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Sample records for gastric juice composition

  1. Effects of simulated gastric juice on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of laboratory-processed composites.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Seda; Sarac, Sinasi; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Medical problems such as gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause considerable damage to restorations in the oral environment. This study evaluated the effects of gastric juice on the surface characteristics of different types of laboratory-processed indirect composites with different filler particles and polymerization modes. Specimens were prepared from Tescera (TES; Bisco), Sinfony (SIN; 3M ESPE), Solidex (SOL; Shofu), and Adoro (AD; Ivoclar Vivadent). Before exposing the specimens to simulated gastric juice for 24 h, color, surface roughness, and microhardness were measured on one half of the polished flat surface of each specimen. After exposure to the simulated gastric juice, the same tests were repeated on the other half of specimen surface. Results indicated that gastric juice had a significant impact on color change (p<0.001). AD showed the largest surface roughness change among the resins (p<0.001). Gastric juice also significantly affected the microhardness of the materials, and AD and TES showed statistically similar change in microhardness (p>0.05). PMID:24882109

  2. Comparison of Gastric Microbiota Between Gastric Juice and Mucosa by Next Generation Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori in human health and disease. In this study, we aimed to detect human gastric microbiota in both gastric mucosa and gastric juice by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare the results from mucosa and juice. Methods: Gastric biopsies and stomach juices were collected from 4 subjects who underwent standard endoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota of antral mucosa, corpus mucosa samples, and gastric fluids were analyzed by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis focused on bacteria, such as H. pylori and nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria. Results: Gastric fluid samples showed higher diversity compared to that of gastric mucosa samples. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in gastric fluid than in gastric mucosa. The samples of gastric fluid and gastric mucosa showed different composition of phyla. The composition of H. pylori and Proteobacteria was higher in mucosa samples compared to gastric fluid samples (H. pylori, 66.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.033; Proteobacteria, 75.4% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041), while Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were proportioned relatively less in mucosa samples than gastric fluid. However there was no significant difference. (Actinobacteria, 3.5% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.312; Bacteroidetes, 6.0% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.329; Firmicutes, 12.8% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.246). Conclusions: Even though these samples were small, gastric mucosa could be more effective than gastric fluid in the detection of meaningful gastric microbiota by pyrosequencing. PMID:27051651

  3. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations. PMID:26377936

  4. Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Maurizio G; Norberto, Lorenzo; Damini, Roberta; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    Chitin digestion by humans has generally been questioned or denied. Only recently chitinases have been found in several human tissues and their role has been associated with defense against parasite infections and to some allergic conditions. In this pilot study we tested the gastric juices of 25 Italian subjects on the artificial substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',diacetylchitobiose or/and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chitin to demonstrate the presence of a chitinase activity. Since this chitinase activity was demonstrated at acidic pH, it is currently referred to acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). AMCase activity was present in gastric juices of twenty of 25 Italian patients in a range of activity from 0.21 to 36.27 nmol/ml/h and from 8,881 to 1,254,782 fluorescence emission (CPS), according to the used methods. In the remaining five of 25 gastric juices, AMCase activity was almost absent in both assay methods. An allosamidine inhibition test and the measurement at different pH values confirmed that this activity was characteristic of AMCase. The absence of activity in 20% of the gastric juices may be a consequence of virtual absence of chitinous food in the Western diet. PMID:17587796

  5. Downregulated MicroRNA-133a in Gastric Juice as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Fang, Peng-Hua; He, Biao; Guo, Li-Li; Shi, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhen-Wen, Zhen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Circulatory miR-133a is a marker shared by several types of cancer. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using miR-133a levels in gastric juice to screen for gastric cancer. A total of 204 samples of gastric juice and mucosa from gastric cancer, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, superficial gastritis and healthy cases were collected by gastroscopy. The results showed that miR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated and positively correlated. Moreover, miR-133a in gastric juice has high operability, high reliability, high sensitivity, high specificity and relative stability, fit for clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer. PMID:27268657

  6. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  7. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  8. A chemometric optimization of method for determination of nitrosamines in gastric juices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Şevket; Dinç, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A chemometrically optimized isolation procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection technique has been proposed for quantitative determination of trace levels of nitrosamines in gastric juice samples of patients with the gastrointestinal tract problems. The extraction conditions of each nitrosamine were optimized using regression modelling based on central composite design. The extraction conditions for all nitrosamines were selected to be 10.7 min for extraction time, 4.2 for pH and 23 for 2-propanol percentage in extraction solution. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 94.0 (NDMA) to 99.3 (NDPheA) %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations was within the range of 0.7 (NDPheA) and 2.6 (NDMA) %. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 0.3 to 1.1 pg/mL. Total nitrosamine concentrations were found at the highest concentration up to 2431.12 pg/mL in cancer patients, whereas they were found at the lowest concentration down to 12.18 pg/mL in gastritis patients. The classification results of the gastric juice samples in different patient groups were very satisfactory, allowing 100% of patients to be correctly grouped. A new mathematical model has been developed allowing for the classification of gastric juices with a 93.1% success rate based on just the ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ. The ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ might be considered as a biomarker for the classification of gastric juices of patients and might act as an indicator of increased risk for stomach cancer. PMID:26342445

  9. LC determination of dinitrosopiperazine in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Ibrahim, F; Hefnawy, M; Eid, M

    2001-12-01

    A simple and specific reversed phase HPLC method for the determination of dinitrosopiperazine in simulated gastric juice using UV detection was reported. The chromatographic resolution of the analyte and the internal standard isosorbide dinitrate was performed without extraction from the gastric juice on a reversed phase ODS column. Isocratic elution was carried out with methanol-0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (60:40 v/v, pH 3.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1) with UV detection at 238 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range 0.072-2.88 microg ml(-1) of dinitrosopiperazine with minimum detectability (S/N=2) of 0.01 microg ml(-1) (8 x 10(-8) M). Inter-day and intra-day precisions calculated as % RSD were in the range 0.32-0.38% and 0.19-0.25% respectively. Inter-day and intra-day accuracies calculated as % error were in the range 0.18-0.21 and 0.08-0.11% respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the study of the possible in-vivo production of DNPZ under the standard nitrosation conditions recommended by WHO. PMID:11600313

  10. Antigens with glycoprotein structure in the gastric juice. I. Immunological and chemical determinations.

    PubMed

    Vântu, A; Voiculet, N; Ivănescu, M; Balaban, C

    1978-01-01

    To demonstrate the presence of specific antigens in the normal and malignant gastric juice the immunological and chemical features of certain antigens with glycoprotein structure from malignant gastric jucice and gastric tumors were studied comparatively with those of antigens obtained from normal gastric juice and gastric tissue. The investigation was carried out in tumor tissue extracts from 7 patients with malignant gastric tumors and in gastric juice from 45 patients with other non-cancerous diseases. From the five fractions obtained, which gave immunoelectrophoretic precipitin lines in the beta and alpha-globulin regions with the antiserum against total normal gastric juice, a single specific was separated by means of successive chromatographies on sephadex G--100 and DEAE-Sephadex -a--50 (eluted in NaCl concentration gradient). This fraction represented 11.1 per cent of the total proteins. None of the five fractions could be identified with carcinoembryonic antigen (value in gastric juice and gastric malignant tumors = 2 to 10 ng per mg lyophilized products). PMID:635406

  11. Dissociation of Intrinsic Factor from its Antibody: Application to Study of Pernicious Anaemia Gastric Juice Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael S.; Chanarin, I.

    1969-01-01

    Intrinsic factor antibody may sometimes be concealed in the gastric secretions of pernicious anaemia subjects, being complexed with residual amounts of intrinsic factor. A method is described for dissociating intrinsic factor from its antibody. Antibody to the vitamin-B12-binding site of intrinsic factor was identified in 16 (57%) out of 28 samples of pernicious anaemia gastric juice after dissociation but in only 10 before dissociation. There was no clear relationship between the incidence of antibody in the serum and in the gastric juice of these patients. PMID:5764247

  12. N-nitroso compounds, genotoxins and their precursors in gastric juice from humans with and without precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Chen, C; Hautefeuille, A; Thuillier, P; Muñoz, N; Moulinier, B; Berger, F; De Montclos, H; Ohshima, H

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the interrelationships between levels of total N-nitroso compounds (NOC), genotoxic activity (both before and after nitrosation), degree of bacterial colonization in gastric juice and degree of severity or absence of precancerous lesions of the stomach. The mean level of constitutive total NOC in gastric juice was similar in the different groups of patients, but it was higher in acidic gastric juice (n = 30) than in gastric juice at pH greater than 4.5 (n = 12). Acid-catalysed nitrosation of gastric juice in vitro increased the concentration of total NOC by up to several thousand fold, to a maximum of 1330 mumol/l. Genotoxicity, expressed as SOS-inducing potency per 100 microliters of gastric juice was measurable in only 20% of gastric juice samples tested. After acid-catalysed nitrosation, however, all samples showed genotoxic activity, the mean SOS-inducing potency being four to seven times greater than the corresponding constitutive value. There was no association between the mean SOS-inducing potency of gastric juice and the severity of precancerous lesions. The mean SOS-inducing potency of neutral or basic gastric juice was slightly greater than that of acidic samples. In a kinetic study on N-nitrosation of gastric juice in vitro, a mixture of amino and amido substrates was nitrosated; both qualitative and quantitative individual differences in nitrosatable substrates in gastric juice were seen. Fractionation of acidic, neutral and basic nitrosated gastric juice samples revealed a preponderance of nonvolatile, unknown NOC with varying polarities. The results of our study suggest that only pH determines the nature and level of precursors of NOC and of nitrosation-dependent genotoxins in gastric juice. PMID:1855844

  13. Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 μm and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

  14. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  15. The changes of metabolism balance of zinc and copper in gastric juice with widely varying dietary zinc intake.

    PubMed

    Leung, P L; Li, X L

    1993-10-01

    The concentrations of zinc and copper in gastric juice of humans who had widely varying dietary zinc intake were evaluated. In order to compare this with zinc and copper levels of normal dietary individuals, we also determined the zinc and copper levels in healthy individuals' plasma and in cancer patient's natural tissue, all of whom had normal diets. The correlation coefficients between zinc and copper were 0.71, 0.45, and 0.55, respectively, in gastric juice, plasma, and tissue of normal dietary subjects. Such correlation changed and was destroyed when there was a high zinc level in gastric juice. When gastric juice zinc level changed from mean value 16.8 mumol/L to 262.5 mumol/L, the correlation coefficient varied from 0.71 to -0.04, and the copper level also varied from mean value 8.96 mumol/L to 4.89 mumol/L. These findings probably give the evidence to suggest that a high zinc level will restrain the copper level and break the balance of the human body's zinc and copper metabolism. PMID:7505097

  16. Mechanism for high PCO2 in gastric juice: roles of bicarbonate secretion and CO2 diffusion.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M H; Thirlby, R C; Feldman, M

    1987-10-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in gastric juice often exceeds the PCO2 of blood. CO2 in gastric juice may originate from blood and enter luminal fluid by diffusion, or CO2 may be produced in the lumen of the stomach from the reaction of HCO3- and H+. Because CO2 production from HCO3- is dependent on acid (low pH), we suppressed acid secretion with intravenous cimetidine to estimate to what extent appearance of CO2 in luminal fluid is due to production from HCO3-. When denervated fundic pouches of dogs were distended with saline, the PCO2 of the solution increased to the PCO2 of blood in approximately 20 min, with the initial rate of appearance of CO2 in the pouch solution only minimally affected by cimetidine. Thereafter, PCO2 of luminal fluid continued to increase to 50-60 mmHg in the absence of cimetidine, whereas PCO2 of luminal fluid remained approximately equal to that of blood when cimetidine was infused (P less than 0.001, cimetidine vs. control). The mean pH in the pouch solution remained between 6.3 and 6.9 during cimetidine infusion but decreased to 4.75 without cimetidine (P less than 0.001). In additional experiments, an acidic solution with high PCO2 (242 +/- 3 mmHg) was infused into the fundic pouches. PCO2 in luminal fluid decreased rather slowly toward plasma PCO2, requiring 240 min for luminal fluid PCO2 to decrease to 56 +/- 2 mmHg. Thus the permeability of the gastric mucosa to luminal CO2 was relatively low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3116857

  17. Exposure to gastric juice may not cause adenocarcinogenesis of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Yong-Zhong; Gong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of gastric juice on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: A animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established in Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy. The development of EAC and forestomach adenocarcinoma was investigated 40 wk after the treatment. Intraluminal pH and bile of the forestomach were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pH (t = 0.117, P = 0.925) or bile (χ2 = 0.036, P = 0.85) in the forestomach before and 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. There were also no significant differences between the model and controls during esophagoduodenostomy or 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia (88%) and intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (28%) in the esophagus in the model was higher than in the controls 40 wk after surgery (χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 9.33, P = 0.002, respectively) and in the forestomach in the model (χ2 = 32.05, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 8.14, P = 0.004, respectively). The incidence rates of inflammation in the esophagus and forestomach were 100% and 96%, respectively (χ2 = 1.02, P = 0.31) in the model, which was higher than in the esophageal control (6.8%) (χ2 = 42.70, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Gastric juice exposure may not cause intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia or adenocarcinoma of the forestomach and may not be related to EAC. PMID:23613638

  18. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Marazova, K; Krasnaliev, I; Galunska, B; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A

    2005-04-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in phenolic substances-mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and other activities. We studied the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and its possible relation to the oxidative status. AMFJ (5, 10 and 20 ml kg(-1)) was applied orally as a pretreatment 1 h before the subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (30 mg kg(-1)). Gastric ulcer formation was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 4h after the indomethacin administration. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat plasma and gastric mucosa and also reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in gastric mucosa were determined and used as biochemical markers of the oxidative status. AMFJ-pretreatment diminished the number and area of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Histopathological examination of rat stomachs demonstrated that AMFJ induced an increase in gastric mucus production and a reduction of the depth and severity of indomethacin-induced mucosal lesions. AMFJ dose-dependently reduced the elevated indomethacin plasma and gastric MDA levels and at the doses of 10 and 20 ml kg(-1) they were not significantly different from the control values. Neither indomethacin-treatment, nor AMFJ-pretreatment had a significant influence on GSH and GSSG gastric mucosal levels. These results demonstrated that indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage was accompanied by the development of oxidative stress, evidenced by the accumulation of MDA. AMFJ-pretreatment decreased the gastric lesions caused by indomethacin. It could be suggested that this effect of AMFJ was probably due to the increased mucus production and interference with oxidative stress development as evidenced by the decreased plasma and gastric mucosal MDA. PMID:15945278

  19. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity. PMID:26429932

  20. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  1. Voltammetric determination of N-nitrosoderivatives of atenolol and propranolol in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Belal, F; al-Deeb, O A; al-Majed, A A; Gad-Kariem, E A

    1999-10-30

    A highly sensitive and simple voltammetric method is proposed for the determination of N-nitrosoatenolol (NA) and N-nitrosopropranolol (NP) in simulated gastric juice. The method is based on measuring the differential-pulse polarographic peak produced by NA and NP in Britton-Robinson buffers of pH 3 and 4 for NA and NP, respectively. Both compounds yielded diffusion-controlled current with diffusion-current constants of 7.23 +/- 0.03 and 9.46 +/- 0.06 for NA and NP, respectively. The current-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range 0.16-9.6 micrograms ml-1 with minimum detectability (S/N = 2) of 0.015 microgram ml-1 (5 x 10(-8) M) for NA; for NP the range was 0.08-8.0 micrograms ml-1 with minimum detectability (S/N = 2) of 0.009 microgram ml-1 (3 x 10(-8) M). The proposed method was successfully applied to study the possible in vivo production of the nitroso-derivatives under the standard nitrosation reaction conditions recommended by WHO. The method is characterized by simplicity and higher sensitivity as compared with the reported HPLC method. PMID:10575740

  2. Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

  3. Citrus juice composition does not influence radiation sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Niemira, B A

    2001-06-01

    Food substrate chemistry is known to influence radiation sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria. The sensitivity of a citrus juice outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis to gamma radiation was determined in five commercial orange juice formulations. The juices differed in pH (3.87 to 4.13), calcium concentration (2.1 versus 36.9 mM), juice composition (orange versus orange-tangerine blend), and antioxidant power (11,751 to 12,826 microM ferric reducing-antioxidant power units). The Dgamma (dose required to achieve 90% destruction) varied only slightly (0.35 to 0.37 kGy), with no significant (P < 0.05) differences among any of the suspending juices. These results indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis sensitivity to gamma radiation is not strongly influenced by the composition of formulated commercial orange juices. PMID:11403141

  4. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Paul M. Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.

  5. A Rapid and Accurate Method to Evaluate Helicobacter pylori Infection, Clarithromycin Resistance, and CYP2C19 Genotypes Simultaneously From Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Liu, Chung-Jung; Yang, Ching-Chia; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Hui-Min David; Ren, Jian-Lin; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Lin-Li

    2016-05-01

    Because Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) would cause carcinogenesis of the stomach, we need sufficient information for deciding on an appropriate strategy of eradication. Many factors affect the efficacy of eradication including antimicrobial resistance (especially clarithromycin resistance) and CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study was to survey the efficiency of gastric juice for detecting H pylori infection, clarithromycin resistance, and CYP2C19 polymorphism.The specimens of gastric juice were collected from all patients while receiving gastroscopy. DNA was extracted from gastric juice and then urease A and cag A were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the existence of H pylori. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), the 23S rRNA of H pylori and CYP2C19 genotypes of host were examined respectively. During endoscopy examination, biopsy-based specimens were also collected for rapid urease test, culture, and histology. The blood samples were also collected for analysis of CYP2C19 genotypes. We compared the results of gastric juice tests with the results of traditional clinical tests.When compared with the results from traditional clinical tests, our results from gastric juice showed that the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy to detect H pylori infection were 92.1% (105/114), 92.9% (143/154), 90.5% (105/116), 94.1% (143/152), and 92.5% (248/268), respectively. The SEN, SPE, PPV, and NPV to detect clarithromycin resistance were 97.3% (36/37), 91.5% (43/47), 90.0% (36/40), and 97.7% (43/44), respectively. By using PCR-RFLP, the consistency of human CYP2C19 gene polymorphism from blood samples and gastric juice was as high as 94.9% (149/157).The manipulated gastric juice is actually an effective diagnostic sample for evaluation of H pylori existence, clarithromycin resistance, and host CYP2C19 polymorphism. PMID:27227911

  6. A Rapid and Accurate Method to Evaluate Helicobacter pylori Infection, Clarithromycin Resistance, and CYP2C19 Genotypes Simultaneously From Gastric Juice

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Liu, Chung-Jung; Yang, Ching-Chia; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Hui-Min David; Ren, Jian-Lin; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Lin-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Because Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) would cause carcinogenesis of the stomach, we need sufficient information for deciding on an appropriate strategy of eradication. Many factors affect the efficacy of eradication including antimicrobial resistance (especially clarithromycin resistance) and CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study was to survey the efficiency of gastric juice for detecting H pylori infection, clarithromycin resistance, and CYP2C19 polymorphism. The specimens of gastric juice were collected from all patients while receiving gastroscopy. DNA was extracted from gastric juice and then urease A and cag A were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the existence of H pylori. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), the 23S rRNA of H pylori and CYP2C19 genotypes of host were examined respectively. During endoscopy examination, biopsy-based specimens were also collected for rapid urease test, culture, and histology. The blood samples were also collected for analysis of CYP2C19 genotypes. We compared the results of gastric juice tests with the results of traditional clinical tests. When compared with the results from traditional clinical tests, our results from gastric juice showed that the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy to detect H pylori infection were 92.1% (105/114), 92.9% (143/154), 90.5% (105/116), 94.1% (143/152), and 92.5% (248/268), respectively. The SEN, SPE, PPV, and NPV to detect clarithromycin resistance were 97.3% (36/37), 91.5% (43/47), 90.0% (36/40), and 97.7% (43/44), respectively. By using PCR-RFLP, the consistency of human CYP2C19 gene polymorphism from blood samples and gastric juice was as high as 94.9% (149/157). The manipulated gastric juice is actually an effective diagnostic sample for evaluation of H pylori existence, clarithromycin resistance, and host CYP2C19 polymorphism. PMID:27227911

  7. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Paul M; Sasso, Alan F

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. PMID:25151221

  8. [Quantitative evaluation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu, 241Am transfer from polluted soil to gastric and intestine juice of cows].

    PubMed

    Chizhevskiĭ, I V

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative parameters of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am transfer from solid phase of soil to gastric, intestine juice of cows as well as to imitating solutions have been estimated on the base of results of laboratory incubation experiments. A prevailing role of enzyme complex and microflora of gastrointestinal tract in radionuclides transfer from solid phase of soil to solution has been shown. PMID:11605246

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  10. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  11. The use of election paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in early preformulation experiments: the impact of different experimental formulations on the release of a lipophilic spin probe into gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Isel, H; Mountfield, R J

    2001-03-01

    The lipophilic spin probe TEMPOL-benzoate was dissolved in different experimental formulations, including polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Miglyol, glycerol monooleate (GMO), and Cremophor RH-40. Samples were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy before and after addition to human gastric juice. The distance between the first and the third peak in the EPR spectrum (2a(N)) was measured to monitor the polarity of the spin probe's microenvironment. Moreover, the ratio between the signal amplitudes of the second and the third peak (a/b ratio) was used to monitor the mobility of the spin probe in a certain formulation. Thus, by calculating 2a(N) and the a/b ratio of the EPR spectra it was possible to determine a potential release of the spin probe from different formulations into gastric juice. It was found that oily and surface-active vehicles (Miglyol, Cremophor RH-40, and GMO) were more suitable to protect a lipophilic compound from being released within a gastric environment than PEG 400. Our results demonstrate that EPR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool in early preformulation experiments to monitor the release of spin probes from formulations of different nature. This kind of experiment can be of value for the optimization of exploratory formulations. PMID:11226824

  12. Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Kim T; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena

    2006-06-01

    An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp, 2-Rhap, 2,4-Rhap), arabinan (5-Araf, 3,5-Araf, t-Araf), type I arabinogalactan (4-Galp, 3,4-Galp, t-Araf) and beta-glucosyl Yariv-binding type II arabinogalactan (3,6-Galp, t-Araf). Low levels of xyloglucan (4-Glcp, 4,6-Glcp, t-Xylp, t-Fucp), heteroxylan (4-Xylp) and heteromannan (4-Manp) are also present. PMID:16777156

  13. A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rotkvić, I; Turković, B; Jagić, V; Mildner, B; Duvnjak, M

    1993-01-01

    The possibility that the stomach, affected by general stress, might initiate a counter-response has not until recently been considered in theories of stress. We suggest that the stomach, as the most sensitive part of the gastrointestinal tract and the largest neuroendocrine organ in the body, is crucial for the initiation of a full stress response against all noxious stress pathology. The end result would be a strong protection of all organs invaded by 'stress'. Consistent with this assumption, this coping response is best explained in terms of 'organoprotection'. Endogenous organoprotectors (eg prostaglandins, somatostatin, dopamine) are proposed as mediators. Such an endogenous counteraction could even be afforded by their suitable application. A new gastric juice peptide, M(r) 40,000, named BPC, was recently isolated. Herein, a 15 amino acid fragment (BPC 157), thought to be essential for its activity, has been fully characterized and investigated. As has been demonstrated for many organoprotective agents using different models of various tissue lesions, despite the poorly understood final mechanism, practically all organ systems appear to benefit from BPC activity. These effects have been achieved in many species using very low dosages (mostly microgram and ng/kg range) after ip, ig, and intramucosal (local) application. The effect was apparent already after one application. Long lasting activity was also demonstrated. BPC was highly effective when applied simultaneously with noxious agents or in already pathological, as well as chronical, conditions. Therefore, it seems that BPC treatment does not share any of the so far known limitations for 'conventional organoprotectors'. No influence on different basal parameters and no toxicity were observed. These findings provide a breakthrough in stress theory. BPC, as a possible endogenous free radical scavenger and organoprotection mediator, could be a useful prototype of a new class of drugs, organoprotective agents

  14. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  15. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Malinauskytė, Ernesta; Ramanauskaitė, Jovita; Leskauskaitė, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

  16. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  17. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  18. Mutagens, N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in gastric juice from patients with and without precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Rogatko, A; Hautefeuille, A; Thuillier, P; Muñoz, N; Moulinier, B; Berger, F; De Montclos, H; Lambert, R

    1993-01-01

    This study examined whether elevated risk of gastric cancer is associated with high levels of total N-nitroso compounds (NOC), their precursors and nitrosation-dependent genotoxins in gastric juice (GJ). An improved method for quantifying total NOC was used and genotoxicity was assayed in E. coli. Results from patients (n = 210) with or without precancerous lesions of the stomach and living in three areas with up to 8-fold variations in gastric cancer risk (U.K., France, Colombia) were compared. The level of nitrite (range < 1-472 mumol/l) was found to increase with the pH of GJ from the three countries and was dependent on country of collection. The levels of NOC (range: < or = 0.01-8.0 mumol/l) in GJ were not affected by stomach histology and country of collection. NOC levels increased linearly with nitrite concentrations, but the slope of the regression line was greater for acidic GJ (pH < or = 4). These data together suggest that chemical nitrosation contributes at least as much as other nitrosation pathways to the intragastric formation of NOC. Acid-catalysed nitrosation of GJ in vitro increased the NOC concentration (range: 7-1332 mumol/l) up to several 1000-fold but this increase was not predictive of gastric cancer risk either by country or by stomach histology. After acid-catalysed nitrosation, direct genotoxicity (SOS-inducing potency) was significantly higher in GJ with original pH > 4 and highest in samples from Colombia. The results (a) provide no support that intragastric total NOC levels are elevated in subjects with precancerous stomach lesions or living in a high risk area for stomach cancer; (b) confirm that a high nitrite level and elevated pH in GJ are strongly associated, the level of nitrite being associated with precancerous stomach conditions only in Colombia; (c) reveal the presence of precursor compounds in GJ, that after nitrosation yield direct mutagens that probably contain NOC and other substances. As their concentrations were

  19. Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  20. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  1. In vitro studies of the digestion of caprine whey proteins by human gastric and duodenal juice and the effects on selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Almaas, Hilde; Holm, Halvor; Langsrud, Thor; Flengsrud, Ragnar; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2006-09-01

    The in vitro digestion of caprine whey proteins was investigated by a two-step degradation assay, using human gastric juice (HGJ) at pH 2.5 and human duodenal juice (HDJ) at pH 7.5. Different protein and peptide profiles were observed after the first (HGJ) and second (HDJ) enzymatic degradation. The minor whey proteins serum albumin, lactoferrin and Ig were rapidly degraded by HGJ, while alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were more resistant and survived both 30 and 45 min of the enzymatic treatment. Further digestion with HDJ still showed intact beta-LG, and the main part of alpha-LA also remained unchanged. The protein degradation by HGJ and HDJ was also compared with treatment by commercial enzymes, by using pepsin at pH 2.5, and a mixture of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.5. The two methods resulted in different caprine protein and peptide profiles. The digests after treatment with HGJ and HDJ were screened for antibacterial effects on some selected microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus mutans. Active growing cells of E. coli were inhibited by the digestion products from caprine whey obtained after treatment with HGJ and HDJ. Cells of B. cereus were inhibited only by whey proteins obtained after reaction with HGJ, while the products after further degradation with HDJ demonstrated no significant effect. Screenings performed on cells of Lb. rhamnosus GG and S. mutans all showed no signs of inhibition. PMID:16925863

  2. Sensory quality and compositional characteristics of blackcurrant juices produced by different processes.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Tahvonen, Risto; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2013-06-15

    Effects of enzymatic and non-enzymatic juice pressing on key orosensory and chemical quality factors of blackcurrant juices were studied in laboratory scale using berries of five different cultivars (Mortti, Mikael, Marski, Ola and Breed15). Enzymatic processing increased the juice yield by 10-22% and the content of various phenolic compounds in juice by 4-10-fold as compared to the non-enzymatic process. Higher intensity of the mouth-drying astringency of the enzyme-aided juice was the most significant orosensory difference between the processes. Juices of different blackcurrant cultivars varied in sweetness, sourness and bitterness. The most intensive sensory attributes of the juices were sourness and puckering astringency regardless of processing method. They correlated positively with each other and were contributed by acid content and pH. In enzyme-aided juices, the contents of flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acids were associated with mouth-drying astringency, and sugar/acid ratio correlated with sweetness. These correlations were less clear in non-enzyme juices possibly due to lower content of phenolic compounds and the high content of pectin. PMID:23497904

  3. Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohata, Yukiko; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Latiful Bari, Md; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0.6 log CFU/g after 2 h-incubation at 37℃ in artificial gastric juice. Prevention from initial contamination of E. coli O157 on the ingredients of Chinese cabbage products is important to reduce the risk of food poisoning because the reduction of the bacterial counts after processing and consumption are limited. PMID:27009510

  4. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen. PMID:26613762

  5. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  6. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

  7. Processing effects on the composition of sea buckthorn juice from Hippophae rhamnoides L. Cv. Indian Summer.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T; Harrison, J E; Drover, J

    2002-01-01

    Sea buckthorn juice is one product that can be derived from the sea buckthorn berry, a new alternative crop for the Canadian western provinces. Fresh pressed juice separates into three phases when allowed to stand overnight in the refrigerator: an upper cream phase, juice in the middle portion, and a sediment at the bottom. Enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial, broad spectrum carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme preparations reduced the juice viscosity, assisted juice separation, and provided an opalescent juice. Soluble solids averaged 10.2 degrees Brix, pH averaged 3.13, ascorbic acid averaged 174.2 mg/100 mL, and titratable acidity averaged 1.97% as malic acid all determined on centrifuged (10 000 rpm, 15 min) juice. Soluble sugars included glucose, fructose, and an unidentified component that was not sucrose or other common soluble monomeric or dimeric sugar. Quinic acid was quantitatively most important, while malic was next, and oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids were minor components. Washing berries by dipping reduced soluble solids (degrees Brix) in juice suggesting uptake of wash water. PMID:11754553

  8. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Kitazawa, Masato; Mochizuka, Akiyoshi; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC)/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component. PMID:22482081

  9. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

  10. Effect of pulsed electric fields treatment and mash size on extraction and composition of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Turk, Mohammad F; Baron, Alain; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (E=450 V/cm; tt=10 ms; E<3 kJ/kg) and apple mash size on juice yield, polyphenolic compounds, sugars, and malic acid. Juice yield increased significantly after PEF treatment of large mash (Y=71.4%) and remained higher than the juice yield obtained for a control small mash (45.6%). The acid sweet balance was not altered by PEF. A correlation was established between the decrease of light absorbance (control: 1.43; treated: 1.10) and the decline of native polyphenols yield due to PEF treatment (control: 9.6%; treated: 5.9% for small mash). An enhanced oxidation of phenolic compounds in cells due to electroporation of the inner cell membrane and the adsorption of the oxidized products on the mash may explain both the lower light absorbance and the lower native polyphenol concentration. PMID:20701245

  11. SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for compositional surface mapping for the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Gruen, E.; Hand, K. P.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M. R.; Lebreton, J.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2012-12-01

    We developed a dust mass spectrometer to measure the composition of ballistic dust particles populating the thin exospheres that were detected around each of the Galilean moons. Since these grains are direct samples from the moons' icy surfaces, unique composition data will be obtained that will help to define and constrain the geological activities on and below the moons' surface. The proposed instrument will make a vital contribution to ESA's planned JUICE mission and provide key answers to its main scientific questions about the surface composition, habitability, the icy crust, and exchange processes with the deeper interior of the Jovian icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The SUrface Dust Aanalyser (SUDA) is a time-of-flight, reflectron-type impact mass spectrometer, opti-mised for a high mass resolution which only weakly depends on the impact location. The small size (268×250×171 mm3), low mass (< 4 kg) and large sen-sitive area (220 cm2) makes the instrument well suited for the challenging demands of the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. A full-size prototype SUDA instrument was built in order to demonstrate its performance through calibra-tion experiments at the Heidelberg dust accelerator with a variety of cosmo-chemically relevant dust ana-logues. The effective mass resolution of m/Δm of 150-200 is achieved for mass range of interest m = 1-150.

  12. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    PubMed

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (p<0.05), indicating a higher safety of consumption of potatoes produced in Russia. When studying--the isotopic D/H composition of

  13. Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

  14. Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

  15. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  16. Comparison of stem damage and carbohydrate composition in the stem juice between sugarcane and sweet sorghum harvested before and after late fall frost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars...

  17. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  18. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  19. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  2. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  3. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  5. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  9. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27297504

  10. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Relation to Body Weight and Composition Following Gastric Restriction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Franco, Robert L; Cyrus, John C; Celi, Francesco; Evans, Ronald K

    2016-07-01

    In comparison to gastric bypass surgery, gastric restriction without malabsorption more closely simulates dietary adherence while still producing durable weight loss. The latter is achieved despite considerable reductions in resting energy expenditure (REE), and whether REE is adjusted for body weight/composition using ratio- or regression-based methods could influence understanding of how these procedures affect energy balance. This systematic review identified studies that reported REE before and after gastric restriction in order to compare changes using each method. Ratio assessments revealed increases and decreases when REE was expressed per kilogram of body weight and per kilogram of fat-free mass, respectively. In comparison, measured REE tended to be less than predicted from linear regression after surgery. Explanations for these seemingly disparate findings and future directions are discussed. PMID:27103027

  11. Formulation and optimization of gastric floating drug delivery system using Central composite design and its biopharmaceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Thing, Lim Kee; Gorajana, Adinarayana; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana-Murthy

    2015-07-01

    The present work investigates the formulation and biopharmaceutical estimation of gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) of propranolol HCl using semi-synthetic polymer carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) and a synthetic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). A central composite design was applied for optimization of polymer quantity (CMEC or PEO) and sodium bicarbonate concentration as independent variables. The dependent variables evaluated were: % of drug release at 1 hr (D1hr), % drug release at 3 hr (D3hr) and time taken for 95% of drug release (t95). Numerical optimization and graphical optimization were conducted to optimize the response variables. All observed responses of statistically optimized formulations were in high treaty with predicted values. Accelerated stability studies were conducted on the optimized formulations at 40 ± 2°C/75% ± 5% RH and confirm that formulations were stable. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vivo buoyancy characterization in human volunteers and were found buoyant in gastric fluid. Gastric residence time was enhanced in the fed but not the fasted state. The optimized formulations and marketed formulation were administered to healthy human volunteers and evaluated for pharmacokinetic parameters. Mean residence time (MRT) was prolonged and AUC levels were increased for both optimized floating tablets when compared with marketed product. High relative bioavailability obtained with optimized gastric floating tablets compared to commercial formulation, indicated the improvement of bioavailability. PMID:26142528

  12. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

  13. Enhancement of iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide by thiocyanate and accumulation of iron(II)/thiocyanate/nitric oxide complex under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2012-01-13

    Iron(III) ingested as a food component or supplement for iron deficiencies can react with salivary SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+) and can be reduced to iron(II) by ascorbic acid in the stomach. Iron(II) generated in the stomach can react with salivary nitrite and SCN(-) to produce nitric oxide (NO) and FeSCN(+), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to make clear the reactions among nitrite, SCN(-), iron ions, and ascorbic acid under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice. Iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to NO was enhanced by SCN(-) in acidic buffer solutions, and the oxidation product of iron(II) reacted with SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+). Almost all of the NO produced was autoxidized to N(2)O(3) under aerobic conditions. Iron(II)-dependent production of NO was also observed in acidified saliva. Under anaerobic conditions, NO transformed Fe(SCN)(2+) and FeSCN(+) to Fe(SCN)NO(+) in acidic buffer solutions. Fe(SCN)NO(+) was also formed under aerobic conditions when excess ascorbic acid was added to iron(II)/nitrite/SCN(-) systems in acidic buffer solutions and acidified saliva. The Fe(SCN)NO(+) formed was transformed to Fe(SCN)(2+) and iron(III) at pH 2.0 and pH 7.4, respectively, by O(2). Salivary glycoproteins could complex with iron(III) in the stomach preventing the formation of Fe(SCN)(2+). Ascorbic acid reduced iron(III) to iron(II) to react with nitrite and SCN(-) as described above. The above results suggest (i) that iron(II) can have toxic effects on the stomach through the formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species from NO when supplemented without ascorbic acid and through the formation of both reactive nitrogen oxide species and Fe(SCN)NO(+) when supplemented with ascorbic acid, and (ii) that the toxic effects of iron(III) seemed to be smaller than and similar to those of iron(II) when supplemented without and with ascorbic acid, respectively. Possible mechanisms that cause oxidative stress on the stomach

  14. Fluid intake and industrial processing in apple juice induced chronic non-specific diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Ghoos, Y F; Hartemink, R; Kneepkens, C M

    1995-01-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to contribute to the occurrence or persistence of chronic non-specific diarrhoea (CNSD). Among these are low dietary fat, high fluid consumption, and the consumption of apple juice. Prompted by the clinical impression that freshly pressed and unprocessed ('cloudy') apple juice was less likely to induce diarrhoea than normal, enzymatically processed ('clear') apple juice, both juices were compared in terms of carbohydrate malabsorption, gastric emptying, and effects on defecation patterns. Clear and cloudy apple juice differ in their fibre and non-absorbable monosaccharide and oligosaccharide contents. Ten healthy children aged 3.6 to 5.9 years ingested 10 ml/kg of clear and cloudy apple juice; in five of them it was enriched with 40 mg of [1-13C]-glycine. Clear apple juice resulted in increased (> or = 20 ppm) breath hydrogen excretion in 8/10, compared with 5/10 after cloudy apple juice; peak breath hydrogen was higher in the clear apple juice group (35 (4) and 18 (3) ppm, respectively). Gastric emptying as determined by means of labelled breath carbon dioxide (13CO2) excretion was similar with both juices. In a four week crossover clinical trial 12 children, formerly diagnosed as having CNSD, were given extra clear fluids (excluding fruit juices; > or = 50% over basal consumption), clear apple juice, or cloudy apple juice, for five day periods. Extra fluids and cloudy apple juice did not influence stool frequency and consistency compared with the basal period. In contrast, clear apple juice significantly promoted diarrhoea. It is suggested that, in addition to fructose, the increased availability of non-absorbable monosaccharides and oligosaccharides as a result of the enzymatic processing of apple pulp is an important aetiological factor in apple juice induced CNSD. PMID:7574855

  15. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro‐esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000‐fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  16. Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-02-01

    Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

  17. Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.

    PubMed

    Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria

    2011-07-01

    Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids. PMID:21834231

  18. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs. PMID:22382183

  19. Elemental composition of dog foods using nitric acid and simulated gastric digestions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David G; White, Steven D; Weir, Ron D

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen dry dog foods obtained commercially in the United States were digested using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and a simulated gastric digestion. Digests were analysed for 23 elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data, expressed as dry matter concentrations, were compared to published nitric acid digestion results. Nitric acid data obtained in the present study were not statistically different from published data, with the exception of Mo, Sn, Sb, Tl and Th. However, significant differences in individual intra-sample results were observed between published studies and the present work. Simulated gastric digestions demonstrated lower extraction efficiencies (<50% nitric acid digestions) that were statistically significant. Much lower bioavailability was observed for Al, Ba and Pb. In general, elemental concentrations were determined to be lower than the appropriate Mineral Tolerance Limit or consistent with background concentrations in foodstuffs. Evaluation against Reference Doses (RfDs) showed concentrations for many elements obtained by nitric acid digestion to be above RfD levels. However, the respective simulated gastric digestion data were below or only moderately elevated above RfDs. Only arsenic displayed median and maximum concentrations at factors of five and ten above the relevant RfD. PMID:23402861

  20. A comparison between the gastric and salivary concentration of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide in man

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R. McG.; Alexander, W. D.; Shimmins, J.; Chisholm, D.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of iodide (I−) and pertechnetate (TcO4−) and bromide (Br−) has been measured simultaneously in gastric juice and parotid saliva. The combined gastric and salivary clearance for iodide and pertechnetate is more than twice the clearance of these ions by the thyroid gland. The concentration of the ions was in the order I−>TcO4−>Br− in both gastric juice and saliva. Differences exist between the secretion of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide. Bromide, in contrast to iodide and pertechnetate, was found to be more concentrated in gastric juice than in saliva. The ratio of the iodide to pertechnetate clearance was greater in gastric juice than in saliva. PMID:5358585

  1. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  2. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-08-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals.

  3. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  4. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

  5. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice, shalgam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and anti...

  6. Altering sphingolipid composition with aging induces contractile dysfunction of gastric smooth muscle via K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Shinkyu; Kim, Ji Aee; Kim, Tae Hun; Li, Hai-Yan; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon; Oh, Seikwan; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2015-12-01

    K(Ca) 1.1 regulates smooth muscle contractility by modulating membrane potential, and age-associated changes in K(Ca) 1.1 expression may contribute to the development of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important structural components of cellular membranes whose altered composition may affect K(Ca) 1.1 expression. Thus, in this study, we examined whether altered SL composition due to aging may affect the contractility of gastric smooth muscle (GSM). We studied changes in ceramide synthases (CerS) and SL levels in the GSM of mice of varying ages and compared them with those in young CerS2-null mice. The levels of C16- and C18-ceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were increased, and levels of C22, C24:1 and C24 ceramides were decreased in the GSM of both aged wild-type and young CerS2-null mice. The altered SL composition upregulated K(Ca) 1.1 and increased K(Ca) 1.1 currents, while no change was observed in K(Ca) 1.1 channel activity. The upregulation of KC a 1.1 impaired intracellular Ca²⁺mobilization and decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain levels, causing GSM contractile dysfunction. Additionally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase Cζ , c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and nuclear factor kappa-B were found to be involved in K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that age-associated changes in SL composition or CerS2 ablation upregulate K(Ca) 1.1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase Cζ /c-Jun N-terminal kinases/nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated pathway and impair Ca²⁺ mobilization, which thereby induces the contractile dysfunction of GSM. CerS2-null mice exhibited similar effects to aged wild-type mice; therefore, CerS2-null mouse models may be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of aging-associated motility disorders. PMID:26288989

  7. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  8. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  9. Zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite as coating for solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for trace analysis of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza; Kashkoei, Parvin Khodaei; Kazemipour, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    In the present research, the ZnO-CuO nanoplate composite (ZCNC), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating, was prepared and its extraction capability for certain chlorophenols (CPs) was studied through directly sampling the typical CPs mixed standard solution of 4-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high performance liquid chromatography. ZCNC thickness was in the range of 50-65 nm. The effective variables on ZCNC-SPME extraction efficiency were extraction time, salt percentage, and desorption time. Accordingly, a multivariate strategy was applied based on an experimental design by using central composite design for optimizing the significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 6), that include repeatability and reproducibility as the target analytes, were in the range of 0.5-5 ng ml(-1) and 5.1-14 % of standard solutions at 50 ng ml(-1) concentration of CPs, respectively. The developed technique is believed to be successfully applicable to preconcentration and determination of target analytes in environmental water and tomato juice samples. Graphical Abstract Application of zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite for extraction of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples and optimizing condition by experimental design method. PMID:26995010

  10. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  11. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  12. Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Teleszko, Mirosława; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935

  13. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  14. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins. PMID:26299317

  15. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC. PMID:24569566

  16. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

  17. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied. PMID:18494487

  18. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  19. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  20. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  2. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. PMID:15182901

  3. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  4. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health. PMID:26809803

  5. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established. PMID:21892892

  6. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  7. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  8. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  9. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  10. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  11. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  12. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  13. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  14. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  15. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  16. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  17. Effect of lapachol, a naphthaquinone isolated from Tectona grandis, on experimental peptic ulcer and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Pathak, N K; Biswas, M; Pandey, V B; Sanyal, A K

    1987-02-01

    Lapachol, a naphthaquinone isolated from the roots of Tectona grandis given at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 p.o. twice daily for 3 days was found to have an anti-ulcerogenic effect on subsequently induced experimental gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats and guinea-pigs. Its action appears to be associated with an effect on the protein content of gastric juice, and it reversed aspirin-induced changes in peptic activity, protein and sialic acid. PMID:2882001

  18. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an alcohol content exceeding 24 percent by volume. Although not considered to be wine, juice or...

  19. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an alcohol content exceeding 24 percent by volume. Although not considered to be wine, juice or...

  20. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  2. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  3. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  4. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  5. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  6. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  7. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  9. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  11. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  13. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato...

  14. Identification of Gastric Cancer Biomarkers Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gokula Krishnan; Yong, Wei Peng; Yeow, Chen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Existing gastric cancer diagnosing methods were invasive, hence, a reliable non-invasive gastric cancer diagnosing method is needed. As a starting point, we used 1H NMR for identifying gastric cancer biomarkers using a panel of gastric cancer spheroids and normal gastric spheroids. We were able to identify 8 chemical shift biomarkers for gastric cancer spheroids. Our data suggests that the cancerous and non-cancerous spheroids significantly differ in the lipid composition and energy metabolism. These results encourage the translation of these biomarkers into in-vivo gastric cancer detection methodology using MRI-MS. PMID:27611679

  15. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  16. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  17. RAPID HEALING OF PEPTIC ULCERS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING FRESH CABBAGE JUICE

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Garnett

    1949-01-01

    Thirteen patients with peptic ulcer were treated with fresh cabbage juice, which, experiments have indicated, contains an antipeptic ulcer factor. This factor (vitamin U) prevents the development of histamin-induced peptic ulcers in guinea pigs. The average crater healing time for seven of these patients who had duodenal ulcer was only 10.4 days, while the average time as reported in the literature, in 62 patients treated by standard therapy, was 37 days. The average crater healing time for six patients with gastric ulcer treated with cabbage juice was only 7.3 days, compared with 42 days, as reported in the literature, for six patients treated by standard therapy. The rapid healing of peptic ulcers observed radiologically and gastroscopically in 13 patients treated with fresh cabbage juice indicates that the anti-peptic ulcer dietary factor may play an important role in the genesis of peptic ulcer in man. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:18104715

  18. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

  19. The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marszałek, Krystian; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

  20. Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program

    PubMed Central

    Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36 051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant. PMID:23629613

  1. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the β-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  2. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  3. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  4. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  5. Determination of Zinc(II) Ions Released into Artificial Digestive Juices from Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetidae), Biomass of In Vitro Cultures Using an Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Method.

    PubMed

    Kala, Katarzyna; Muszynska, Bozena; Zajac, Magdalena; Krezalek, Remigiusz; Opoka, Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is one of those microelements that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body and must be supplemented in our food at a daily dose of 15 mg. It is well known that mushrooms accumulate elements; thus, in order to determine the extent of accumulation and the level of zinc released from mushrooms, in vitro cultures of Agaricus bisporus were established. The cultures were run on a modified Oddoux medium (a control culture) as well as on the same medium with the addition of zinc hydroaspartate (100 and 200 mg/L) and zinc sulfate (87.23 and 174.47 mg/L). These compounds were chosen to help estimate which form, organic or inorganic, results in a better assimilation of zinc(II) ions by biomass. As the next step, the level of zinc(II) ions released from the lyophilized biomass of in vitro cultures to the digestive juices, under thermal conditions of the human body (37°C), was determined. For this purpose, artificial digestive juices, imitating the composition of human digestive juices, were used. For determination of zinc(II) ions in the digestive tract, an anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed. The amount of zinc released into artificial saliva over 1 minute varied from 0.15 mg/100 g d.w. in the control culture to 2.35 mg/100 g d.w. in the biomass in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. Values were higher in gastric juice and depended on incubation time (2.66 to 30.63 mg/100 g d.w.). In intestinal juice, the highest value of the released zinc grew to 24.20 mg/100 g d.w. (biomass of A. bisporus in vitro cultures in medium with the addition of 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate). Total average amount of zinc released into artificial digestive juices was the highest (56.26 mg/100 g d.w.) from A. bisporus biomass of in vitro cultures in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. PMID:27279537

  6. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  7. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  8. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  9. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  10. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  11. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element. PMID:26579582

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products

    PubMed Central

    PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ≤6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice. PMID:18290732

  14. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store varieties aren't strong ... popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a doctor says. Many people drink cranberry juice ...

  15. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either...

  16. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice. PMID:25996796

  17. The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–∞ and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine). PMID:20865058

  18. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice. PMID:10888515

  19. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-05-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. PMID:7541007

  20. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. Images p665-a PMID:7541007

  1. Quantitative study of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus by competitive PCR using synthetic DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, T; Kaneko, E; Suzuki, M; Arai, H; Futami, H

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is closely related to upper gastrointestinal diseases, and the precise evaluation of H. pylori infection is necessary for the treatment of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish a method for the quantitative detection of H. pylori. We applied a competitive PCR method using various amounts of synthetic DNA fragments containing the same primer-binding and a subset of the same template sequences as the target competing for primer binding and amplification in order to quantify H. pylori in gastric mucus. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of histological examination, the rapid urease test, bacterial culture, the [13C]urea breath test, and urea and ammonia measurements in gastric juice. As the quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus increased, the rates of positivity of histological examination, the rapid urease test, and bacterial culture increased. The quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus was also significantly correlated with the results of the [13C]urea breath test and was negatively correlated with the urea/ammonia ratio in gastric juice. The competitive PCR method provides an objective measure of the quantity of H. pylori and makes it possible to distinguish true negatives from false negatives due to incomplete PCR and true positives from false positives due to contamination. This method is very useful for the precise evaluation of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:8880492

  2. Cashew juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Moreira; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2014-09-01

    The enzyme dextransucrase in a medium containing sucrose and an acceptor as substrate synthesizes prebiotics oligosaccharides. The cashew apple juice works as a source of acceptors because it is rich in glucose and fructose (enzyme acceptors). The use of cashew apple juice becomes interesting because it aims at harnessing the peduncle of the cashew that is wasted during the nut processing, which is the product of greater economic expression. The production of dextransucrase enzyme was done by fermentative process by inoculating the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F into a culture medium containing sucrose as the only carbon source. Thus, the aim of this work was the production of prebiotic oligosaccharides by enzymatic process with addition of the dextransucrase enzyme to the clarified cashew apple juice. Dextran yield was favored by the combination of low concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars. The formation of oligosaccharides was favored by increasing the concentration of reducing sugars and by the combination of high concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars, the highest concentration of oligosaccharides obtained was 104.73 g/L and the qualitative analysis showed that at concentrations of 25 g/L and 75 g/L of sucrose and reducing sugar, respectively, it is possible to obtain oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization up to 12. The juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharide is a potential new functional beverage. PMID:25190866

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of chokeberry juice phenolics during in vitro simulated digestion in the presence of food matrix.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Samardžić, Jelena; Janković, Teodora; Šavikin, Katarina; Mojsin, Marija; Topalović, Vladanka; Stevanović, Milena

    2015-05-15

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to in vitro gastric digestion in the presence of food matrix in order to determine the changes in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Addition of food matrix immediately decreased the total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, DPPH scavenging activity as well as total reducing power by 36%, 90%, 45% and 44%, respectively. After in vitro digestion, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and reducing power are slightly elevated, but they are still lower than in initial non-digested juice. The effect of digested juice on Caco-2 cells proliferation was also studied, and the reduction of proliferative rate by approximately 25% was determined. Our results suggested that although a large proportion of chokeberry phenolics undergo transformation during digestion they are still potent as antioxidant and antiproliferative agents. PMID:25577114

  4. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  5. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  6. An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

    2012-09-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the mission science goals do not include any astronomical observations, we find by modeling the Interstellar Dust (ISD) trajectories that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in-situ observations of Interstellar Dust, due to highly increased flux levels at that time at the orbit of Jupiter. If JUICE would carry a dust detector, this could lead to exclusive highresolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

  7. An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Postberg, F.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

    2012-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the current mission science goals do not include any astrophysical observations, we find that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in situ measurements of Interstellar Dust (ISD), due to highly increased flux levels at that time. In case that JUICE carries a dust detector, this could lead to in situ high-resolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

  8. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics evaluation of non-thermal processing of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Almeida, Francisca D L; Cavalcante, Rosane S; de Brito, Edy S; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus M; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma and ozone treatments on the key compounds (sugars, amino acids and short chain organic acids) in orange juice by NMR and chemometric analysis. The juice was directly and indirectly exposed to atmospheric cold plasma field at 70kV for different treatment time (15, 30, 45 and 60sec). For ozone processing different loads were evaluated. The Principal Component Analysis shown that the groups of compounds are affected differently depending on the processing. The ozone was the processing that more affected the aromatic compounds and atmospheric cold plasma processing affected more the aliphatic compounds. However, these variations did not result in significant changes in orange juice composition as a whole. Thus, NMR data and chemometrics were suitable to follow quality changes in orange juice processing by atmospheric cold plasma and ozone. PMID:26988481

  9. Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.

    PubMed

    Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2015-04-22

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for β-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than β-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  12. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  15. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  16. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  17. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

  18. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

    1995-01-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

  19. Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

  20. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  2. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  3. Update on gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence. PMID:24891929

  4. Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; de Lima Filho, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140 rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

  5. Drug interactions with grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ameer, B; Weintraub, R A

    1997-08-01

    Some drugs demonstrate a significantly greater (up to 3-fold) mean oral bioavailability on coadministration with grapefruit juice. With some calcium antagonists, the benzodiazepines midazolam and triazolam and the antihistamine terfenadine, changes in bioavailability are accompanied by altered drug action. Study design factors possibly contribute to the magnitude of changes in drug bioavailability; they include the source of the citrus, its intake schedule, drug formulations and individual metabolising capacity. The components of citrus juice that are responsible for clinical drug interactions have yet to be fully determined. Based on the flavonoid naringin's unique distribution in the plant kingdom, abundance in grapefruit and ability to inhibit metabolic enzymes, naringin is likely to be one of the grapefruit components influencing drug metabolism. Other components present in citrus fruit, such as furanocoumarins, may be more potent inhibitors than flavonoids and are under investigation. Conclusions drawn from clinical drug interaction studies should be considered specific to the citrus fruit products evaluated because of the variation in their natural product content. The predominant mechanism for enhanced bioavailability is presumably the inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism in the small intestine. The consistent findings across studies of diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates support the mechanistic hypothesis that 1 or more grapefruit juice components inhibit CYP3A enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The evaluation of the need to avoid the concomitant intake of grapefruit products with drugs is best done on an individual drug basis rather than collectively by drug class. Based on the narrow therapeutic range of cyclosporin and research experience in organ transplant recipients, its interaction with grapefruit juice is likely to be clinically significant. PMID:9260034

  6. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P < 0.01 =, and reached the lowest point, 0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ± 2.58mmol/L and 2.23mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION:Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  7. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    PubMed

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. PMID:24287419

  8. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  9. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  10. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  11. Long noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: functions and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajun; Sun, Jingxu; Wang, Jun; Song, Yongxi; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jinxin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, genome-wide studies have revealed that only a small fraction of the human genome encodes proteins; long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) account for 98% of the total genome. These RNA molecules, which are >200 nt in length, play important roles in diverse biological processes, including the immune response, stem cell pluripotency, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying lncRNA function are only partially understood. Recent studies showed that many lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, gastric juice, plasma, and cells, and these alterations are linked to the occurrence, progression, and outcome of GC. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biological functions and clinical aspects of lncRNAs in GC. PMID:26929639

  12. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  13. Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 μg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-∞ of midazolam by ∼30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1′-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-∞ ratio by ∼40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  14. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  15. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be

  16. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  17. Importance of luminal and mucosal zinc in the mechanism of experimental gastric ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Opoka, W; Adamek, D; Plonka, M; Reczynski, W; Bas, B; Drozdowicz, D; Jagielski, P; Sliwowski, Z; Adamski, P; Brzozowski, T

    2010-10-01

    Zinc has been reported to exert a gastroprotective action against various experimental gastric lesions suggesting that this trace element is involved in the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Compounds containing zinc, such as polaprezinc, were developed in Japan and used as an antiulcer drugs in the treatment of human peptic ulcer disease. However, the precise mechanism of Zn(2+) containing compounds and their effects on mucosal integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing remain unclear. We have determined the efficacy of zinc hydroaspartate, a compound containing Zn(2+), in the mechanism of gastric secretion and ulcer healing in rats with chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid (initial ulcer area = 28 mm(2)). Rats with gastric ulcers were randomized into two groups: A) with gastric fistulas (GF) and B) without gastric fistulas and received a daily treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (32-130 mg/kg-d i.g.) for 3, 7 and 14 days. At the termination of each treatment, the area of gastric ulcers were examined by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and H(2)-gas clearance methods. The venous blood was withdrawn for a measurement of plasma gastrin levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The concentration of Zn(2+) in the gastric juice and mucosa at the ulcer margin were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) methods and the gastric biopsy samples were taken for histopathological assessment of the quality of ulcer healing. The ulcers healed gradually, with the ulcer area in the vehicle control rats being diminished by 15%, 48% and 78% upon ulcer induction at 3, 7 and 14 days, respectively. Zinc hydroaspartate dose-dependently inhibited the area of gastric ulcer, the dose reducing this area by 50% (ID(50)) being about 60 mg/kg-d. The mucosal concentration of Zn(2+) significantly was unchanged from the baseline immediately after ulcer

  18. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  19. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  20. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., may be seasoned with salt, and may be acidified with any safe and suitable organic acid. The juice may... which such tomato juice fails to meet, as follows: (i) “Poor color”. (ii)(a) “Excessive pieces of...

  1. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized... label may bear the alternative statement, “Below Standard in Quality ___”, the blank to be filled in.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  2. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  3. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  4. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  5. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  6. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  7. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  8. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  9. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  10. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  11. Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Gang; Xie, Chuan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Zhang, Kun-He; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in

  12. Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIAO-GANG; XIE, CHUAN; CHEN, JIANG; XIE, YONG; ZHANG, KUN-HE; LU, NONG-HUA

    2015-01-01

    A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in

  13. The release of histamine during gastric acid secretion in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    el Munshid, H. A.; Lake, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Conscious gastric-cannulated rats were given [3H]histidine and aminoguanidine by dosage procedures intended to build up fast-turnover and slow-turnover pools of tissue [3H]histamine. Acid secretion was stimulated by I.V. infusion of pentagastrin, and the [3H]histamine content of gastric juice and excretion in urine were determined at 30 min intervals. 2. The amount of [3H]histamine in gastric juice derived from either a slow-turnover or fast-turnover pool was very low in unstimulated animals, and was not altered during pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. 3. From a slow-turnover pool pentagastrin caused increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. This was abolished by gastrectomy, so that the [3H]histamine liberated by pentagastrin from this pool appears to have been derived from the stomach. Evidence was not found for the existence of a slow-turnover histamine pool in the glandular mucosa of the stomach, and the source within the stomach of this pentagastrin-liberated histamine is thus uncertain. 4. From a fast-turnover pool pentagastrin did not cause an increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. The amount of [3H]histamine excreted by gastrectomized rats was not different from that produced by gastric-cannulated animals. This suggests that a high proportion of urinary histamine derived from a fast-turnover pool was non-gastric in origin. 5. Differences in the time scale of [3H]histamine release and acid secretion were not found. In some experiments the urinary output of [3H]histamine was prolonged beyond the end of pentagastrin administration and gastric acid secretion. However, the overall data do not suggest that urinary histamine output and gastric acid secretion take different time courses. PMID:4141368

  14. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice).

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Abellán, Ángel; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-04-20

    In this study we analyzed whether our aronia-citrus juice (ACJ, the composition is based on a mixture of 95% citrus juice with 5% of Aronia melanocarpa juice), rich in polyphenols, and physical exercise had an effect on seven catabolites of DNA identified in plasma and on a urine isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α). Sixteen elite triathletes on a controlled diet for triathlon training (45 days) were used in this clinical trial. Our results show a decrease in the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration due to chronic physical exercise. The ACJ intake and physical exercise maintained the guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plasmatic concentrations and decreased the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanine as well as urinary values of 8-iso-PGF2α. Finally, we observed a significant increase in the 8-nitroguanosine levels in triathletes after ACJ intake, compared to the placebo stage. It is concluded that the combination of the intake of ACJ, rich in polyphenolic compounds, with adequate training was able to influence the plasmatic and urinary values of oxidative stress biomarkers. This suggests a positive effect on the oxidative damage and potential associations with DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27050256

  15. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  19. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  1. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  6. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  7. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  8. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  12. Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

  13. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

  14. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  15. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  16. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  17. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  18. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  19. Occupation and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

    2003-05-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  20. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ... panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity . 2009;17:842-62. PMID: 19396063 www.ncbi. ...

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  2. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  4. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  5. Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA. PMID:23970937

  6. Modelling of NIM/PEP/JUICE measurements of Callisto's ice-sputtered exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Galli, A.; Mousis, O.; Barabash, S.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission[1], which is currently in implementation by the European Space Agency (ESA), is intended for the detailed investigation of the giant gaseous planet Ju- piter and its three largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. The Particle Environment Package (PEP), part of JUICE's science payload, contains 6 sensors for comprehensive in situ measurements of electrons, ions and neutrals found in the Galilean moons' vicinity [2]. One of the suite's sensors, the Neutral and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM), will measure the neutral and ion composition of the exospheres of the three satellites during flybys and in orbit.

  7. Structure and preventive effects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer of an expolysaccharide from Lachnum sp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ru-Yue; Ye, Zi-Yang; Ye, Hui-Ran; Ye, Ming

    2016-05-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide of Lachnum sp. (LEP) was purified by DEAE-cellulose 52 column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 3.22×10(4)Da. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, periodate oxidation-smith degradation, infrared spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a (1→3)-,(1→6)-β-D-Glcp, whose branch chain was consist of two d-glucopyranosyl residues linked by β-1,3-glycosidic linkage, which was linked at C6 of the backbone chain by β-1,6-glycosidic linkage. To study the protective effects of LEP-2a on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice, LEP-2a (100, 200 and 400mg/kg/d) was given to mice by gavage for 2 weeks. Results showed that LEP-2a significantly decreased the ulcer bleeding areas, pepsin activity, gastric juice volume, gastric juice total acidity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum. Meanwhile, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly. The above findings suggested that LEP-2a had a significant preventive effect against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. PMID:26774377

  8. Effective gastric acid suppression after oral administration of enteric-coated omeprazole granules.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M A; Pursnani, K G; Katzka, D A; Gideon, R M; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    1997-04-01

    Omeprazole is inactivated by exposure to gastric acid and is formulated as a gelatin capsule containing enteric-coated granules that release the drug in alkaline medium. In clinical situations where patients are unable to take the capsule orally, the optimum means of administration is uncertain. Eleven normal volunteers were given omeprazole 20 mg every day for one week before breakfast in random order as either a 20-mg capsule with water or free enteric-coated granules with either 8 oz of orange juice, 8 oz of water with 2 Alka-Seltzer antacid tablets (aspirin free), or 1 teaspoon of apple sauce. On day 7 of each regimen, an 8-hr intragastric pH study was performed following omeprazole 20 mg and standard breakfast. The median percentage of time of gastric acid pH > 4 after an omeprazole capsule was 68.5 (25-100); after granules with orange juice 59 (43-100); after granules in Alka-Seltzer solution 63 (31-100), and after granules in apple sauce 65 (30-99), with no significant differences (ANOVA). The time for the gastric pH to reach <4' after having been above was also similar for all four regimens (ANOVA). Omeprazole granules administered orally in a variety of ways achieve gastric acid suppression as effectively as the intact capsule. PMID:9125637

  9. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  10. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. PMID:26562229