peptide in the stomach.AIMSTo determine

J I Semple; J L Newton; B R Westley; F E B May

2001-01-01

21

Identification of phenolic compositions and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices and wines.  

PubMed

This research was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of juices and wines obtained from Robinson, Fremont and Satsuma mandarins. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection was used for identifying and quantifying phenolic compounds. The total amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 36.6 to 132.6 mg/L for the mandarin juice, and from 14.1 to 54.5 mg/L for the wines. In the juices and wines, the major hydroxybenzoic acid was vanillic acid; the major hydroxycinnamic acid was ferulic acid; and the major flavanone was hesperidin. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices was found to be higher than that of wines. Results of this study indicated that these mandarin wines had a composition similar to other beverages, thus demonstrating that these fruits have the potential to be used to produce fermented beverages. PMID:24876641

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2014-06-01

22

The use of election paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in early preformulation experiments: the impact of different experimental formulations on the release of a lipophilic spin probe into gastric juice.  

PubMed

The lipophilic spin probe TEMPOL-benzoate was dissolved in different experimental formulations, including polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Miglyol, glycerol monooleate (GMO), and Cremophor RH-40. Samples were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy before and after addition to human gastric juice. The distance between the first and the third peak in the EPR spectrum (2a(N)) was measured to monitor the polarity of the spin probe's microenvironment. Moreover, the ratio between the signal amplitudes of the second and the third peak (a/b ratio) was used to monitor the mobility of the spin probe in a certain formulation. Thus, by calculating 2a(N) and the a/b ratio of the EPR spectra it was possible to determine a potential release of the spin probe from different formulations into gastric juice. It was found that oily and surface-active vehicles (Miglyol, Cremophor RH-40, and GMO) were more suitable to protect a lipophilic compound from being released within a gastric environment than PEG 400. Our results demonstrate that EPR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool in early preformulation experiments to monitor the release of spin probes from formulations of different nature. This kind of experiment can be of value for the optimization of exploratory formulations. PMID:11226824

Bittner, B; Isel, H; Mountfield, R J

2001-03-01

23

A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC.  

PubMed

The possibility that the stomach, affected by general stress, might initiate a counter-response has not until recently been considered in theories of stress. We suggest that the stomach, as the most sensitive part of the gastrointestinal tract and the largest neuroendocrine organ in the body, is crucial for the initiation of a full stress response against all noxious stress pathology. The end result would be a strong protection of all organs invaded by 'stress'. Consistent with this assumption, this coping response is best explained in terms of 'organoprotection'. Endogenous organoprotectors (eg prostaglandins, somatostatin, dopamine) are proposed as mediators. Such an endogenous counteraction could even be afforded by their suitable application. A new gastric juice peptide, M(r) 40,000, named BPC, was recently isolated. Herein, a 15 amino acid fragment (BPC 157), thought to be essential for its activity, has been fully characterized and investigated. As has been demonstrated for many organoprotective agents using different models of various tissue lesions, despite the poorly understood final mechanism, practically all organ systems appear to benefit from BPC activity. These effects have been achieved in many species using very low dosages (mostly microgram and ng/kg range) after ip, ig, and intramucosal (local) application. The effect was apparent already after one application. Long lasting activity was also demonstrated. BPC was highly effective when applied simultaneously with noxious agents or in already pathological, as well as chronical, conditions. Therefore, it seems that BPC treatment does not share any of the so far known limitations for 'conventional organoprotectors'. No influence on different basal parameters and no toxicity were observed. These findings provide a breakthrough in stress theory. BPC, as a possible endogenous free radical scavenger and organoprotection mediator, could be a useful prototype of a new class of drugs, organoprotective agents. PMID:8298609

Sikiri?, P; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevi?, Z; Rotkvi?, I; Turkovi?, B; Jagi?, V; Mildner, B; Duvnjak, M

1993-01-01

24

Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.  

PubMed

The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), ?-caryophyllene (8.04%) and ?-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

2015-03-01

25

Juice matrix composition and ascorbic acid fortification effects on the phytochemical, antioxidant and pigment stability of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice matrix composition on the phytochemical stability of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were evaluated by contrasting natural clarified juice systems with isolated polyphenolic and anthocyanin fractions, in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid (500mg\\/l) under accelerated storage conditions (37°C). Polyphenolic (anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenolics) and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using C18 Sep-Pak columns and then re-dissolved

Lisbeth A. Pacheco-palencia; Palo Hawken; Stephen T. Talcott

2007-01-01

26

Clonality Analysis of Helicobacter pylori in Patients Isolated from Several Biopsy Specimens and Gastric Juice in a Japanese Urban Population by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Background. The number of Helicobacter pylori clones infecting a single host has been discussed in numerous reports. The number has been suggested to vary depending on the regions in the world. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of clones infecting a single host in a Japanese urban population. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one Japanese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study. H. pylori isolates (total 104 strains) were obtained from biopsy specimens (antrum, corpus, and duodenum) and gastric juice. Clonal diversity was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting method. Results. The RAPD fingerprinting patterns of isolates from each patient were identical or very similar. And the isolates obtained from several patients with 5- to 9-year intervals showed identical or very similar RAPD patterns. Conclusion. Each Japanese individual of an urban population is predominantly infected with a single H. pylori clone. PMID:24348543

Toita, Nariaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Konno, Mutsuko

2013-01-01

27

[The reaction of cyclohexylsulphamic acid (Cyclamate) with nitrous acid in aqueous HCl-solution, isolated human gastric juice and urine (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The pH dependence of the formation and decomposition of the N-nitroso derivative, which is produced by the reaction of cyclohexylsulphamic acid with nitrous acid, was investigated by means of continuous photometric measurement of the changes in absorbance. Reaction at pH 2.45 resulted in an optimal yield of the N-nitroso derivative. The half-life of the decomposition reaction (the reactants cyclohexylsulphamic acid/sodium nitrite being in a molar ratio of 1:1.11) at pH 2.61 was 13.6 min. The N-nitroso derivative showed a relatively high stability at pH 4.5. The reaction in isolated human gastric juice and urine showed the same pH dependency as in aqueous HCl solution. PMID:670904

Kinawi, A; Kia, H

1978-06-01

28

Body composition changes following laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obesity.  

PubMed

Most reports of outcome following obesity surgery report weight and co-morbidity changes only. We studied body composition changes in 17 adult patients (15 F, 2 M, age 43+/-2 years, range 28-58 years), with morbid obesity (initial BMI 40.4+/-4.9 kg/m(2), range 34.7-48.8) who were managed surgically by laparoscopically inserting an adjustable gastric band. Body composition was studied before and after surgery (mean interval of 909+/-51 days, range 441-1155 days) using anthropometry (abdominal circumference, AC, sum of four skinfold thicknesses, SFSUM), whole-body potassium counting (TBK), in vivo neutron activation analysis total body nitrogen (TBProtein) and whole-body dual-energy ray absorptiometry (total body percent fat TBF%, and total body bone mineral density TBBMD). Weight loss over the study period was 23.4+/-2.5 kg. ( p<0.0003) with an AC reduction of 20.0+/-4.5 cm ( p<0.008). Both SFSUM and TBF% were significantly reduced ( p<0.02 and p<0.0005 respectively). Both TBK and TBProtein after normalization for sex and height, were significantly ( p<0.0054 and p<0.001 respectively) reduced, but the ratio of loss of fat mass to fat-free mass, at 4.4:1 was usual for weight loss, and there was no significant changes in the ratio of potassium to protein. TBBMD, after normalization relative to a young same sex adult, was not significantly changed. In this group of patients, most of the substantial weight loss over a 2- to 3-year period was due to loss of fat mass, with relatively less reduction in the components of fat-free mass. Adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding induces fat loss without significant other deleterious effects on body composition. PMID:14618490

Strauss, B J G; Marks, S J; Growcott, J P; Stroud, D B; Lo, C S; Dixon, J B; O'Brien, P E

2003-10-01

29

Orange Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A boy named Ben learns that the processing behind fresh-squeezed orange juice is simpler—and more environmentally friendly—than that of bottled orange juice, in this animated video from LOOP SCOOPS.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

30

Antiulcerative properties of crude polyphenols and juice of apple, and Chinese quince extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Chinese quince extract, apple juice, semi-purified phenolics and soluble pectin from these fruits on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats were investigated. In rats given Chinese quince extract or apple juice, ulcer induction was strongly suppressed, and the effect was stronger for Chinese quince extract than for apple juice. Myeloperoxidase activity in gastric mucosa showed a similar tendency. The

Yasunori Hamauzu; Miho Irie; Makoto Kondo; Tomoyuki Fujita

2008-01-01

31

Effect of D-002 on gastric mucus composition in ethanol-induced ulcer.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effect of D-002, a natural product isolated and purified from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on gastric mucus composition on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The morphology of the lesions was analysed histologically, and morphometric analysis of gastric-gland content in total glycoprotein and sulphated macromolecules were done. Oral pretreatment with D-002 at 5 and 25 mgkg(-1)1 before oral administration of ethanol at 60%, produced a significant increase in the amount of gastric mucus and total protein. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage at the same doses showed a significant increase in neutral glycoproteins and sulfated macromolecules. It is concluded that enhancement of the quantity and quality of the mucus could partly explain the gastroprotective effect of D-002. PMID:10987992

Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Noa, M; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Aguilar, C; Más, R

2000-10-01

32

Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC)/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component. PMID:22482081

Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Kitazawa, Masato; Mochizuka, Akiyoshi; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

2012-01-01

33

Weight Loss and Body Composition During the First Postoperative Year of a Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Weight loss in patients undergoing gastric bypass should be primarily from fat mass (FM), minimizing the fat-free mass (FFM)\\u000a loss. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in body weight and body composition during the first postoperative year\\u000a in 50 morbidly obese patients undergoing a Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) at the Obesity Clinic of the ABC\\u000a Medical

Tatiana Palazuelos-Genis; Maureen Mosti; Sofía Sánchez-Leenheer; Rocío Hernández; Olivia Garduño; Miguel F. Herrera

2008-01-01

34

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

35

Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice. This led to the constitution of an Expert Committee by Department of Health Research at Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in October 2010. The committee looked into the issues related to safety of consumption of bottle gourd juice, and this paper presents the findings. Methods: Information on cases of suspected toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice was collected by internet search, advertising on website of ICMR and by writing to State and district health authorities as well as to medical colleges, hospitals and private nursing homes across the country. Results: Three deaths were reported, one from Delhi and two from Uttar Pradesh after consumption of extremely bitter bottle gourd juice. Three persons who died after consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice or juice mixed with bitter gourd (karela) juice were over 59 years of age and had diabetes since last 20 years. This juice was reported to be extremely bitter by all three. Twenty six persons were admitted to various hospitals of the country on complaint of abdominal pain and vomiting following consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice. Diarrhoea and vomiting of blood (haematemesis) was reported in 18 (69.2%) and 19 (73.1%) patients, respectively. Biochemical investigations revealed elevated levels of liver enzymes. More than 50 per cent patients had hypotension. Endoscopic findings showed profusely bleeding stomach with excessive ulceration seen in distal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in most of the cases. All these patients recovered fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs. PMID:22382183

Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

2012-01-01

36

Euterpe oleracea juice as a functional pigment for yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice of Euterpe oleracea Mart. fruit (Arecaceae), known as Açai in the Brazilian Amazon region, is dark purple with a high anthocyanin and phenolic content. The antioxidant and anti-radical properties of E. oleracea juice are well known; the chemical characterisation of its phenolic composition as well as its potential use as food ingredient and natural pigment have been previously

J. D. Coïsson; F. Travaglia; G. Piana; M. Capasso; M. Arlorio

2005-01-01

37

Enzyme-assisted extraction and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of patulin in apple juice and method optimization using central composite design.  

PubMed

A simple and highly sensitive analytical methodology for isolation and determination of patulin in apple-juice samples, based on enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was developed and optimized. Enzymes play essential roles in eliminating interference and increasing the extraction efficiency of patulin. Apple-juice samples were treated with pectinase and amylase. A mixture of 80 ?L ionic liquid and 600 ?L methanol (disperser solvent) was used for the IL-DLLME process. The sedimented phase was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Experimental parameters controlling the performance of DLLME, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.99) for patulin in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 7.5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.15 ng g(-1) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise and reliable sample-pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for investigation trace amount of patulin in apple-juice samples. PMID:24267070

Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tavakoli, Rouya; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Rashedi, Hamid; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Delavar, Mostafa

2013-12-01

38

Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

1980-01-01

39

Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935

Wojdy?o, Aneta; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Oszmia?ski, Jan

2014-01-01

40

Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.  

PubMed

Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed. PMID:23919376

Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

2013-01-01

41

The influence of sterilization with EnbioJet ® Microwave Flow Pasteurizer on composition and bioactivity of aronia and blue-berried honeysuckle juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fruit juices that are rich sources of anthocyanins, obtained from aronia (Am. chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa) and blue-berried honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. edulis) were used to examine the preservation of plant phytochemicals and bioactivity upon sterilization—either thermal, or with an EnbioJet® Microwave Flow Pasteurizer. The chemical properties verified included determinations of anthocyanins and other polyphenols by HPLC,

Anita Piasek; Barbara Kusznierewicz; Iwona Grzybowska; Edyta Malinowska-Pa?czyk; Anna Piekarska; Amaya Azqueta; Andrew R. Collins; Jacek Namie?nik; Agnieszka Bartoszek

2011-01-01

42

Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

2014-01-01

43

Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice  

E-print Network

31 ½ Apple Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice 5oz Milk Chef Michele Pastorello Milk Choices: Whole White 4oz Juice Choices: 100% Apple 100% Orange NO SCHOOL May 17th SCHOOL CLOSED May 28th Updated 4 100% Orange Juice 5oz Milk Cream of Wheat Sliced Pears 5oz Milk Turkey Sausage Biscuit 100% Apple

Delgado, Mauricio

44

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: II. Modeling the duodenal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been investigating the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. The previous paper\\u000a [Rich, G.T., Bailey, A.L., Faulks, R.M., Parker, M.L., Wickham, M.S.J., and Fillery-Travis, A. (2003) Solubilization of Carotenoids\\u000a from Carrot Juice and Spinach in Lipid Phases: I. Modeling the Gastric Lumen, Lipids 38, 933–945] modeled the gastric lumen and studied the solubilization pathway of carotenes

Gillian T. Rich; Richard M. Faulks; Martin S. J. Wickham; Annette Fillery-Travis

2003-01-01

45

The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

1980-01-01

46

Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality. PMID:23572618

Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

2010-03-01

47

Juice Challenge Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school or middle school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges students to "come up with a NEW appealing juice container, one that will help sell their product. During this lesson, students will use math, science and engineering to work through the constraints they are given." This is the first of a two-part activity, continued here. The page here gives all the background and supporting materials an educator needs: a Florida-based company overview, videos about manufacturing and a particular juice company, the lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation (also available in printer-friendly PDF form), and the scenario which gives the context of the project and detailed instructions for students. This excellent resource has all the components to make it ready-to-use in the classroom.

2009-10-01

48

Juice Challenge Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school or middle school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges students to "come up with a NEW appealing juice container, one that will help sell their product. During this lesson, students will use math, science and engineering to work through the constraints they are given." This is the second part of a two-part activity, begun here. The page here gives all the background and supporting materials an educator needs: a fictional company overview, videos about manufacturing and a particular juice company, the lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation (also available in printer-friendly PDF form), and the scenario which gives the context of the project and detailed instructions for students. This excellent resource has all the components to make it ready-to-use in the classroom.

2009-10-01

49

Drinking Juice (Illustrative Mathematics)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assessment task, students are challenged to find a fractional part of a fractional part of a bottle of juice. This resource also provides helpful background information on problem solving with various types of fraction problems and standards alignment. It also provides illustrated solutions to the problem using an area model, number line, fractional computation, decimal computation, and Cuisenaire rods. Comments from two of the Common Core authors are also included.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-09-11

50

Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reassessment of the `gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach

R. A. Giannella; S. A. Broitman; N. Zamcheck

1972-01-01

51

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2010-04-01

52

Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.  

PubMed

Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies. PMID:18828595

Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

2008-11-12

53

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

54

Pancreas-preserving total gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymph node (LN) dissection along the upper border of the pancreas is one of the essential parts of curative surgery for gastric cancer, and the distal portion of the pancreas was frequently resected for complete removal of LNs along the splenic artery. Hoever, pancreatic juice leakage, subphrenic abscess, and postoperative diabetes were common complications in patients treated by pancreatic resection.

Keiichi Maruyama; Mitsuru Sasako; Taira Kinoshita; Takeshi Sano; Hitoshi Katai; Kazuo Okajima

1995-01-01

55

White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity. PMID:25248855

Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

2014-10-15

56

Gastric Banding  

MedlinePLUS

... received gastric banding have reported the following benefits: Weight-loss Decreased waist and hip circumference Improvements in obesity-related conditions, like diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea Improvements in general health Improvements in quality ...

57

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

58

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

59

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

60

Which juice is ‘healthier’? A consumer study of probiotic non-dairy juice drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated consumer acceptance for the appearance, aroma, texture and flavour of probiotic fruit juices. Novel blackcurrant juices containing probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v) were compared with conventional blackcurrant juices by descriptive analysis. The probiotic juices were found to contain aromas (‘perfumey’, ‘dairy’) and flavours (‘sour’, ‘savoury’) characteristic of functional ingredients. Subsequent testing took place in a local shopping

T. Luckow; C. Delahunty

2004-01-01

61

Quality Attributes of Cupua?u Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586  

PubMed Central

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Duran, Nelson; de Lima Filho, Jose Luiz

2011-01-01

62

Reflux of gastric juice and glue ear in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

immunity is not known. To test the hypo- thesis that contacts with children increase exposure to varicella-zoster virus and pro- tect latently infected adults against zoster, we did a case-control study in south Lon- don, UK. Methods: From 22 general practices, we identified patients with recently diagnosed zoster, and control individuals with no his- tory of zoster, matched to patients

Andrea Tasker; Peter W Dettmar; Marguerite Panetti; James A Koufman; John P Birchall; Jeffery P Pearson

2002-01-01

63

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

64

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

65

[Gastric bezoar].  

PubMed

Bezoar consist of the accumulation of different substances in the digestive tract. We present the clinical case of a girl with gastric trichobezoar discovered in a postoperatory follow-up to an appendicectomy. Ultra-sound images and oesophagus-gastric transit are fundamental points in the diagnosis. Endoscopy was useful in confirming the diagnosis and in ruling out associated ulcus, frequent in these patients. Surgical treatment is the choice in big bezoar but laser, prokinetics and enzymatic dissolutions have also been used. Theses patients should undergo psychological control. PMID:11480198

Correa Antúnez, M I; Serrano Calle, A; Pimentel Leo, J J; Sanjuan Rodríguez, S

2001-04-01

66

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

67

Formulation optimization of salad dressing added with Chinese quince ( Chaenomelis sinensis ) juice by mixture design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted for the optimization of ingredients in salad dressing using Chinese quince (Chaenomelis sinensis) juice. The experiment was designed according to the D-optimal design of mixture design, which included 14 experimental points\\u000a with 4 replicates for 3 independent variables (Chinese quince juice 35–60%, oil 20–45%, and vinegar 5–20%). The compositional\\u000a and functional properties of the prepared products

Myung Sook Jang; Jung Eun Park; Hae Youn Park

2011-01-01

68

Flavonoid profile and radical-scavenging activity of Mediterranean sweet lemon ( Citrus limetta Risso) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of crude Citrus limetta Risso (limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon) juice was elucidated by means of reverse-phase HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS\\/MS analysis. In a single course, eight compounds (C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids) were identified, six of which were found for the first time in limetta juice: four C-glucosyl flavones, namely vicenin-2, lucenin-2 4?-methyl ether, orientin 4?-methyl ether and scoparin; the O-glycosyl

Davide Barreca; Ersilia Bellocco; Corrado Caristi; Ugo Leuzzi; Giuseppe Gattuso

2011-01-01

69

Anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of moringa oleifera lam.  

PubMed

The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose -depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22556845

Ruckmani, K; Kavimani, S; Jayakar, B; Anandan, R

1998-01-01

70

Chemometric classification of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin based on polyphenolic profiles.  

PubMed

To characterize and classify apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin on the basis of their polyphenol composition, the polyphenolic profiles of 58 apple juice samples belonging to 5 apple varieties and from 6 regions in Shaanxi province of China were assessed. Fifty-one of the samples were from protected designation of origin (PDO) districts. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and to a Q Exactive quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Chemometric techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on polyphenolic profiles of the samples to develop discrimination models. SLDA achieved satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, providing respectively 98.3 and 91.2% success rate in terms of prediction ability. This result demonstrated that polyphenols could served as characteristic indices to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices. PMID:23815505

Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Yutang

2013-07-17

71

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from arachin by simulated gastric digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico analysis of the sequences of arachin, the major storage protein of peanut suggests that it is laden with antihypertensive peptides. Physiological proteases pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatin were used to release these peptides. The degree of proteolysis and in vitro angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was maximum with pepsin. The ACE inhibitor index of human gastric juice catalysed

V. K. Jimsheena; Lalitha R. Gowda

2011-01-01

72

78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to continuation...suspended investigation on lemon juice from...

2013-08-02

73

78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to continuation...suspended investigation on lemon juice from...

2013-08-01

74

Volatility of patulin in apple juice.  

PubMed

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

Kryger, R A

2001-08-01

75

[ENDOGENOUS INTRAGASTRICAL MICROFLORA IN GASTRIC CANCER  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to identify the type of microbial flora and additionally to correlate the total number of microorganisms with factors such as age, tumoral area, and the pH gastric in unaffected gastric mucosal biopsies obtained during gastrojejunostomy (n=5) or gastrectomy (n=1) in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (n=15) or lymphoma (n=1) at the Belen Hospital, Trujillo, Peru, between January 1, 1996 and April 30,1998. The mean age of the patients was 54.4 + 18.3 years (range: 20 to 79 years) with a male:female ratio of 1:2,2. Fifteen of the patients (93.7%) were colonized. Aerobic species found in 7/15 (46.7%), 5/15 (33.3%) showed a mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth, 1/15 (6.7%) had growths of aerobic microorganisms and yeasts, and only 2/15 (13.3%) of the patients harbored yeasts. Gram-negative aerobic and gram-positive species were present in 4/7 (57.1 %) and 3/7 (42.9%) of the patients, respectively. In those patients who had a mixed bacterial growth, peptostreptococcus were the most common findings in 5/5 (100%) of the patients, and Helicobacter pylori was isolated only in one case. A gastric pH of 4 or more was found in 14/16 of the patients examined and 12 of them (85%) had growth of microorganisms. There was no significant statistical correlation among the pH of the gastric juice, age or tumoral area and the total number of microorganisms/gram in mucosal biopsies of the 7 cases evaluated. Antibiotic agents used as a prophylaxis in gastric cancer surgery should cover both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, especially those patients with a pH of 4 or more. PMID:12209218

Díaz P, Juan; Tantaleán, Enrique; Calipuy, William; Villacorta, Roxana; Sánchez, Luis; Castañeda, Alex

1998-01-01

76

Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. PMID:23790875

Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

2013-11-15

77

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol. PMID:24031124

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

78

Rebamipide, a cytoprotective drug, increases gastric mucus secretion in human: evaluations with endoscopic gastrin test.  

PubMed

We have previously developed a rapid, simple endoscopic method for evaluating gastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (the endoscopic gastrin test, EGT). In EGT, gastric fluid newly secreted over 10 min after gastrin stimulation is collected under direct endoscopic visualization. In this study, employing the EGT, we evaluated the effect of rebamipide, a cytoprotective anti-ulcer drug, on gastric mucus secretion. In ten Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers, gastric juice was collected by EGT prior to and after 4-week administration of rebamipide. The collected gastric juice was subjected to analysis for gastric mucus output. Total gastric mucin output was significantly increased by 53% by rebamipide administration from 3.2 +/- 1.2 mg hexose/10 min to 4.9 +/- 2.2 mg hexose/10 min (P < 0.01). Further analysis by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that rebamipide administration induced a specific increase in acidic mucin rich in sialic acid. Applying EGT, this study demonstrated that rebamipide administration increased gastric mucus secretion in human. PMID:18975081

Iijima, Katsunori; Ichikawa, T; Okada, S; Ogawa, M; Koike, T; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

2009-07-01

79

Vinamilk: Fruit Juice for Kids in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruit juice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruit juice product line. The company, while relatively new to the

Adel Fawzi DIMIAN; Kevin Sproule

2012-01-01

80

Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

Haddad, Paul

1977-01-01

81

Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color.  

PubMed

The color properties (CIE Lab, hue, and chroma) of 90 red grapefruit juices were studied by tristimulus reflectance measurement for two growing seasons. Juices were prepared from six red grapefruit cultivars including Ruby Red, Rio Red, Star Ruby, Ray Ruby, Flame, and Marsh Red grown in Florida. Very wide varietal and seasonal variations on juice color were observed, and most notably, CIE a values varied widely from -1.41 to 9.06 (CV = 82.6%). Lycopene is the major colored pigment in red cultivars with lesser amounts of beta-carotene as determined by HPLC on a carotenoid C(30) column with gradient elution using MeOH and MTBE. The highest correlation coefficients (r = 0.963) found between CIE a values and lycopene contents in juices from all cultivars combined suggest the possibility that the CIE a value would be a good indicator for pigmentation in red grapefruit juice. PMID:10820051

Lee, H S

2000-05-01

82

JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

2013-09-01

83

Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.  

PubMed

Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

2008-08-01

84

Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm  

PubMed Central

We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes. PMID:24008495

HISAKA, TORU; HORIUCHI, HIROYUKI; UCHIDA, SHINJI; ISHIKAWA, HIROTO; KAWAHARA, RYUICHI; KAWASHIMA, YUSUKE; AKASHI, MASANORI; MIKAGI, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; YANO, HIROHISA; TAIRA, TOMOKI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; KINOSHITA, HISAFUMI; SHIROZU, KAZUO

2013-01-01

85

Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability. PMID:24298443

Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2013-01-01

86

Laparoscopic gastric banding  

MedlinePLUS

Lap-Band; LAGB; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding ... J, Welch G, Zagarins S, Kuhn J, Romanelli J. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity: a meta- ...

87

Treatment of gastric carcinoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Gastric carcinoid tumors are uncommon, but their percentage among all gastric malignancies has increased to 1.8%. Although\\u000a they are most often discovered incidentally during endoscopy, gastric carcinoids can present with abdominal pain, bleeding,\\u000a or symptoms related to the secretion of bioactive substances, most commonly histamine. Gastric carcinoids originate from the\\u000a foregut and are derived from histamine-containing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells.

Wei Hou; Mitchell L. Schubert

2007-01-01

88

Gastric analysis with fractional test meals (ethanol, caffeine, and peptone meal), augmented histamine or pentagastrin tests, and gastric pH recording.  

PubMed

For centuries it was recognized that the stomach produces a juice, which has acidic properties, however, it was not until 1824 when Prout demonstrated the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. At the same time experiments on a patient with gastric fistula began by W. Beaumont showing alterations of acid secretion after meals and under various psychological conditions. After the discovery by L. Popielski in 1920 that histamine is a direct stimulant of oxyntic glands, histamine started to be used in the 1930s in gastric secretory tests. Then in 1949 the dose of histamine was established by K. Kowalewski to induce in humans maximal gastric secretion and in 1953 Kay from UK, using a similar dose of histamine (0.04 mg/kg), introduced augmented histamine test to determine maximal acid output. The digestive period of gastric secretion can be divided into 3 phases: cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. When an acidified meal reaches the antrum or proximal part of the small intestine, the inhibitory autoregulatory mechanisms are triggered. Using a peptone meal as a physiological stimulant of gastric secretion, Fordtran and Walsh designed in 1973 the intragastric titration method. Histamine stimulates H1 and H2 receptors, producing some side effects so Betazole (Histalog), an analogue of histamine was introduced, because of smaller side effects than with histamine. In 1967, pentagastrin, which contains a C-terminal amino-acid sequence of gastrin and does not exert serious side effects, was applied first in Poland as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion instead of histamine. At the present time, a 12 or 24 h pH-metry with a magnetic recording of gastric acidity using the Digitrapper was found to have a greater diagnostic value in assessment of gastric acid secretion under natural conditions including meal than classic gastric secretory tests. This technique has been widely used in detecting the duodeno-gastric or gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) and testing various drugs affecting gastric acid secretion and healing acid-pepsin disorders. PMID:15075465

Kwiecie?, S; Konturek, S J

2003-12-01

89

Gastric cancer.  

PubMed Central

We are gaining a clearer insight into the causes and mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, and may be able to reduce the incidence in the future by Helicobacter pylori eradication, perhaps in conjunction with nutritional supplements. The work required to establish this kind of prevention programme still has a long way to go. Surveillance and early detection are a key area, and current hopes rest with an increasingly low threshold for gastroscopy together with improved awareness in both patients and general practitioners. Identification of a high-risk group for surveillance would be a major advance, and may become possible due to advances in molecular biology. In terms of treatment, surgery remains the mainstay, but for useful analysis of its' efficacy, uniform and detailed pathological staging is vital. Pre-operative assessment has improved greatly in recent years, resulting in fewer nontherapeutic laparotomies, thanks to a combination of improved imaging techniques and laparoscopy. Limited endoscopic surgery is now feasible for very early disease. The extent of radical surgery remains controversial: a strong argument can be made for concentrating this kind of surgery in the hands of a limited number of specialist units who will have the numbers and the expertise to answer the outstanding questions. Chemotherapy has yet to prove its value, but there are hopes that the newest regimes may do this. Treatment results in the West remain unsatisfactory, but they have improved in the last two decades, and should be capable of considerable further improvement. Images Figure PMID:8796206

McCulloch, P.

1996-01-01

90

Gastric bypass surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass- Roux-en-Y - discharge ... Leslie D, Kellogg TA, Ikramuddin S. Bariatric surgery primer for the ... Med Clin North Am . 2007;91:353-381. Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, ...

91

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe and suitable dry nutritive carbohydrate sweetener. However, if the pineapple juice is prepared from concentrate, such sweeteners, in liquid form,...

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe and suitable dry nutritive carbohydrate sweetener. However, if the pineapple juice is prepared from concentrate, such sweeteners, in liquid form,...

2012-04-01

93

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2014-04-01

94

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

95

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

96

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2014-04-01

97

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2013-04-01

98

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2012-04-01

99

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2012-04-01

100

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2013-04-01

101

Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

2014-01-01

102

Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

2014-04-01

103

Effect of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna against Helicobacter pylori 26695 lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) is a potent virulence factor in the causation of gastric ulcer and gastritis. H. pylori-induced gastric pathology is prevalent throughout the world. Herbal medicines are attracting attention because of their traditional values, popularity and belief, as well as for their advantages such as less toxicity, affordability and medicinal value. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of a methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against HP-LPS-induced gastric damage in rats. Ulcers were induced with HP-LPS (50 mug per animal) administered orally daily for 3 days. The efficacy of TA on gastric secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, and the cytoprotective parameters such as protein-bound carbohydrate complexes in gastric juice and gastric mucosa was assessed. The protective effect of TA was also confirmed by histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. HP-LPS-induced alterations in gastric secretory parameters were altered favourably in rats treated with TA, suggesting that TA has an anti-secretory role. Furthermore, HP-LPS-induced impairments in gastric defence factors were also prevented by treatment with TA. These results suggest that the severe cellular damage and pathological changes caused by HP-LPS are mitigated by TA; these effects are comparable with those of sucralfate. The anti-ulcer effect of TA may reflect its ability to combat factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and to protect the mucosal defensive factors. PMID:18380924

Devi, Rethinam Sundaresan; Kist, Manfred; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

2008-04-01

104

Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.  

PubMed

In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

2014-01-01

105

Potential of Spanish sour-sweet pomegranates (cultivar C25) for the juice industry.  

PubMed

Commercial juices of sweet pomegranates and fresh juices of sour-sweet pomegranates were analysed for organic acids, sugars, antioxidant activity, volatile composition, sensory profile and consumer liking. Organic acids and sugars were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, while volatiles were extracted using hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. Malic acid was predominant in sweet juices while citric acid in sour-sweet samples. Fructose and glucose were found as the predominant sugars in all juices. A total of 18 compounds were found in pomegranate aroma profile, including monoterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, monoterpenoids and linear hydrocarbons; the most abundant compounds were 3-carene, ?-terpinene and ?-terpineol. The total concentration of volatiles ranged from 2.0 up to 5.1?mg/L, with commercial samples presenting higher total concentrations due to the presence of peel volatiles. The high potential of sour-sweet pomegranate fruits for the juice industry was supported by (a) the high values of positive attributes, such as colour and fresh pomegranate flavour and (b) the high overall liking of consumers. PMID:22414932

Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Calín-Sánchez, A; Bagatar, B; Hernández, F; Legua, P; Martínez-Font, R; Melgarejo, P

2012-04-01

106

Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

2005-01-01

107

Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

2011-01-01

108

Effect of Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

Considerable interpatient variability in indinavir pharmacokinetics, possibly due in part to variable metabolism of the drug through intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, may contribute to poor virologic response in certain individuals with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of intestinal CYP3A4 modulation with grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics. In an open-label, three-period crossover study, 13 healthy volunteers received indinavir 800 mg every 8 hours for 1 day and a single 800 mg dose the next morning. The last two indinavir doses were taken with 8 ounces of Seville orange juice, single-strength grapefruit juice, or water (control). Plasma samples were collected at time 0 (predose) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the last indinavir dose. Concentration-time data were analyzed using noncompartmental methods. Coadministration of Seville orange juice and indinavir resulted in a statistically significant increase in indinavir t(max) (1.87 [1.65-2.22] vs. 1.25 [1.03-1.60] h; p < 0.05) without altering other pharmacokinetic parameter values. Grapefruit juice administration did not result in any changes in indinavir pharmacokinetics. Modulation of intestinal CYP3A4 by grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice did not alter the systemic availability of indinavir. The contribution of presystemic metabolism to indinavir interpatient variability appears to be small. PMID:12362932

Penzak, Scott R; Acosta, Edward P; Turner, Michele; Edwards, David J; Hon, Yuen Yi; Desai, Hiral D; Jann, Michael W

2002-10-01

109

Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus: a sign of gastric hypersecretion  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus on the double-contrast radiograph was investigated in 60 patients. Radiographic findings were correlated with endoscopic features and biochemical analysis of gastric juice as well as with the clinical and endoscopic features of 98 controls with a regular mucosal pattern. The patients with the coarse pattern had more gastric secretion than the control group. Ulcers were seen in 65% of patients, particularly in the duodenum (48%); they were more commonly associated with a coarse pattern and closely related to gastric hyperacidity. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus may be a useful radiographic sign in assessment of gastric secretion.

Watanabe, H. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan); Magota, S.; Shiiba, S.; Ebata, K.; Yoshiya, K.

1983-02-01

110

JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

111

Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in Trials for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PL10, PLD-116, PL14736, Pliva, Croatia) Heals Ileoileal Anastomosis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (BPC 157), which has been shown to be safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease\\u000a (PL-10, PLD-116, PL14736, Pliva, Croatia), may be able to cure intestinal anastomosis dehiscence. This antiulcer peptide shows\\u000a no toxicity, is limit test negative, and a lethal dose is not achieved. It is stable in human gastric juice. In comparison\\u000a with

Tihomir Vuksic; Ivan Zoricic; Luka Brcic; Marko Sever; Robert Klicek; Bozo Radic; Vedran Cesarec; Lidija Berkopic; Neike Keller; Alenka Boban Blagaic; Neven Kokic; Ivan Jelic; Juraj Geber; Tomislav Anic; Sven Seiwerth; Predrag Sikiric

2007-01-01

112

Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (inventors)

1980-01-01

113

Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. PMID:24287419

Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

2014-04-15

114

27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241 Alcohol...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or...

2010-04-01

115

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

116

Effects of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Fruit juices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days

J. J. Lilja; K. Raaska; P. J. Neuvonen

2005-01-01

117

77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year...suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International...suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

2012-08-01

118

Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass  

PubMed Central

Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40?kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

119

Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding  

PubMed Central

A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in barrier factors and increase in damage in extreme cold climates may be associated with the seasonal pattern of peptic ulcers.

YUAN, XIAO-GANG; XIE, CHUAN; CHEN, JIANG; XIE, YONG; ZHANG, KUN-HE; LU, NONG-HUA

2015-01-01

120

Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

Zhao, Chun-Mei; Hayakawa, Yoku; Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B; Andersen, Gøran T; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A; Renz, Bernhard W; Sandvik, Arne K; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G; Wang, Timothy C; Chen, Duan

2014-08-20

121

Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress.

2014-01-01

122

Tongue entrapment in an aluminum juice can.  

PubMed

Tongue entrapment in bottles and cans is rare, but occurs. The following is a case report of a 10-year-old female who got her tongue entrapped in an aluminum juice can. The anatomy of the tongue, complications from injury, and a proposed removal procedure are described. PMID:15057180

Bank, David E; Diaz, Leslie; Behrman, David A; Delaney, John; Bizzocco, Sabina

2004-04-01

123

Effect of grapefruit juice on blood cyclosporin concentration.  

PubMed

Grapefruit juice increases blood concentrations of some dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, which are metabolised by the P450 enzymes that also metabolise cyclosporin. We evaluated, in a randomised cross-over study, the effect of grapefruit juice on blood cyclosporin concentrations in 14 healthy adults. Each subject was given oral cyclosporin 300 mg with 250 mL grapefruit juice, orange juice, or water. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) was significantly higher with grapefruit juice than with water or orange juice (means 7057, 4871, and 4932 ng h/mL, respectively; p < 0.0001). Thus grapefruit juice may provide a non-toxic and inexpensive alternative to drugs that are used to reduce cyclosporin dose. PMID:7715295

Yee, G C; Stanley, D L; Pessa, L J; Dalla Costa, T; Beltz, S E; Ruiz, J; Lowenthal, D T

1995-04-15

124

Reappraisal of the Immunophenotype of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)--Gastric Pyloric and Small Intestinal Immunophenotype Expression in Gastric and Intestinal Type IPMNs--  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis.

Kobayashi, Mikiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ota, Hiroyoshi

2014-01-01

125

Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.  

PubMed

The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels. PMID:18237473

Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

2008-02-01

126

Development of an orange juice surrogate for the study of dental erosion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to create a synthetic juice (SJ) to be used as a surrogate for natural orange juices in erosion studies, verifying its erosive potential. The SJ was formulated based on the chemical composition of orange juices from different locations. Forty enamel and 40 root dentin specimens were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 10): SJ; 1% Citric Acid (CA); Minute Maid Original® (MM) and Florida Natural Original® (FN). The specimens were immersed in their respective solutions for 5 min, 6x/day for 5 days, in an erosion-remineralization cycling model. Enamel specimens were analyzed by surface Knoop microhardness and optical profilometry and dentin specimens only by optical profilometry. Outcomes were analyzed statistically by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test considering a significance level of 5%. For enamel, the surface loss and microhardness changes found for MM and SJ groups were similar (p>0.05) and significantly lower (p<0.01) than those found in the CA group. For dentin, CA promoted significantly greater (p<0.01) surface loss compared with all the other groups. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in dentin surface loss between MM and SJ. In conclusion, CA was the most erosive solution, and SJ had a similar erosive potential to that of MM natural orange juice. PMID:22189642

Scaramucci, Tais; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T; Ferreira, Stella S; Aoki, Idalina V; Sobral, Maria Angela P

2011-01-01

127

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.  

PubMed

This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. PMID:12913860

Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

2003-01-01

128

Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely "FVBH" for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

2014-07-01

129

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2012-04-01

130

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2013-04-01

131

Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.  

PubMed

Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively. PMID:23256443

Djordjevi?, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Jankovi?, Teodora; Vuli?, Todor; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

2013-01-01

132

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: II. Modeling the duodenal environment.  

PubMed

We have been investigating the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. The previous paper [Rich, G.T., Bailey, A.L., Faulks, R.M., Parker, M.L., Wickham, M.S.J., and Fillery-Travis, A. (2003) Solubilization of Carotenoids from Carrot Juice and Spinach in Lipid Phases: I. Modeling the Gastric Lumen, Lipids 38, 933-945] modeled the gastric lumen and studied the solubilization pathway of carotenes and lutein from carrot juice and homogenized spinach to oil. Using the same vegetable preparations, we have extended our investigations to solubilization pathways potentially available in the duodenum and looked at the ease of solubilization of carotenes and lutein within simplified lipid micellar and oil phases present within the duodenum during digestion. Micellar solubility of raw spinach carotenoids was low and was enhanced by freezing, which involved a blanching step. The efficiency of solubilization of carotenoids in glycodeoxycholate micelles decreased in the order lutein(carrot) > lutein(blanched-frozen spinach) > carotene(blanched-frozen spinach) > carotene(carrot). Frozen spinach carotenoids were less soluble in simple micelles of taurocholate than of glycodeoxycholate. The results comparing the solubility of the carotenoids in mixed micelles (bile salt with lecithin) with simple bile salt micelles are explained by the relative stability of the carotenoid in the organelle compared to that in the micelle. The latter is largely determined by the polarity of the micelle. Below their critical micelle concentration (CMC), bile salts inhibit transfer of carotenoids from tissue to a lipid oil phase. Above their CMC, the bile salts that solubilize a carotenoid can provide an additional route to the oil from the tissue for that carotenoid by virtue of the equilibrium between micellar phases and the interfacial pathway. Mixed micellar phases inhibit transfer of both carotenoids from the tissue to the oil phase, thereby minimizing this futile pathway. PMID:14584602

Rich, Gillian T; Faulks, Richard M; Wickham, Martin S J; Fillery-Travis, Annette

2003-09-01

133

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

134

Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia. PMID:23442660

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2012-10-15

135

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

136

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

137

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

138

78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping...suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

2013-08-07

139

Liking of anthocyanin-rich juices by children and adolescents.  

PubMed

There is evidence that a diet rich in plant foods is protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer, partly attributable to secondary plant metabolites such as anthocyanins, a colourful group of flavonoids. As at present children and adolescents do not consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, one possible way of increasing intake, and particularly intake of anthocyanins, may be an anthocyanin-rich juice, since fruit juice is popular with young Germans. We produced eight different fruit products (six juices, two smoothies), and conducted hedonic tests with participants from the DONALD Study. Paired comparisons showed that most subjects preferred apple to apple-bilberry juice, but grape vs. grape-bilberry juice was liked equally frequently. Rated on a hedonic scale the grape-bilberry mixture was preferred to apple-bilberry, both as juice and as smoothie. With regard to viscosity, juices were preferred to smoothies, both as grape-bilberry and as apple-bilberry. Internal Preference Mapping revealed however consumer subgroups with different preferences, raising the question which product should be promoted in order to reach a large target group. The product richest in anthocyanins, grape-bilberry juice, was accepted very well and may therefore be suitable for promotion to children, although the high sugar content of this juice must be taken into account. PMID:22248708

Drossard, Claudia; Fröhling, Bettina; Bolzenius, Katja; Dietrich, Helmut; Kunz, Clemens; Kersting, Mathilde

2012-04-01

140

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

141

The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

2011-01-01

142

Peptidomics study of anthocyanin-rich juice of elderberry.  

PubMed

Biologically active peptides play a role in plant signaling and defense. Elderberry juice is known to contain a variety of anthocyanin compounds, a sub-set of polyphenols, which are responsible for the deep purple color of the juice. In this paper, we describe a method utilizing solid phase extraction (SPE) to remove anthocyanins from peptides. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the peptides. The results showed that the use of SPE was an effective method to separate peptides from anthocyanins and other background compounds including high polyphenol content in the juice samples. More than 1000 peptides present in elderberry juice were successfully identified. PMID:25281152

Wu, Hanzhi; Johnson, Mitch C; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L; Thomas, Andrew L; Lai, Yongquan; Cai, Zongwei; Greenlief, C Michael

2015-01-01

143

Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms using a novel method of DNA methylation analysis of mucin expression in pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel 'methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)' method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:24714692

Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitamoto, Sho; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Yuko; Hara, Taro; Ikebe, Dai; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Niihara, Toru; Nishimata, Hiroto; Tanaka, Sadao; Takaori, Kyoichi; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

144

Diagnosis of Pancreatic Neoplasms Using a Novel Method of DNA Methylation Analysis of Mucin Expression in Pancreatic Juice  

PubMed Central

Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel ‘methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)’ method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:24714692

Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitamoto, Sho; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Yuko; Hara, Taro; Ikebe, Dai; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Niihara, Toru; Nishimata, Hiroto; Tanaka, Sadao; Takaori, Kyoichi; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

145

Bergamottin, lime juice, and red wine as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity: Comparison with grapefruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our objective was to assess the importance of bergamottin in drug interactions through comparisons between grapefruit juice and lime juice and the potential for drug interactions with red wine.Methods: Bergamottin content and in vitro reversible\\/irreversible inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 monooxygenase activities were determined for grapefruit and lime juices. The oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its primary metabolite

David G. Bailey; George K. Dresser; John R. Bend

2003-01-01

146

[Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].  

PubMed

Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

Loranskaia, T I; Khoromski?, L N; Benedikt, V V

1986-01-01

147

Gastric emphysema secondary to laparoscopic gastric band erosion  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gastric band erosion is a known complication of adjustable gastric band surgery. There are no previous reports of gastric band erosion associated with gastric emphysema (GE) or emphysematous gastritis (EG), a rare condition with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the first known case of GE found in a 58-year-old lady presenting with acute onset epigastric abdominal pain and haematemesis in the setting of a chronically eroded gastric band. GE was visualised in the anterior gastric wall of the stomach without evidence of EG. Endoscopic and surgical examination of the stomach was undertaken along with band removal followed by defect repair. DISCUSSION GE can result from obstructive, traumatic and pulmonary causes. EG is a rare and often lethal form of GE resulting from bacterial invasion of the gastric wall through a mucosal defect leading to sepsis and gastric necrosis. Early reports documented early definitive operative debridement of necrotic gastric wall of patients with EG while recent reports have demonstrated a feasible non-operative approach among highly selected patients with no evidence of gastric necrosis. There are no previous reports on the treatment of patients with gastric band erosion and suspected EG. CONCLUSION Patients presenting acutely with symptomatic gastric band erosion, radiological evidence of GE with evidence of leucocytosis, peritonism or sepsis may develop EG. A high index of suspicion, low threshold for operative exploration and optimal management with antimicrobial therapy and close supportive care are necessary to ensure the best survival outcomes for these patients. PMID:25216194

Su, Michael Z.; Munro, William S.

2014-01-01

148

Preparation of High Yields of Algal Protoplasts Using Buccal Juice of Sea Hare and Commercial Cellulase.  

PubMed

; Buccal juice of the sea hare Aplysia juliana was found to degrade algal polysaccharides. The optimal enzyme composition for protoplast preparation from Undaria pinnatifida was protein at 48 µg/ml buccal juice from sea hare, 10 mg/ml cellulase Onozuka-RS, 0.4 M NaCl, 0.8 M sorbitol, 2 mg/ml dextran sulfate sodium salt, and 1 µl/ml 2-mercaptoethanol in 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0). Protoplasts of Eisenia bicyclis, Endarachne binghamiae (Phaeophyta), and Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) could also be prepared in a similar manner. Yields of these protoplasts were about 10(7) cells per gram of fresh weight alga. PMID:10489421

Wakabayashi; Kuboi; Tuboi; Kaji; Hara

1999-07-01

149

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-09-01

150

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

151

Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.  

PubMed

Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976. PMID:16245711

Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

2005-10-01

152

Gastric digestion of ?-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.  

PubMed

In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of ?-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (sd 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (sd 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (sd 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of ?-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (sd 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of ?-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between ?-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

2014-08-28

153

Do We Need Gastric Acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

2008-01-01

154

Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ

Orit Rozenberg; Amy Howell; Michael Aviram

2006-01-01

155

Rapid determination of main constituents of packed juices by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography: an insight in to commercial fruit drinks.  

PubMed

The present work reports the compositional analysis of thirteen different packed fruit juices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C, organic acids (citric and malic) and sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were separated, analyzed and quantified using different reverse phase methods. A new rapid reverse phase HPLC method was developed for routine analysis of vitamin C in fruit juices. The precision results of the methods showed that the relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility were <0.05 and <0.1 respectively. Correlation coefficient of the calibration models developed was found to be higher than 0.99 in each case. It has been found that the content of Vitamin C was less variable amongst different varieties involved in the study. It is also observed that in comparison to fresh juices, the packed juices contain lesser amounts of vitamin C. Citric acid was found as the major organic acids present in packed juices while maximum portion of sugars was of sucrose. Comparison of the amount of vitamin C, organic acids and sugars in same fruit juice of different commercial brands is also reported. PMID:24587522

Tyagi, Gunjan; Jangir, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Ganesan, R; Gopal, E S R

2014-03-01

156

Characterization of juice in fruits of different Chaenomeles species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice in fruits of 21 genotypes of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), 1 genotype of Chinese quince (C. cathayensis), 1 genotype of flowering quince (C. speciosa) and 1 genotype of a hybrid taxon (C. ×superba), representing plant breeding material, was extracted and characterized. The content of juice in the fruits varied between 41% and 52%, on fresh weight basis. The

J. M. Ros; J. Laencina; P. Hell??n; M. J. Jordán; R. Vila; K. Rumpunen

2004-01-01

157

The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

1996-01-01

158

Gastric emptying in patients with fundal gastritis and gastric cancer.  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying was compared in patients with gastric cancers and fundal gastritis to determine its value in identifying patients at high risk of gastric cancer. Gastric emptying was measured by the acetaminophen absorption method, and the extent of fundal gastritis was determined by the endoscopic Congo red test. The results showed that gastric emptying was significantly slower in patients with severe fundal gastritis than in those without. Gastric emptying in patients with differentiated adenocarcinomas was significantly slower than in those with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, its value being similar to that in patients with severe fundal gastritis. The Congo red test showed that the incidence of severe fundal gastritis was significantly greater in patients with differentiated adenocarcinomas than in those with undifferentiated cancers. These findings suggest that delayed gastric emptying may allow prolonged contact between dietary carcinogens and the stomach. PMID:2370013

Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Okuda, S

1990-01-01

159

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

160

Disturbed gastric emptying in the short bowel syndrome. Evidence for a 'colonic brake'.  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying of liquid (orange juice containing technetium-99m (99mTc) labelled antimony sulphide colloid) and solid (570 kcal pancake containing 0.5 mm resin microspheres labelled with Indium-111 (111-In)) was measured in seven patients with jejunum and no colon (jejunal lengths 30-160 cm), six patients with jejunum in continuity with the colon (jejunal length 25-75 cm), and in 12 normal subjects. In patients with no colon early emptying of liquid was rapid (median 25% emptying: 7 v 25 min, no colon v normal, p < 0.05); early gastric emptying of solid was rapid in two (each with less than 100 cm jejunum) and normal in the other five. Gastric emptying of liquid and solid for patients with jejunum in continuity with the colon was normal for the first three hours. There was increased liquid and solid retained in the stomach at six hours in both groups of patients (p < 0.01). Small bowel transit time was faster than in normal subjects for liquid in both groups of patients (p < 0.05) and for solid in those with no colon (p < 0.05). Rapid gastric emptying of liquid may contribute to the large stomal output in patients with a high jejunostomy. Preservation of the colon after a major small intestinal resection exerts a braking effect on the rate of early gastric emptying of liquid. PMID:8406148

Nightingale, J M; Kamm, M A; van der Sijp, J R; Morris, G P; Walker, E R; Mather, S J; Britton, K E; Lennard-Jones, J E

1993-01-01

161

In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE) may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA), as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653931

Ertay, Turkan; Dogan, Amet Semih; Ulker, Ozden; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

162

Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

2014-01-01

163

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutierrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

164

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.  

PubMed

We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2014-01-01

165

Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.  

PubMed

Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351). PMID:22205636

Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

2012-03-01

166

The Presence of Dialkylphosphates in Fresh Fruit Juices: Implication For Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Risk Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were higher, for both apple and orange juices, in

C. Lu; R. Bravo; L. M. Caltabiano; R. M. Irish; G. Weerasekera; D. B. Barr

2005-01-01

167

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In accordance with...represented juice is not the only juice present (e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two other fruit...

2011-04-01

168

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In accordance with...represented juice is not the only juice present (e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two other fruit...

2010-04-01

169

Nitrosamine levels in human blood, urine and gastric aspirate following ingestion of foods containing potential nitrosamine precursors or preformed nitrosamines.  

PubMed

In studies of the effect of diet on nitrosamine levels in selected human physiological fluids, volunteers were fed meals containing fish or beef (sources of precursor amines) or bacon (a source of preformed nitrosamines), in combination with spinach and vegetable juice to supply nitrite via possible reduction of nitrate. Blood, urine and gastric contents were sampled periodically for up to 4 hr after feeding. The results of the study indicated that traces of nitrosamines, usually N-nitrosodimethylamine, were present in many samples of blood, urine and gastric contents, even after an 8-hr fast. Eating the test meals led to a slight increase in nitrosamine levels in the blood and stomach contents in a few subjects. The data obtained from this study suggest that gastric formation of nitrosamine does not appear to be an important health factor in normal people, since the levels of nitrosamines found in physiological fluids are not markedly increased after eating. PMID:6890024

Lakritz, L; Gates, R A; Gugger, A M; Wasserman, A E

1982-08-01

170

Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of pantoprazole and aprepitant in gastric esophageal reflux disease in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2014-01-01

171

[Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].  

PubMed

This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group. PMID:20201286

Belostotski?, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

2009-01-01

172

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

173

Dynamic functional and ultrastructural changes of gastric parietal cells induced by water immersion-restraint stress in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the dynamic functional and ultrastructural changes of gastric parietal cells induced by water immersion-restraint stress (WRS) in rats. METHODS: WRS model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was established. Fifty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, stress group and post-stress group. The stress group was divided into 1, 2 and 4 h stress subgroups. The post-stress group was divided into 24, 48 and 72 h subgroups. The pH value of gastric juice, ulcer index (UI) of gastric mucosa and H+, K+-ATPase activity of gastric parietal cells were measured. Ultrastructural change of parietal cells was observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). RESULTS: The pH value of gastric juice decreased time-dependently in stress group and increased in post-stress group. The H+, K+-ATPase activity of gastric parietal cells and the UI of gastric mucosa increased time-dependently in stress group and decreased in post-stress group. Compared to control group, the pH value decreased remarkably (P = 0.0001), the UI and H+, K+-ATPase activity increased significantly (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0174) in 4 h stress subgroup. UI was positively related with stress time (r = 0.9876, P < 0.01) but negatively with pH value (r = -0.8724, P < 0.05). The parietal cells became active in stress group, especially in 4 h stress subgroup, in which plenty of intracellular canalicular and mitochondria were observed under TEM. In post-stress group, the parietal cells recovered to resting state. CONCOUSION: The acid secretion of parietal cells is consistent with their ultrastructural changes during the development and healing of stress ulcer induced by WRS and the degree of gastric mucosal lesions, suggesting gastric acid play an important role in the development of stress ulcer and is closely related with the recovery of gastric mucosal lesions induced by WRS. PMID:16733853

Li, Yu-Mei; Lu, Guo-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhao-Shen; Peng, Gui-Yong; Fang, Dian-Chun

2006-01-01

174

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

2013-07-01

175

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion  

PubMed Central

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

2013-01-01

176

Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate possible protective effect of celery juice in doxorubicin treatment. The following biochemical parameters were determined: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity in liver homogenate and blood hemolysate. We examined influence of diluted pure celery leaves and roots juices and their combinations with doxorubicine on analyzed biochemical parameters. Celery roots and leaves juices influenced the examined biochemical parameters and showed protective effects when applied with doxorubicine. PMID:19396021

Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Mikov, Momir; Mitic, Radoslav; Gvozdenovic, Ljiljana

2009-01-01

177

Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.  

PubMed

The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²?/Mn²? and PO?³?/K?, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and ?-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while ?-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

2014-02-01

178

Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure. PMID:25333880

Landers, Timothy F.; Dent, Anthony

2014-01-01

179

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: I. Modeling the gastric lumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is poor. The apolar\\u000a nature of carotenoids precludes their simple diffusion from the food structure to the absorption site at the enterocyte. Therefore,\\u000a there is interest in the potential pathways for solubilization in the gut before absorption. We have studied the transfer\\u000a of carotenoids from carrot

Gillian T. Rich; Angela L. Bailey; Richard M. Faulks; Mary L. Parker; Martin S. J. Wickham; Annette Fillery-Travis

2003-01-01

180

Survival of bifidobacteria in yogurt and simulated gastric juice following immobilization in gellan–xanthan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel acid-stable bead made of gellan gum and xanthan gum was used to immobilize Bifidobacteria. The beads (0.75% gellan and 1% xanthan gum) had an average diameter of 3 mm and did not shrink in 25% lactic acid solution, pH 1.5, or 20% acetic acid solution, pH 1.5, after storage at 4°C for 4 weeks. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697,

Wenrong Sun; Mansel W Griffiths

2000-01-01

181

Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (inventors)

1981-01-01

182

Spontaneous neonatal gastric perforation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 7-year period (1990-1997) spontaneous gastric perforation was diagnosed in five neonates. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 33\\/40 weeks and 1.83 kg, respectively. All patients presented with severe abdominal distention and frank pneumoperitoneum on roentgenograms. All perforations were on the anterior wall of the greater curvature and were managed by prompt laparotomy and primary closure of

Akram J. Jawad; A. Al-Rabie; Anjum Hadi; A. Al-Sowailem; A. Al-Rawaf; Bashar Abu-Touk; T. Al-Karfi; A. Al-Sammarai

2002-01-01

183

Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice.  

PubMed

Fresh apple juice treated with ultrasound (for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min, at 20 °C, 25 kHz frequency) was evaluated for different physico-chemical, Hunter color values, cloud value, antioxidant capacity, scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and microbial characteristics. No significant effect of sonication was observed on pH, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity of apple juice. Sonication significantly improved ascorbic acid, cloud value, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and differences in Hunter color values. Moreover, significant reduction in microbial population was observed. Findings of the present study suggested that sonication treatment could improve the quality of apple juice. It may successfully be employed for the processing of apple juice with improved quality and safety from consumer's health point of view. PMID:23522904

Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2013-09-01

184

Efficacy of ozone against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris survives during the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of fruit juices thanks to its spore forming and thermo-acidophilic nature. In recent years, A. acidoterrestris has become a major concern to the fruit juices industry worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate ozone for the reducing number of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was bubbled with continuous stream of two different constant concentrations (2.8 and 5.3mg/L) of ozone at 4 and 22 °C up to 40 min. Level of A. acidoterrestris spores in juice decreased by 2.2 and 2.8 log after 40 min of ozonation at 4 °C with concentrations of 2.8 and 5.3mg/L, respectively. Treatments at 22 °C for 40 min with 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L ozone resulted in 1.8 and 2.4 log reductions of spore viability, respectively. At the ozone concentration of 5.3 mg/L, significant (P<0.05) reductions were observed in total phenolic content of juice at both temperature levels. However, treatments performed at 2.8 mg/L were observed to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on total phenolic content. The results presented in this study indicate that over the 2 log reduction in the count of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice can be achieved by bubbling ozonation at 4 °C without causing a significant decrease in total phenolic content of product. Therefore, it can be suggested that bubbling ozonation is a promising method for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. PMID:24361826

Torlak, Emrah

2014-02-17

185

J-MAG: Magnetometer science on the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetometer instrument onboard JUICE is one of the core instruments on the payload and is critical for resolving some of the prime science objectives of the mission. The primary science objectives of JUICE which will be constrained by the magnetic field observations will be described. They include characterising ocean properties at Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, resolving the dynamo magnetic field at Ganymede as well as better understanding magnetospheric dynamics.

Dougherty, Michele

2014-05-01

186

Volatile Constituents of Blood and Blond Orange Juices: A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents obtained by solvent extraction of the juices of both blood and blond sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were studied. Some known compounds are reported in orange juice for the first time. The spectral data of four new sesquiterpenoids (valencene hydrate [1], ?-selinene hydrate [2], selina-3,11-dien-5-ol [3], epoxy-valencene [4] and of a sulfur-containing compound (S,S'-ethylidene dithioacetate [9])

Regula Näf; Alain Velluz; Anthony P. Meyer

1996-01-01

187

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2° Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg\\/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23° Brix was inoculated with 3% (w\\/v) Baker's yeast

P. I. Akubor

1996-01-01

188

Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coad- ministering albendazole (10 mg\\/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered with water, a fatty meal, or grapefruit juice plus cimetidine (10 mg\\/kg). In comparison to water, maximum ABZSX concentration (Cmax )w

J. Nagy; H. G. Schipper; R. P. Koopmans; J. J. Butter; Boxtel van C. J; P. A. Kager

2002-01-01

189

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

190

Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae) fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína) against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo(a)pyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apple juice (CAJ), produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unpro- cessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese) has been shown to consist of a complex mixture con- taining high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids,

Ana Amelia Melo Cavalcante; Jaqueline Nascimento Picada; Gabriel Rubensam; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

2008-01-01

191

JUICE Planetary Protection Approach for Europa and Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa. The baseline mission architecture assumes development, launch and operation by ESA of a single spacecraft in the Jovian system. JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system. The JUICE planetary protection approach for Europa is to ensure that the probability of impact is less than 10-4 during all phases with a credible impact risk. The JUICE science team has published an analysis demonstrating that there is only a remote chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could compromise future investigations on Ganymede. This would qualify JUICE as a planetary protection category II mission with respect to the Ganymede phase without any impact constraints.

Titov, Dmitrij; Erd, Christian; Grasset, Olivier

192

Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

193

Focus on ulcerative colitis: stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419) may be the new drug stable in human gastric juice, effective both in the upper and lower GI tract, and free of side effects. BPC 157, in addition to an antiulcer effect efficient in therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (PL 14736) so far only tested in clinical phase II, has a very safe profile, and exhibited a particular wound healing effect. It also has shown to interact with the NO-system, providing endothelium protection and angiogenic effect, even in severely impaired conditions (i.e., it stimulated expression of early growth response 1 gene responsible for cytokine and growth factor generation and early extracellular matrix (collagen) formation (but also its repressor nerve growth factor 1-A binding protein-2)), important to counteract severe complications of advanced and poorly controlled IBD. Hopefully, the lessons from animal studies, particularly advanced intestinal anastomosis healing, reversed short bowel syndrome and fistula healing indicate BPC 157's high significance in further IBD therapy. Also, this supportive evidence (i.e., no toxic effect, limit test negative, LD1 not achieved, no side effect in trials) may counteract the problems commonly exercised in the use of peptidergic agents, particularly those used on a long-term basis. PMID:22300085

Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Turkovic, B; Rokotov, D S; Brcic, L; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Drmic, D; Ilic, S; Kolenc, D; Stambolija, V; Zoricic, Z; Vrcic, H; Sebecic, B

2012-01-01

194

Therapeutic strategies in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer continues to be a major public health problem and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. These statistics led the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Affairs Committee to choose gastric cancer as the topic for the International Symposium held at the 2003 ASCO Annual Meeting. Dr Yoshiaki Ito will discuss the role of RUNX3 in the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. Dr Pelayo Correa will present a compelling argument on the use of Helicobacter pylori therapy and antioxidants in selected high-risk population as chemoprevention strategies for gastric cancer. The controversy regarding the role of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer will be discussed by Dr Cornelis J.H. Van De Velde and Dr Mitsuru Sasako. Dr Van De Velde will present the European surgical approach to gastric cancer, and Dr Sasako will review the Japanese experience. The issues of whether certain patients benefit from more aggressive surgical dissection and the potential risks compared with benefits will also be discussed. Dr John Macdonald will discuss the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in resected gastric cancer, as well as the role of chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:14645406

Wong, J E L; Ito, Y; Correa, P; Peeters, K C M J; van de Velde, C J H; Sasako, M; Macdonald, J

2003-12-01

195

Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the alteration of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) in gastric cancer. METHODS: The NMPs extracted from 22 cases of gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues were investigated by SDS-PAGE technique and the data were analyzed using Genetools analysis software. RESULTS: Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of 30 ku and 28 ku NMPs in gastric cancer decreased

Qin-Xian Zhang; Yi Ding; Xiao-Ping Le; Wei Zhang; Ling Sun; Hui-Rong Shi

196

Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dabrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

2011-01-01

197

Update on gastric lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is an uncommon entity that can often present like classic adenocarcinoma. The most common organ site involved is the stomach. Important prognostic indicators include location of lymph node involvement, histologic subtype, lymphocyte lineage, gross size, and location of the tumor. Surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have a role either separately or as part of a multimodality treatment program. Clinicians are encouraged to enter patients with primary gastric lymphoma into multi-institutional, cooperative group clinical trials to more clearly define the best treatment strategy. PMID:1956083

Thomas, C. R.

1991-01-01

198

Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The

Jun Chen; William E Blevins; Haesun Park

2000-01-01

199

Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

200

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

2003-02-01

201

Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.  

PubMed

Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

2012-08-01

202

Pesticides: FDA's (Food and Drug Administration's) Investigation of Imported Apple Juice Concentrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on the volume of imported apple juice concentrate, FDA's testing methodology, and FDA's testing results of its special investigation on imported apple juice concentrate. All FDA district offices were instructed to sample ea...

1986-01-01

203

Inhibitory properties of pepsin digested lactoferrin in apple and carrot juice  

E-print Network

.0 and lyophilized to determine the activity of the digests in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, apple juice, and carrot juice using E. coli (ATCC 35343) as the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of lactoferrin and apolactoferrin in peptone...

Chantayasakorn, Panita

2012-06-07

204

[MALIGNANT GASTRIC LEIOMYOBLASTOMA: CASE REPORT  

PubMed

The gastric leiomyoblastoma is a benign neoplasia -extremely uncommon and potentially malignant-, which arises from the muscular layer of the stomach. We present the case of a 21 year old male patient with this disease, who suddenly had intraperitoneal hemorrhage. He underwent an exploratory operation and the surgical findings showed an ulcerated and bleeding nodular tumor, located on the anterior wall and minor curvature of the gastric antrum, ulcerated and with active bleeding. A distal subtotal gastrectomy was performed, as well as a Billroth II-type gastroenteroanastomosis from the Hoffmeister-Finsterer variety. The anatomopathologic report was, "malignant gastric leiomyoblastoma". We discuss the clinical features and therapeutical options used. PMID:12219107

Díaz Plasencia, Juan; Tantaleán, Enrique; Guzmán, Rafael; Pomatanta Plasencia, Jorge; Grados Méndez, Johnny; Vilela, Carlos

1997-01-01

205

Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

2014-06-01

206

Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice: a statistical perspective.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30-45 degrees C), enzyme concentration (0.5-1.5 U), and treatment time (30-90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. Significant regression models describing the changes of viscosity and clarity with respect to the independent variables were obtained, with the coefficient of determination, R (2) , greater than 0.8. Based on response surfaces and contour plots, the optimum conditions for clarifying sapodilla juice were enzyme concentration 1.15 U, incubation temperature 34 degrees C, and incubation time 70 min. PMID:18670739

Jacob, Nicemol; Sukumaran, R K; Prema, P

2008-12-01

207

Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.  

PubMed

The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

2012-09-01

208

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

209

Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. Results There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. Conclusion There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:24159918

2013-01-01

210

Colour stability and vitamin C retention of roselle juice (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) in different packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In Nigeria, roselle juice is quite popular among the populace presumably owing to its attractive colour, pleasant flavour and nutritional attributes. In the citrus industry, processing and packing material selection have significant effect on quality of juice product during storage. The effects of packaging materials, and storage temperature on colour and vitamin C retention of sobo juice extracted

J. O. Aina; A. A. Shodipe

2006-01-01

211

Effect of Encapsulating Materials on Water Sorption, Glass Transition and Stability of Juice From Immature Acerola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature acerola juice was dehydrated by spray drying, using as encapsulating material maltodextrin DE25, arabic gum, or a mixture of both in different proportions. A constant ratio of 1:1 was kept between juice solids and encapsulating material. The effect of encapsulation materials on water sorption, glass transition, and physical properties of encapsulated immature acerola juice was investigated. The monolayer moisture

Andréa Mara Righetto; Flavia Maria Netto

2005-01-01

212

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

213

Increase of Antioxidant Activity of Tomato Juice Upon Functionalisation with Vegetable Byproduct Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic-enriched extracts from blanched artichoke (BA), artichoke blanching waters (ABW), cauliflower (CA), carrot (CR), celery (CE) and onion (ON) byproducts were used to ‘functionalise’ tomato juice. The antioxidant activity of functional tomato juice significantly increased over control juice according to a set of in vitro antioxidant assays (i.e. inhibition of lipid peroxidation determined by the ferric thiocyanate method and scavenging

Mar Larrosa; Rafael Llorach; Juan Carlos Esp??n; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán

2002-01-01

214

Multimodal treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide. Although complete surgical resection remains the only curative modality for early stage gastric cancer, surgery alone only provides long-term survival in 20% of patients with advanced-stage disease. To improve current results, it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Recent clinical trials have shown survival benefit of combining different neoadjuvant or adjuvant protocols compared with surgery with curative intent. Furthermore, the implementation of chemotherapy with novel targeted agents could play an important role in the multimodal management of advanced gastric cancer. In this paper, we focus on a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of gastric cancer and discuss future strategies to improve the outcome for these patients. PMID:24829622

Proserpio, Ilaria; Rausei, Stefano; Barzaghi, Sabrina; Frattini, Francesco; Galli, Federica; Iovino, Domenico; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Pinotti, Graziella

2014-01-01

215

A consumer panel test of Texas fortified red grapefruit juice  

E-print Network

A CO;;SUi~kER k AkldL T"'-T CF 7&AU FCRTIFIED RED GRAPEFRUIT JUICE A Thesis CARTER PRICE Cubmitted to the Graduate Uchool of the Agricultural and Fechanical College of Texas in Partial fulfillment of the reouirements for the degree... of . "AFTER LF UCIEUCE August~ 1959 !'a)or Pub)acti Agricultural Economics A CONSUMER PANEL TEST OP TEEAS FORTIFIED RED GRAPEFRUIT JUICE A Thesis CARTER PRICE Approved as to style and oontent lgrc Chai an of Committee Read of Department or Student...

Price, Carter

2012-06-07

216

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, and including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_{J} (see also L.~Fletcher et al. in session C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_{J}, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will summarize the science objectives of the JUICE mission, will describe the baseline mission profile and the capabilities of the envisaged spacecraft. The mission would be launched in 2022 and would arrive at Jupiter about 7.5~years later. During its 3.5~years operations at Jupiter, it would perform frequent flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, two Europa flybys, and would finally be placed in an orbit around Ganymede. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

217

Gastric Cancer Prevention by Demethylation  

PubMed Central

Niwa et al. report in this issue that treatment with the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine decreases the incidence of gastric cancers in an animal model of Helicobacter pylori-promoted gastric cancer. This provocative study underscores the importance of changes in DNA methylation that contribute to the origin of inflammation-related cancers. The findings also raise the exciting possibility of cancer prevention by altering DNA methylation events early during tumorigenesis. PMID:23559450

Schneider, Barbara G.; Peek, Richard M.

2013-01-01

218

Lymph nodes in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Surgery is the only curative therapy for gastric cancer and controversy still exist on the extend of surgery. As the lymphatic distribution of stomach is very complex, the determination of the actual lymph node involvement is important for making the decision in order to avoid complications. Sentinel node navigation surgery has recently been introduced in gastrointestinal tract cancer. Present article reviews the detection techniques of lymph nodes and significance of lymphadenectomies in gastric cancer. PMID:18720367

Ozmen, M Mahir; Ozmen, Fusun; Zulfikaroglu, Bari?

2008-11-01

219

JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

2014-05-01

220

MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

2014-05-01

221

Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.  

PubMed

In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. PMID:22796769

de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

2013-01-01

222

Gene methylation in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

2013-09-23

223

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

2014-11-01

224

Infinite dilution activity coefficients of apple juice aroma compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus based on the inert gas stripping method was assembled for measuring infinite dilution activity coefficients, ??, of 15 apple juice aroma compounds in aqueous solutions. Values were estimated using the UNIFAC model and compared with experimental results; differences ranged from ?80 to 118% with an average of 48% for the absolute values of the differences. Values predicted with

Martin F. Sancho; M. A. Rao; D. L. Downing

1997-01-01

225

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

226

Process optimization for enzyme aided clarification of watermelon juice.  

PubMed

Watermelon juice was exposed to the enzyme masazyme at varying enzyme concentrations (0.01-0.1 % w/w) and different time (20-120 min) and temperature (30-50 °C) combinations. The effects of the treatments on selected responses (juice recovery, total dissolved solids (TDS), viscosity, turbidity, cloud stability and L value) were determined employing a second order Box Behnken Design in combination with Response Surface Methodology. Enzymatic treatment effectively degraded polysaccharides, resulting in reduced viscosity, turbidity and absorbance value and increased juice recovery, total dissolved solids and lightness. R(2) value for all models for the dependent variables were greater than 90 %. The maximum juice recovery (86.27 %), TDS (8.7°Brix) and L value (17.57) while minimum viscosity (0.0020 Pa.s.), turbidity (39.37 NTU) and cloud stability (0.033 abs) were obtained when enzyme treatment was set up with 0.09 % w/w enzyme concentration at 46.90 °C and 117.45 min. PMID:25328188

Saxena, Deepali; Sabikhi, Latha; Chakraborty, Subir Kumar; Singh, Dheer

2014-10-01

227

Oxalate nephropathy due to 'juicing': case report and review.  

PubMed

A patient presented with oxalate-induced acute renal failure that was attributable to consumption of oxalate-rich fruit and vegetable juices obtained from juicing. We describe the case and also review the clinical presentation of 65 patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1985 through 2010 with renal failure and biopsy-proven renal calcium oxalate crystals. The cause of renal oxalosis was identified for all patients: a single cause for 36 patients and at least 2 causes for 29 patients. Three patients, including our index patient, had presumed diet-induced oxalate nephropathy in the context of chronic kidney disease. Identification of calcium oxalate crystals in a kidney biopsy should prompt an evaluation for causes of renal oxalosis, including a detailed dietary history. Clinicians should be aware that an oxalate-rich diet may potentially precipitate acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Juicing followed by heavy consumption of oxalate-rich juices appears to be a potential cause of oxalate nephropathy and acute renal failure. PMID:23830537

Getting, Jane E; Gregoire, James R; Phul, Ashley; Kasten, Mary J

2013-09-01

228

Carnobacterium divergens - a dominating bacterium of pork meat juice.  

PubMed

Nonspoiled food that nevertheless contains bacterial pathogens constitutes a much more serious health problem than spoiled food, as the consumer is not warned beforehand. However, data on the diversity of bacterial species in meat juice are rare. To study the bacterial load of fresh pork from ten different distributors, we applied a combination of the conventional culture-based and molecular methods for detecting and quantifying the microbial spectrum of fresh pork meat juice samples. Altogether, we identified 23 bacterial species of ten different families analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of isolates were belonging to the typical spoilage bacterial population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterococcaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. Several additional isolates were identified as Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. originating from human and animal skin and other environmental niches including plants, soil, and water. Carnobacterium divergens, a LAB contributing to the spoilage of raw meat even at refrigeration temperature, was the most frequently isolated species in our study (5/10) with a bacterial load of 10(3) - 10(7) CFU mL(-1). In several of the analyzed pork meat juice samples, two bacterial faecal indicators, Serratia grimesii and Serratia proteamaculans, were identified together with another opportunistic food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus equorum. Our data reveal a high bacterial load of fresh pork meat supporting the potential health risk of meat juice for the end consumer even under refrigerated conditions. PMID:22537055

Rieder, Gabriele; Krisch, Linda; Fischer, Harald; Kaufmann, Maria; Maringer, Adolf; Wessler, Silja

2012-07-01

229

1997 Economic Census - Frozen Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 39-page report from the Census Bureau gives the economic status of frozen fruit, juice, and vegetable manufacturing in the United States. Seven tables include Produce Statistics 1997 and 1992, Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997, and Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997.

230

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended  

E-print Network

acid con- tent of the juice. However, an increase in the acidity had no negative effect on the thermal of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India Abstract ­ The contemporary problem faced by the fruit are required to explore the feasibil- ity of vitamin C enrichment of milk, which could be effectively achieved

Boyer, Edmond

231

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. The synephrine concentration has been determined in the juices of Citrus unshiu mandarins harvested from 10 different groves located in a major growing region in California. For comparison, the physicochemical properties

Klaus Dragull; Andrew P. Breksa III; Brian Cain

2008-01-01

232

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

233

Comparison of Gastric Electrical Activity and Gastric Emptying in Healthy and Dyspeptic Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess and compare gastric electrical activity and gastric emptying recorded from dyspeptic and healthy children, cutaneous electrogastrography and ultrasound examination of the gastric emptying were simultaneously performed in 52 children with nonulcer dyspepsia and 114 healthy children. Symptoms were scored from 0 (none) to 6 (severe). A higher percentage of tachygastria, a higher instability of gastric power, and a

Giuseppe Riezzo; Marisa Chiloiro; Vito Guerra; Osvaldo Borrelli; Gennaro Salvia; Salvatore Cucchiara

2000-01-01

234

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

235

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices.  

PubMed

Survival of a five-strain mixture of stationary phase (nonadapted) and acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices was evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C). The juices were reconstituted from concentrates that contained no preservatives and intrinsic pH values of 2.5 to 2.6 and titratable acidities of 4.51 to 4.53% (wt/vol, citric acid). A greater than 5-log reduction of stationary-phase cells was achieved in both lemon and lime juices after 72 h of incubation. Similar log reductions were obtained when the reconstituted juices were adjusted to pH 2.7, which is above the highest value normally observed in juice processing plants during the reconstitution of single-strength lemon or lime juice from concentrates. Lemon juice had a significantly higher inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on E. coli O157:H7 than did lime juice. Validation tests with commercially produced shelf-stable lemon and lime juices confirmed that storage of the juices at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days may be an alternative to heat treatment to ensure the 5-log reduction of vegetative pathogens of concern required for the products under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration juice hazard analysis and critical control point regulations. PMID:19350967

Enache, Elena; Chen, Yuhuan; Elliott, Philip H

2009-02-01

236

Effect of ingested fluid composition on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of ingested fluid composition on the experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Forty subjects, susceptible to ETAP, completed 4 treadmill exercise trials: a no-fluid trial and flavored water (FW, no carbohydrate, osmolality = 48 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), sports drink (SD, freshly mixed Gatorade, 6% total carbohydrate, 295 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), and reconstituted fruit juice (FJ, BERRI trade mark orange, 10.4 % total carbohydrate, 489 mosmol/L, pH= 3.2) trials. Measures of the experience of ETAP and gastrointestinal disturbances, particularly bloating, were quantified. The FJ was significantly (p =.01) more provocative of both ETAP and bloating than all other trials. There was no difference among the no-fluid, FW, and SD in the severity of ETAP experienced, although the difference between the no-fluid and SD approached significance at the.05 level (p =.056). There was a significant relationship between both the mean (r = 0.40, p =.01) and peak (r= 0.44, p=.01) levels of ETAP and bloating. When the level of bloating was controlled for, the FJ remained significantly (p =.01) more provocative of ETAP than the other conditions, with no difference between the FW and SD (p =.37). The results indicate that in order to avoid ETAP, susceptible individuals should refrain from consuming reconstituted fruit juices and beverages similarly high in carbohydrate content and osmolality, shortly before and during exercise. Further, the mechanism responsible for the heightened experience of ETAP in the FJ trial extends beyond a gastric mass explanation. PMID:15118193

Morton, Darren Peter; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Callister, Robin

2004-04-01

237

Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.  

PubMed

Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24372267

Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

2013-01-01

238

Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.  

PubMed

Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1mgg(-1) to 4mgg(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04mgml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007mgml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01mgml(-1) to 0.08mgml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

2015-03-01

239

Cimetidine Prevents Stress-Induced Gastric Erosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acute gastric erosions following severe stress usually occur in the presence of gastric acid Cimetidine (Smith, Kline and French), an H2-receptor antagonist, inhibits both resting and stimulated acid production. This study investigated the effect of Cimet...

B. A. Levine, B. A. Pruitt, C. G. McLeod, D. K. Teegarden, K. R. Sirinek

1977-01-01

240

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

2010-04-01

241

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

2010-01-01

242

Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.  

PubMed

The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice. PMID:22980006

Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

2012-07-01

243

Gravity Science with The JUICE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) is a European mission to the Jovian system, proposed in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision program. The spacecraft will reach the Jovian system and fly several times by the moons Callisto and Europa before being inserted in a nearly circular, polar orbit around Ganymede. After its arrival in 2030, the mission timeline entails two Europa flybys (2030), twelve Callisto flybys (2031) and the orbital phase at Ganymede (2033) [1]. Gravity measurements will provide crucial information on the interior structure of the three satellites. If the bodies are in hydrostatic equilibrium, the radial density distribution may be constrained from their moment of inertia factor and low-degree gravity field coefficients [2]. Furthermore, the determination of the high-degree harmonics will provide the distribution of gravity anomalies. Evidence for subsurface oceans within Ganymede and Callisto, one of the main scientific goals of the mission, will be obtained by the determination of the tidal Love number k2 as part of a global solution for the static and variable gravity field. Gravity fields and tidal deformations will be determined by means of precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft in Ka-band (32.5-34 GHz). The Radio Science Instrument (RSI) is enabled by a Ka-band transponder which, complemented by suitable ground instrumentation, will enable a radio link with a very high phase stability. The main observable quantity for gravity field determination is the range rate (to 3 micron/s at 1000 s integration time, two-way). The spacecraft range (accurate to 20 cm, two-way) will be used to improve the ephemerides of the Jupiter system. Gravity science at Ganymede will be carried out during the orbital phase. According to the mission profile (subject to change), the first 102 days will be spent at an altitude of 500 km. The orbit will be lowered to 200 km in the last 32 days of the mission. If the spacecraft will be endowed with a steerable medium gain antenna, gravity measurements can be carried out also during the Europa and Callisto flybys. For Europa, the two planned flybys will enable the unconstrained determination of the quadrupole field and polar moment of inertia (if the body is found in hydrostatic equilibrium). For Callisto, thanks to the considerable number of flybys, the k2 Love number can be determined, in addition to the low-degree gravity field and geoid. Numerical simulations of the gravity experiment by means of a multi-arc least square filter have been performed for the orbital phase around Ganymede and for the Europa and Callisto flybys. Range rate data have been simulated by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise corresponding to the expected end-to-end performances of the radio link. We report on the results of the simulations and provide our current best estimate of the attainable accuracies in the gravity harmonics and the spacecraft position.

Parisi, M.; Finocchiaro, S.; Iess, L.

2012-04-01

244

Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and diagnostic reliability of sentinel node (SN) biopsy for gastric cancer are still controversial. We studied\\u000a the clinicopathological features and localization of solitary lymph node metastasis (SLM) in gastric cancer to provide useful\\u000a information for use of the SN concept in gastric cancer. From 2000 to 2004, 3,267 patients with gastric cancer underwent D2\\u000a radical gastrectomy. The clinicopathological

Chen Li; Sungsoo Kim; Ji Fu Lai; Sung Jin Oh; Woo Jin Hyung; Won Hyuk Choi; Seung Ho Choi; Sung Hoon Noh

2008-01-01

245

Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

2014-01-01

246

Gastric Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of gastric cancer is decreasing and lies between 10 and 15 new cases per 100,000 population per year in most Western countries. Peak age is between 60 and 80 years. While distal gastric cancers account for the overall decrease in gastric cancer, tumors in the proximal stomach (cardia and esophagogastric junction) are on the rise. Recognized risk factors

Guenter J. Krejs

2010-01-01

247

Afferent signalling of gastric acid challenge.  

PubMed

Gastric acid is a factor in the pain associated with peptic ulcer and other acid-related disorders including functional dyspepsia, given that antisecretory treatment is a mainstay in the treatment of upper abdominal pain. However, the molecular sensors, afferent pathways and central processing systems of gastric chemonociception are little known. This article reviews emerging evidence that vagal afferent pathways play a pivotal role in gastric chemonociception. Exposure of the rat gastric mucosa to backdiffusing concentrations of luminal acid is signalled to the brainstem, but not spinal cord, as visualized by functional neuroanatomy based on the rapid expression of c-fos. This observation is complemented by the finding that the visceromotor response to gastric acid challenge is suppressed by vagotomy, but not splanchnectomy. The gastric acid-induced expression of c-fos in the brainstem is reduced by inhibition of gastric acid secretion and enhanced by pentagastrin-evoked stimulation of gastric acid secretion. These data indicate that endogenous acid modulates the sensory gain of acid-sensitive vagal afferents. Further consistent with a role of these neurons in gastric nociception is the finding that exposure to proinflammatory cytokines and the induction of experimental gastritis or gastric ulceration sensitizes vagal afferent pathways to gastric acid. Taken together, these observations are of relevance to the understanding and treatment of gastric hyperalgesia and dyspeptic pain. PMID:15075448

Holzer, P

2003-12-01

248

Diagnostic dilemma of gastric intramural air.  

PubMed

Emphysematous gastritis and gastric emphysema remain the two most important differential diagnoses of intramural gastric air bubbles, both differing vastly in their clinical presentation, radiographic findings, management and prognosis. This report discusses a case of gastric emphysema along with the importance of reaching an accurate clinical diagnosis early in the disease course. PMID:25245715

Misro, A; Sheth, H

2014-10-01

249

Helicobacter pylori eradication for gastric cancer prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy in the world. Its incidence is high in East Asia. Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies have established a strong\\u000a causal relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is therefore likely to be one of the most promising

Ting Kin Cheung; Harry H. X. Xia; Benjamin C. Y. Wong

2007-01-01

250

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2011-01-01

251

Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. Recently, we claim that BPC 157 may be used as an antidote against NSAIDs. We focused on BPC 157 beneficial effects on stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and brain injuries, adjuvant arthritis, pain, hyper/hypothermia, obstructive thrombus formation and thrombolysis, blood vessel function, counteraction of prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia after application of various anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents and wound healing improvement. The arguments for BPC 157 antidote activity (i.e., the role of BPC 157 in cytoprotection, being a novel mediator of Robert's cytoprotection and BPC 157 beneficial effects on NSAIDs mediated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and brain and finally, counteraction of aspirin-induced prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia) obviously have a counteracting effect on several established side-effects of NSAIDs use. The mentioned variety of the beneficial effects portrayed by BPC 157 may well be a foundation for establishing BPC 157 as a NSAIDs antidote since no other single agent has portrayed a similar array of effects. Unlike NSAIDs, a very high safety (no reported toxicity (LD1 could be not achieved)) profile is reported for BPC 157. Also, unlike the different dosage levels of aspirin, as a NSAIDs prototype, which differ by a factor of about ten, all these beneficial and counteracting effects of BPC 157 were obtained using the equipotent dosage (?g, ng/kg) in parenteral or peroral regimens. PMID:22950504

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Safic, Hana; Suran, Jelena; Rak, Davor; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2013-01-01

252

Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s) causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. After anesthesia and tracheal cannulation, the animals received 0.5 ml/kg normal saline, 0.5 ml/kg of whole gastric fluid, 0.5 ml/kg pepsin (2.5 µg/ml), 0.5 ml/kg hydrochloric acid (pH=1.5) or 0.5 ml/kg bile salts (2.5 µg/ml) by injection into their trachea and lungs. In sham group nothing was injected. Results: Parenchymal and airways inflammation and fibrosis of bronchi, bronchioles and parenchyma were significantly more in the test groups compared to saline and sham groups (P<0.001); also inflammation in pepsin and bile salts groups (histopathology scores: 2.87±0.35 and 3.0±0.0 for bronchial, 2.87±0.35 and 2.87±0.35 for bronchioles, 2.87±0.35 and 2.87±0.35 for parenchymal inflammation) were more than hydrochloric acid and gastric fluid groups (1.75±0.46 and 2.5±0.53 for bronchial, 2.0±0.0 and 2.0±0.0 for bronchioles, 2.0±0.0 and 2.0±0.0 for parenchymal inflammation) (P<0.05). The same results were found for fibrosis, so that the fibrosis in pepsin and bile salts groups were more than hydrochloric acid and gastric fluid groups (P<0.05). Conclusion : The present results suggested that pulmonary complications causing from bile salts and pepsin might be more than gastric juice and hydrochloric acid. PMID:23997906

Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Siahposht Khacheki, Ali; Shahrokhi, Nader; Malekpour Afshar, Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

253

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction.  

PubMed

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume-effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2?h but less than 4?h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

Bailey, David G

2010-11-01

254

Lack of effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amlodipine  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine whether repeated once daily administration of grapefruit juice altered the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of the calcium antagonist amlodipine. Methods The effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and intravenous amlodipine were assessed in 20 healthy men in a placebo-controlled, open, randomized, four-way crossover study using single doses of amlodipine 10 mg. For 9 days beginning with the day of administration of amlodipine, grapefruit juice (or water control) was given once daily, and blood samples, blood pressure and heart rate measures were obtained. Plasma concentrations of amlodipine and its enantiomers were determined in separate assays by GC-ECD. Results Oral amlodipine had high systemic availability (grapefruit juice: 88%; water: 81%). Pharmacokinetic parameters of racemic amlodipine (AUC, Cmax, tmax, and kel) were not markedly changed with grapefruit juice coadministration. Total plasma clearance and volume of distribution, calculated after intravenous amlodipine, were essentially unchanged by grapefruit juice (CL 6.65 ml min?1 kg?1, juice vs 6.93 ml min?1 kg?1, water; Vdss 22.7 l kg?1, juice vs 21.0 l kg?1, water). Grapefruit juice coadministration did not greatly alter the stereoselectivity in amlodipine oral or intravenous kinetics. The sum of S(–) and R(+) enantiomer concentrations correlated well with total racemic amlodipine concentration (r2 = 0.957; P = 0.0001). Coadministration of grapefruit juice with either route of amlodipine administration did not significantly alter blood pressure changes vs control. Conclusions Grapefruit juice has no appreciable effect on amlodipine pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics, including its stereoselective kinetics. Bioavailability enhancement by grapefruit juice, noted with other dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, does not occur with amlodipine. Once daily grapefruit juice administration with usual oral doses of amlodipine is unlikely to alter the profile of response in clinical practice. PMID:11069440

Vincent, John; Harris, Stuart I; Foulds, George; Dogolo, Lisa C; Willavize, Susan; Friedman, Hylar L

2000-01-01

255

Primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Mantle cell lymphoma represents 2.5–7% all of non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Stomach is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma. However, that is not the case with mantle cell lymphoma, which is extremely rare. We present a case of 71-year-old woman admitted to the Internal Clinic of the University Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, because of stomach discomfort and melena. Endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a polyp in gastric antrum. Histopathologic, immunohistochemic and genetic methods were also performed and the results were consistent with primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma without periepigastric and/or local or distant abdominal lymph node involvement. PMID:22567215

Petranovic, Duska; Pilcic, Gorazd; Peitl, Milena; Cubranic, Aleksandar; Valkovic, Toni; Nacinovic, Antica Duletic; Lucin, Ksenija; Jonjic, Nives

2012-01-01

256

GASTRIC REFLUX IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED GASTRIC FED ICU PATIENTS  

E-print Network

to enrollment in the study. A randomized 2-day crossover trial was conducted in a surgical and medical ICU. Mechanically ventilated gastric fed subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 HOB elevation sequences, HOB 30? for 12 hours (hrs) on day 1 and 45...

Schallom, Marilyn

2013-08-31

257

Gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic mechanisms underlying cytoprotection of gastrointestinal mucosae against damage are not understood. One hypothesis is that the initial and primary system affected by a cytoprotective agent is the local circulation of the tissue that is being protected. According to this circulatory hypothesis, a cytoprotective prostaglandin would increase gastric mucosal blood flow, thereby ameliorating the effect of topical damaging agents,

Eugene D. Jacobson

1985-01-01

258

Prognostic analysis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with synchronous gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Many patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and synchronous gastric cancer have been described, most in single case studies. We retrospectively investigated the clinicopathologic features and prognostic effects of gastric GIST in patients with synchronous gastric cancer. Methods The study enrolled 170 patients with gastric GIST, who had undergone complete surgical resection (R0) from January 2000 to December 2011. Forty-two patients had synchronous gastric cancer (CA Group), whereas 128 did not (Non-CA Group). The clinicopathologic features and potential prognostic factors in the two groups were compared. Results Patients in the CA Group had more obvious symptoms, but a lower rate of preoperative diagnosis of gastric GIST (P <0.05). The two groups differed significantly in gender, age, greatest tumor diameter, risk stratification, tumor-associated ulcers, and CD117 and CD34 expression (P <0.05 each). Univariate analysis showed that age, risk stratification, postoperative oral imatinib and synchronous gastric cancer were predictive factors of survival (P <0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that risk stratification, postoperative oral imatinib and synchronous gastric cancer were independent predictors of survival (P <0.05). Stratified analysis showed that the 5-year overall survival rate was lower in patients with synchronous gastric cancer than in those without synchronous gastric cancer. Conclusions Gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer had a lower rate of preoperative diagnosis, with correct diagnosis often missed. Survival, however, depended primarily on the gastric cancer. PMID:24479763

2014-01-01

259

Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

2014-01-01

260

CEUS and strain elastography in gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer, but diagnosis is often delayed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is currently the gold standard for evaluating gastric cancer. Also other imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are employed for identifying gastric cancer, but particularly for cancer staging. Ultrasound (US) is a first-line imaging modality used to examine organs in the abdomen, and during these examinations gastric cancer may be incidentally detected. Very few studies in the literature have investigated the role of US in gastric disease. However, more recently, some authors have reported on the use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and US-elastography in gastric disease using both endoscopic and transabdominal approach. In this paper, we present a case of gastric cancer studied by CEUS and transabdominal US-elastography. PMID:24432162

Cantisani, Vito; Rubini, Antonello; Miniagio, Guglielmo

2013-07-18

261

Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.  

PubMed

The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(?), a(?), b(?), ?E(?), Cab(?) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73kJmol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of ?-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage. PMID:25308677

Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

2015-03-15

262

Antioxidant and ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of 40 Tropical Juices from Malaysia and Identification of Phenolics from the Bioactive Fruit Juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.  

PubMed

The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 ?g GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 ?g AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 ?g VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 ?g TEAC/g sample), and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics. PMID:25198055

Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

2014-10-01

263

The mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of early gastric cancers are comparable to those of advanced gastric cancers.  

PubMed

Early gastric cancers (EGCs) precede advanced gastric cancers (AGCs), with a favourable prognosis compared to AGC. To understand the progression mechanism of EGC to AGC, it is required to disclose EGC and AGC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of nine microsatellite (MS)-unstable (MSI-H) (five EGCs and four AGCs) and eight MS-stable (MSS) gastric cancers (four EGCs and four AGCs). In the cancers, we observed well-known driver mutations (TP53, APC, PIK3CA, ARID1A, and KRAS) that were enriched in cancer-related pathways, including chromatin remodelling and tyrosine kinase activity. The MSI-H genomes harboured ten times more mutations, but were largely depleted of copy number alterations (CNAs) compared to the MSS cancers. Interestingly, EGC genomes showed a comparable level of mutations to AGC in terms of the number, sequence composition, and functional consequences (potential driver mutations and affected pathways) of mutations. Furthermore, the CNAs between EGC and AGC genomes were not significantly different in either MSI-H and MSS. Evolutionary analyses using somatic mutations and MSI as molecular clocks further identified that EGC genomes were as old as AGC genomes in both MSS and MSI-H cancers. Our results suggest that the genetic makeup for gastric cancer may already be achieved in EGC genomes and that the time required for transition to AGC may be relatively short. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful in the clinical settings for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of gastric cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25042771

Kim, Tae-Min; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Baek, In-Pyo; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Sung Hak; Lee, Han Hong; Kim, Sung Soo; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

2014-11-01

264

Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

Mayfield, Ryan T.

265

Binding of furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice to Aspergillus niger hyphae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furanocoumarins (FCs) in grapefruit are involved in the “grapefruit\\/drug interactions” in humans, in which the FCs inhibit\\u000a the intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) activity responsible for metabolizing certain prescribed medications. These interactions\\u000a have adversely affected the grapefruit industry and have led a need to develop a process to remove the FCs from grapefruit\\u000a juice (GFJ) in a manner that

Kyung Myung; John A. Manthey; Jan A. Narciso

2008-01-01

266

Astaxanthin production by a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant on grape juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fermenter cultivation of Phaffia rhodozyma on a grape juice medium, the presence of glucose initially delayed fructose utilization, although fructose was consumed before glucose depletion. Total pigment and astaxanthin production were growth associated and reached maximum values of 15.9 µg\\/ml and 9.8 µg\\/ml, respectively, after depletion of the carbon source. The total cellular pigment and astaxanthin content increased during

P. S. Meyer; J. C. Preez

1994-01-01

267

Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Alzheimer's Disease: The Kame Project  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage caused by the ?-amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide than antioxidant vitamins. METHODS We tested whether consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, containing a high concentration of polyphenols, decreases the risk of incident probable Alzheimer’s disease in the Kame Project cohort, a population-based prospective study of 1836 Japanese Americans in King County, Washington, who were dementia-free at baseline (1992–1994) and were followed through 2001. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio for probable Alzheimer’s disease was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.61) comparing subjects who drank juices at least 3 times per week with those who drank less often than once per week with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.31–2.29) for those drinking juices 1 to 2 times per week (P for trend < .01). This inverse association tended to be more pronounced among those with an apolipoprotein E?-4 allele and those who were not physically active. Conversely, no association was observed for dietary intake of vitamins E, C, or ?- carotene or tea consumption. CONCLUSIONS Fruit and vegetable juices may play an important role in delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly among those who are at high risk for the disease. These results may lead to a new avenue of inquiry in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:16945610

Dai, Qi; Borenstein, Amy R.; Wu, Yougui; Jackson, James C.; Larson, Eric B.

2008-01-01

268

Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background And Objectives: Because of extensive first-pass metabolism, oral bioavailability of sildenafil reaches only 40%. Formation of the primary metabolite, N-desmethylsildenafil, is mainly mediated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4. In this study we investigated the influence of grapefruit juice, containing inhibitors of intestinal CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and N-desmethylsildenafil.Methods: In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy white

Alexander Jetter; Martina Kinzig-Schippers; Monika Walchner-Bonjean; Ursula Hering; Jürgen Bulitta; Philipp Schreiner; Fritz Sörgel; Uwe Fuhr

2002-01-01

269

Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.  

PubMed

Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice. PMID:24799201

Wu, Shengjun

2014-10-01

270

Study on the oxidation process of tomato juice during storage by near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with several chemometrical techniques was investigated to study the oxidation process during storage in tomato juices. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used for NIR spectroscopy analysis at 800-2400 nm using FT-NIR spectrometer. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first time as soon as the tomatoes were squeezed, centrifuged, filtered and the tomato juice had not undergone any oxidation process and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were applied to discriminate between the two groups of spectra. The results show that differences between tomato juices before and after the storage period do exist attributed to changes in certain compounds of juice and excellent classification can be obtained after optimizing spectral pretreatment.

Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin; Ye, Hongjian; Zhou, Ying; Niu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xuesong

2007-09-01

271

Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.  

PubMed

We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450. PMID:20877216

Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

2010-09-01

272

The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been characterized by seeing educational possibilities in so many things, created a modified version of the clock, with the atomic numbers of the elements representing the hours in the day (see Fig. 2) in his internationally popular workshops. Due largely to Talesnick's efforts, the orange juice clock is a standard demonstration in many chemistry programs and presentations. Figure 2.Irwin Talesnick represents the hours of the day by the corresponding elements in his clock. The Procedure This can be done as a demonstration or as an activity, although at about 10 per clock, expense does become an issue. There are no unusual safety precautions with this demonstration. We know of no accidents that have occurred with the orange juice clock. The demonstration requires: a single AA-cell battery-operated wall clock with a sweep-second hand a medium-sized beaker (600 mL is fine) enough orange juice or other electrolyte mixture or solution to fill the beaker about 2/3 full (tap water often works fine!) a 20-30-cm magnesium strip, coiled at one end or wrapped around a popsicle stick a 20-30-cm copper strip, coiled at one end alligator clips to connect the strips to the battery terminals on the clock a stand against which to lean the setup The demonstration is put together as shown in Figure 3. Connect the magnesium to the "-" contact of the clock and the copper to the "+" contact. Immerse the other ends of the strips into the solution. The clock will start to tick within a few seconds. If it does not work within a short period of time, check that the strips are well connected to the battery terminals, are hooked to the proper poles, and are not touching each other. The clock should keep reasonably close time (in orange juice) for a couple of days, or until the magnesium is nearly completely oxidized. Figure 3.A schematic of the orange juice clock seup. Video of orange juice clock. In video, the copper electrode is on the left and the magnesium electrode is on the right. Video was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The

Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

1996-12-01

273

Sensory quality, volatile compounds and color of pear juice treated with ?-cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), the most used of natural CDs, on the pear juice quality was studied.\\u000a Several properties of this fruit juice, such as color, odor and aroma have been evaluated in both the absence and presence\\u000a of ?-CD for the first time. A study of the aroma profile of pear juice showed that esters,

Antonio J. Andreu-Sevilla; Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina; José M. López-Nicolás; Francisco García-Carmona

274

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

275

Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by solvent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Silicone defoamers are used to control foam during the processing of fruit juices. Residual silicones in fruit juices can be separated from the naturally occurring siliceous materials in fruit products and selectively recovered by solvent extraction, after suitable pretreatment. The recovered silicone is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silicone concentrations as low as about 1 ppm can be measured. The juices are accurately spiked for recovery studies by the addition of silicone dispersed in D-sorbitol. PMID:8318853

Gooch, E G

1993-01-01

276

64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

2014-10-16

277

Advances in gastric cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

2012-09-10

278

Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

279

Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

280

Gastric Pseudotumoral Lesion Caused by a Fish Bone Mimicking a Gastric Submucosal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766

Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

2014-01-01

281

Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

282

Gastric pseudotumoral lesion caused by a fish bone mimicking a gastric submucosal tumor.  

PubMed

Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766

Kim, Se Won; Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

2014-09-01

283

Laparoscopic gatrojejunostomy for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in unresectable gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Gastric bypass through laparotomy is required traditionally when gastric outlet obstruction occurs secondary to\\u000a a disease process (e.g., unresectable cancer). The recent trend toward minimally invasive procedures has led us to apply laparoscopic\\u000a bypass surgery for gastric obstruction caused by unresectable advanced gastric cancer. Methods: From March 1998 to February\\u000a 2000, 78 gastrojejunostomies (GJ) (45 open [OGJ] and 33

Y.-B. Choi

2002-01-01

284

Gastric Sarcoidosis: A Rare Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) sarcoidosis is a very rare disease, which clinically presents along with systemic disease or as an isolated finding. Gastric sarcoidosis is the most common form of GI sarcoidosis. Symptomatic gastric sarcoidosis is rare and only few case reports have been described in the literature with well-documented histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas. We present an interesting case of gastric sarcoidosis in a 39-year-old Caucasian man with symptoms of epigastric pain and profound weight loss. His endoscopic gastric mucosal biopsies revealed noncaseating granulomas consistent with gastric sarcoidosis. Treatment with oral steroids alleviated his symptoms with no recurrence in 2 years. Gastric sarcoidosis should be considered in patients with history of sarcoidosis and GI symptoms. PMID:24368949

Tokala, Hemasri; Polsani, Karthik; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.

2013-01-01

285

Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed.

Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2014-01-01

286

Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

2014-05-01

287

Risk for Gastric Cancer After Cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:It is becoming increasingly evident that chronic inflammation may predispose cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to gastric cancer. Cholecystectomy is regularly followed by duodenogastric bile reflux and reactive gastritis. To test whether a noninfectious long-standing inflammation impels gastric carcinogenesis as well, we assessed the risk of gastric cancer in a large, population-based

Katja Fall; Weimin Ye; Olof Nyrén

2007-01-01

288

Gastric heterotopia causing jejunal ulceration and obstruction.  

PubMed

A young woman with persistent postprandial vomiting was found to have a high-grade proximal jejunal stricture. The stricture was surgically excised, and histopathological examination showed gastric heterotopia with localised ulceration and fibrosis. Symptomatic gastric heterotopia in the small bowel is rare, and to our knowledge this is the first report of jejunal gastric heterotopia resulting in ulceration with subsequent stricturing and obstruction. PMID:24209701

Chinnery, Galya E; Bernon, Marc M; Banderker, M Asief; Roberts, Riyaad; Krige, Jake E J

2013-11-01

289

Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review.

Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

2014-01-01

290

Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2014-01-01

291

Hypergastrinemia increases gastric epithelial susceptibility to apoptosis.  

PubMed

Plasma concentrations of the hormone gastrin are elevated by Helicobacter pylori infection and by gastric atrophy. It has previously been proposed that gastrin acts as a cofactor during gastric carcinogenesis and hypergastrinemic transgenic INS-GAS mice are prone to developing gastric adenocarcinoma, particularly following H. pylori infection. We hypothesised that the increased risk of carcinogenesis in these animals may partly result from altered susceptibility of gastric epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis. Gastric corpus apoptosis was significantly increased 48 h after 12Gy gamma-radiation in mice rendered hypergastrinemic by transgenic (INS-GAS) or pharmacological (omeprazole treatment of FVB/N mice) methods and in both cases the effects were inhibited by the CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022. However, no alteration in susceptibility to gamma-radiation-induced gastric epithelial apoptosis was observed in mice overexpressing progastrin or glycine-extended gastrin. Apoptosis was also significantly increased in gastric corpus biopsies obtained from H. pylori-infected humans with moderate degrees of hypergastrinemia. We conclude that hypergastrinemia specifically renders cells within the gastric corpus epithelium more susceptible to induction of apoptosis by radiation or H. pylori. Altered susceptibility to apoptosis may therefore be one factor predisposing to gastric carcinogenesis in INS-GAS mice and similar mechanisms may also be involved in humans. PMID:17900712

Przemeck, S M C; Varro, A; Berry, D; Steele, I; Wang, T C; Dockray, G J; Pritchard, D M

2008-02-01

292

Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566

Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

2014-04-01

293

77 FR 67833 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 731-TA-1105 and 1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead to continuation or...

2012-11-14

294

Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile, which includes two Europa flybys, causing the mission to be in Planetary Protection Category III, requiring the probability of deposition of a viable organism to be <10^{-4}. The intended approach for complying with the planetary protection requirements is to avoid active sterilization measures by ensuring that the spacecraft's probability for critical failure is sufficiently low. The duration of critical contamination of Europa is limited by the fact that that the spacecraft's trajectory needs to be actively modified towards Europa for the flybys, and afterwards the spacecraft will be on a trajectory with higher pericenter, significantly reducing any accidental collision. The presentation will specifically discuss plans on mitigating the risk of contamination of Europa. It is intended as early information for planetary protection group and to seek comments and feed-back on the approach. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

295

Gastric Bypass after Cardiac Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 39-year-old morbidly obese male presented with severe and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HBP)\\u000a as well as moderately severe obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) that threatened the survival of his cardiac graft which\\u000a had been transplanted 7 years previously. A gastric bypass procedure with a 45-cm Roux-limb was performed. His OHS resolved,\\u000a his DM became undetectable off medication,

1995-01-01

296

Combining Platinums in Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The role for systemic treatment in gastric cancer has become more evident over the past years. Perioperative chemotherapy\\u000a increases the cure rates in localized stages. At the same time, palliative chemotherapy has shown to prolong survival and\\u000a maintain the patients' quality of life in advanced disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Cisplatin in combination with 5-fluorouracil with or without an anthracycline now has a definite

Florian Lordick; Dirk Jäger

297

The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on ESA’s JUICE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) was selected in May 2012 as the first L-class mission of ESA’s Cosmic Vision Program. JUICE will launch in 2022 on a 7.6-year journey to the Jovian system, including a Venus and multiple Earth gravity assists, before entering Jupiter orbit in January 2030. JUICE will study the entire Jovian system for 3.5 years, concentrating on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, with the last 10 months spent in Ganymede orbit. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on JUICE was jointly selected by NASA and ESA as part of its ~130 kg payload of 11 scientific instruments. UVS is the fifth in a series of successful ultraviolet imaging spectrographs (Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons Pluto-Alice, LRO-LAMP) and is largely based on the most recent of these, Juno-UVS. It observes photons in the 55-210 nm wavelength range, at moderate spectral and spatial resolution along a 7.5-degree slit. A main entrance “airglow port” (AP) is used for most observations (e.g., airglow, aurora, surface mapping, and stellar occultations), while a separate “solar port” (SP) allows for solar occultations. Another aperture door, with a small hole through the centre, is used as a “high-spatial-resolution port” (HP) for detailed observations of bright targets. Time-tagging (pixel list mode) and programmable spectral imaging (histogram mode) allow for observational flexibility and optimal data management. As on Juno-UVS, the effects of penetrating electron radiation on electronic parts and data quality are substantially mitigated through contiguous shielding, filtering of pulse height amplitudes, management of high voltage settings, and careful use of radiation-hard, flight-tested parts. The science goals of UVS are to: 1) explore the atmospheres, plasma interactions, and surfaces of the Galilean satellites; 2) determine the dynamics, chemistry, and vertical structure of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere from equator to pole; and 3) investigate the Jupiter-Io connection by quantifying energy and mass flow in the Io atmosphere, neutral clouds, and torus. Here we present the salient features of the UVS instrument and describe the science we plan to address.

Gladstone, Randy; Retherford, K.; Steffl, A.; Eterno, J.; Davis, M.; Versteeg, M.; Greathouse, T.; Araujo, M.; Walther, B.; Persson, K.; Persyn, S.; Dirks, G.; McGrath, M.; Feldman, P.; Bagenal, F.; Spencer, J.; Schindhelm, E.; Fletcher, L.

2013-10-01

298

J-MAG: Magnetometer science on the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetometer instrument is one of the core instruments on the JUICE model payload and is critical for resolving prime science objectives of the mission. The importance of a magnetometer instrument on JUICE can be described under two separate themes: 1. The magnetic field drives the plasma processes occurring within the Jupiter system. Understanding such observations allows for a better understanding of dynamical plasma processes, of the generation of aurora and of the various current systems which arise within this rapidly rotating magnetosphere; the interactions of the magnetosphere of Ganymede within the Jovian magnetosphere within which it is embedded; to name but a few. 2. However the cutting edge magnetometer science which is unique to JUICE lies in being able to gain an understanding of the interior structure of the icy moons of Jupiter, specifically those of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. Of particular interest are knowledge of the depth at which the liquid oceans reside beneath their icy surfaces, the strength of any internal magnetic fields such as at Ganymede and the strength of any induced magnetic fields arising within these oceans. The rapidly rotating Jovian magnetosphere provides one with an extensive laboratory in order to study fundamental astrophysical processes. The principal interaction between a planet and its plasma environment is mediated via the planetary magnetic field, and hence investigations of magnetic field data are crucial in understanding the dynamics and physical processes which arise. However the value of magnetic field measurements are not restricted to providing an overall picture of the fundamental physical processes occurring; in fact they are crucial in gaining an understanding of the internal structure of planetary bodies as well as allowing discoveries, such as the presence of a dynamic and exotic atmosphere at Saturn's small moon Enceladus. The primary science objectives of JUICE which will be constrained by magnetic field observations include: · At Ganymede: o Characterisation of the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior o Characterisation of the ice shell o Characterisation of the local environment and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere o Description of the deep interior and B field generation · At Europa, further constrain the depth of the liquid ocean and its conductivity · At Callisto, characterise the outer shells, including the ocean · Compare differentiated (Ganymede and Europa) and undifferentiated bodies (Callisto) · Explore the Jovian magnetosphere o Characterise the magnetosphere as a fast rotator o Characterise the magnetosphere as a giant accelerator o Understand the moons as sources and sinks of magnetospheric plasma.

Dougherty, M. K.

2013-09-01

299

Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.  

PubMed

The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit. PMID:24912703

Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

2014-11-15

300

A Comparison of Children's Fruit Juice Intake at Ages 48 and 72 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare fruit juice intakes of young children before and after media reports in 1997 that related “excessive” (? 12 oz\\/day) fruit juice intake to short stature and obesity. These reports were based on one research study that has been refuted by a subsequent 1999 study. As part of an on-going longitudinal study of

J. D. Skinner; B. R. Carruth

1999-01-01

301

Overexpression of Polyphenol Oxidase in Transgenic Sugarcane Results in Darker Juice and Raw Sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

nents to produce colored polymers (Li and Steffens, 2002). Color intensity of raw sugar is, in part, a result of the activity of IthasbeendemonstratedthatinhibitionofPPOactiv- the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) acting on phenolic compounds to produce dark colored polymers when sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) ity in juice by chemical inhibitors, heat, or elevated pH is crushed to release the juice. Paler colored

J. E. Vickers; C. P. L. Grof; G. D. Bonnett; P. A. Jackson; D. P. Knight; S. E. Roberts; S. P. Robinson

2005-01-01

302

Effect of clouding agents on the quality of apple juice during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple pomace, (AP) was subjected to evaluation as potential source of clouding and antiradical agent in cloudy apple juice (CAJ). The evaluation was carried out in comparison with three hydrocolloids, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan (XA), and pectin (P). The quality parameters of cloudy apple juice such as cloud stability, viscosity, phenolic content, sensory evaluation and antioxidant activity had

G. E. Ibrahim; I. M. Hassan; A. M. Abd-Elrashid; K. F. El-Massry; A. H. Eh-Ghorab; M. Ramadan Manal; F. Osman

2011-01-01

303

Evaluation of nanofi ltration membranes for the retention of anthocyanins of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The açai juice is an Amazonian product that has been exported to various countries around the world. Its main characteristic is the presence of antioxidant compounds especially anthocyanins. Nanofiltration is a membrane separation process that has the ability to separate compounds of low molar weight. Açai juice clarified by microfiltration was used as feed to evaluate nanofiltration membranes of different

Daniel Simões Couto; Manuel Dornier; Dominique Pallet; Max Reynes; Daniel Dijoux; Suely P. Freitas; Lourdes M. C. Cabral

2011-01-01

304

Bioethanol production from thick juice as intermediate of sugar beet processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to investigate the bioethanol production of thick juice as intermediate from sugar beet processing in batch culture by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and the effect of sugar concentration on ethanol yield and CO2 weight loss rate. Thick juice and molasses of sugar beet from a domestic sugar factory were diluted with distilled water to

Siniša Dodi?; Stevan Popov; Jelena Dodi?; Jovana Rankovi?; Zoltan Zavargo; Rada Jevti? Mu?ibabi?

2009-01-01

305

Grapefruit juice alters terfenadine pharmacokinetics, resulting in prolongation of repolarization on the electrocardiogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To establish whether the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic pharmacodynamics of terfenadine are affected by concomitant administration of grapefruit juice and to determine whether any effect of grapefruit juice is dependent on the timing of administration in relation to the dose of terfenadine.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were studied in a prospective randomized trial. The primary end points were QT prolongation on

Robert E. Benton; Peter K. Honig; Kaveh Zamani; Louis R. Cantilena; Raymond L. Woosley

1996-01-01

306

Food–drug interaction: grapefruit juice augments drug bioavailability—mechanism, extent and relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a decade has passed since it was unintentionally discovered that grapefruit juice interacts with certain drugs. The coadministration of these drugs with grapefruit juice can markedly elevate drug bioavailability, and can alter pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of the drug. The predominant mechanism for this interaction is the inhibition of cytochrome P-450 3A4 in the small intestine, resulting in

A Dahan; H Altman

2004-01-01

307

Preventive activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Seneciobrasiliensis (Asteraceae) on gastric and duodenal induced ulcer on mice and rats.  

PubMed

The alkaloid extract of Senecio brasiliensis inflorescences contain a mixture of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) senecionine, integerrimine, retrorsine, usaramine and seneciphylline. We evaluated this PA mixture on preventive antiulcerogenic effects on standard rodent models of induced gastric and duodenal ulcers. In the HCl/ethanol, indomethacin-bethanechol and hypothermic-restraint-induced gastric ulcer, the lesion was significantly inhibited by PA (p.o.) (p < 0.001). In the pylorus-ligature, PA (i.d.), significantly increased the gastric juice content and the pH values and decreased the acid output. In the cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers, PA (p.o.) showed significant inhibition (p < 0.001) of the duodenal lesions when compared to the respective control. The levels of the somatostatin hormone in the blood samples of animals pre-treated with the PA (12.5 mg/kg) and the free mucus and prostaglandin synthesis also increased (p < 0.001) after administration of PA extract (p.o.). The results suggested that the PA extract from Senecio brasiliensis inflorescences presents a significant anti-ulcer effect in the selected ulcer models. The mechanism involved with the action of the PA extract is the cytoprotection. Additional studies are in progress to determine other possible mechanisms involved with effect of the PA as anti-ulcer agents. PMID:15507358

Toma, Walber; Trigo, José Roberto; de Paula, Ana Cláudia Bensuaski; Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro Souza

2004-12-01

308

77 FR 73021 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina. The Department has conducted an expedited...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina, pursuant to section 751(c) of...

2012-12-07

309

77 FR 72384 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five...Suspended Investigations on Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: International Trade...suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

2012-12-05

310

Substances that interfere with guaiac card tests: implications for gastric aspirate testing.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that acidic pH and several ingestible substances can cause misleading guaiac tests of gastric aspirates. In this in vitro study, over 100 foods, beverages, and drugs were diluted to concentrations potentially present in the stomachs of outpatients being evaluated for gastrointestinal bleeding. These were mixed with known concentrations of blood and tested with different brands of guaiac cards. Decreased guaiac test sensitivity was associated with activated charcoal, dimethylaminoethanol, red chile, N-acetylcysteine, rifampin, red Jell-O (General Foods Corp, White Plains, NY), orange juice, Pepto-Bismol (Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, NY), simethicone, spaghetti sauce, and several red wines. Chlorophyll and methylene blue-containing tablets produced false-positive results, but other blue and blue-green colored tablets did not, except at high concentrations. Previously described false-negative results with vitamin C, bile, and certain antacids were confirmed, as were false-positive results with iodide, bromide, cupric sulfate, iron salts, and hypochlorite. Physicians should exercise caution when interpreting guaiac card tests of gastric aspirates, especially in the outpatient setting. PMID:2787993

Gogel, H K; Tandberg, D; Strickland, R G

1989-09-01

311

Why the Operation I Prefer is Silastic Ring Vertical Gastric Bypass.  

PubMed

Silastic ring vertical gastric bypass is a composite operation which maximizes the advantages of the vertical banded gastroplasty and the gastric bypass operations. It is our operation of choice because it appears to date to be the only operation that addresses the medical and psychosocioeconomic problem of severe obesity. Acute complications include wound infection, wound seroma and anastomotic leaks. Late complications include marginal ulcers (6%), staple-line breakdown (4%), iron deficiency, vitamin B&inf1;&inf2; deficiency and anemia. The operation is relatively simple, safe, effective and acceptable to the patients and doctors. PMID:10775946

Fobi

1991-12-01

312

Effects of chronic normovolemic anemia on gastric microcirculation and ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic normovolemic anemia on gastric microcirculation and gastric mucosal susceptibility to ethanol-induced gastric damage were investigated in anesthetized rats. Blood exchange by a plasma expander during four consecutive days rendered the animals anemic with a 34% decrease in the baseline hematocrit but without affecting blood volume. Chronic anemia induced a decrease in whole blood viscosity, an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow measured by hydrogen gas clearance, a decrease in gastric vascular resistance, and a decrease in gastric hemoglobin content without changes in the gastric oxygen content, the latter two parameters being measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. Gastric mucosal blood flow was lowered by intragastric administration of 100% ethanol in both anemic and control rats, but the final blood flow was significantly higher in anemic than in control animals. Macroscopic gastric damage induced by ethanol administration was significantly lower in anemic than in control rats. We conclude that chronic normovolemic anemia increases gastric mucosal blood flow and leads a protecting mechanism against gastric mucosal damage induced by absolute ethanol. PMID:8149840

Marroni, N; Casadevall, M; Panés, J; Piera, C; Jou, J M; Pique, J M

1994-04-01

313

Thermosonication as a potential quality enhancement technique of apple juice.  

PubMed

Enzymatic browning and microbial growth lead to quality losses in apple products. In the present study, fresh apple juice was thermosonicated using ultrasound in-bath (25 kHz, 30 min, 0.06 W cm(-3)) and ultrasound with-probe sonicator (20 kHz, 5 and 10 min, 0.30 W cm(-3)) at 20, 40 and 60°C for inactivation of enzymes (polyphenolase, peroxidase and pectinmethylesterase) and microflora (total plate count, yeast and mold). Additionally, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, pH, titratable acidity, (°)Brix and color values influenced by thermosonication were investigated. The highest inactivation of enzymes was obtained in ultrasound with-probe at 60°C for 10 min, and the microbial population was completely inactivated at 60°C. The retention of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols were significantly higher in ultrasound with-probe than ultrasound in-bath at 60°C. These results indicated the usefulness of thermosonication for apple juice processing at low temperature, for enhanced inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms. PMID:24373787

Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Hu, Bing; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Wu, Tao; Lei, Shicheng; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2014-05-01

314

Astaxanthin production by a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant on grape juice.  

PubMed

During fermenter cultivation of Phaffia rhodozyma on a grape juice medium, the presence of glucose initially delayed fructose utilization, although fructose was consumed before glucose depletion. Total pigment and astaxanthin production were growth associated and reached maximum values of 15.9 ?g/ml and 9.8 ?g/ml, respectively, after depletion of the carbon source. The total cellular pigment and astaxanthin content increased during the stationary growth phase due to a decrease in biomass, reaching final values of 2120 ?g/g and 1350 ?g/g, respectively, without the volumetric concentration in the culture changing. The final cell yield was 0.33 g/g sugar utilized. High sugar concentrations in shake-flasks as well as O2 limitation decreased the astaxanthin content of the cells. Addition of yeast extract to a grape juice minimal medium markedly increased the maximum specific growth rate, total pigment and astaxanthin content of the cells. An excess of ammonia decreased the intracellular astaxanthin content, which reached a maximal value in cultures with no residual glucose or ammonia. PMID:24420942

Meyer, P S; du Preez, J C

1994-03-01

315

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production.  

PubMed

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2 degrees Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23 degrees Brix was inoculated with 3% (w/v) Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and held at 30 +/- 2 degrees C for 28 days. SS and pH decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing period of fermentation. Fermentation was 110% efficient. The wine produced had 8.12% (v/v) alcohol, 0.78% protein, 6.5% Brix SS, 0.64 g/100 ml TA, and a pH 3.10. Sensory evaluation results showed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.05) in colour, mouthfeel, sweetness, flavour and general acceptability, between African Bush mango wine and a reference wine. The wine was generally accepted. PMID:8865330

Akubor, P I

1996-04-01

316

Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), and aerobic energy cost (AEC) of swimming were measured. One was a control swimming test (CSW) and the other a swimming test after six days of BJS (0.5l/day organic beetroot juice containing about 5.5 mmol of NO3?). Results show that workload at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased by BJS as compared to the CSW test (6.3 ± 1 and 6.7 ± 1.1 kg during the CSW and the BJS test respectively). Moreover, AEC was significantly reduced during the BJS test (1.9 ± 0.5 during the SW test vs. 1.7 ± 0.3 kcal·kg?1·h?1 during the BJS test). The other variables lacked a statistically significant effect with BJS. The present investigation provides evidence that BJS positively affects performance of swimmers as it reduces the AEC and increases the workload at anaerobic threshold. PMID:24481133

Pinna, Marco; Roberto, Silvana; Milia, Raffaele; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Olla, Sergio; Loi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Padulo, Johnny; Orlandi, Carmine; Tocco, Filippo; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

2014-01-01

317

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

318

D2 dissection for gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodore Billroth successfully performed the first gastrectomy for cancer in Vienna in 1881. This was the beginning of modern gastric cancer surgery and provided the first real hope for cure from this form of cancer. Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer related mortality world wide, particularly in Central and South America, Japan and Korea, and in the Baltic

Jeffrey S. Lee; Harold O. Douglass

1997-01-01

319

Gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric emptying was studied in 12 diabetic patients, six with and six without objective evidence of autonomic neuropathy and in 20 non-diabetic controls, using a double isotope scinti-scanning technique which differentiated between solid and liquid emptying. Three patients with autonomic neuropathy exhibited gastric stasis, although this was detected by conventional radiology in only one. Neither the patients with stasis nor

I W Campbell; R C Heading; P Tothill; T A Buist; D J Ewing; B F Clarke

1977-01-01

320

Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

1982-03-01

321

Risk of gastric cancer among Korean familial adenomatous polyposis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer has been recognized as an extracolonic manifestation in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In Korea, gastric cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm. In a recent survey, we collected data from 72 Korean patients with FAP. Among them, three (4.2 percent) were found to have associated gastric cancer. This incidence of gastric cancer in our series is

Jae-Gahb Park; Kyu Joo Park; Yoon-Ok Ahn; In Sung Song; Kyoo Wan Choi; Hong Young Moon; Sang-Yong Choo; Jin-Pok Kim

1992-01-01

322

Genetic alterations of the MYH gene in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased oxygen free radicals produced in gastric mucosa by H. pylori induce DNA damage and lead to dyspalsia and gastric cancers. However, only a small percentage of individuals that carry H. pylori develop gastric cancer, indicating that other factors are involved. We have screened a set of 95 sporadic gastric cancers for mutations and allele loss of the DNA glycosylase

Chang Jae Kim; Yong Gu Cho; Cho Hyun Park; Su Young Kim; Suk Woo Nam; Sug Hyung Lee; Nam Jin Yoo; Jung Young Lee; Won Sang Park

2004-01-01

323

Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore suggested that the square-root function be expanded with an initial lag phase, coupled to the mechanistically based cylinder model of gastric evacuation. PMID:23464544

Couturier, C S; Andersen, N G; Audet, C; Chabot, D

2013-03-01

324

CT evaluation of gastric lymphoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to determine the value of computed tomography (CT) with a drug-induced hypotonia and water filling in the diagnosis and preoperative staging of 27 patients with gastric lymphoma (GLy) confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. CT scans were performed in a supine and prone position with drug-induced hypotonia and water-filling of stomach with 500-700 ml., and intravenous administration of a non-ionic contrast agent. the prone position and drug-induced hypotonia allowed visualization of the whole gastric wall and prevented gas artifacts, commonly present during supine imaging. CT scans were analysed with respect to the thickness of the stomach wall, rugal thickening, presence of wall infiltration, mucosal nodularity, ulcerations and tumour masses, regional tumour spread, lymph node deposits and presence of distant metastases. The most common findings in GLy were ulcers of variable size, depth and number in 43% of cases, a mass with or without an ulcer in 36% of cases, and rugal thickening in 21% of cases. According to CT results, GLy was staged in four groups: I, II1, II2, III and IV. Precise preoperative staging was achieved in 73%, overstaging in 18% and understaging in 9% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the technique was 93% and 85% respectively. There was low grade MALT lymphoma in 69% and high grade MALT lymphoma in 31% of cases. We believe that CT performed ussing this method is a useful non-invasive method for preoperative evaluation and staging of gastric lymphoma and should be used before surgery is planned. PMID:20087255

Gligorievski, A

2009-12-01

325

Effect of ghrelin on gastric myoelectric activity and gastric emptying in rats.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is a recently discovered peptide in the endocrine cells of the stomach, which may stimulate gastric motility via the vagal nerve pathway. However, the mechanism of ghrelin-induced changes in gastrointestinal motility has not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of ghrelin on gastric myoelectrical activity and gastric emptying in rats, and to investigate whether cholinergic activity is involved in the effects of ghrelin. The study was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with serosal electrodes for electrogastrographic recording. Gastric slow waves were recorded from fasting rats at baseline and after injection of saline, ghrelin, atropine, or atropine+ghrelin. Gastric emptying of non-caloric liquid was measured by the spectrophotometric method in conscious rats. Intravenous administration of rat ghrelin (20 microg/kg) increased not only dominant frequency, dominant power and regularity of the gastric slow wave but also the gastric emptying rate when compared with the control rats (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.001 respectively). These stimulatory actions of ghrelin on both gastric myoelectrical activity and gastric emptying were not fully eliminated by pretreatment with atropine sulphate. These results taken together suggest that ghrelin may play a physiological role in the enteric neurotransmission controlling gastric contractions in rats. PMID:17825442

Tümer, Cemil; Oflazo?lu, Hüda Diken; Obay, Basra Deniz; Kelle, Mustafa; Ta?demir, Ezel

2008-02-01

326

Molecular events in gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Gastric cancer represents an important problem for the public health, being one of the main causes of mortality. At present, it represents the second cause of mortality due to cancer, after the bronchopulmonary cancer in men and the fourth cause of mortality in women. Important progresses have been made in the last couple of years in determining the neoplastic etiopathogenesis, but it cannot be affirmed that the genetic mutations chain, which leads to the appearance of the malignant cell, has been fully understood.

Mahu, C; Purcarea, AP; Gheorghe, CM; Purcarea, MR

2014-01-01

327

Chicken Juice Enhances Surface Attachment and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ?5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain. PMID:25192991

Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

2014-11-15

328

Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Results Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. Conclusion The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25245815

2014-01-01

329

The effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on strength and soreness after eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if pomegranate juice supplementation improved the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after eccentric exercise in subjects who routinely performed resistance training. Resistance trained men (n = 17) were randomized into a crossover design with either pomegranate juice or placebo. To produce delayed onset muscle soreness, the subjects performed 3 sets of 20 unilateral eccentric elbow flexion and 6 sets of 10 unilateral eccentric knee extension exercises. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and knee extension strength and muscle soreness measurements were made at baseline and 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours postexercise. Elbow flexion strength was significantly higher during the 2- to 168-hour period postexercise with pomegranate juice compared with that of placebo (main treatment effect; p = 0.031). Elbow flexor muscle soreness was also significantly reduced with pomegranate juice compared with that of placebo (main treatment effect; p = 0.006) and at 48 and 72 hours postexercise (p = 0.003 and p = 0.038, respectively). Isometric strength and muscle soreness in the knee extensors were not significantly different with pomegranate juice compared with those using placebo. Supplementation with pomegranate juice attenuates weakness and reduces soreness of the elbow flexor but not of knee extensor muscles. These results indicate a mild, acute ergogenic effect of pomegranate juice in the elbow flexor muscles of resistance trained individuals after eccentric exercise. PMID:21659887

Trombold, Justin R; Reinfeld, Ari S; Casler, James R; Coyle, Edward F

2011-07-01

330

[Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].  

PubMed

Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues. PMID:25208400

Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

2014-03-01

331

Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5?mL to 188?mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

2012-01-01

332

Lymph node metastasis as a significant prognostic factor in early gastric cancer: Analysis of 1,136 early gastric cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gastric cancer is the most frquent cancer and the leading cause of death from cancer in Korea. Early gastric cancer has been defined as a gastric carcinoma confined to mucosa or submucosa, regardless of lymph node status, and has an excellent prognosis with a >90% 5-year survival rate. From 1974 to 1992, we encountered 7,606 cases of gastric cancer

Jin-Pok Kim; Yoon Seok Hur; Han-Kwang Yang

1995-01-01

333

Shelf-life evaluation of natural antimicrobials for Concord and Niagara grape juices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of natural antimicrobials for shelf-life extension of cold-filled still and carbonated Concord and Niagara grape juices, which have traditionally been preserved with chemical preservatives. Commercial juices were inoculated with a spoilage yeast cocktail of Dekkera, Kluveromyces, Brettanomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces at 10(2) and 10(4) CFU/ml. The following agents were added to still juices: no preservative (negative control), 0.05% potassium sorbate plus 0.05% sodium benzoate (positive control), 0.1 or 0.2% cultured dextrose, 250 ppm of dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC), 10 or 20 ppm of natamycin, and 250 ppm of DMDC plus 5 or 10 ppm of natamycin. Carbonated juice was treated with the negative control, positive control, and 250 ppm of DMDC plus 10 ppm of natamycin. Microbial stability of samples was assessed every 2 weeks during 6 months of storage at 21°C by yeast enumeration and measurement of turbidity, pH, and °Brix. Juices were deemed spoiled when yeast counts exceeded 10(6) CFU/ml. Cultured dextrose was not effective at levels tested in both types of juice. The most promising results were obtained with DMDC and natamycin combination treatments in still Niagara juice and in carbonated Concord and Niagara juices. In these treatments, shelf-life extension similar to that of the positive control (153 to 161 days) was achieved while maintaining similar turbidity, pH, and °Brix. Spoiled juices had lower pH and °Brix values and higher turbidity due to microbial activity and increased in microbial levels. PMID:23317859

Siricururatana, P; Iyer, M M; Manns, D C; Churey, J J; Worobo, R W; Padilla-Zakour, O I

2013-01-01

334

Gastric tone determines the sensitivity of the stomach to distention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Whether meal-related symptoms such as postcibal epigastric fullness and discomfort are caused by hypotonic gastric expansion or gastric hypertension is unknown. This study investigated whether symptoms in healthy individuals in response to gastric distention are produced by gastric expansion or by an increase in intragastric pressure. Methods: Increasing gastric distentions (for 5 minutes at 5-minute intervals) at fixed pressure

Ricardo Notivol; Benoit Coffin; Fernando Azpiroz; Fermín Mearin; Jordi Serra; Juan-R. Malagelada

1995-01-01

335

Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice in Rats Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents\\/100 ml juice).\\u000a Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents\\/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats\\u000a with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ

S. VALCHEVA-KUZMANOVA; K. KUZMANOV; V. MIHOVA; I. KRASNALIEV; P. BORISOVA; A. BELCHEVA

2007-01-01

336

Imaging Findings of Gastric Diverticula  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Gastric diverticula (GD) are very rare. Computer tomographic findings in GD have been reported only as case reports previously. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GD on computed tomography (CT) and to analyze their radiological appearances. Materials and Methods. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 14,428 patients were examined by abdominal/thoracic CT at our institution. GD were diagnosed in 18 (0.12%) patients (13 women and 5 men, median age, 64 years). In 9 patients, additional endoscopy and in 7 patients upper gastrointestinal investigation with contrast medium were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available for 3 cases. Results. In all patients GD were diagnosed incidentally during CT examination. The diverticula were located at the posterior wall of the gastric fundus below the esophagogastric junction. On CT, GD presented as cystic lesions with a thin wall and an air fluid level, located behind the stomach between spleen, adrenal gland, and crus of the left diaphragm. Conclusion. The prevalence of GD encountered in our CT series is 0.12%. GD demonstrate typical CT appearances, namely, cystic lesions located in the left paravertebral region. The radiologist should be familiar with this finding to avoid possible misinterpretations.

Schramm, Dominik; Bach, Andreas Gunter; Zipprich, Alexander; Surov, Alexey

2014-01-01

337

Tumor deposits in gastric carcinomas.  

PubMed

We performed this study to examine the prevalence of tumor deposits (TD) in gastric adenocarcinomas (GACa), and the relevance of their presence, size and type to clinical outcome. Ninety-six patients, histopathologically diagnosed as GACa following a total/subtotal gastrectomy were included, and clinicopathologic data were recorded. Due to the statistical analysis, the majority of TD(+) cases were of intestinal type and showed vascular invasion. In these cases, the incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher. The majority of GACa of intestinal type with TD were of high grade and showed vascular invasion. Recurrence and death were more commonly encountered among them. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter in patients with TDs, which was also confirmed by multivariate analysis, and there was a significant difference between both RFS and overall survival of TD(+) and TD(-) cases of intestinal type GACa. In conclusion, in this study, we demonstrate that TDs are not infrequently observed in GACa, they are more commonly associated with the intestinal type and vascular invasive gastric cancers. Our study shows the prognostic impact of TDs, especially regarding the RFS. Therefore, the documentation of TDs might be considered for prospective studies, especially for the intestinal type GACa, a shortcoming of this study. PMID:24726262

Ersen, Ayca; Unlu, Mehtat S; Akman, Tulay; Sagol, Ozgul; Oztop, Ilhan; Atila, Koray; Bora, Seymen; Ellidokuz, Huyla; Sarioglu, Sulen

2014-09-01

338

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

339

Biomagnetic signatures of uncoupled gastric musculature  

PubMed Central

Gastric slow waves propagate in the electrical syncytium of the healthy stomach, being generated at a rate of approximately three times per minute in a pacemaker region along the greater curvature of the antrum and propagating distally towards the pylorus. Disease states are known to alter the normal gastric slow wave. Recent studies have suggested the use of biomagnetic techniques for assessing parameters of the gastric slow wave that have potential diagnostic significance. We present a study in which the gastric syncytium was uncoupled by mechanical division as we recorded serosal electric potentials along with multichannel biomagnetic signals and cutaneous potentials. By computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel biomagnetic recordings, we were able to quantify gastric slow wave propagation as well as the frequency and amplitude of the slow wave and to show that these correlate well with similar parameters from serosal electrodes. We found the dominant slow wave frequency to be an unreliable indicator of gastric uncoupling as uncoupling results in the appearance of multiple slow wave sources at various frequencies in external recordings. The percentage of power distributed in specific frequency ranges exhibited significant postdivision changes. Propagation velocity determined from SCD maps was a weak indicator of uncoupling in this work; we believe that the relatively low spatial resolution of our 19-channel biomagnetometer confounds the characterization of spatial variations in slow wave propagation velocities. Nonetheless, the biomagnetic technique represents a non-invasive method for accurate determination of clinically significant parameters of the gastric slow wave. PMID:19222760

Bradshaw, L. A.; Irimia, A.; Sims, J. A.; Richards, W. O.

2010-01-01

340

Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

2009-08-01

341

Gastric function measurements in drug development  

PubMed Central

The function of the stomach includes initiation of digestion by exocrine secretions such as acid and pepsin, which are under the control of the endocrine secretion of hormones that also coordinate intestinal motility. The stomach also stores and mechanically disrupts ingested food. Various techniques have been developed to assess gastric physiology, the most important of which is assessment of acid secretion, as well as gastric motility and gastric emptying. The influence of drugs on gastric function and the effect of gastric secretion and mechanical actions on the bioavailability of novel compounds are of critical importance in drug development and hence to clinical pharmacologists. The control of acid secretion is essential in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease as well as gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD); pH-metry can be used to determine the necessary dose of an acid suppressant to heal mucosal damage. Disturbed gastric myoelectric activity leading to gastroparesis can cause delayed gastric emptying, often found in patients with diabetes mellitus. Electrogastrography (EGG) may be used to evaluate the influence of prokinetics and other drugs on this condition and aid in determining effective therapy. PMID:12895188

Pohle, Thorsten; Domschke, Wolfram

2003-01-01

342

Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant. PMID:22926730

Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

2012-11-01

343

Importance of gastric acid in gastric ulcer formation in rabbits with antibody-induced prostaglandin deficiency.  

PubMed

The role of gastric acid in the development of gastroduodenal ulcers in prostaglandin-deficient conditions is unclear. In the current study, the effect of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole on the formation of gastric ulcers was examined in a previously validated rabbit model of antibody-induced prostaglandin deficiency. Intragastric administration of 20 mg/kg omeprazole every 12 hours caused a profound suppression of gastric acidity (i.e., pH above 5 continuously). This same dose of omeprazole significantly reduced gastric ulcer formation induced by passive immunization with 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha antibodies. It is concluded from these observations that gastric acid plays a critical role in the formation of gastric ulcers in rabbits with antibody-induced prostaglandin deficiency. PMID:1426865

Lee, M; Aldred, K; Lee, E; Prince, M D; Feldman, M

1992-11-01

344

Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys  

SciTech Connect

The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

1985-08-01

345

Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys  

SciTech Connect

The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

1985-08-01

346

Diabetes and gastric cancer: The potential links  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be explored for the clarification of the association between diabetes and gastric cancer. PMID:24587649

Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

2014-01-01

347

Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying  

SciTech Connect

Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

1984-01-01

348

Evolution of Gastric Electrical Features and Gastric Emptying in Children with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Although muscular dystrophy (MD) affects primarily striated muscles, smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract may also be involved. We recorded gastric electrical activity and gastric emptying time (GET) in children with MD at initial presentation and at 3-yr follow-up in order to detect gastric motor abnormalities and study their evolution along the clinical course.METHODS:Twenty children with MD (median age:

Osvaldo Borrelli; Gennaro Salvia; Valentina Mancini; Lucio Santoro; Francesca Tagliente; Erminia Francesca Romeo; Salvatore Cucchiara

2005-01-01

349

Monitoring Io's Volcanic Activity in the Visible and Infrared from JUICE - It's All About (Eruption) Style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) will provide many opportunities for long-range monitoring of Io's extraordinary silicate, high-temperature volcanic activity [1, 2]. A considerable amount of valuable work can be performed even with relatively low-spatial-resolution observations [2]. Techniques developed from the examination and analysis of Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, as well as observations of terrestrial silicate volcanic activity, allows the identification of likely eruption style [2] at many locations where the entire eruption is sub-pixel. Good temporal coverage, especially for episodic eruptions (including high-energy "outburst" eruptions), is important for modelling purposes. With opportunities to observe Io on a regular basis (hours-days) during cruise/orbital reduction phases, a visible-to-near-infrared mapping spectrometer (covering ~0.4-5.5 ?m) is the best instrument to chart the magnitude and variability of Io's volcanic activity, allowing comparison with an existing and constantly expanding set of Io observations [e.g. 1, 3]. The eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lava, a constraint on interior composition and conditions, is a major unanswered question in the wake of the Galileo mission [1]. A careful approach to instrument design is needed to ensure that observations by both imager and IR spectrometer on JUICE are capable of determining lava eruption temperature [e.g., 4] in low spatial resolution data. With an ideal thermal target (e.g., an outburst eruption, or the proposed lava lake at Pele) the imager should obtain multi-spectral data in a rapid sequence to allow stability of the thermal source to be quantified. Observations by imager and spectrometer have to be contemporaneous and unsaturated. References: [1] Davies, A. (2007) "Volcanism on Io", Cam. Univ. Press. [2] Davies, A. et al. (2010) JVGR, 194, 75-99. [3] Veeder, G. et al. (2012) Icarus, 219, 701-722. [4] Davies, A. et al. (2011) GRL, 38, L21308. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract. AGD thanks the NASA Outer Planets Research Program for support.

Davies, A. G.; Matson, D.; McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

2012-12-01

350

Neonatal Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Gastric Teratoma is an extremely rare neoplasm seen in children. It is mostly benign and predominantly seen in males presenting with an abdominal mass. The lung and stomach are very unusual sites for teratoma. Gastric teratoma accounts for less than 1% of all teratomas, less than 100 cases are reported in literature. We report a case in a 20-day-old infant who presented with large abdominal mass; our case is an addition to the few limited known gastric teratomas reported in the world literature. PMID:24596767

Kharga, Bikram; Kumar, Vijay; Prabhu, P. Santosh; P.T, Sundeep; John, Sijo K

2014-01-01

351

Laparoscopic management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent gastrointestinal tumors of mesodermal origin. Gastric GISTs represent approximately 70% of all gastrointestinal GISTs. The only curative option is surgical resection. Many surgical groups have shown good results with the laparoscopic approach. There have not been any randomized controlled trials comparing the open vs laparoscopic approach, and all recommendations have been based on observational studies. The experience obtained from gastric laparoscopic surgery during recent decades and the development of specific devices have allowed the treatment of most gastric GISTs through the laparoscopic approach. PMID:25031788

Correa-Cote, Juan; Morales-Uribe, Carlos; Sanabria, Alvaro

2014-07-16

352

Laparoscopic management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent gastrointestinal tumors of mesodermal origin. Gastric GISTs represent approximately 70% of all gastrointestinal GISTs. The only curative option is surgical resection. Many surgical groups have shown good results with the laparoscopic approach. There have not been any randomized controlled trials comparing the open vs laparoscopic approach, and all recommendations have been based on observational studies. The experience obtained from gastric laparoscopic surgery during recent decades and the development of specific devices have allowed the treatment of most gastric GISTs through the laparoscopic approach. PMID:25031788

Correa-Cote, Juan; Morales-Uribe, Carlos; Sanabria, Alvaro

2014-01-01

353

The relationship between technetium 99m pertechnetate gastric scanning and gastric contents.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the gastric handling of 99Tcm, we performed scintiscanning under basal and stimulated conditions while simultaneously monitoring gastric outputs of water and sodium, hydrogen and 99Tcm pertechnetate ions in six healthy fasting volunteers. Our results showed that gastric scintiscanning correlated well with gastric luminal 99Tcm activity (r = 0.99). However, clearance of 99Tcm from plasma into the gastric lumen showed only a poor correlation with hydrogen ion output (r = 0.68) and no correlation with sodium output. Explanation of these results on a cellular basis can be achieved by assuming a two-component mechanism for 99Tcm secretion, with both the parietal cells (H+ ion secretory) and non-parietal cells (Na+ ion secretory) contributing to 99Tcm gastric output. The relative contribution of each cell type to total 99Tcm secretion is dependent on the degree of gastric stimulation, with non-parietal 99Tcm secretion dominating in the basal state and parietal 99Tcm secretion dominating in the stimulated state. It is concluded therefore, that gastric scintiscanning with 99Tcm pertechnetate should stand only as an empirical test of gastric function and not as a means of measuring acid output. PMID:6313111

O'Connor, M K; O'Connell, R; Keane, F B; Byrne, P J; Hennessy, T P

1983-11-01

354

77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Juice do not take into account modern extraction and finishing technologies...can be greatly influenced by modern processing techniques, which eliminate the correlation...data supports the premise that modern extraction and finishing...

2012-02-09

355

77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Juice do not take into account modern extraction and finishing technologies...can be greatly influenced by modern processing techniques, which eliminate the correlation...data supports the premise that modern extraction and finishing...

2012-08-27

356

Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered  

E-print Network

of amylase and cellulase. The OPF juice with sewage sludge provided an optimum carbon/nitrogen ratio sinceB) and hydrogenase 2 (hybC ) to prevent hydrogen uptake activity; inactivation of the FHL complex repressor inhibitor

Wood, Thomas K.

357

Welfare, Market Power, and Price Effects of Product Diversity: Canned Juices  

E-print Network

markups, and prices in the canned juice industry. According to many food and beverage manufacturing, January 12, 2000. #12;2 supermarket aisles, vending machines, convenience stores, and membership wholesale

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

358

Shelf life extension of sugarcane juice using preservatives and gamma radiation processing.  

PubMed

Preserving raw sugarcane juice is a challenging problem. Sugarcane juice turns brown soon after its extraction and gets spoiled due to fermentation within hours. A combination of gamma radiation (5 kGy) with permitted preservatives and low temperature storage (10 °C) could preserve raw sugarcane juice for more than a month. The preservatives used were citric acid (0.3%), sodium benzoate (0.015%), potassium sorbate (0.025%), and sucrose (10%). The treatment helped in extending the shelf life to 15 d at ambient temperature (26 ± 2 °C) and 35 d at 10 °C. The microbial load was found to be below detectable limit within this period. The biochemicals like phenolics and flavonoids were not found to be affected by addition of these preservatives. The antioxidant activities including free radical scavenging activity, nitrite scavenging activity, and reducing power were also not significantly affected. The sensory evaluation scores showed that the juice with this combination treatment was highly acceptable. PMID:22417599

Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

2011-10-01

359

Postprandial glycemic response to orange juice and nondiet cola: is there a difference?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of unsweetened fruit juice and regular, decaffeinated soda on postprandial serum glucose levels in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) when these liquids are ingested separately as part of mixed meals. Eighteen individuals with NIDDM consumed three test breakfasts calculated using the diabetic exchange meal-planning system. Foods were identical in each of the breakfasts except for foods in the fruit exchange. Carbohydrate-equivalent amounts of fresh orange slices, unsweetened orange juice, and regular, decaffeinated Coke were consumed in breakfasts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Serum glucose samples were drawn at fasting and 1, 2, and 3 hours postprandially. No difference was found in the postprandial serum glucose response when Coke versus orange juice was consumed in the breakfast. These findings question the appropriateness of using unsweetened fruit juices in routine meal planning for individuals with NIDDM. PMID:2049981

Sullivan, M J; Scott, R L

1991-01-01

360

Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

1995-01-01

361

Effect of processing parameters on fouling resistances during microfiltration of red plum and watermelon juices: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the total (R t ), reversible (R rev ), irreversible (R irr ), and cake (R c ) resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice (as a juice with colloid particles) and red plum juice (as a juice without colloid particles). Results showed that the total resistance decreased by about 45% when the feed velocity was increased during clarification of red plum juice due to change in cake resistance. Also, increasing the feed temperature from 20 to 30°C decreased the total fouling resistance by about 9% due to decreases in the irreversible and reversible fouling resistances. Also, mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane (which is hydrophilic) had a lower cake resistance compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (which is hydrophobic). Examination of the microfiltration of watermelon juice showed that R t decreased by about 54% when the feed temperature was increased from 20 to 50°C, partially due to the reduction of reversible fouling resistance by 78%. Also, increasing transmembrane pressures from 0.5 to 2.5 bars greatly increased total fouling resistance. The feed velocity had a different effect on fouling resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice compared to red plum juice: in contrast with red plum juice, increasing the feed velocity for watermelon juice increased cake resistance. PMID:24426065

Nourbakhsh, Himan; Alemi, Azam; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein

2014-01-01

362

Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

1978-01-01

363

Medical and Endoscopic Management of Gastric Varices  

PubMed Central

In the past 20 years, our understanding of the pathophysiology and management options among patients with gastric varices (GV) has changed significantly. GV are the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension after esophageal varices (EV) and generally have more severe bleeding than EV. In the United States, the majority of GV patients have underlying portal hypertension rather than splenic vein thrombosis. The widely used classifications are the Sarin Endoscopic Classification and the Japanese Vascular Classifications. The former is based on the endoscopic appearance and location of the varices, while the Japanese classification is based on the underlying vascular anatomy. In this article, the authors address the current concepts of classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and emerging management options of gastric varices. They describe the stepwise approach to patients with gastric varices, including the different available modalities, and the pearls, pitfalls, and stop-gap measures useful in managing patients with gastric variceal bleed. PMID:22942544

Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.; Caldwell, Stephen H.

2011-01-01

364

Mature gastric teratoma: recurrence in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of mature gastric teratoma developing recurrence after 2 decades after complete excision during infancy is being reported. The patient was successfully managed by surgical resection. Pathologic examination confirmed it to be a mature teratoma.

Vikas Gupta; Raghvendra Yalakanti Babu; Surrender Rana; Kim Vaiphei; Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha Rao; Deepak Kumar Bhasin

2009-01-01

365

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

366

Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

367

Identification and quantitation of flavonols in rowanberry ( Sorbus aucuparia L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight flavonols were detected in rowanberry juice, six quercetin and two kaempferol glycosides which were identified as quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, two quercetin 3-O-dihexosides, quercetin pentose-hexoside and quercetin hexose-pentoside and two kaempferol dihexosides. The total content of identified flavonols in the rowanberry juice was 291 mg L-1. Quercetin dihexosides contributed 78% to the flavonol content. However, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid

A. Gil-Izquierdo; A. Mellenthin

2001-01-01

368

Gene expression induced in Escherichia coli O157:H7 upon exposure to model apple juice.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 has caused serious outbreaks of food-borne illness via transmission in a variety of food vehicles, including unpasteurized apple juice, dried salami, and spinach. To understand how this pathogen responds to the multiple stresses of the food environment, we compared global transcription patterns before and after exposure to model apple juice. Transcriptomes of mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells were evaluated after 10 min in model apple juice (pH 3.5) using microarrays probing 4,886 open reading frames. A total of 331 genes were significantly induced upon exposure of cells to model apple juice, including genes involved in the acid, osmotic, and oxidative stress responses as well as the envelope stress response. Acid and osmotic stress response genes, including asr, osmC, osmB, and osmY, were significantly induced in response to model apple juice. Multiple envelope stress responses were activated as evidenced by increased expression of CpxR and Rcs phosphorelay-controlled genes. Genes controlled by CpxR (cpxP, degP, and htpX) were significantly induced 2- to 15-fold upon exposure to apple juice. Inactivation of CpxRA resulted in a significant decrease in survival of O157:H7 in model apple juice compared to the isogenic parent strain. Of the 331 genes induced in model apple juice, 104 are O157-specific genes, including those encoding type three secretion effectors (espJ, espB, espM2, espL3, and espZ). Elucidating the response of O157:H7 to acidic foods provides insight into how this pathogen is able to survive in food matrices and how exposure to foods influences subsequent transmission and virulence. PMID:19346340

Bergholz, Teresa M; Vanaja, Sivapriya Kailasan; Whittam, Thomas S

2009-06-01

369

Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Objective: This study was performed to assess whether coadminstration with grapefruit juice significantly affects the pharmacokinetics\\u000a of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine class calcium antagonist with slow absorption, distribution and low plasma clearance. The\\u000a primary objective was to evaluate whether short exposure to grapefruit juice could affect the metabolism of amlodipine to\\u000a an extent similar to that previously demonstrated for other

M. Josefsson; A.-L. Zackrisson; J. Ahlner

1996-01-01

370

Effect of storage conditions on the chemical attributes of Ogbomoso mango juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango juices were extracted from Ogbomoso variety using the method of Brekke et al. (1972). Mango juices were packaged in polyethylene films, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET or plastic) bottles and transparent glass bottles and stored at 6 °C, 26 °C and 34 °C. Percentage ascorbic acid loss, browning index, titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids were evaluated at 2-week intervals for 8 weeks. Percentage ascorbic

O. O. Alaka; J. O. Aina; K. O. Falade

2003-01-01

371

Peach juice as an anti-corrosion inhibitor of mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate peach juice as a cheap, raw, green and non-toxic anti-corrosion material for mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution in the presence of peach juice at temperature range of 30-60°C and concentration range of 5-50

Aprael S. Yaro; Anees A. Khadom; Hadeel F. Ibraheem

2011-01-01

372

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-print Network

SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... RESERVED SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17

373

Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases. PMID:24884677

2014-01-01

374

Organic versus conventional – a comparative study on quality and nutritional value of fruit and vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents a comparison of some nutritional values of juices made from organic and conventional apple, pear, blackcurrant, carrot, beetroot and celery. Higher soluble solids content (SSC) for organic juices than for conventional ones was recorded for blackcurrant (14.9% and 12.5%, respectively) and beetroot (12.3% versus 8.3%). The highest organic acids content was noted for blackcurrant (3.7 g malic acid

M. G?sto?; I. Domaga?a-?wi?tkiewicz; M. Kro?niak

2011-01-01

375

Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Pomegranate Seeds Using Date Juice as an Immersion Solution Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate seeds were osmodehydrated using date juice added with sucrose (final °Brix, 55) as immersion solution. The kinetics\\u000a of osmotic dehydration showed that the most significant changes of mass transfer took place during the first 20 min of the\\u000a process, regardless of date juice varieties. During this time, seed water loss and solid gain were estimated to be ?39% and\\u000a ?6%,

Brahim Bchir; Souhail Besbes; Romdhane Karoui; Michel Paquot; Hamadi Attia; Christophe Blecker

376

Gene Expression Induced in Escherichia coli O157:H7 upon Exposure to Model Apple Juice? †  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7 has caused serious outbreaks of food-borne illness via transmission in a variety of food vehicles, including unpasteurized apple juice, dried salami, and spinach. To understand how this pathogen responds to the multiple stresses of the food environment, we compared global transcription patterns before and after exposure to model apple juice. Transcriptomes of mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells were evaluated after 10 min in model apple juice (pH 3.5) using microarrays probing 4,886 open reading frames. A total of 331 genes were significantly induced upon exposure of cells to model apple juice, including genes involved in the acid, osmotic, and oxidative stress responses as well as the envelope stress response. Acid and osmotic stress response genes, including asr, osmC, osmB, and osmY, were significantly induced in response to model apple juice. Multiple envelope stress responses were activated as evidenced by increased expression of CpxR and Rcs phosphorelay-controlled genes. Genes controlled by CpxR (cpxP, degP, and htpX) were significantly induced 2- to 15-fold upon exposure to apple juice. Inactivation of CpxRA resulted in a significant decrease in survival of O157:H7 in model apple juice compared to the isogenic parent strain. Of the 331 genes induced in model apple juice, 104 are O157-specific genes, including those encoding type three secretion effectors (espJ, espB, espM2, espL3, and espZ). Elucidating the response of O157:H7 to acidic foods provides insight into how this pathogen is able to survive in food matrices and how exposure to foods influences subsequent transmission and virulence. PMID:19346340

Bergholz, Teresa M.; Vanaja, Sivapriya Kailasan; Whittam, Thomas S.

2009-01-01

377

The effect of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine and prednisone metabolism in transplant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the effect of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine and prednisone metabolism.Methods: This was an open, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study performed in the academic departments of clinical pharmacology and nephrology. On two study occasions, 12 kidney transplant patients with stable cyclosporine trough levels received either grapefruit juice or water every 3 hours for a period of 30 hours. The

Adrianus A. M. J. Hollander; Jeroen van Rooij; Eef G. W. M. Lentjes; Francis Arbouw; Joost B. van Bree; Rik C. Schoemaker; Leendert A. van Es; Fokko J. van der Woude; Adam F. Cohen

1995-01-01

378

Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment  

PubMed Central

Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment are studied. PMID:24834180

Zali, Hakimeh; Azodi, Mona

2011-01-01

379

Strategy for Eliminating Gastric Cancer in Japan  

PubMed Central

A study conducted by the Japan Gast Study Group showed that eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduced the risk of gastric cancer by about one-thirds However, it did not completely prevent the onset of latent gastric cancer among those at high risk (i.e., with atrophic gastritis). To prevent deaths from gastric cancer, it necessary to eradicate H. pylori infections. We propose a program of risk stratification based on presence of H. pylori infection with or without atrophic gastritis followed by targeted interventions. Those at no risk for gastric cancer (no H. pylori, no atrophic gastritis) need to therapy or follow-up. Those at low risk (H. pylori infected, nonatrophic gastritis) need only H. pylori eradication therapy. The smaller groups at high or very high risk need eradication and cancer surveillance. We estimated the costs and the benefits of this strategy. Gastric cancer screening by simultaneous measurement of serum pepsinogen and H. pylori antibody combined with eradication of H. pylori in all individuals at risk would initially increase national healthcare expenditure, but this would be offset by markedly reducing the cost of treating gastric cancer. The proposed strategy should prevent about 150,000 deaths from gastric cancer during the 5 years after its adoption. If the loss caused by these deaths is also taken into account, the economic effect of this strategy becomes enormous. It would probably reduce the incidence of gastric cancer by more than 80–90% within 10 years. The Japanese government should take the initiative to implement this strategy as soon as possible. PMID:21073603

Asaka, Masahiro; Graham, David Y.

2014-01-01

380

Complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar  

PubMed Central

Trichobezoars are seen usually in adolescent girls and laparotomy is required to remove them, though recently laparoscopic assisted and laparoscopic removal have been reported in adults and older children. We report this 4-year-old boy who underwent complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar, both for its rarity in such young boys and also because he is the youngest reported patient to undergo complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar. PMID:25013333

Vepakomma, Deepti; Alladi, Anand

2014-01-01

381

Complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar.  

PubMed

Trichobezoars are seen usually in adolescent girls and laparotomy is required to remove them, though recently laparoscopic assisted and laparoscopic removal have been reported in adults and older children. We report this 4-year-old boy who underwent complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar, both for its rarity in such young boys and also because he is the youngest reported patient to undergo complete laparoscopic removal of a gastric trichobezoar. PMID:25013333

Vepakomma, Deepti; Alladi, Anand

2014-07-01

382

[Gastric heterotopia of rectum: a rare entity].  

PubMed

Heterotopic gastric mucosa is an extremely rare condition; in the anorectal region only a very few cases were described up to now. The authors report a case of a 46-year-old woman, asymptomatic, to whom a massive recess was discovered in the rectum, at 12 cm of the anal verge; a bottom flat lesion with 1.5 cm of diameter revealed a focus of normal appearing fundic-type gastric mucosa at histology. PMID:21627893

Sousa, Jamira; Cabezuelo, Lourdes; Rodrigues, Adriano; Costa, Nascimento; Cipriano, Maria Augusta

2010-01-01

383

Malabsorptive gastric bypass in patients with superobesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight loss in superobese patients has been problematic after conventional gastric restrictive operations including conventional\\u000a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The goal of the present study was to compare weight loss in patients with superobesity (body\\u000a mass index ?50 kg\\/m2) using a distal RYGB (D-RY) in which the Roux-en-Y anastomosis was performed 75 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction (N\\u000a =

Robert E. Brolin; Lisa B. LaMarca; Hallis A. Kenler; Ronald P. Cody; Ed. D

2002-01-01

384

Gastric Acid Secretions, Treatments, and Nutritional Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objectives of this chapter are to provide an overview of the roles of gastric acid in health and disease, the use of acid-suppressive\\u000a therapies to mitigate prevalent excess acid symptoms and\\/or diseases, and to review potential detrimental consequences related\\u000a to their use. Particular emphasis is placed on the nutritional consequences of gastric acid imbalance as it is related to

Ronit Zilberboim; Adrianne Bendich

385

Endoscopic submucosal dissection for remnant gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of gastric cancer in day-to-cay clinical practice in Japan and Korea is so rapid that we in the Western world cannot imagine, even after a decade. It is not surprising. The incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries is still very high, whereas in the U.S. and Western Europe the incidence of

Georgios Baltogiannis; Christos Katsios

2010-01-01

386

[Study on experiment of fluorescence spectra detection of pesticide residue of imidacloprid in apple juices].  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of imidacloprid was studied based on the basic theory that organic molecules can emit fluorescence as they are excited by rays. The fluorescence spectra were obtained under the condition of different content of imidacloprid in apple juices and pure apple juices respectively through fluorescence spectrometer, and the relation between their fluorescence intensity and content of imidacloprid was analyzed. The experiment results show that the most intensive fluorescence (373 nm) was found in the spectrum of imidacloprid, while the fluorescence was not found in the pure apple juices with 234 nm as the excitation wavelength. Then the imidacloprid solution was added to the fruit juices increasingly. The best prediction model was obtained for the contend of imidacloprid in the apple juices, the coefficient of determination is 0.99674, and the accuracy is higher than 90%. As a result, it is fast and feasible to carry out the detection and analysis of the pesticide residue of imidacloprid in the apple juices. PMID:23705429

Ji, Ren-Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Lin; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Hua; Shen, Ling-Bin; Lan, Xiru-Feng

2013-03-01

387

Cornelian cherry (cornus MAS L.) juice as a potential source of biological compounds.  

PubMed

Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars Jonagold and Red Boskoop), pear (Pyrus communis cv. Conference), and plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Common Plum) juices were assayed for their quality, organic acids, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity (determined as a ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]). Cornelian cherry juice revealed the highest titratable acidity-2.58 g malic acid/100 g. The highest polyphenol content was also noted for Cornelian cherry-45.6 mg gallic acid (GA)/g. The medium level of polyphenols was proved for Jonagold apple (22.8 mg GA1/g). The lowest level was recorded for Common Plum (9.60 mg GA/g), followed by Conference pear and Red Boskoop apple (12.3 and 21.3 mg GA/g, respectively). The FRAP values were 1.97 mmol Fe/L for Common Plum juice, 2.37 mmol Fe/L for Conference pear juice, and 3.92 mmol Fe/L for both Red Boskoop and Jonagold apple juices. However, the obtained data indicated outstanding antioxidant properties for Cornelian cherry juice. In this case, FRAP reached 23.5 mmol Fe/L. The calculated correlation coefficient FRAP versus polyphenols indicates that the antioxidant status for Cornelian cherry is not only correlated with polyphenols but also with other biological compounds. The obtained results indicated that Cornelian cherry is a valuable source of substances with a high antioxidant activity. PMID:23905648

G?sto?, Maciej; Kro?niak, Miros?aw; Derwisz, Ma?gorzata; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna

2013-08-01

388

Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.  

PubMed

Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly. PMID:24041855

Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

2014-03-01

389

Viability of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155

Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2014-01-01

390

Enrichment of biscuits and juice with oat ?-glucan enhances postprandial satiety.  

PubMed

Effects of fibre and ?-glucan on satiety have been reported in many studies, but no consensus has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breakfasts varying in the dose of oat bran (4g or 8g ?-glucan). The approach was to study whether the food matrix (solid or liquid) into which the oat bran is incorporated influences postprandial satiety in otherwise similar meal settings. Thirty healthy females were offered four different breakfasts: biscuits+juice (0g ?-glucan), enriched biscuits+juice (4g ?-glucan), biscuits+enriched juice (4g ?-glucan) and enriched biscuits+enriched juice (8g ?-glucan) in a random order on separate test days. The sensations associated with hunger and satiety were evaluated using visual analogue scales (VAS) before and after ingesting the test breakfasts and every 30min until 210min. Oat bran addition in breakfasts increased postprandial satiety especially when both juice and biscuits were enriched (8g of ?-glucan). Addition of oat bran to juice enhanced satiety and related feelings more effectively than the addition into biscuits. PMID:24434584

Pentikäinen, Saara; Karhunen, Leila; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati; Meynier, Alexandra; Aymard, Pierre; Vinoy, Sophie; Poutanen, Kaisa

2014-04-01

391

No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory and mood  

PubMed Central

Background Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethargy – the post-lunch dip. Design Thirty-five participants with a mean age of 26 years who smoked a mean of 11 cigarettes/day for 8 years were included in the study. It included a practice session and two treatment sessions. All sessions involved consumption of grape juice or an energy-matched placebo with lunch followed by assessments of mood, implicit memory, appetite and food intake. Results Mood decreased over time for both treatments, but there were no differences after lunch between grape juice and placebo for any measure. Conclusion This study did not document any acute effects of grape juice consumption on mood, implicit memory, appetite or food intake in smokers. PMID:19158941

Hendrickson, Sara J.; Mattes, Richard D.

2008-01-01

392

The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Methods Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. Results The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. Conclusions It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer. PMID:24444147

2014-01-01

393

Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

2014-01-01

394

[Diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma].  

PubMed

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma represents approximately 40% of gastric lymphomas, and its incidence is increasing. An early diagnosis for gastric MALT lymphoma is important, but not easy due to non-specific symptoms and endoscopic findings. Diagnosis is based on the histopathologic evaluation of multiple, deep and repeated biopsies taken from normal and any abnormal appearing sites of the stomach. In addition, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection must be determined to determine therapeutic approach. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is essential for the evaluation of regional lymph nodes and the depth of tumor invasion in the gastric wall, for predicting response to H. pylori eradication, and for monitoring tumor regression or recurrence. The eradication of H. pylori is recommended as an initial treatment for low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with H. pylori infection. Both radiation therapy and chemotherapy are suitable alternative options for H. pylori-negative, refractory, or high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. But, the role of surgery is diminishing. After treatment, strict endoscopic regular follow-up including EUS is recommended with multiple biopsies. However, controversy remains regarding the best diagnosis, treatment and follow-up strategy for this disease. PMID:21623135

Choi, Mun Ki; Kim, Gwang Ha

2011-05-25

395

Effects of varying doses of tramadol on gastric pH  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol is licensed primarily as an analgesic, but has additional properties, one of which is the ability to increase gastric pH. However, it has not been established if this action is dose related, hence we set out to provide further evidence about this action of tramadol. Patients and Methods: Fifty-five female adult patients presenting for gynecological surgery were randomized into three groups. After induction, 2.5 ml of gastric juice was aspirated to determine baseline pH, after which groups 1, 2, and 3 received 50 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mg of IV tramadol, respectively. Gastric pH was subsequently assessed every 30 min for as long as the surgery lasted. Results: There was no significant difference in the pH of the three groups before anesthesia (3.88 ± 0.75, 3.54 ± 0.73, and 3.75 ± 0.70; P = 0.393). Similarly, no significant statistical difference was observed in the pH of the three tramadol groups during the subsequent three readings (pH1: 4.21 ± 0.93, 4.27 ± 0.95, 4.07 ± 0.82; pH2: 4.75 ± 1.00, 4.68 ± 0.94, 4.59 ± 0.78; pH3: 5.33 ± 0.86, 5.13 ± 0.95, 4.97 ± 0.78; P = 0.793, 0.876, and 0.490). There were statistically significant increases in the pH of each group when the baseline pH was compared with the subsequent three readings, with P values of 0.002, 0.0001, 0.001 in the 50 mg group, 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.0001 in the 75 mg group, and 0.008, 0.0001, 0.001 in the 100 mg group. Conclusion: Our result further confirms that tramadol elevates gastric pH. However, the degree of elevation was not found to be dose dependent.

Osinaike, Babatunde B.; Ogunro, Paul S.; Oyebamiji, Emmanuel O.; Ogungbamigbe, Titus O.

2013-01-01

396

Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

2013-01-01

397

Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal ?1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (?GlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, ?1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding ?4GnT, and then demonstrated that ?GlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that ?GlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for ?GlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

Nakayama, Jun

2014-01-01

398

Gastric Leiomyosarcoma as a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and perforation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and gastric leiomyosarcoma represent 1-3% of gastric malignancies. Case presentation We report a case of a 69-year- old black African man who presented with a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and duodenal perforation. A Billroth- II gastrectomy was performed and histology confirmed a gastric leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions It is important to identify the gastric leiomyosarcoma which is a variant of the more common malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours as the pathogenesis and management are currently well established. As the facilities for differentiating these are not easily available in resource-limited areas gastrointestinal stromal tumours may remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:25069607

2014-01-01

399

Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered

Carrie H. S. Ruxton; Elaine J. Gardner; Drew Walker

2006-01-01

400

Two Major Grapefruit Juice Components Differ in Time to Onset of Intestinal CYP3A4 Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapefruit juice elevates blood levels of some drugs taken orally, primarily by inhibiting intestinal CYP3A4-mediated first- pass metabolism. Two prominent furanocoumarins in the juice, 6,7-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) and bergamottin (BG), have been demonstrated as important contributors to grapefruit juice-drug interactions. Using CYP3A4-expressing Caco-2 cells and representative probes from distinct CYP3A4 substrate subgroups (midazolam, testosterone), we compared the time- dependent inhibitory properties

Mary F. Paine; Anne B. Criss; Paul B. Watkins

2004-01-01

401

History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:24833849

Graham, David Y

2014-01-01

402

Monitoring Gastric Filling, Satiety and Gastric Emptying in a Patient with Gastric Balloon Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging—A Feasibility Report  

PubMed Central

Backround Intragastric balloons are used for short term weight loss therapy in obese. It is possible to monitor the ballon with sonography, however this method is sometimes insufficient in obese patients. Therefore MRI seems to be a potential therapy-monitoring option. Purpose In this feasibility report we want to demonstrate the potential use of functional MRI in monitoring gastric filling, patient satiation and gastric emptying in a obese patient who previously received intragastric balloon placement. Material and methods We selected one patient (male, 178 cm, 127 kg, BMI = 40,5 kg/m2) who recently received a gastric balloon and visualized gastric motility in presence of the gastric balloon before and after food intake. Fast cross-sectional images in one breathhold spin echo or gradient echo sequences were aquired. Real-time gastric motion was performed with cine mode. Results MRI offers perfect visualisation of gastric balloons in obese patients. Gastric filling and emptying can be monitored in correlation to patient satiety sensation. MRI can visualize the gastric balloon with degree of filling and possible leakages. Cine mode sequences demonstrate gastric motility and gastric wall peristalsis. Conclusion MR is a valuable imaging alternative for patients with intragastric balloons PMID:24179344

Juchems, Markus S.; Uyak, Deniz; Ernst, Andrea S.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen

2008-01-01

403

Antioxidant effect of organic purple grape juice on exhaustive exercise.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the potential protective effect of organic purple grape juice (PGJ) on oxidative stress produced by an exhaustive exercise bout in rats. To test this hypothesis, rats were acutely treated with organic PGJ (Vitis labrusca) and subsequently submitted to an exhaustive exercise bout. Parameters of oxidative stress, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels, 2',7',-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, and nonprotein sulfhydryl levels (NP-SH) in the brain, skeletal muscle, and blood, were evaluated. Enzyme activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (?-ALA-D) in the brain, skeletal muscle, and blood were also assayed. Statistical analysis showed that the exhaustive exercise bout increased TBARS levels and DCFH-DA oxidation, and decreased NP-SH levels in rat tissue. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was increased in groups exposed to both exercise and PGJ treatment. The results indicate that organic PGJ intake was able to protect against the oxidative damage caused by an exhaustive exercise bout in different rat tissues. PMID:23668765

Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; de Carvalho, Nélson R; Amaral, Guilherme P; Puntel, Gustavo O; Silva, Luiz Fernando A; Retamoso, Leandro T; Royes, Luiz Fernando F; Bresciani, Guilherme B; da Cruz, Ivana B M; Rocha, João B T; Barrio Lera, Juan Pablo; Soares, Félix A A

2013-05-01

404

Substrate utilization by Clostridium estertheticum cultivated in meat juice medium.  

PubMed

Blown pack spoilage of vacuum packaged beef, which results in packs being grossly distended with gas, is caused by the psychrophile Clostridium estertheticum. To determine what substrates are utilized by C. estertheticum during growth on beef, C. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum ATCC 51377, the type strain for that organism, and two isolates from blown pack spoiled beef that were identified as C. estertheticum by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing were grown in meat juice medium at 10 degrees C for up to 14 days. Analysis of the growth media showed that all three organisms grew exponentially on glucose with simultaneous hydrolysis of glycogen. Growth ceased when glucose in the media was depleted; but hydrolysis of glycogen continued at a reduced rate, and lactate was consumed rapidly. The pH values of media fell during growth of the organisms, but rose as the concentrations of lactate subsequently decreased. The major products of fermentation during utilization of glucose were butyrate and acetate, with butyrate greatly predominating. During fermentation of lactate the major products were butyrate and butanol, which were produced in similar amounts. The findings suggest that growth of C. estertheticum on vacuum packaged beef may be limited by the availability of glucose, as is the growth of other organisms that usually predominate in the flora of vacuum packaged meat. However, production of gas by fermentation of lactate will likely continue after growth ceases. PMID:19027974

Yang, Xianqin; Balamurugan, Sampathkumar; Gill, Colin O

2009-01-15

405

Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts.  

PubMed

Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2-1.45 mg for the average daily exposure for adults via the diet in several countries. In these estimates, the major contribution to overall daily exposure has been attributed to citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages, in spite of a lack of analytical data for those products. Therefore, we analyzed a number of furocoumarins in a variety of citrus-containing beverages and included limettin in the pattern of analyzed constituents. Our findings provide strong evidence that grapefruit juice and not citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages is the major source of furocoumarin exposure in a Western diet. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the average dietary exposure to furocoumarins is about 3-fold lower than previously estimated, i.e. in the range of 548 and 2237 microg/day for the average and high consumer, respectively. The coumarin derivative limettin was mainly found in lime products. PMID:19770019

Gorgus, E; Lohr, C; Raquet, N; Guth, S; Schrenk, D

2010-01-01

406

[Gastric emptying in the aged. Effect of clebopride].  

PubMed

Fifteen patients considered as "geronts" (average 70 years) have been performed Radiology, Endoscopy and Gastric Biopsies, with differents degrees of chronic gastritis as only gastric pathology, and 8 "healthy adults" (controls) were assessed on the T1/2 of gastric evacuation, with a solid meal marked with DPTA Tc 99 and measurement of isotopic activity in Gamma Camera before and after administration of a therapeutic dose of Clebopride. In the basal trial it was found that geronts gastric emptying is delayed more than controls (112 and 89 minutes). The activity of Clebopride revealed a significant decrease in both groups, being more important in geronts. This findings suggests the clinic usefulness in different pathological situations, where its useful to accelerate the time of gastric evacuation (gastric esofagic reflux, gastric ulcer) and in the geront with dispeptic symptoms and chronic gastritis related to age, as the only gastric pathology. PMID:6524269

Schraier, M; Guinsburg, R; Valguarnera, J; Rosenfeld, L

1984-01-01

407

Eliminating a Common Bacterium Reduces Risk of Second Gastric Cancer  

Cancer.gov

When the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is eliminated in patients who are treated for early stage gastric cancer, the risk of developing a second gastric cancer decreases by two-thirds, according to the Aug. 2, 2008, issue of The Lancet.

408

The effect of gender on Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer  

E-print Network

Gastric cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the major risk factor of gastric cancer, and as such, this bacterium ...

Sheh, Alexander

2011-01-01

409

Combined effects of high pressure homogenization treatment and citral on microbiological quality of apricot juice.  

PubMed

High pressure homogenization (HPH) technique is able to significantly reduce spoilage microbiota in fruit juice. On the other hand, aroma compounds and essential oils can have a key role in the microbial stability of these products. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the combined effects of an aroma compound (citral, used at a concentration of 50 mg/l) and HPH treatments (performed at 100 MPa for 1-8 successive passes) on the inactivation dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA strain inoculated in apricot juices at level of about 4.5 log CFU/ml. Moreover, growth of surviving yeast cells was measured during the storage of the treated juice at 10°C and pH, water activity, viscosity and volatile molecule profile of apricot juice were studied. Since citral had been diluted in ethanol before the addition to juice, also samples with only ethanol added at the same volume used to dissolve citral were considered. The results showed that yeast cell viability decreased with the increases of passes at 100 MPa and the relationship between yeast cell loads and number of passes at 100 MPa followed a linear trend. In addition, the effect of HPH treatment can be notably potentiated throughout the presence of citral and ethanol, increasing the time necessary to reach a spoilage threshold during storage. The volatile profiles of the juices added with citral showed a substitution by yeast metabolism of this aldehyde with molecule characterized by a lower antimicrobial activity such as alcohols. The HPH treatments had also a significant effect on pH and viscosity of apricot juices while did not affect a(w). PMID:23290235

Patrignani, Francesca; Tabanelli, Giulia; Siroli, Lorenzo; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

2013-01-01

410

Carbohydrate crops as a renewable resource for fuels production. Volume III. Juice preservation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to evaluate a process to preserve sugar crop juices. The process is energy conserving in that concentrated sugar solutions are produced with little evaporation of water. A preliminary investigation was conducted of polysaccharide hydrolysis as a means for preserving mixed sugar solutions obtained from crops such as sweet sorghum. Four subtasks have been addressed during this report period: I. Concentration of Pure Sugar Solutions by Hydrolysis of Purified Starch; II. Concentration of Genuine Sugar Crop Juice by Hydrolysis of Purified Starch; III. Concentration of Pure Sugar Solutions by Hydrolysis of Genuine Biomass Starch; and IV. Concentration of Pure Sugar Solutions by Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Materials. The results obtained from the experiments conducted in Subtasks I and II included the following: (1) Concentrated sucrose-glucose-fructose solutions (greater than 50 percent) can be prepared from simulated or actual sweet sorghum juice using enzymatic thinning and saccharification of pure starch-sugar solution mixtures. (2) Enzymatic saccharification of corn meal and cracked wheat in simulated sorghum juice was also demonstrated. (3) Concentration of sugar solutions also can be accomplished by saccharification of cellulosic materials. In our experiments, inhibition of the cellobiase component of the cellulase preparation was observed. The hydrolysis studies were directed to the demonstration of the feasibility of one approach to the preparation of concentrated, microbiologically stable sugar syrups starting with sweet sorghum juice. Future work on Subtask V of this program will continue the investigations already underway and will consider other approaches to the stabilization of juices. Subtask VI of this program will consider the process economics of the Subtask I to IV approaches, or combinations of two or more methods, that are considered to be most feasible for juice preservation.

Fink, D.J.; Allen, B.R.; Litchfield, J.H.; Lipinsky, E.S.

1980-01-29

411

Acute Gastric Volvulus: Diagnosis and Management over 10 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Gastric volvulus is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition, which is difficult to diagnose. This study represents a series of patients with acute gastric volvulus. Methods: All patients presenting with acute gastric volvulus over a 10-year period were reviewed. Results: Twenty-one patients with a median age of 66 years were identified. Acute gastric volvulus was secondary to a paraesophageal hiatus

Stavros Gourgiotis; Vasilis Vougas; Stylianos Germanos; Sotiris Baratsis

2006-01-01

412

Gastric banding: Conversion to sleeve, bypass, or DS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of conversions of gastric banding for obesity to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric sleeve, or duodenal switch attempts\\u000a to determine which revisional procedure best enhances weight loss. Indications for these conversions are multiple and include\\u000a hardware problems, motility problems, and miscellaneous like inadequate weight loss. Analysis of band conversions to band\\u000a of 193 patients, and bands to gastric bypass

Michel Gagner; Andrew A. Gumbs

2007-01-01

413

The intestinal phase of gastric secretion.  

PubMed Central

The intestinal phase hormone, elaborated by the jejunum in response to an intestinal meal or simple distension, produces profound gastric hypersecretion when it escapes hepatic degradation through a portacaval anastomosis. The hormone is released within 30 min of the application of the stimulus and rapidly reaches peak concentration in the portal blood. Intravenous infusion into a donor dog of active portal plasma from a shunted, intestinally fed dog stimulates gastric acid secretion after a delay of approximately 1 h, and requires a mean 1 1/2 h to stimulate peak secretion, which suggests that intermediate steps may be necessary before the hormone can effectively stimulate the parietal cell mass. The pig develops portacaval-shunt-related gastric acid hypersecretion in response to food comparable to that observed in the dog and in man. Porcine jejunal mucosa is thus an appropriate source for isolation of the intestinal phase hormone. Pig intestinal mucosal extract contains a heat-stable acidic peptide which is a potent stimulator of gastric acid secretion. Administration of crude intestinal mucosal extract elicits gastric acid secretion after a brief delay, again indicating that some intermediate reactions occur before the target organ--the parietal cell mass--is stimulated. PMID:1147535

Kester, R. C.

1975-01-01

414

Expression of periostin and its clinicopathological relevance in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the expression and localization of periostin in gastric cancer and its clinical relevance. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure periostin mRNA expression. Western blotting was carried out to detect periostin protein expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize and quantify the expression of periostin in benign gastric diseases and gastric cancer, and immunostaining results were correlated with gastric cancer pathological stages. RESULTS: Periostin expression was low at both mRNA and protein levels in normal gastric tissues, but was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that periostin was overexpressed in primary gastric cancer, as well as in metastatic lymph nodes, but only faint staining was found in benign gastric ulcers. By quantitative analysis of the immunostaining results, periostin expression was increased 2.5-4-fold in gastric cancer, compared to that in benign gastric disease, and there was a trend toward increasing periostin expression with tumor stage. CONCLUSION: This observation demonstrated that periostin was overexpressed in gastric cancer and lymph node metastasis, which suggests that periostin plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer. PMID:17876898

Li, Jun-Sheng; Sun, Guang-Wen; Wei, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Wen-Hao

2007-01-01

415

Klotho is silenced through promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

As one of major epigenetic changes to inactivate tumor suppressor genes in human carcinogenesis, promoter hypermethylation was proposed as a marker to define novel tumor suppressor genes and predict the prognosis of cancer patients. In the present study, we found KL (klotho) as a novel tumor suppressor gene silenced through promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. KL expression was downregulated in primary gastric carcinoma tissues (n=22, p<0.05) and all of gastric cancer cells lines examined. Ectopic expression of KL inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells partially through the induction of apoptosis, demonstrating a tumor suppressive role of KL in gastric cancer. Demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) increased KL expression and KL promoter was hypermethylated in gastric cancer cell lines as well as some of primary gastric carcinoma tissues (47/99) but none of normal gastric tissues. Importantly, promoter methylation of KL was significantly associated with the poor outcome of gastric cancer patients (p=0.025, Log-rank test), highlighting the relevance of epigenetic inactivation of KL in gastric carcinogenesis. As a summary, we found that KL is a novel tumor suppressor gene epigenetically inactivated in gastric cancer and promoter methylation of KL could be used to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. PMID:21969138

Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaojia; Jie, Pan; Lu, Haiqi; Zhang, Shengjie; Lin, Xiaoying; lam, Emily KY; Cui, Yan; Yu, Jun; Jin, Hongchuan

2011-01-01

416

Gastric afferents to the paraventricular nucleus in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular recordings were made from vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT)-secreting cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in rats anesthetized with urethane-chloralose to determine the effects of electrical stimulation of vagal gastric nerves and gastric distension on their activity. Electrical stimulation of gastric branches of the vagus nerves inhibited 5 and excited 10 of 32 phasically firing neurosecretory

Y. Ueta; H. Kannan; H. Yamashita

1991-01-01

417

Lamb Gastric Lipase and Proteases in Cheese Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of lipase and proteases from lamb gastric tissues in cheese flavor devel- opment was demonstrated independently of lamb pregastric esterase and calf rennet activities. Parmesan, Romauo, Cheddar cheese, and directly acidified Pizza curd were improved in body breakdown and fla- vor development when treated with lamb gastric extract. The best cheese flavor re- sulted when both gastric and

R. V. Chaudhari; G. H. Richardson

1971-01-01

418

Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca Cola lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for

Spiros D. Ladas; Konstantinos Triantafyllou; Charalabos Tzathas; Pericles Tassios; Theodore Rokkas; Sotirios A. Raptis

419

Failure to demonstrate altered gastric emptying in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abnormalities of motility have been observed in the esophagus and small bowel, as well as in the colon. In order to investigate gastric function, gastric emptying has been measured in 25 patients with strictly defined IBS and compared with 25 age-and sex-mathched controls. A standard radioisotope method for measuring gastric emptying has been employed. There

U. Acharya; N. Waite; P. Howlett; A. R. Tanner; C. L. Smith

1983-01-01

420

Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Half the world's population is chronically infected with Helicobacter pylori1, causing gastritis, ulcers and increased incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma2. Its proton-gated inner-membrane urea channel, HpUreI, is essential for survival in the acidic environment of the stomach3. The channel is closed at neutral pH and opens at acidic pH to allow rapid urea access to cytoplasmic urease4. Urease produces NH3 and CO2 that neutralize entering protons and thus buffer the periplasm to pH ?6.1 even in gastric juice at pH <2.0. Here we report the structure of HpUreI, revealing six protomers assembled in a hexameric ring surrounding a central bilayer plug of ordered lipids. Each protomer encloses a channel formed by a twisted bundle of six transmembrane helices. The bundle defines a novel fold comprising a two-helix hairpin motif repeated three times around the central axis of the channel, without the inverted repeat of mammalian urea transporters. Both the channel and the protomer interface contain residues conserved in the AmiS/UreI superfamily, suggesting preservation of channel architecture and oligomeric state in this superfamily. Predominantly aromatic or aliphatic side chains line the entire channel and define two consecutive constriction sites in the middle of the channel. Mutation of Trp153 in the cytoplasmic constriction site to Ala or Phe reduces the selectivity for urea compared to thiourea, suggesting that solute interaction with Trp153 contributes specificity. The novel hexameric channel structure described here provides a new paradigm for permeation of urea and other small amide solutes in prokaryotes and archaea. PMID:23222544

Strugatsky, David; McNulty, Reginald; Munson, Keith; Chen, Chiung-Kuang; Soltis, S. Michael; Sachs, George; Luecke, Hartmut

2014-01-01

421

Science Enabling ASICs and FEEs for the JUICE and JEO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of science enabling radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Front End Electronics (FEEs) and Event Processing Systems, with flight heritage on many NASA missions, is presented. These technologies play an important role in the miniaturization of instruments -and spacecraft systems- at the same time increasing performance and reducing power. The technologies target time of flight, position sensing, and energy measurements as well as standard housekeeping and telemetry functions for particle and fields instruments, but find applications in other instrument categories too. More specifically the technologies include: the TOF chip, 1D and 2D Delay Lines with MCP detectors, for high precision fast and low power time of flight and position sensing; the Energy chip for multichannel SSD readout with time over threshold and standard voltage read out for TDC and ADC digitization; Fast multi channel read out chip with commandable thresholds; the TRIO chip for multiplexed ADC and housekeeping etc. It should be mentioned that the ASICs include basic trigger capabilities to enable random event processing in a heavy background of penetrators and UV foreground. Typical instruments include time of flight versus energy and look angle particle analyzers such as: plasma composition, energetic particle, neutral atom imaging as well as fast plasma and deltaE/E ion/electron telescopes. Flight missions include: Cassini/LEMMS, IMAGE/HENA, MESSENGER/EPPS/MLA/X-ray/MLA, STEREO, PLUTO-NH/PEPSSI/LORI, IBEX-Lo, JUNO/JEDI, RBSP/RBSPICE, MMS/HPCA/EPD, SO/SIS. Given the proven capability on heavy radiation missions such as JUNO, MMS and RBSB, as well diverse long duration missions such as MESSENGER, PLUTO and Cassini, it is expected that these technologies will play an important role in the particle and fields (at least) instruments on the upcoming JUICE and JEO missions.

Paschalidis, Nicholas; Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom

2011-01-01

422

Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on