Sample records for gastric juice composition

  1. RAPTOR GASTRIC JUICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Cummings; G. E. Duke; A. A. Jegers

    1976-01-01

    To determine whether falconiforms digest the bones of their prey more thor- oughly than strigiforms because of greater gastric acidity in falconiforms, mouse bones were incubated in solutions simulating gastric juice from the two orders. Solutions simulating the gastric juice of falconiforms with a pH of 1.66 corroded bones more extensively than solutions simulating strigiform gastric juice with a pH

  2. Clot lysis by gastric juice: an in vitro study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S E Patchett; H Enright; N Afdhal; W OConnell; D P ODonoghue

    1989-01-01

    Gastric juice from patients with peptic ulcer disease and from patients with no upper gastrointestinal abnormality was studied in order to assess its effect on a formed fibrin clot. In both groups of patients gastric juice caused a marked increase in fibrinolysis as evidenced by a shortening of the euglobulin clot lysis time. This plasmin mediated fibrinolytic activity was found

  3. [Gastric juice calcium content in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Bychkov, M A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate free calcium content of gastric juice in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). After analyzing the calcium levels of gastric juice in patients with GERD and healthy people we found that calcium levels in the gastric juice of patients with GERD was significantly lower than normal. It was also analyzes the relationship between free calcium content of saliva and the same index in the gastric juice. It was revealed increasing the ratio of free calcium saliva and gastric juice in patients with GERD. This ratio increases with the progression of the disease, which may indicate on deep motility disorders of gastro-esophageal connection. PMID:25528854

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric juice vitamin C levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodoros Rokkas; Georgios Papatheodorou; Andreas Karameris; Anastasios Mavrogeorgis; Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos; Nikolaos Giannikos

    1995-01-01

    H. pylori has recently been recognized as a novel risk factor of gastric cancer, but its precise role in gastric carcinogenesis is as yet unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship betweenH. pylori infection and vitamin C levels in gastric juice and also to examine whether eradication ofH. pylori could have any impact on these

  5. Azithromycin levels in plasma and gastric tissue, juice and mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Harrison; J. A. Jones; D. L. Morris

    1991-01-01

    Azithromycin is the first member of a new class called the azalides. Its distribution in gastric tissues was studied in 27 patients (mean age 66 years) with proven gastric cancer due to be resected. Five groups of patients received a single 500 mg oral dose of azithromycin 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h pre-operatively. Samples of blood, gastric juice,

  6. Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Banerjee; C. Hawksby; S. Miller; S. Dahill; A D Beattie; K E McColl

    1994-01-01

    The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric

  7. Gastric physiology and function: effects of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, A A; Sabri, M T

    1996-10-01

    The stomach stores food and starts digesting protein and fat. Lipids, sugars, certain amino acids, and nutrients of high osmolality trigger sensory mechanisms from the intestine which inhibit gastric emptying. Food rich in carbohydrates leaves the stomach slower than protein-rich food, and emptying is slowest after a meal containing lipid. For carbohydrate beverages, the gastric emptying rate is primarily determined by the volume, caloric content, and osmolality of fluid ingested. Gastric emptying rates vary among isocaloric beverages of different type (e.g., sucrose, fructose, galactose) or forms (e.g., maltodextrins, starches) of carbohydrate. For instance, gastric emptying is faster for a fructose solution compared with isocaloric glucose and galactose solutions. A maltodextrin or a sucrose solution empties faster than a glucose solution. This is possibly due to the greater inhibitory feedback associated with the introduction of glucose in the duodenum. In addition, fruit juices contain soluble fibers which further modulate the gastric emptying. Noninvasive methods to study gastric emptying have recently been developed. The pattern of the myoelectric activity of the gastric contraction and the effect of meals on this pattern can now be recorded by cutaneous electrodes. In healthy children ingesting different juices, the myoelectric pattern of the stomach (indicator of the gastric emptying) correlates with the carbohydrate absorption (measured by breath hydrogen excretion). Fast gastric emptying was associated with greater production of breath hydrogen. The malabsorption of juice carbohydrates may in part be related to their effect on gastric motility. PMID:8892179

  8. Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G M Sobala; C J Schorah; S Shires; D A Lynch; B Gallacher; M F Dixon; A T Axon

    1993-01-01

    Ascorbic acid, the reduced form of vitamin C, may protect against gastric cancer and is secreted by the normal stomach. Secretion is impaired in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) associated chronic gastritis. This study examined if eradication of H pylori improves gastric juice ascorbate values. Fasting gastric juice and plasma samples were collected at endoscopy from patients participating in trials of

  9. Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Mowat; Andrew Carswell; Angela Wirz; Kenneth E. L. McColl

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hypochlorhydria is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We have studied the effect of pharmacologically induced hypochlorhydria on the gastric juice ascorbate\\/nitrite ratio, which regulates the synthesis of potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Methods: Saliva, gastric juice, and serum from 20 healthy volunteers (9 positive for Helicobacter pylori), with a mean age of 30 years (range,

  10. Epidermal growth factor is digested to smaller, less active forms in acidic gastric juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Playford; Tania Marchbank; Denis P. Calnan; John Calam; Patrick Royston; Jeremy J. Batten; Hans F. Hansen

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in gastric juice and has potent mitogenic properties. The stability of EGF in gastric juice under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions was examined. Methods: Recombinant human EGF1–53 was incubated with HCl containing pepsin. We also determined the forms of EGF present in the gastric juice of patients under basal conditions, patients taking the

  11. Helicobacter Pylori?associated gastritis and the ascorbic acid concentration in gastric juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Carlton Rood; Bernardo Ruiz; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham; Gray T. Malcom; Fred M. Hunter; Mahboob Sobhan; William D. Johnson; Pelayo Correa

    1994-01-01

    Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low ascorbic acid concentration in gastric juice. Low vitamin C intake and Helicobacter pylori infection have been related to an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. This report examines the association between ascorbic acid and Helicobacter pylori in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Elevated gastric pH and the damage to the gastric surface

  12. Secretion of intravenously administered antibiotics in gastric juice: implications for management of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J van Zanten; J Goldie; J Hollingsworth; C Silletti; H Richardson; R H Hunt

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether differences in eradication rates of antibiotics may be explained by differences in secretion of antibiotics in gastric juice. METHODS: A single intravenous dose of either ampicillin 500 mg, erythromycin 500 mg, or metronidazole 500 mg was administered to four healthy Helicobacter pylori negative volunteers on different days. Antibiotic concentrations were measured in gastric juice before and

  13. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. E. Inyang; U. J. Abah

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple

  14. Alkylating activity of processed fish products treated with sodium nitrite in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Yano, K

    1981-06-01

    The alkylating activity of extracts from several fish products with or without sodium nitrite in simulated gastric juice has been investigated. Some of the extracts had strong alkylating potency which may be due to the action of the formed N-nitrosamides. These compounds were not derived from nitrosation of methylguanidine and agmatine or from pyrolysis products of the processed fish. The results suggest an urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of nitrosation of various foods in simulated gastric juice. PMID:7319202

  15. Pharmacological manipulation of gastric juice: thrombelastographic assessment and implications for treatment of gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S E Patchett; D P ODonoghue

    1995-01-01

    The impairment of formation and maintenance of a formed fibrin clot contributes to the prolonged bleeding and high incidence of rebleeding in upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. To investigate the basis for the use of drug therapy in gastric bleeding, this study used thrombelastography to determine the effects of pharmacological manipulation of gastric juice on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The thrombelastograph is a

  16. Bacterial killing in gastric juice - effect of pH and pepsin on Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhu; C. A. Hart; D. Sales; N. B. Roberts

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori to pH and the effect of pepsin- mediated proteolysis were investigated. This was to establish the relative importance of their bacterial killing properties in gastric juice. Solutions in the pH range 1?5-7?4 with or without pig pepsin A were used, together with seven gastric juice samples obtained from patients undergoing routine gastric

  17. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Waring; I M Drake; C J Schorah; K L White; D A Lynch; A T Axon; M F Dixon

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that high dietary ascorbic acid reduces gastric cancer risk. It may do this by either reducing N-nitroso compound formation in gastric juice, or by scavenging reactive oxygen species in gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to discover if potential ascorbic acid protection might be increased by supplementation. Thirty two patients were supplemented with ascorbic acid,

  18. Monitoring of peri-distal gastrectomy carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level in gastric juice and its significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, A-Man; Huang, Lei; Han, Wen-Xiu; Wei, Zhi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common and deadly malignancies nowadays, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in gastric juice has been rarely studied. To compare peri-distal gastrectomy (DG) gastric juice and serum CA 19-9 and reveal its significance, we selected 67 patients diagnosed with gastric carcinoma who underwent DG, and collected their perioperative gastric juice whose CA 19-9 was detected, with serum CA 19-9 monitored as a comparison. We found that: gastric juice CA 19-9 pre-gastrectomy was significantly correlated with tumor TNM classification, regarding tumor size, level of gastric wall invaded, differentiated grade and number of metastatic lymph nodes as influencing factors, while serum CA 19-9 revealed little information; gastric juice CA 19-9 was significantly correlated with radical degree, and regarded number of resected lymph nodes and classification of cutting edge as impact factors; thirteen patients whose gastric juice CA 19-9 rose post-DG showed features indicating poor prognosis; the difference of gastric juice CA 19-9 between pre- and post-gastrectomy was correlated with tumor TNM classification and radical degree, and regarded tumor size, number of resected metastatic and normal lymph nodes, sum of distances from tumor to cutting edges and classification of cutting edge as influential factors. We conclude that peri-DG gastric juice CA 19-9 reveals much information about tumor and radical gastrectomy, and may indicate prognosis; while serum CA 19-9 has limited significance. PMID:24482710

  19. Effect of omeprazole on the distribution of metronidazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin in human gastric juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AF Goddard; MJ Jessa; DA Barrett; PN Shaw; JP Idstrom; C Cederberg; RC Spiller

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mechanism by which antimicrobial therapy against Helicobacter pylori is enhanced by acid suppression is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of omeprazole on gastric juice, plasma, and saliva concentrations of metronidazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. METHODS: Single doses of antibiotic were administered intravenously to 24 healthy men (each antibiotic to 8 subjects)

  20. [Isolation, identification and quantitative determination of lysolecithin in the human gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Bürgi, W; Kaufmann, H; Clémençon, G

    1975-12-27

    Lysolecithin was isolated and identified from the gastric contents of 5 patients with gastric ulcer and erosive and atrophic gastritis. The methods used involved methanolic extration, column chromatography on silica gel and sephadex gel filtration, followed by preparative thin layer chromatography. Identification of lysolecithin was verified in one sample by thin layer chromatography and elementary analysis. A method for quantitation of lysolecithin in human gastric fluid for routine clinical analysis is described, based on the procedure used for identification of this phospholipid. Further, a hemolysis test is proposed for screening gastric contents for lysolecithin concentrations above approximately 10 mg/100 ml. With the quantitative method, an average concentration of 66.1 mg of lysolecithin in 100 ml gastric content was found in the group of 5 patients. The screening test was positive in all 5 samples, but was negative with native gastric juice in 25 persons serving as controls. When the gastric fluid of the controls was concentrated, however, 9 samples gave a positive hemolytic reaction. From these 9 specimens, the lysolecithin concentration was found to average 0.9 mg/100 ml. These findings afford evidence that lysolecithin may be involved as a factor in the pathogenesis of gastric ulceration. PMID:2972

  1. Gastric juice as a dissolution medium: Surface tension and pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Efentakis; J. B. Dressman

    1998-01-01

    Summary  Aspirated gastric juice from eight patients was measured for surface tension, bile salt concentration and pH. Surface tension\\u000a ranged between 35 and 45 mM\\/m, while pH was usually in the range 1–2 and bile salt concentrations were usually between 0 and\\u000a 1 mM. No correlations were found between the three parameters. These findings suggest that the low surface tension of

  2. Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria in simulated gastric juice and bile solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chian Lian; Hung-Chi Hsiao; Cheng-Chun Chou

    2003-01-01

    Microencapsulated cells of Bifidobacterium longum B6 and Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633 were prepared by spray drying the cell suspension containing the test organism and 10% (w\\/w) of the carrier material of either gelatin, soluble starch, skim milk or gum arabic. Survival of these microencapsulated and free cells of bifidobacteria in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0 and 3.0) and bile solution

  3. Effect of omeprazole on movement of intravenously administered metronidazole into gastric juice and its significance in treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander J. Veldhuyzen van Zanten; P. Timothy Pollak; Harsh Kapoor; Pollen K. Yeung

    1996-01-01

    Four healthy,Helicobacter-negative volunteers were studied to determine the effect of omeprazole on the movement of metronidazole across the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen. Each received a 500-mg intravenous infusion of metronidazole and repeated serum, and gastric juice samples were obtained concomitantly over an 8-hr study via indwelling intravenous catheter and nasogastric tube. The same protocol was repeated following one

  4. Severity of Helicobacter -induced gastric injury correlates with gastric juice ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej T. Triebling; Mark A. Korsten; Jan W. Dlugosz; Fiorenzo Paronetto; Charles S. Lieber

    1991-01-01

    We postulated that ammonia produced byHelicobacter pylori may contribute to gastric mucosal injury. This hypothesis was evaluated inHelicobacter-positive patients with chronic renal failure in whom a high urea concentration might amplify this phenomenon. Gastric urea and ammonia were measured, and the severity of gastritis was evaluated by counting mononuclear and polymorphonuclear, cells. High gastric ammonia and low urea inHelicobacter-positive patients,

  5. Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 ?m and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

  6. Dramatic diurnal variation in the concentration of the human trefoil peptide TFF2 in gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Semple, J; Newton, J; Westley, B; May, F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—TFF2, a member of the trefoil factor family of proteins, is a glycosylated protein of 106 amino acids. It is secreted by gastric antral and pyloric glands and by Brunner's glands of the duodenum. TFF2 is found in high concentrations around sites of ulceration. It stimulates cell motility and is probably the principal cytoprotective trefoil peptide in the stomach.?AIMS—To determine if production of TFF2 follows a circadian rhythm and to measure changes in secretion of TFF2 in response to food intake and during sleep.?SUBJECTS—Young healthy adults were recruited. They were asymptomatic and were not receiving medication. The 24 hour regimen was designed to allow normal stimulation of gastric secretion in response to food intake and sleep. Gastric juice was collected two hourly via a nasogastric tube.?METHODS—Glycosylated and non-glycosylated TFF2 proteins were measured by quantitative western transfer analysis. The results were analysed statistically using SPSS software.?RESULTS—There was a dramatic diurnal variation in the concentration of TFF2. The mean concentration was lowest in the early evening (0.29 µg/ml), increased gradually during the evening, and then sharply during the night to reach 7.9 µg/ml. The ratio of glycosylated to non-glycosylated TFF2 varied and was higher during the night than in the afternoon. pH, total protein, and pepsin concentrations in gastric juice did not vary significantly over 24 hours.?CONCLUSION—The data suggest that diurnal variations in TFF2 secretion occur independently of pepsin and gastric acid secretion. The concentration of glycosylated TFF2 in the gastric lumen falls in response to food intake. TFF2 secretion increases during inactivity and sleep. These results suggest that secretion of TFF2 in the stomach is highest during the night and that the cytoprotective effects of TFF2 on the gastric mucosa occur mainly during sleep.???Keywords: trefoil protein; human TFF2; gastric acid; diurnal; pepsin; circadian rhythm PMID:11302963

  7. Exposure to gastric juice may not cause adenocarcinogenesis of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Yong-Zhong; Gong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of gastric juice on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: A animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established in Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy. The development of EAC and forestomach adenocarcinoma was investigated 40 wk after the treatment. Intraluminal pH and bile of the forestomach were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pH (t = 0.117, P = 0.925) or bile (?2 = 0.036, P = 0.85) in the forestomach before and 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. There were also no significant differences between the model and controls during esophagoduodenostomy or 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia (88%) and intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (28%) in the esophagus in the model was higher than in the controls 40 wk after surgery (?2 = 43.06, P < 0.001 and ?2 = 9.33, P = 0.002, respectively) and in the forestomach in the model (?2 = 32.05, P < 0.001 and ?2 = 8.14, P = 0.004, respectively). The incidence rates of inflammation in the esophagus and forestomach were 100% and 96%, respectively (?2 = 1.02, P = 0.31) in the model, which was higher than in the esophageal control (6.8%) (?2 = 42.70, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Gastric juice exposure may not cause intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia or adenocarcinoma of the forestomach and may not be related to EAC. PMID:23613638

  8. Relationship between histology and gastric juice pH and nitrite in the stomach after operation for duodenal ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Watt; J M Sloan; J D Donaldson; C C Patterson; T L Kennedy

    1984-01-01

    One hundred patients who had undergone operation for duodenal ulcer (68 vagotomy and gastroenterostomy; seven vagotomy and pyloroplasty; 22 gastrectomy and three gastroenterostomy) 10 or more years previously each underwent endoscopy. Biopsies were taken and gastric juice aspirated for measurement of pH and nitrite concentration. Patients were divided into five histological grades; chronic superficial gastritis (+\\/- minimal atrophic gastritis) (35),

  9. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Beads in Simulated Gastric Juices and Bile Salt Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KI-YONG LEE; TAE-RYEON HEO

    2000-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel

  10. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova; K. Marazova; I. Krasnaliev; B. Galunska; P. Borisova; A. Belcheva

    2005-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in phenolic substances—mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and other activities. We studied the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and its possible relation to the oxidative status. AMFJ (5, 10 and 20mlkg?1) was applied

  11. Use of a Gastric Juice-Based PCR Assay To Detect Helicobacter pylori Infection in Culture-Negative Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARUHIKO YOSHIDA; KATSUTARO HIROTA; YASUSHI SHIRATORI; TAKESHI NIHEI; SHIN AMANO; AKIRA YOSHIDA; OSAMU KAWAMATA; MASAO OMATA

    1998-01-01

    A gastric juice-based PCR assay was compared with culture, microscopy, and a rapid urease test with specimens from 114 subjects. The PCR and conventional tests were positive for 76 and 62% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of gastroduodenal disease and seropositivity for anti-Helicobacter pylori immuno- globulin G were similarly high among conventional-test-positive and PCR-only-positive subjects compared to all-negative ones.

  12. Conversion of cannabidiol to ? 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoids in artificial gastric juice, and their pharmacological effects in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhito Watanabe; Yuka Itokawa; Satoshi Yamaori; Tatsuya Funahashi; Toshiyuki Kimura; Toshiyuki Kaji; Noriyuki Usami; Ikuo Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, was found to be converted to 9?-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol (9?-OH-HHC) and\\u000a 8-hydroxy-iso-hexahydrocannabinol (8-OH-iso-HHC) together with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), a psychoactive cannabinoid, and cannabinol in artificial gastric juice. These cannabinoids were identified by gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry (GC-MS) by comparison with the spectral data of the authentic compounds. Pharmacological effects of 9?-OH-HHC\\u000a and 8-OH-iso-HHC in mice were examined using catalepsy,

  13. Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

    1991-01-01

    The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

  14. In vivo antioxidative capacity of a composite berry juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Netzel; Gabriele Strass; Caroline Kaul; Irmgard Bitsch; Helmut Dietrich; Roland Bitsch

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the health protective potential of a special antioxidant-rich juice (containing 30% white grape-, 25% blackcurrant-, 15% elderberry-, 10% sour cherry-, 10% blackberry- and 10% aronia-juice), the bioavailability of its most important bioactive compounds (anthocyanins and ascorbic acid) and the influence of juice consumption on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was assessed by six healthy

  15. Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

  16. Effects of ALDH2 genotype, PPI treatment and L-cysteine on carcinogenic acetaldehyde in gastric juice and saliva after intragastric alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30-50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

  17. Gastric fluid volume and pH in elective inpatients. Part I: Coffee or orange juice versus overnight fast.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, A; Maltby, J R; Reid, C R

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of preoperative oral fluids, with and without ranitidine, on gastric fluid volume and pH, 300 elective surgical inpatients, ASA physical status I or II, were randomly assigned to one of six groups. The three groups that received placebo are discussed in this paper, Part I, and the three that received ranitidine in Part II. Between two and three hours before the scheduled time of surgery patients received either 150 ml coffee (Group 1), or 150 ml orange juice (Group 2), while the control group continued their overnight fast (Group 3). No opiate or belladonna premedication was given. Immediately following induction of anaesthesia the residual gastric fluid was obtained by suction on a nasogastric tube and its volume and pH measured. Residual gastric fluid volumes showed no statistically significant differences among the groups (Group 1: 24.5 +/- 21.6 ml; Group 2: 23.7 +/- 18.4 ml; Group 3: 23.2 +/- 17.3 ml; p greater than 0.1). Values for pH among the groups were also similar (Group 1: 2.18 +/- 1.58; Group 2: 1.95 +/- 1.24; Group 3: 1.95 +/- 1.62; p greater than 0.1). PMID:3349549

  18. Gastric fluid volume and pH in elective inpatients. Part II: Coffee or orange juice with ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Maltby, J R; Reid, C R; Hutchinson, A

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of preoperative oral fluids, with and without ranitidine, on gastric fluid volume and pH 300 elective surgical inpatients, ASA physical status I and II, were randomly allocated to one of six groups. The three ranitidine groups (Groups 4, 5, and 6) are discussed in this paper (Part II), and the three placebo groups (Groups 1, 2, and 3) in Part I. Between two and three hours before the scheduled time of surgery, patients received 150 ml coffee with oral ranitidine 150 mg (Group 4), 150 ml orange juice with oral ranitidine 150 mg (Group 5), or oral ranitidine alone (Group 6). No opiate or belladonna premedication was given. Immediately following induction of anaesthesia a # 18 Salem sump tube was passed and its position in the stomach confirmed by auscultation of insufflated air. The volume of residual gastric fluid, which was aspirated into a 60 ml syringe, was recorded, and its pH was measured. There were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to volume (Group 4: 14.3 +/- 15.4; Group 5: 14.8 +/- 17.0; Group 6: 9.7 +/- 12.6 ml). The mean pH in all groups was greater than 5.40 (Group 4: 5.65 +/- 2.12; Group 5: 5.41 +/- 2.12; Group 6: 6.21 +/- 1.51). PMID:3349550

  19. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Paul M; Sasso, Alan F

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. PMID:25151221

  20. Biological activity and chemical composition of different berry juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Koni?-Risti?; Katarina Šavikin; Gordana Zduni?; Teodora Jankovi?; Zorica Juranic; Nebojša Menkovi?; Ivan Stankovi?

    Total phenolics, total anthocyanins, mineral content, radical scavenging activity and antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines were evaluated in fresh pressed juices of five different berries. Total phenolic content ranged from 133.0 to 260.3mg of gallic acid equivalents\\/100g of fresh weight, for red currant and black currant, respectively. Bilberry juice contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins (0.18%). Significant

  1. Studies in gastric carcinogenesis. III. The kinetics of nitrosation of gastric-juice components in vitro and their implications for the in vivo formation of N-nitroso compounds in normal and in hypochlorhydric populations.

    PubMed

    Kyrtopoulos, S A; Daskalakis, G; Outram, J R

    1985-08-01

    Fasting human gastric juice was treated in vitro, at pH 2-7 and 37 degrees C for 2 h, with 5-100 microM sodium nitrite. Under these conditions (which simulated those occurring in vivo in normal or hypochlorhydric individuals), the formation of total N-nitroso compounds had the following characteristics: (i) it increased greatly at pH less than 3; (ii) it showed first-order dependence on nitrite concentration; (iii) it was faster at pH 7 than at pH 5. These observations are compatible with the N-nitroso compounds formed by the interaction of nitrite with gastric juice being N-nitrosamides or related compounds. Furthermore, based on the results of this study, it is suggested that in order for hypochlorhydria to give rise to increased formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach, it would be necessary for it to be accompanied by a greater than 5- to 10-fold increase in gastric nitrite concentration relative to that found in the normal population, a condition which is not necessarily fulfilled in all hypochlorhydric individuals or populations. The implications of this conclusion for the assessment of the role on gastric N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of gastric cancer are discussed. PMID:4017184

  2. Bile acid concentrations in the gastric juice of patients with erosive oesophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B J Collins; G Crothers; R J McFarland; A H Love

    1985-01-01

    Intragastric total bile acid concentrations were measured before and after a corn oil test meal in 16 patients with erosive oesophagitis and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Sixteen age and sex matched control subjects were also studied. No significant difference was detected between fasting or postprandial gastric bile acid concentrations in patients and in control subjects although a wide range of

  3. Unbuffered Highly Acidic Gastric Juice Exists at the Gastroesophageal Junction After a Meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Fletcher; Angela Wirz; Joanne Young; Ramsey Vallance; Kenneth E. L. McColl

    2001-01-01

    Background & Aims: Gastroesophageal reflux typically occurs after meals. During dualgastric and esophageal pH monitoring, we observed that postprandialrefluxate was often more acidic than the gastric contents. This studyaimed to investigate this phenomenon. Methods: Dualgastric and esophageal pH tracings were analyzed from 40 dyspepticpatients. Dual pH electrode pull-through studies were performed inhealthy volunteers to document regional variation in intragastric pHunder

  4. Cobalt as a gastric juice volume marker: Comparison of two methods of estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gana, T.J.; MacPherson, B.R.; Ng, D.; Koo, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the use of cobalt-EDTA, a novel, nonabsorbable liquid phase marker, in the estimation of secretory volumes during topical misoprostol (synthetic PGE, analog) administration in the canine chambered gastric segment. We compared atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the estimation of (Co). Mucosal bathing solutions containing cobalt-EDTA were instilled into and recovered from the chamber by gravity every 15-min period as follows: (i) basal--60 min; (ii) misoprostol periods--150 min (plus 0.1-, 1-, 10-, 100-, and 1000-micrograms doses of misoprostol for two periods per dose). The recovered solutions were analyzed for (Co) by AAS and INAA. Total cobalt recovery by AAS after chamber washout was 102.97 +/- 0.98%. Mean +/- SE volumes (12.14 +/- 0.33 and 13.24 +/- 0.60 ml/15 min) obtained respectively from AAS and INAA were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than the recovered mean volumes (10.51 +/- 0.17 ml/15 min). The percentage error in volume collection increased (range: 9.3-52.7%) with the volume of secretion. Values of (Co) obtained by the two techniques were comparable and not significantly different from each other (P greater than 0.05). INAA-estimated mean +/- SE (Co) showed consistently higher coefficients of variation. Spectra obtained for all samples during INAA measurements showed significant Compton background activity from 24Na and 38Cl. Cobalt-EDTA did not grossly or histologically damage the gastric mucosa. We conclude that cobalt is not adsorbed, absorbed, or metabolized, and is a suitable and reliable volume marker in this model.

  5. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

  6. Effect of clarification techniques and rat intestinal extract incubation on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of black currant juice.

    PubMed

    Pinelo, Manuel; Landbo, Anne-Katrine R; Vikbjerg, Anders F; Meyer, Anne S

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the phenolic composition and the antioxidant potencies of black currant juices that had been experimentally clarified with acidic proteases and pectinases to retain the phenolics and which had been subjected to rat intestinal mucosa extract incubation to mimic gut cell mediated biotransformation of phenolics. When compared at equimolar levels of 2.5 microM gallic acid equivalents, the black currant juice samples prolonged the induction time of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by 2.6-3.6 times, and the order of antioxidant potency of differently clarified black currant juices was centrifuged juice > gelatin silica sol clarified juice > enzymatically clarified juice approximately raw juice. No immediate relationship between the, almost similar, phenolic profiles of the juice samples and their relative antioxidant activities could be established. Incubation of juices with a rat small intestine cell extract for 19 h promoted significant decreases in the contents of the anthocyanin 3-O-beta-glucosides (cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside), but did not affect the anthocyanin 3-O-beta-rutinosides (cyanidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside) of the black currant juice. Black currant juice samples subjected to such intestinal cell extract incubation had approximately 30% decreased antioxidant capacity. Incubation of juices with the rat small intestine cell extracts at neutral pH appeared to decrease the levels of delphinidin glucosides more than the levels of cyanidin glucosides. The results provide an explanation for the predominant detection of anthocyanin rutinosides, and not anthocyanin glucosides, in plasma and urine in in vivo studies and provide important clues to better understand the complex mechanisms affecting dietary phenols in the gut. PMID:16939310

  7. Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice. PMID:25248994

  8. Conventional dose of omeprazole alters gastric flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Karmeli; R. Stalnikowitz; R. Eliakim; G. Rahav

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative cultures were carried out on samples from gastric juice obtained from 12 ambulatory patients with esophagitis before and one month after omeprazole therapy. An increase in the number of patients in whom gastric juice was culture-positive, as well as an increment in the bacterial counts were noted. The spectrum of microorganisms isolated from gastric juice was identical to the

  9. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  10. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in gastric juice by the polymerase chain reaction: Comparison with findings in bacterial culture and the detection of tissue IgA and serum IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Matsukura; Masahiko Onda; Akira Tokunaga; Shunji Kato; Kiyohiko Yamashita; Maya Ohbayashi

    1995-01-01

    The detection ofHelicobacter pylori in gastric juice by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was undertaken in 124 patients with peptic ulcer or chronic gastritis.\\u000a PCR products were evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization ofH. pylori-specific DNA sequences. Positive and negative results of the PCR analysis in 72 examinations were compared with those from\\u000a bacterial culture, and with the

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juice and Its Relationship with Phenolic Composition and Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María I. Gil; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán; Betty Hess-Pierce; Deirdre M. Holcroft; Adel A. Kader

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from

  13. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  14. Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  15. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachman, S

    1988-09-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased. PMID:3195248

  16. Edinburgh Research Explorer Gastric output of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor is

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    concentrations in gastric juice six times higher than those found in jejunal juice and about 1/30 of the values misoprostol heals gastric ulcers7 and increases the concentration of mucus in gastric juice,8 we examined itsEdinburgh Research Explorer Gastric output of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor is increased

  17. Antiproliferative activity of Citrus juices and HPLC evaluation of their flavonoid composition.

    PubMed

    Camarda, Lorenzo; Di Stefano, Vita; Del Bosco, Sergio Fatta; Schillaci, Domenico

    2007-09-01

    The antiproliferative activity of fresh fruit juices extracted from Citrus sinensis (cv. Washington Navel and cv. Sanguinello), C. deliciosa cv. Avana, C. clementina cv. Nules, C. aurantium subsp. myrtifolia , was evaluated against K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia), HL-60 (human leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines. All the juices tested showed antiproliferative activity. Moreover, the pattern of the main flavanone compounds in the juices has been determined by HPLC analysis. PMID:17628348

  18. The compositional characterisation and antioxidant activity of fresh juices from sicilian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) varieties.

    PubMed

    Proteggente, Anna R; Saija, Antonella; De Pasquale, Anna; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2003-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of both cancer and cardiovascular diseases, potentially through the biological actions of components such as vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids and carotenoids. Citrus species are extremely rich sources in vitamin C and flavanones, a class of compounds which belongs to the flavonoids family. A comparison of the phenolic compositions, the ascorbic acid contents and the antioxidant activities of fresh Sicilian orange juices from pigmented (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and non-pigmented (Ovale, Valencia and Navel) varieties of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), was undertaken. The simultaneous characterisation and quantification of the major flavanone, anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamate components were attained by HPLC with diode array detection. Differences between varieties in terms of the flavanone glycoside content, particularly hesperidin, were observed, with the Tarocco juices reporting the highest content. Furthermore, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(6"-malonyl)-glucoside were predominant in all the pigmented varieties, but their concentration was higher in the juices of the Moro variety. Quantitatively, the major antioxidant component of all juices was ascorbic acid and its concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) with the total antioxidant activity of the juices, determined in vitro using the ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Similarly, hydroxycinnamates (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) and anthocyanins (r = 0.98, P < 0.001) content showed a good correlation with the determined antioxidant capacity. Therefore orange juices, particularly those rich in anthocyanins, may represent a significant dietary source of flavonoids. PMID:12868495

  19. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Ewe; Susanne Bollen; Ilse Schuhn

    1991-01-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty

  20. Antiproliferative activity of Citrus juices and HPLC evaluation of their flavonoid composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Camarda; Vita Di Stefano; Sergio Fatta Del Bosco; Domenico Schillaci

    2007-01-01

    The antiproliferative activity of fresh fruit juices extracted from Citrus sinensis (cv. Washington Navel and cv. Sanguinello), C. deliciosa cv. Avana, C. clementina cv. Nules, C. aurantium subsp. myrtifolia , was evaluated against K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia), HL-60 (human leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines. All the juices tested showed antiproliferative activity. Moreover, the pattern of the

  1. Effect of pectolytic enzyme preparations on the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph R

    2005-01-12

    Commercial pectolytic enzymes were investigated for their influence on phenolics and antioxidant activities of asparagus juice. The antioxidant activity of asparagus juice was analyzed according to 2,2'-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods. The enzymes, with the exception of pectinase from Rhizopus sp., contained rutinase, which hydrolyzed rutin to quercetin. Asparagus juice treated with Viscozyme had the highest quercetin content without exhibiting a significant increase in the antioxidant activity. For a pectinase from Aspergillus niger, the antioxidant activity of asparagus juice was markedly reduced. Caution should be paid in the selection of pectolytic enzyme preparations for production of antioxidant activity-rich juice. PMID:15631507

  2. Chemical composition and sensory profile of pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) juice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2012-12-15

    Two cultivars (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck PO 51 and PO 52) of Malaysian pomelo juices were studied by examining their physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, °Brix and titratable acidity), volatile and non-volatile components (sugars and organic acids). Using solvent extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction, 49 and 65 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector, respectively. Compared to pink pomelo juice (cultivar PO 52), white pomelo juice (cultivar PO 51) contained lower amount of total volatiles but higher terpenoids. Descriptive sensory evaluation indicated that white pomelo juice was milder in taste especially acidity. Furthermore, principal component analysis and partial least square regression revealed a strong correlation in pomelo juices between their chemical components and some flavour attributes (i.e. acidic, fresh, peely and sweet). Hence, this research enabled a deeper insight into the flavour of this unique citrus fruit. PMID:22980835

  3. Effect of physiological concentrations of vitamin C on gastric cancer cells and Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z-W Zhang; M Abdullahi; M J G Farthing

    2002-01-01

    Background: Gastric juice vitamin C may be protective against gastric carcinogenesis but concentrations are significantly reduced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We investigated the in vitro effects of vitamin C at concentrations comparable with those found in gastric juice on gastric cancer cells and H pylori.Methods: Gastric cancer cell lines and various H pylori strains were treated with l-ascorbic acid for

  4. Formation of methylnitrosocyanamide from methylguanidine and sodium nitrite in simulated gastric juice and in stomachs of rats: quantitative estimation by a mutagenicity assay.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, M; Utsunomiya, T; Kinoshita, N; Endo, H

    1979-01-01

    The formation of methylnitrosocyanamide (MNC), a carcionogenic N-nitroso compound, from methylguanidine (MG) and NaNO2 in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) and in the stomachs of rats was quantitatively investigated. With a reverse mutation assay in which a tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium was used, MNC formation was shown to increase linearly for about 40--60 minutes after the incubation of MG with NaNO2 in SGJ. However, it decreased rapidly thereafter. The initial rate of MNC formation was directly proportional to the initial molar ratio of MG to NaNO2, but the yields of MNC depended only on the amount of MG added and were fairly constant (0.3--0.5% of the initial MG). MNC did not form at a pH above 2.5 or in the presence of 2% casein in SGJ at pH 1.2. It decomposed rapidly in SGJ at pH 1.2 with a half-life of approximately 2 minutes, whereas it was stable in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. Following concurrent administration of MG and NaNO2 via stomach tube, MNC formation was detected in the pylorus-ligated stomachs of rats preconditioned with a casein-free dextrin diet but not in those of rats preconditioned with a casein-containing or synthetic diet. The yields of MNC observed 40--60 minutes after administration of reactants ranged from 0.02 to 0.05% of the initial MG. The possible environment significance of MNC formation in vivo was considered. PMID:364153

  5. Orosensory profiles and chemical composition of black currant (Ribes nigrum ) juice and fractions of press residue.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Mari; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvinen, Riikka; Rostiala, Nina; Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Tiitinen, Katja; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-05-13

    Fractionation of black currant ( Ribes nigrum ) by juice pressing, four ethanol extractions, ethanol evaporation, and supercritical fluid extraction was studied. Phenolic compounds, sugars, and acids of the fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Sensory properties of the fractions were studied using generic descriptive analysis. Most of the sugars and acids were located in the juice, whereas the majority of the phenolic compounds were in the press residue. Ethanol extracted nearly all of the phenolic compounds from the press residue, leaving only fibers and seeds. The juice was dominant in most of the sensory attributes, whereas the extracts were perceived as most astringent. Three flavonol glycosides [kaempferol-3-O-(6''-malonyl)glucoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside, and an unknown kaempferol glycoside] were discovered to be the compounds especially contributing to astringency. Ethanol extraction appeared to be an efficient and simple way to isolate phenolic compounds from black currant juice press residue. PMID:19317461

  6. Changes in urinary chemical composition in healthy volunteers after consuming roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) juice.

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, S; Nakorn, S N; Kirdpon, W

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of urine in normal subjects after consuming roselle juice in different concentrations and durations which may help the treatment and prevention of renal stone disease. Thirty-six healthy men participated in the study, in which urinalysis, urine electrolytes and indices for measurements of concentration of urine were determined before, during and after roselle juice consumption. The urine after consumption of roselle juice showed a decrease of creatinine, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate but not oxalate in urinary excretion. The CPR values of the majority of each individual increased and means PI values decreased in phase 1. Contrarily, the CPR values of the majority of volunteers decreased and means PI values increased in phase 2. In conclusion a low dose of roselle juice (16 g/day) caused more significant decrease in salt output in the urine than a high dose (24 g/day). The urinary changes were similar to the observations on villagers with and without stones in northeastern Thailand. PMID:7869018

  7. Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

  8. Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.

    PubMed

    Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

    2000-06-01

    After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement. PMID:10798720

  9. Co-products of black-currant and apple juice production: Hydration properties and polysaccharide composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Kosmala; Krzysztof Ko?odziejczyk; Jaros?aw Markowski; Monika Mieszczakowska; Christian Ginies; Catherine M. G. C. Renard

    2010-01-01

    The sugar composition in cell walls of apple and black currant pomaces was investigated with or without solvent extraction. Extraction of polyphenols by solvents changed the sugar composition of cell walls by increasing the alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) contents and increasing glucose content. Water binding capacity was increased by the ethanol extractions, but decreased again after acetone treatments. The enzyme

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa by measurement of gastric aspirate ammonium and urea concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W D Neithercut; A Milne; R S Chittajallu; A M el Nujumi; K E McColl

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses unusually high urease activity that lowers the urea concentration and raises the ammonium concentration of the gastric juice in infected people. The value of measuring urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as a means of diagnosing the presence and eradication of the infection was assessed. Twenty four subjects with the infection

  11. Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients: 12 ounces frozen concentrated orange juice, or any other 100% fruit juice concentrate 1 1/2 cups water 3 cups ice Directions In a blender, place juice concentrate, water

  12. Comparison of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of building blocks in shinseoncho and kale green vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2012-12-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p<0.05). Neutral sugar content showed higher values in SS (21.740 mg/mL) and SL (18.657 mg/mL) when compared with KS (1.497 mg/mL) and KL (1.452 mg/mL) (p<0.05). Protein content showed the highest value in SL (7.610 mg/mL) (p<0.05), while SS (0.403 mg/mL) and KS (0.403 mg/mL) showed similar lower values. Total polyphenol contents of SL (423.139 ?g/mL) was significantly higher value (p<0.05) than those of other samples, which occurred in the following order: SL> KL (218.494 ?g/mL)> KS (107.269 ?g/mL)> SS (75.894 ?g/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: KL> SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (p<0.05). In general, leaf parts had much higher antioxidant activities as well as total polyphenol contents than those of the stem parts. In conclusion, shinseoncho and kale, particularly their leaf parts, offer antioxidant properties in green vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection. PMID:24471095

  13. Comparison of Nutritional Compositions and Antioxidant Activities of Building Blocks in Shinseoncho and Kale Green Vegetable Juices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p<0.05). Neutral sugar content showed higher values in SS (21.740 mg/mL) and SL (18.657 mg/mL) when compared with KS (1.497 mg/mL) and KL (1.452 mg/mL) (p<0.05). Protein content showed the highest value in SL (7.610 mg/mL) (p<0.05), while SS (0.403 mg/mL) and KS (0.403 mg/mL) showed similar lower values. Total polyphenol contents of SL (423.139 ?g/mL) was significantly higher value (p<0.05) than those of other samples, which occurred in the following order: SL> KL (218.494 ?g/mL)> KS (107.269 ?g/mL)> SS (75.894 ?g/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: KL> SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (p<0.05). In general, leaf parts had much higher antioxidant activities as well as total polyphenol contents than those of the stem parts. In conclusion, shinseoncho and kale, particularly their leaf parts, offer antioxidant properties in green vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection. PMID:24471095

  14. Pathogenesis of gastric cancer in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Ruddell, W S; Bone, E S; Hill, M J; Walters, C L

    1978-03-11

    A pathogenetic mechanism to explain the increased incidence of gastric cancer in patients with pernicious anaemia (P.A.) is proposed. Mean nitrite concentration in gastric juice from thirteen fasting patients with P.A. was nearly fiftyfold greater than that of age-matched controls. The number of bacteria in the gastric juice of P.A. patients was also greatly increased. Small amounts of volatile nitrosamines were detected in simulated P.A. gastric juice in vitro, after addition of nitrite to achieve a concentration approximating to that found in vivo. If similar nitrosation occurs in vivo, the intragastric production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds could explain the high incidence of gastric cancer in patients with P.A. PMID:76069

  15. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-? associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. PMID:25471339

  16. Formulation and optimization of gastric floating drug delivery system using Central composite design and its biopharmaceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Thing, Lim Kee; Gorajana, Adinarayana; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana-Murthy

    2015-07-01

    The present work investigates the formulation and biopharmaceutical estimation of gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) of propranolol HCl using semi-synthetic polymer carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) and a synthetic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). A central composite design was applied for optimization of polymer quantity (CMEC or PEO) and sodium bicarbonate concentration as independent variables. The dependent variables evaluated were: % of drug release at 1 hr (D1hr), % drug release at 3 hr (D3hr) and time taken for 95% of drug release (t95). Numerical optimization and graphical optimization were conducted to optimize the response variables. All observed responses of statistically optimized formulations were in high treaty with predicted values. Accelerated stability studies were conducted on the optimized formulations at 40±2°C/75% ±5% RH and confirm that formulations were stable. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vivo buoyancy characterization in human volunteers and were found buoyant in gastric fluid. Gastric residence time was enhanced in the fed but not the fasted state. The optimized formulations and marketed formulation were administered to healthy human volunteers and evaluated for pharmacokinetic parameters. Mean residence time (MRT) was prolonged and AUC levels were increased for both optimized floating tablets when compared with marketed product. High relative bioavailability obtained with optimized gastric floating tablets compared to commercial formulation, indicated the improvement of bioavailability. PMID:26142528

  17. INFLUENCE AT DIFFERENT OPERATION CONDITIONS ON THE ACEROLA JUICE CONCENTRATION BY REVERSE OSMOSIS, USING SPIRAL MEMBRANE OF COMPOSITE FILM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. dos Santos Gomes; E. S. Mendes; N. C. Pereira; S. T. Davantel

    The concentration of acerola juice, involves removal of water with the objective of reducing packing, storage and transport costs. The reverse osmosis (RO) is a process of increasing interest in the food industry, that presents several advantages to the evaporation and the freezing that are more used the techniques for the concentration. Among the advantages they stand out: the low

  18. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... of Gastric Banding Lifestyle Changes after Gastric Banding Surgery Gastric banding is a weight loss option for ...

  19. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Kealey; J. E. Kinsella; Steven Nagy

    1979-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and

  20. Opalescent and Cloudy Fruit Juices: Formation and Particle Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Beveridge

    2002-01-01

    Referee: Dr. Ronald Wrolstad, Department of Food Science and Technology, Wiegand Hall 100, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6692 Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate

  1. Gastric exocrine “failure” in critically ill patients: incidence and associated features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V A Stannard; A Hutchinson; D L Morris; A Byrne

    1988-01-01

    Following the observation that many critically ill patients cannot maintain their gastric juice pH below 4 without treatment a study was performed to measure the gastric juice pH in such patients and relate it to other clinical data. The case notes of 64 patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit and taken part in two trials of

  2. The relation between gastric vitamin C concentrations, mucosal histology, and CagA seropositivity in the human stomach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z W Zhang; S E Patchett; D Perrett; P H Katelaris; P Domizio; M J G Farthing

    1998-01-01

    Background—Vitamin C may be protective against gastric cancer though infection withHelicobacter pylori is associated with a reduction in intragastric concentrations of vitamin C.Aims—To examine the effects ofH pylori infection, gastric juice pH, the severity and extent of gastric inflammation, and CagA antibody status of the individual on gastric juice and mucosal vitamin C concentrations.Patients—One hundred and fifteen patients undergoing routine

  3. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro?esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000?fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  4. Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-02-01

    Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

  5. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice. This led to the constitution of an Expert Committee by Department of Health Research at Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in October 2010. The committee looked into the issues related to safety of consumption of bottle gourd juice, and this paper presents the findings. Methods: Information on cases of suspected toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice was collected by internet search, advertising on website of ICMR and by writing to State and district health authorities as well as to medical colleges, hospitals and private nursing homes across the country. Results: Three deaths were reported, one from Delhi and two from Uttar Pradesh after consumption of extremely bitter bottle gourd juice. Three persons who died after consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice or juice mixed with bitter gourd (karela) juice were over 59 years of age and had diabetes since last 20 years. This juice was reported to be extremely bitter by all three. Twenty six persons were admitted to various hospitals of the country on complaint of abdominal pain and vomiting following consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice. Diarrhoea and vomiting of blood (haematemesis) was reported in 18 (69.2%) and 19 (73.1%) patients, respectively. Biochemical investigations revealed elevated levels of liver enzymes. More than 50 per cent patients had hypotension. Endoscopic findings showed profusely bleeding stomach with excessive ulceration seen in distal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in most of the cases. All these patients recovered fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs. PMID:22382183

  6. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Thompson, J Will; Dubois, Laura G; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care for chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000-fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 10(6) -fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  7. Systemic and local antibody responses to gastric Campylobacter pyloridis in non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B J Rathbone; J I Wyatt; B W Worsley; S E Shires; L K Trejdosiewicz; R V Heatley; M S Losowsky

    1986-01-01

    Antibody titres to Campylobacter pyloridis in serum and gastric juice were estimated by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to whole organisms obtained from bacterial culture in 39 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Whereas 20 of the 21 patients with chronic gastritis had gastric C pyloridis, 17 patients with no C pyloridis had normal histology in the gastric antrum and body.

  8. Effect of Glucagon on Gastric Secretion in the Dog *

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S. D.; Neill, D. W.; Welbourn, R. B.

    1960-01-01

    The effects of glucagon on gastric secretion in the dog have been studied. Gastric juice was collected both from denervated and innervated pouches under basal conditions and when the animals were stimulated by meat extract and by histamine. In the dogs with innervated pouches psychic stimulation and the stimulatory action of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia were also used. Glucagon reduced the volume but not the acidity of gastric juice collected under all conditions. This effect was independent of its hyperglycaemic action and occurred when physiological doses were administered. PMID:13810519

  9. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  10. GASTRIC INTRINSIC FACTOR IN THE SHEEP E.J. McKAY L.M. McLEAY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of IF in the gastric juice of sheep was compared with that of humans. Identification of the cells secreting collections the concentration was 3.62 ± 0.12 I.U. ml-' (n = 9). In contrast IF in gastric juice of 3 humansGASTRIC INTRINSIC FACTOR IN THE SHEEP E.J. McKAY L.M. McLEAY Department of Biological Sciences

  11. Eremomastax speciosa: effects of leaf aqueous extract on ulcer formation and gastric secretion in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul V. Tan; Ngeh G. Nditafon; Maurice P. Yewah; Theophile Dimo; Foyere J. Ayafor

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcerogenic potential of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa leaves was investigated using two methods of ulcer induction: HCl\\/EtOH-induced ulceration and pylorus ligation. With both methods, the extract inhibited gastric ulceration in a dose-related manner. The highest oral dose tested (190 mg\\/kg) completely inhibited gastric ulceration and significantly reduced gastric acidity compared with the controls. Incubation of gastric juice

  12. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

  13. Enzyme-assisted extraction and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of patulin in apple juice and method optimization using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tavakoli, Rouya; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Rashedi, Hamid; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Delavar, Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    A simple and highly sensitive analytical methodology for isolation and determination of patulin in apple-juice samples, based on enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was developed and optimized. Enzymes play essential roles in eliminating interference and increasing the extraction efficiency of patulin. Apple-juice samples were treated with pectinase and amylase. A mixture of 80 ?L ionic liquid and 600 ?L methanol (disperser solvent) was used for the IL-DLLME process. The sedimented phase was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Experimental parameters controlling the performance of DLLME, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.99) for patulin in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 7.5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.15 ng g(-1) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise and reliable sample-pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for investigation trace amount of patulin in apple-juice samples. PMID:24267070

  14. Phytochemical and pharmacological study of Sedum dendroideum leaf juice.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Giany O; Malvar, David do C; Vanderlinde, Frederico A; Pires, Priscilla A; Côrtes, Wellington S; Filho, Pedro Germano; Muzitano, Michelle F; Kaiser, Carlos R; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-11-14

    The fresh juice from leaves of Sedum dendroideum Moc & Sessé (Crassulaceae) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material. The oral administration (0.1-1g/kg) of the lyophilized Sedum dendroideum juice (L J) caused a significant dose-related reduction of acetic acid-induced writhing response (ID(50)=631 mg/kg) and inhibited croton oil-induced ear oedema formation (66% inhibition at 1g/kg) in mice. In the formalin-induced nociception in mice, L J (1g/kg) only inhibited the second phase of nociception (46%). Phytochemical investigation revealed four known kaempferol glycosides, here, described at the first time for this species. These flavonoids probably explain the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the fresh juice of Sedum dendroideum. PMID:16054793

  15. Rheology of Gastric Mucin Exhibits a pH-Dependent Sol-Gel Jonathan P. Celli, Bradley S. Turner,, Nezam H. Afdhal, Randy H. Ewoldt,

    E-print Network

    Redner, Sidney

    challenges, not only from ingested materials, but also from the highly acidic gastric juice secretedRheology of Gastric Mucin Exhibits a pH-Dependent Sol-Gel Transition Jonathan P. Celli, Bradley S, Massachusetts 02139 Received October 7, 2006; Revised Manuscript Received February 4, 2007 Gastric mucin, a high

  16. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  17. Campylobacter pyloridis and acid induced gastric metaplasia in the pathogenesis of duodenitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J I Wyatt; B J Rathbone; M F Dixon; R V Heatley

    1987-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of gastric and duodenal mucosa from 290 patients were examined histologically for metaplasia and Campylobacter pyloridis. Estimates of pH on samples of fasting gastric juice from 55 of the patients were performed, and mucosal biopsy specimens from 33 patients were also cultured for C pyloridis. Active duodenitis was seen in 34 duodenal biopsy specimens. Thirty (88%) of the

  18. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Giannella; S. A. Broitman; N. Zamcheck

    1972-01-01

    Reassessment of the `gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach

  19. Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed. PMID:23919376

  20. Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    31 ½ Apple Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice 5oz Milk Chef Michele Pastorello Milk Choices: Whole White 4oz Juice Choices: 100% Apple 100% Orange NO SCHOOL May 17th SCHOOL CLOSED May 28th Updated 4 100% Orange Juice 5oz Milk Cream of Wheat Sliced Pears 5oz Milk Turkey Sausage Biscuit 100% Apple

  1. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC. PMID:24569566

  2. A dangerous fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Agosti, Sergio; Casalino, Laura; Bertero, Giovanni; Barsotti, Antonio; Brunelli, Claudio; Morelloni, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient presenting to the emergency department with postprandial syncope and atrial fibrillation. After amiodarone administration, the electrocardiogram showed marked QT prolongation associated with ventricular arrhythmias, including an episode of torsade de pointes requiring immediate electrical cardioversion. During history taking, the patient reported that she had been drinking large amounts of grapefruit juice regularly. The inhibition of amiodarone metabolism induced by grapefruit juice was responsible for enhancing the proarrhythmic effects of the drug with development of electrical storm. PMID:20970282

  3. Increased production of transforming growth factor alpha following acute gastric injury.

    PubMed

    Polk, W H; Dempsey, P J; Russell, W E; Brown, P I; Beauchamp, R D; Barnard, J A; Coffey, R J

    1992-05-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) production recently has been found in normal mammalian gastric mucosa. Inasmuch as TGF-alpha and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both stimulate epithelial cell migration and proliferation and suppress gastric acid secretion, the authors of the current study proposed that these growth factors may participate in tissue repair after acute gastric mucosal injury. Consequently, TGF-alpha and EGF production were examined after orogastric administration of either acidified taurocholate or 0.6 mol/L HCl to rats. TGF-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after administration of taurocholate, whereas EGF mRNA expression was not detected. Radioimmunoassay of gastric mucosal scrapings obtained 6 hours after gastric injury induced by 0.6 mol/L HCl showed a 2.1-fold increase in immunoreactive TGF-alpha but no increase in immunoreactive EGF. In addition, there was a 68-fold increase in immunoreactive TGF-alpha in gastric juice within 30 minutes of gastric instillation of HCl and, again, no increase in immunoreactive EGF. There is a rapid appearance of TGF-alpha in the gastric juice within 30 minutes of injury, which is followed by increased expression of TGF-alpha mRNA and protein in the gastric mucosa. These studies suggest that locally produced TGF-alpha may participate in gastric mucosal repair following acute gastric injury to rats. PMID:1568557

  4. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  5. Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

    2010-03-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality. PMID:23572618

  6. Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) ?-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of ?-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and ?-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice. PMID:23043313

  7. Optimization of hot water extraction for sapodilla juice using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Sin; S. Yusof; N. Sheikh Abdul Hamid; R. Abd. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction conditions of sapodilla juice using hot water extraction. The independent variables were juice extraction time (30–120min) and temperature (30–90°C). The combined effect of these variables on juice yield, odour, taste and astringency were investigated. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandins and gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Steel, L.; Fiala, N.P.; Conklin, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    Early radiation toxicity is characterized by nausea and vomiting. We have previously shown that gastric emptying, gastric motility, and gastric secretion were suppressed after total body exposure to irradiation. In the present studies, we evaluated the relation between vomiting and gastric function in nine rhesus monkeys and explored the possible role of prostaglandins (PG) in these phenomena. The concentration of PG in plasma and gastric juice was determined using a standard radioimmunoassay and gastric acid output was measured concurrently using a marker dilution technique. The animals were studied in the basal state and after total body exposure to 800 cGy /sup 60/Co delivered at a rate of 500 cGy/min. Acid output was abolished from 40 min to 2 h after irradiation but had returned to preirradiation levels 2 days later. Plasma PGE2 and PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto-PGF1 alpha determination) were not significantly modified by irradiation. In contrast, irradiation produced an immediate significant increase (P less than 0.05) in gastric juice concentration of PGE2 (318 +/- 80 to 523 +/- 94 pg/ml; mean +/- SE) and PGI2 (230 +/- 36 to 346 +/- 57 pg/ml); both had returned to basal levels 2 days later. Thus, an increase in gastric juice concentration of both PGE2 and PGI2 is associated with the radiation induced suppression of acid output.

  9. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The ?(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and ?(13)C value was established. PMID:21892892

  10. Comparison of DXA and water measurements of body fat following gastric bypass surgery and a physiological model of body water, fat, and muscle composition.

    PubMed

    Levitt, David G; Beckman, Lauren M; Mager, Jennifer R; Valentine, Bret; Sibley, Shalamar D; Beckman, Tiffany R; Kellogg, Todd A; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Earthman, Carrie P

    2010-09-01

    Measurement of body composition changes following bariatric surgery is complicated because of the difficulty of measuring body fat in highly obese individuals that have increased photon absorption and are too large for the standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) table. We reproducibly measured body composition from half-body DXA scans and compared the values of total body fat estimated from total body water (TBW) and DXA measurements before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). DXA, TBW (deuterium dilution), extracellular water (ECW; bromide dilution), and intracellular water (ICW) measurement (by subtraction) were made before surgery and at 2 wk, 6 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo after surgery. Twenty individuals completed baseline and at least four follow-up visits. DXA appeared to underestimate the fat and bone mass in extreme obesity (before surgery), whereas at 6 and 12 mo after surgery, the DXA and TBW fat measurements were similar. The ECW-to-ICW ratio was increased in obese individuals and increased slightly more after surgery. We describe a new model that explains this abnormal water composition in terms of the normal physiological changes that occur in body composition in obesity and weight loss. This model is also used to predict the muscle mass loss following RYGB. PMID:20558754

  11. Chef Michele 100% Juice Served

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    %White Toddlers: 5oz Whole White Juice Choices: 4oz 100% Apple 4oz 100% Orange EARLY DISMISSAL Toddlers Milk (Toddlers) Fig Newton Bar 4oz Orange Juice 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) 1 2 3 4 MAY 2012 Fig Newton Bar 4oz Orange Juice 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) More Info... ELRA PRE

  12. Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin- and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).

    PubMed

    Espelie, K E; Davis, R W; Kolattukudy, P E

    1980-10-01

    Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on the other hand, contained the dihydroxy C16 acids, hydroxyoxo C16 acids, hydroxyepoxy C18 acids and trihydroxy C18 acids. Ultrastructural examination of the inner seed coat showed that an amorphous cuticular layer encircled the entire seed except in the chalazal region which showed several layers of cells with lamellar suberin structure throughout the cell walls. Consistent with the ultrastructural assignment, the compositions of the aliphatic components of the polymers from the chalazal region and the non-chalazal region indicated the presence of suberin and cutin, respectively. The aliphatic portion of the polymer from the chalazal region of the inner seed coat contained C16, C18:1, C22 and C24 ?-hydroxy acids (46% combined total) and the corresponding dicarboxylic acids (43%) as the major components. ?-Hydroxy-9,10-epoxy C18 acids and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acids were the major components (77%) of the polymer from the non-chalazal portion of the inner seed coat. The main portion and the chalazal region of the inner seed coat yielded 17 and 342 ?g/cm(2) of aliphatic monomers, respectively, and the diffusion resistance of these two portions of the inner seed coat were 62 and 192 sec/cm, respectively. The inner seed coat was shown to be the major moisture diffusion barrier influencing imbibition and germination. PMID:24306480

  13. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Sin; S. Yusof; N. Sheikh Abdul Hamid; R. Abd. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Response surface methodology is a statistical procedure frequently used for optimization studies. It uses quantitative data from an appropriate experimental design to determine and simultaneously solve multivariate problems. In this study, a two-factor central composite design was used to establish the optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Sapodilla juice was treated with pectinase enzyme at different incubation times

  14. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  15. The role of pectin in orange juice stabilization: Effect of pectin methylesterase and pectinase activity on the size of cloud particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Croak; Milena Corredig

    2006-01-01

    In citrus juice cloud particles impart the characteristic color and flavor, and although the chemical composition of these particles is known, the details of their stabilization are not well understood. Pectin, a major component of orange juice cloud, is thought to play an important role in juice destabilization: in the presence of the active enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), pectin forms

  16. Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of digestion kinetics of solid foods in human stomach, as affected by food processing methods, is critical in establishing processing conditions at the manufacturing stage to achieve desirable release of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate how roasting affected disintegration and solid release properties of almond in simulated gastric environment. In vitro trials were performed for raw and roasted almonds by using static soaking method and a model stomach system. The changes in sample weight, dry mass, and moisture during the trials were determined. Both compression and penetration tests were used to investigate the texture of almonds with a focus on the influence of absorption of gastric juice. Light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the change in microstructure of the raw and roasted almonds after simulated digestion. The results suggested that the slow disintegration rate and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. Roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and increased loss of solids during simulated digestion, which is well correlated with the decrease in the rigidity of almond samples after absorbing gastric juice. Microstructure of digested almonds showed breakage and breach of cell walls due to acid hydrolysis. Intercellular and intracellular channels formed in almonds during roasting are important for penetration of gastric juice that may facilitate an effective digestion.

  17. Ultraviolet treatment of orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mai Thu Thi Tran; Mohammed Farid

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) with a wavelength of 254 nm tends to inactivate most types of microorganisms. Most juices are opaque to UV due to the high-suspended solids in them and hence the conventional UV treatment, usually used for water treatment, cannot be used for treating juices. In order to make the process efficient, a thin film reactor was designed and constructed

  18. Cabbage Juice Indicator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Science House

    2014-01-28

    In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

  19. Absolut Vodka, lime juice, Motts Clamato Juice, Tabasco, Worcestershire, pepper & a twist of lime.

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    Vodka, or Southern Comfort & lemonade. $5.75 Tequila Sunrise Olmeca Tequila, orange juice, lime juiceDen Caesar Absolut Vodka, lime juice, Motts Clamato Juice, Tabasco, Worcestershire, pepper Libre Havana Club Rum, Pepsi, lime juice & a twist of lime. $5.75 Jack and Ginger Jack Daniels, Ginger

  20. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

  1. Increased gastric production of interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X G Fan; A Chua; X J Fan; P W Keeling

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. METHODS--The study population comprised 52 patients with dyspepsia attending for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Of these patients, 35 were infected with H pylori. IL-8 and TNF concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastric biopsy homogenate supernatant fluid were measured by radioimmunoassay and L929

  2. Recovery of bioactive compounds in kiwifruit juice by ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cassano; L. Donato; C. Conidi; E. Drioli

    2008-01-01

    Food quality is not only a function of nutritional values but also of the presence of bioactive compounds exerting a positive effects on human health.This research was undertaken to study the influence of the ultrafiltration (UF) on the composition of some bioactive compounds of the kiwifruit juice in order to develop a natural product which can be used to fortify

  3. Sesquiterpene lactones in juice of great burdock leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Savina; V. I. Sheichenko; Yu. V. Stikhin; V. A. Stikhin; T. A. Sokol’skaya; O. S. Anisimova; Ya. F. Kopyt’ko; E. I. Grodnitskaya; O. A. Cherkasov

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the juice of freshly collected great burdock (Arctium Lappa L.) leaves was studied. The main components in the ethyl acetate extract were determined. Adifference between the samples\\u000a collected in two successive years was found.

  4. Reflux of gastric juice and glue ear in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Tasker; Peter W Dettmar; Marguerite Panetti; James A Koufman; John P Birchall; Jeffery P Pearson

    2002-01-01

    immunity is not known. To test the hypo- thesis that contacts with children increase exposure to varicella-zoster virus and pro- tect latently infected adults against zoster, we did a case-control study in south Lon- don, UK. Methods: From 22 general practices, we identified patients with recently diagnosed zoster, and control individuals with no his- tory of zoster, matched to patients

  5. FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reported interactions between grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice and various prescription medications led investigators to suspect a variety of compounds present in grapefruit as responsible for these effects. These investigations amassed evidence that furanocoumarins (also known as psoralens...

  6. Gastric lavage.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, W F

    1986-01-01

    Gastric lavage has been used to manage toxic ingestions since the early 1800s. The entire realm of gastrointestinal decontamination has been extensively studied for the past 30 years. Recommendations are still evolving and remain controversial. The current indications for lavage are obtundation, unprotected airway, seizures, the need for urgent removal, and the tendency to form concretions. Hydrocarbon management depends on specific toxicity and viscosity. Contraindications for this procedure are insignificant ingestions, prolonged time since ingestion, and caustic poisoning. Proper technique minimizes complications and maximizes toxin removal. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are given after lavage. Complications include nasal trauma, esophageal perforation, tracheal intubation, aspiration, electrolyte imbalance, and hypothermia. PMID:3734388

  7. The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Rembia?kowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

  8. Application of central composite design and response surface methodology to the fermentation of olive juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Debaryomyces hansenii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Tsapatsaris; P Kotzekidou

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NaCl, calcium acetate and calcium lactate in concentrations corresponding to ionic strengths equivalent to 2–10%, w\\/v salt brines as well as the 50% replacement of NaCl contained in the above mixture by KCl. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the maximum specific growth

  9. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared...

  11. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared...

  12. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared...

  14. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  15. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  16. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  17. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice....

  18. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix Search the Consumer Updates Section ... for you when it affects the way your medicines work. Grapefruit juice and fresh grapefruit can interfere ...

  19. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic July 15, 2013 What is ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  20. Stimulation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 productivity by the oral administration of cabbage juice to rats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, W; Yagasaki, K; Miura, Y; Funabiki, R

    1997-11-01

    The effect of orally administering cabbage juice on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) productivity was studied in resident peritoneal macrophages from normal and hepatoma-bearing rats. The productivity of TNF and IL-1 was stimulated by gastric intubation of cabbage juice in the normal state, but not in the hepatoma-bearing state where the production of these cytokines had already been stimulated. From these results, cabbage may contain some effective component(s) that can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate the production of TNF and IL-1. PMID:9404076

  1. Clarification of apple juice by electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Araya-Farias; M. Mondor; F. Lamarche; S. Tajchakavit; J. Makhlouf

    2008-01-01

    Apple Juice industry is in search of a simplified technology which enables a quick clarification and stabilisation of apple juice. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of electroflotation as an alternative for the clarification of apple juice. Clarification of apple juice by electroflotation was first done at various current densities (10, 20 and 40 mA\\/cm2) with and without addition of

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products

    PubMed Central

    PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice. PMID:18290732

  3. Vitamin C in the human stomach: relation to gastric pH, gastroduodenal disease, and possible sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H J OConnor; C J Schorah; N Habibzedah; A T Axon; R Cockel

    1989-01-01

    Fasting gastric juice pH and concentrations of vitamin C in gastric aspirate and plasma were measured in 73 patients undergoing endoscopy. Vitamin C concentrations were significantly lower in those with hypochlorhydria (pH greater than 4; n = 23) compared with those with pH less than or equal to 4 (p less than 0.005) and there was a significant correlation between

  4. Adjustable gastric banding (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Restrictive gastric operations, such as an adjustable gastric banding procedure, serve only to restrict and decrease food intake and do not interfere with the normal digestive process. In this procedure, a hollow ...

  5. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in ... Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the risk of developing gastric ...

  6. Gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.

    1996-01-01

    We are gaining a clearer insight into the causes and mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, and may be able to reduce the incidence in the future by Helicobacter pylori eradication, perhaps in conjunction with nutritional supplements. The work required to establish this kind of prevention programme still has a long way to go. Surveillance and early detection are a key area, and current hopes rest with an increasingly low threshold for gastroscopy together with improved awareness in both patients and general practitioners. Identification of a high-risk group for surveillance would be a major advance, and may become possible due to advances in molecular biology. In terms of treatment, surgery remains the mainstay, but for useful analysis of its' efficacy, uniform and detailed pathological staging is vital. Pre-operative assessment has improved greatly in recent years, resulting in fewer nontherapeutic laparotomies, thanks to a combination of improved imaging techniques and laparoscopy. Limited endoscopic surgery is now feasible for very early disease. The extent of radical surgery remains controversial: a strong argument can be made for concentrating this kind of surgery in the hands of a limited number of specialist units who will have the numbers and the expertise to answer the outstanding questions. Chemotherapy has yet to prove its value, but there are hopes that the newest regimes may do this. Treatment results in the West remain unsatisfactory, but they have improved in the last two decades, and should be capable of considerable further improvement. Images Figure PMID:8796206

  7. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine. PMID:25345561

  8. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-10

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while ?-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of ?-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice. PMID:25996796

  9. [Contributions to chemical study of the raw polysaccharide isolated from the fresh pressed juice of white cabbage leaves].

    PubMed

    Miron, Anca; Hancianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gacea, Oana; Stanescu, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    In traditional medicine fresh pressed juice of white cabbage leaves is used in the treatment of many diseases in which immunity disorders are involved: diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, gastric ulcer, cirrhosis, cancer. The efficiency of fresh cabbage juice might be due to an immunomodulatory activity. Polysaccharides are hydrosoluble compounds for which there have been pointed out immunomodulatory effects in recent years. This is the reason why a raw polysaccharide was isolated from the fresh pressed juice of white cabbage leaves. The raw polysaccharide was purified and submitted to a chemical study based on analysis of proteic component (quantification of total nitrogen, total proteins and soluble proteins) and analysis of polysaccharides component (isolation and characterization of main polysaccharides fractions, identification of main sugar components, quantification of uronic acids). Further in vitro studies will evaluate the immunomodulatory capacity of this polysaccharide. PMID:17438919

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135,...

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135,...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135,...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135,...

  14. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  15. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

  16. Solar Still Part II: Juice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members repeat an experiment designed to separate fresh water from a liquid solution, this time using colored sugar water in one solar still and orange juice in another. The basic still design they employ traps water vapor that is created when the Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. As the vapor cools, it condenses and trickles down to a collection container. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

  17. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: Comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali Malhotra; David G. Bailey; Mary F. Paine; Paul B. Watkins

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine whether Seville orange juice produces a grapefruit juice–like interaction with felodipine and whether bergamottin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, or other furocoumarins are involved.Methods: In a randomized three-way crossover design, 10 volunteers received a felodipine 10-mg extended-release tablet with 240 mL of Seville orange juice, dilute grapefruit juice (that contained equivalent total molar concentrations of bergamottin plus 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin),

  18. Effect of Grapefruit Juice on Clarithromycin Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kit L.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Amsden, Guy W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolism of clarithromycin, 12 healthy subjects were given water or grapefruit juice before and after a clarithromycin dose of 500 mg in a randomized crossover study. Administration of grapefruit juice increased the time to peak concentration of both clarithromycin (82 ± 35 versus 148 ± 83 min; P = 0.02) and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (84 ± 38 min versus 173 ± 85; P = 0.01) but did not affect other pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:9559810

  19. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus: a sign of gastric hypersecretion

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan); Magota, S.; Shiiba, S.; Ebata, K.; Yoshiya, K.

    1983-02-01

    The clinical significance of coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus on the double-contrast radiograph was investigated in 60 patients. Radiographic findings were correlated with endoscopic features and biochemical analysis of gastric juice as well as with the clinical and endoscopic features of 98 controls with a regular mucosal pattern. The patients with the coarse pattern had more gastric secretion than the control group. Ulcers were seen in 65% of patients, particularly in the duodenum (48%); they were more commonly associated with a coarse pattern and closely related to gastric hyperacidity. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus may be a useful radiographic sign in assessment of gastric secretion.

  20. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely...4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice...juice from concentrate is the food prepared by...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice...juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

  5. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

  6. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the...

  7. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153...153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies...

  8. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153...153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies...

  9. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153...153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies...

  10. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153...153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 ...154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements...

  12. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 ...154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements...

  13. Pomelo juice but not cranberry juice affects the disposition of cyclosporine in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fradette; J. Grenier; G. Morelli; J. Merritt; M. Vranderick; M. P. Ducharme

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine is a CYP3A and PgP susbstrate and coadministration with grapefruit juice increases its biovailability. It is unknown at this time if pomelo, a closely related citrus fruit, interacts with cyclosporine in humans. In addition, a case study reports that cranberry juice interacts with warfarin. Cranberry juice has become a very popular beverage, therefore its effect on cyclosporine disposition

  14. The Development of a Manually operated Cashew Juice Extractor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ogunsina; E. B. Lucas

    2008-01-01

    A manually operated cashew juice extractor operating on screw press principle was designed, constructed and tested. Apple crushing was by pressing a wooden piston against a steel reinforced end plate. Juice output was 1.02 litres\\/hr and the average juice extraction efficiency was 85.38 %. Three samples of the juice (fresh juice, juice stored under ambient conditions for 24hrs and refrigerated

  15. Gastric clearance of serum albumin in normal man and in certain gastroduodenal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brassinne, A.

    1974-01-01

    Serum albumin gastric loss was estimated from the measurement of non-dialysable radioactivity of the gastric juice after intravenous injection of radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA). Immunochemical quantitation of serum albumin was performed in some of the samples. In the control group, the mean gastric clearance of albumin was 1·71 ml per hour with a range of 0·41 to 4·41 ml per hour. This represented a gastric loss of 1·9 gram of albumin per day and 11% of the daily degradation of albumin. There was no significant change in the gastric albumin loss after stimulating the gastric secretion. No significant difference in the gastric albumin leakage was found between normal subjects and patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer. In pernicious anaemia albumin loss into the stomach was greater (mean: 3·72 ml per hour; SD 1·52 ml) than in the normal group and accounted for the greater albumin fractional catabolic rate. This fact had never been proved before. In both patients with giant rugae of the gastric mucosa the gastric clearance of serum albumin was also increased. It is concluded first that albumin is not secreted by the chief and parietal cells of the mucosa and probably passes through the gastric wall between the cells of the mucosa, perhaps during the exfoliation of the surface epithelial cells, and secondly that the stomach is one of the sites of serum albumin breakdown, a fact that supports the view that the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the catabolism of serum albumin. PMID:4210183

  16. A “FURANOCOUMARIN-FREE” GRAPEFRUIT JUICE ESTABLISHES FURANOCOUMARINS AS THE MEDIATORS OF THE GRAPEFRUIT JUICE-FELODIPINE JUICE INTERACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Grapefruit juice (GFJ) enhances the systemic exposure of numerous CYP3A4 drug substrates, including felodipine, by inhibiting intestinal (but not hepatic) first-pass metabolism. Furanocoumarins have been identified as the major CYP3A4 inhibitors contained in the juice, but their contri...

  17. Intestinal Metaplasia —The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis—

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

  18. Serum glycan signatures of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Barkauskas, Donald A; Renee Ruhaak, L; Torres, Javier; Cooke, Cara L; An, Hyun Joo; Hua, Serenus; Williams, Cynthia C; Dimapasoc, Lauren M; Han Kim, Jae; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Rocke, David; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-02-01

    Glycomics, a comprehensive study of glycans expressed in biologic systems, is emerging as a simple yet highly sensitive diagnostic tool for disease onset and progression. This study aimed to use glycomics to investigate glycan markers that would differentiate patients with gastric cancer from those with nonatrophic gastritis. Patients with duodenal ulcer were also included because they are thought to represent a biologically different response to infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection that can cause either gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. We collected 72 serum samples from patients in Mexico City that presented with nonatrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer. N-glycans were released from serum samples using the generic method with PNGase F and were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The corresponding glycan compositions were calculated based on accurate mass. ANOVA-based statistical analysis was performed to identify potential markers for each subgroup. Nineteen glycans were significantly different among the diagnostic groups. Generally, decreased levels of high-mannose-type glycans, glycans with one complex type antenna, bigalactosylated biantennary glycans, and increased levels of nongalactosylated biantennary glycans were observed in gastric cancer cases. Altered levels of serum glycans were also observed in duodenal ulcer, but differences were generally in the same direction as gastric cancer. Serum glycan profiles may provide biomarkers to differentiate gastric cancer cases from controls with nonatrophic gastritis. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings as biomarkers and identify the role of protein glycosylation in gastric cancer pathology. PMID:24327722

  19. Concentration of blackcurrant juice by reverse osmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Pap; Sz. Kertész; E. Pongrácz; L. Myllykoski; R. L. Keiski; Gy. Vatai; Zs. László; C. Hodúr

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of reverse osmosis (RO) for the concentration of blackcurrant juice by AFC-80 polyamide tubular membrane that has a salt rejection greater than 80%. The fresh juice had a total soluble solids content of about 16.5°Brix. The effect of centrifugation followed by depectinization with two commercially available pectinase enzyme preparations (Panzym

  20. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  1. Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1?-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 ?g/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-? of midazolam by ?30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1?-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-? ratio by ?40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  2. Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S

    2000-05-01

    The color properties (CIE Lab, hue, and chroma) of 90 red grapefruit juices were studied by tristimulus reflectance measurement for two growing seasons. Juices were prepared from six red grapefruit cultivars including Ruby Red, Rio Red, Star Ruby, Ray Ruby, Flame, and Marsh Red grown in Florida. Very wide varietal and seasonal variations on juice color were observed, and most notably, CIE a values varied widely from -1.41 to 9.06 (CV = 82.6%). Lycopene is the major colored pigment in red cultivars with lesser amounts of beta-carotene as determined by HPLC on a carotenoid C(30) column with gradient elution using MeOH and MTBE. The highest correlation coefficients (r = 0.963) found between CIE a values and lycopene contents in juices from all cultivars combined suggest the possibility that the CIE a value would be a good indicator for pigmentation in red grapefruit juice. PMID:10820051

  3. Importance of luminal and mucosal zinc in the mechanism of experimental gastric ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Opoka, W; Adamek, D; Plonka, M; Reczynski, W; Bas, B; Drozdowicz, D; Jagielski, P; Sliwowski, Z; Adamski, P; Brzozowski, T

    2010-10-01

    Zinc has been reported to exert a gastroprotective action against various experimental gastric lesions suggesting that this trace element is involved in the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Compounds containing zinc, such as polaprezinc, were developed in Japan and used as an antiulcer drugs in the treatment of human peptic ulcer disease. However, the precise mechanism of Zn(2+) containing compounds and their effects on mucosal integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing remain unclear. We have determined the efficacy of zinc hydroaspartate, a compound containing Zn(2+), in the mechanism of gastric secretion and ulcer healing in rats with chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid (initial ulcer area = 28 mm(2)). Rats with gastric ulcers were randomized into two groups: A) with gastric fistulas (GF) and B) without gastric fistulas and received a daily treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (32-130 mg/kg-d i.g.) for 3, 7 and 14 days. At the termination of each treatment, the area of gastric ulcers were examined by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and H(2)-gas clearance methods. The venous blood was withdrawn for a measurement of plasma gastrin levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The concentration of Zn(2+) in the gastric juice and mucosa at the ulcer margin were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) methods and the gastric biopsy samples were taken for histopathological assessment of the quality of ulcer healing. The ulcers healed gradually, with the ulcer area in the vehicle control rats being diminished by 15%, 48% and 78% upon ulcer induction at 3, 7 and 14 days, respectively. Zinc hydroaspartate dose-dependently inhibited the area of gastric ulcer, the dose reducing this area by 50% (ID(50)) being about 60 mg/kg-d. The mucosal concentration of Zn(2+) significantly was unchanged from the baseline immediately after ulcer induction (day 0) and at day 3 but then it rose significantly at day 7 after ulcer induction. Treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (65 mg/kg-d i.g.), which significantly raised the gastric luminal and mucosal levels of Zn(2+), significantly accelerated ulcer healing at day 7 upon ulcer induction. The GBF, which reached a significantly higher value at the ulcer margin than the ulcer bed, was significantly increased in rats treated with zinc hydroaspartate compared with vehicle-controls. The gastric acid output was significantly inhibited in GF rats with gastric ulcer at day 3 then restored at day 14 followed by a significant rise in the plasma gastrin levels. Treatment with zinc hydroaspartate significantly inhibited gastric secretion and also significantly raised the plasma gastrin level when compared to vehicle-control rats. We concluded that 1) trace micronutrients such as Zn(2+) could be successfully measured in the gastric juice and gastric mucosa during ulcer healing; 2) compounds chelating of Zn(2+) can exert a beneficial influence on the ulcer healing via Zn(2+) mediated increase in gastric microcirculation, antisecretory activity and gastrin release, which may enhance the cell proliferation and differentiation during ulcer healing, ultimately exerting a trophic action on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. PMID:21081802

  4. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger ( Zingiber officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S S. Sharma; Y K. Gupta

    1998-01-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg\\/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses

  5. [Participation of parasympathetic part of nervous system in realization of bioflavonoids action on gastric secretion in rats].

    PubMed

    Vovkun, T V; Yanchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Y; Veselskyy, S P; Shalamay, A S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of corvitin--modified form of flavonoid quercetin on the stomach secretory function and physiological mechanisms involved in the maintenance of such effects in rat's pylorus-ligated model. In animals which corvitin was injected at a dose of 5 mg/kg, regardless of the route of administration--in the stomach or duodenum, did not observe any changes in the volume of gastric juice or general production of hydrochloric acid, compared with the control data. Dose of 40 mg/kg caused an increase in the volume of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid output as when administered in the stomach and in the duodenum. We also found that after the application of a large dose of corvitin (intragastrically) in the blood of experimental animals showed reduction in glucose levels, which was not detected when using the drug in a dose of 5 mg/kg. Nonspecific antagonist of M-cholinergic receptors--atropine almost completely blocked the enhancement of gastric secretion, which was caused by the introduction into the stomach of corvitin in large dose. From the present data, it is reasonable to conclude that intragastric administration of a large dose of corvitin to pylorus-ligated rats induces hypoglycemic reaction of blood, which may causes an increase in vagus nerve activity with subsequent stimulation of gastric secretion. The increase in gastric juice volume and gastric acid output induced by corvitin was completely inhibited by atropine. These results suggested that the increase in gastric secretion induced by intragastrically administered corvitin could be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:26040035

  6. Gastric Bypass Operation for Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias A. L. Fobi; Hoil Lee; Ronald Holness; DeGaulle Cabinda

    1998-01-01

    . Gastric bypass is considered by many to be the gold standard for surgical treatment of obesity. Gastric bypass was\\u000a a natural evolution from gastric operations that were used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Gastric bypass, first\\u000a described in 1967, has undergone many modifications. It presently exists as a hybrid operation. Gastric bypass operation has\\u000a been extensively scrutinized

  7. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40?kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  8. Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Gang; Xie, Chuan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Zhang, Kun-He; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in barrier factors and increase in damage in extreme cold climates may be associated with the seasonal pattern of peptic ulcers. PMID:25452787

  9. High pressure and foods—fruit\\/vegetable juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Houška; Jan Strohalm; Kate?ina Kocurová; Ji?í Totušek; Danuše Lefnerová; Jan T?íska; Nad?žda Vrchotová; Vlasta Fiedrleová; Maria Holasova; Dana Gabrovská; Ivana Paulí?ková

    2006-01-01

    The high pressure pasteurisation is capable to preserve the nutritional substances in juices such as sulforaphane in broccoli juice. This paper deals with the procedures how to maintain the highest content of this compound and other nutritional substances and how to prepare the consumer acceptable form of this juice. The final product—the apple–broccoli juice functional food (food supplement) was experimentally

  10. Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary citrus juices in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Kurowska; N. M. Borradaile; J. D. Spence; K. K. Carroll

    2000-01-01

    Our preliminary studies showed that in mildly hypercholesterolemic rats with chemically induced breast cancer, dietary orange juice reduced total plasma cholesterol and dietary grapefruit juice tended to reduce VLDL + LDL cholesterol. We therefore investigated whether orange juice and grapefruit juice (double strength) could influence cholesterol metabolism in rabbits with high LDL cholesterol levels induced by feeding a semipurified, cholesterol-free,

  11. Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended skim milk powder Ramachandra H by incorporation of orange juice. Blends with different levels of orange juice and skim milk were spray dried, viz that the blend with a 15:85 ratio of orange juice: skim milk, respectively, possessed the desired sensory

  12. Viscosity changes in orange juice after ultrafiltration and evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Carter

    1995-01-01

    Suspended solids, including cloud and pectin, were removed from orange juice using a hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane (500 kDa). Orange juice serum had a clear amber color with no measurable turbidity. Regular and clarified orange juices were concentrated in a four stage, three effect TASTE (thermally accelerated short time evaporator) evaporator.The viscosity of the clarified juice was appreciably lower than

  13. Consumer acceptance of orange juice containing functional ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Luckow; C Delahunty

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sensory impact of functional ingredients (e.g., probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, and minerals) on the aroma and taste of orange fruit juices. A trained panel (n=10) performed a descriptive sensory analysis on four functional orange juices and seven conventional orange juices. The functional juices were described as possessing perceptible “dairy”, “medicinal” and “dirty” flavours, distinguishing them from the

  14. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress. PMID:25238454

  15. Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... highest rate of gastric cancer is found in China, Japan, and other countries in Southeast Asia, as ... them to help patients and families make informed health care decisions. Find a Cancer Doctor ASCO Conquer ...

  17. Dermatoglyphs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanovi?-Posilovi?, Gordana; Milici?, Jasna; Bozicevi?, Dubravko

    2003-06-01

    Gastric cancer is very common malignant disease, etiology of which is still unknown. Some studies consider that it is caused by a joint activity of both genetic and environmental factors. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of some malignant diseases (breast, lung and colorectal cancer) and it was the reason for investigations of the correlation of their quantity features at patients with gastric cancer (36 males and 32 females) and the control groups of phenotypically healthy persons (50 males and 50 females). By performing statistical data processing of the multivariate and univariate analysis, as well as of discriminant ones, it was possible to prove the existence of heterogeneity between the investigated groups. Higher incidence of gastric cancer and the blood group A could be confirmed, as well. From the obtained findings can be concluded, that the results of quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphs affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for development of gastric cancer. PMID:12974149

  18. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  19. Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2014-04-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  20. Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Satyanarayana

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

  1. Stability of anthocyanins from commercial black currant juice under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Uzunovi?, Alija; Vrani?, Edina

    2008-08-01

    Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin) was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (-1.83%) in commercial black currant juice. PMID:18816259

  2. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132 Grapefruit...

  3. [Stability and antioxidant activity of black currant and black aronia berry juices].

    PubMed

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Briedis, Vitalis

    2003-01-01

    The berries of black currant and black aronia are rich in polyphenolic compounds and especially in anthocyanins, demonstrating antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of thermal technological processes on the quantity of polyphenols and anthocyanins in berry juice concentrates, and on the antioxidant activity. After 8 hour storage of black currant and black aronia berry juice concentrates at 60 degrees C, the amount of polyphenols decreased by 46% and 22%, anthocyanins 31% and 35%, respectively. Antioxidant activity decreased by 26% and 56%, respectively. The results demonstrated insufficient stability of juice concentrates, and impropriety of application of long lasting drying processes in manufacturing of black currant and black aronia berry dry products. Fast and efficient drying methods for liquid products should be applied to preserve qualitative and quantitative composition and their antioxidant activity. PMID:14617862

  4. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.

    PubMed

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-02-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate. PMID:25694697

  5. Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit

    PubMed Central

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

  6. Inactivation kinetics of polygalacturonase in tomato juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Fachin; Ann M Van Loey; Binh Ly Nguyen; Isabel Verlent; Indrawati; Marc E Hendrickx

    2003-01-01

    The inactivation kinetics of polygalacturonase (PG) in tomato juice was studied during thermal and high-pressure\\/thermal processing. In the temperature range of 55–70 °C the thermal inactivation of polygalacturonase in tomato juice followed a fractional conversion model, with a thermostable fraction of approximately 14%. Under conditions of combined high-pressure\\/thermal processing, 200–550 MPa\\/5–50 °C, PG inactivation presented first order kinetics. A mathematical

  7. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  8. Effects of beta-adrenoceptor drug stimulation on various models of gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Esplugues, J.; Lloris, J. M.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Morcillo, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    1. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of the pharmacological activation of beta-adrenoceptors on various models of gastric ulcer in the rat. 2. Pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor stimulant drugs, isoprenaline or salbutamol, significantly inhibited stress-induced gastric ulcers. This anti-ulcer effect was abolished by propranolol but not by atenolol, suggesting that beta 2-adrenoceptors mediate this response. 3. In the pylorus-ligation model, salbutamol inhibited lesion formation and reduced the intragastric content of hydrogen ions, histamine and pepsin although the latter was only affected with the higher dose of salbutamol. 4. Salbutamol also prevented the ulcerogenic action on the gastric mucosa of an exogenously perfused artificial gastric juice, showing that the anti-ulcer effect is not necessarily dependent on acid inhibition. 5. Salbutamol also reduced the formation of acute ulcers induced by various iatrogenic means (histamine, polymyxin B, reserpine and indomethacin). 6. Long-term treatment with salbutamol accelerated the healing of experimental chronic gastric ulcer. 7. In anaesthetized rats, salbutamol produced a dose-related increase in mucosal blood flow which may contribute to its mode of action. 8. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor agonists exert preventive and curative effects on gastric damage induced in the rat. This effect seems specific and mediated through beta-adrenoceptor activation. PMID:6125225

  9. Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely "FVBH" for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

  10. Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely “FVBH” for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

  11. Laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Biertho; Rudolf Steffen; Thomas Ricklin; Fritz F Horber; Alfons Pomp; William B Inabnet; Daniel Herron; Michel Gagner

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundIndications for and results of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB) are still controversial, especially between Europe and the United States. The recent availability of gastric bandings in the United States made it necessary to compare the two techniques.

  12. Gastric emphysema secondary to laparoscopic gastric band erosion

    PubMed Central

    Su, Michael Z.; Munro, William S.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastric band erosion is a known complication of adjustable gastric band surgery. There are no previous reports of gastric band erosion associated with gastric emphysema (GE) or emphysematous gastritis (EG), a rare condition with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the first known case of GE found in a 58-year-old lady presenting with acute onset epigastric abdominal pain and haematemesis in the setting of a chronically eroded gastric band. GE was visualised in the anterior gastric wall of the stomach without evidence of EG. Endoscopic and surgical examination of the stomach was undertaken along with band removal followed by defect repair. DISCUSSION GE can result from obstructive, traumatic and pulmonary causes. EG is a rare and often lethal form of GE resulting from bacterial invasion of the gastric wall through a mucosal defect leading to sepsis and gastric necrosis. Early reports documented early definitive operative debridement of necrotic gastric wall of patients with EG while recent reports have demonstrated a feasible non-operative approach among highly selected patients with no evidence of gastric necrosis. There are no previous reports on the treatment of patients with gastric band erosion and suspected EG. CONCLUSION Patients presenting acutely with symptomatic gastric band erosion, radiological evidence of GE with evidence of leucocytosis, peritonism or sepsis may develop EG. A high index of suspicion, low threshold for operative exploration and optimal management with antimicrobial therapy and close supportive care are necessary to ensure the best survival outcomes for these patients. PMID:25216194

  13. Development and evaluation of a low erosive blackcurrant juice drink 2. Comparison with a conventional blackcurrant juice drink and orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. X. West; J. A. Hughes; D. M. Parker; R. G. Newcombe; M. Addy

    1999-01-01

    Objective: A previous study demonstrated that an experimental low pH blackcurrant juice drink with calcium was markedly less erosive to enamel both in situ and in vitro than orange juice. Further development of the experimental blackcurrant juice drink formula has occurred and the aims of the present studies were two fold. Firstly, to confirm the low erosivity of the modified

  14. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  15. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  16. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  17. Anthocyanic pigment determination in red fruit juices, concentrated juices and syrups using liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Goiffon; Pierre P Mouly; Emile M Gaydou

    1999-01-01

    Determination of free anthocyanins by liquid chromatography has been investigated to improve a method for quality control of these natural products found in eight red fruit juices, concentrated juices and syrups (black currant, elderberry, sour cherry, strawberry, grape, blueberry, raspberry, and red currant). Among the various experimental possibilities, an isocratic simple method using water, acetonitrile and formic acid as eluting

  18. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ekasari

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. In industrial and laboratory prepared orange juices their concentration was seen to be related to the intensity of the heat

  19. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  20. Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

    2005-01-01

    The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

  1. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146...Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice...

  2. Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lengsfeld, Christian; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Faller, Gerhard; Hensel, Andreas

    2004-03-24

    In Asian medicine the fruit of the okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., is used as a mucilaginous food additive against gastric irritative and inflammative diseases. To find a rational basis for its use against these diseases, several crude and purified carbohydrate-containing fractions from immature okra fruits were isolated and analyzed, and their effects against Helicobacter pylori in an in situ adhesion model on sections of human gastric mucosa were determined. Pretreatment of the bacteria with a fresh juice preparation inhibited the bacterial adhesion almost completely. Lyophilization and reconstitution of an extract solution led to a reduction of this effect. A crude polysaccharide (RPS) isolated from the fresh juice by ethanolic precipitation showed strong inhibitory effects. Further fractionation of RPS revealed a purified, highly acidic subfraction (AF III) with high antiadhesive qualities. Carbohydrate analysis revealed the presence of rhamnogalacturonans with a considerable amount of glucuronic acid, whereas other inactive subfractions contained little glucuronic acid or were glucuronic acid-free. After heat denaturation of the fresh juice or protein precipitation with 5% TCA the antiadhesive activity of the fresh extract was reduced, indicating that besides polysaccharides, protein fractions also exhibited antiadhesive properties. SDS-PAGE analysis of the precipitate revealed several bands of glycosylated proteins between 25 and 37 kDa that were almost diminished in the nonactive supernatant. Preincubations of gastric tissue with any of the active fractions did not lead to reduced bacterial binding. The antiadhesive activity is therefore due to the blocking capacity of specific Helicobacter surface receptors that coordinate the interaction between host and bacterium. Neither of the active fractions showed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth in vitro. The antiadhesive qualities of okra were assumed to be due to a combination of glycoproteins and highly acidic sugar compounds making up a complex three-dimensional structure that is fully developed only in the fresh juice of the fruit. PMID:15030201

  3. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    PubMed

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

  4. Gastric teratoma with intramural extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dunlap; C. A. James; R. T. Maxson; J. M. Bell; C. W. Wagner

    1995-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is an extremely rare neoplasm which accounts for less than two percent of all teratomas. Unlike other teratomas, gastric teratomas are all benign and predominantly occur in males. As gastric teratomas generally present as a palpable abdominal mass, more aggressive solid masses of childhood must be excluded. In this case, CT imaging delineates both cystic and fatty components

  5. Do We Need Gastric Acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

  6. Fundoplication enhances gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Maddern, G J; Jamieson, G G

    1985-01-01

    Fundoplication of the stomach is an established surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. To assess its effect on gastric emptying, 21 patients (11 men, 10 women), median age 47 years (range 19-72), underwent a gastric emptying study before and 6 months after fundoplication. Gastric emptying studies were performed after an overnight fast using a dual isotope technic. Solid and liquid emptying rates were assessed over 120 minutes. The time taken for 50% of the liquid marker to leave the gastric region was a median of 22 minutes before surgery (range 9-35) and 13 minutes after surgery (range 9-27) (p less than 0.01). The percentage of solid remaining in the stomach 100 minutes after ingestion was 50% before surgery (range 19-90) and 44% after surgery (range 5-89) (p less than 0.01). We conclude that gastric emptying of both solids and liquids tends to be increased following fundoplication. This observation suggests a further mechanism for the efficacy of this operation in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:3977428

  7. Hyperplastic gastric polyp causing progressive gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dean, P G; Davis, P M; Nascimento, A G; Farley, D R

    1998-10-01

    Hyperplastic polyps represent 75 to 90% of gastric polypoid lesions. The manifestations of these unique gastric neoplasms vary, including abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting or gastrointestinal bleeding. The vast majority of these lesions are small, asymptomatic, and found incidentally on radiologic evaluation or endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Herein we describe a large, benign, pedunculated hyperplastic polyp that led to progressive gastric outlet obstruction. In addition, we provide an overview of gastric polyps and a review of the literature. Excision of gastric polyps by endoscopic or surgical means is recommended as prudent treatment to eliminate occurrence of malignant foci. PMID:9787747

  8. The Submillimetre Wave Instrument on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogh, P.; Barabash, S.; Beaudin, G.; Börner, P.; Bockeleé-Morvan, D.; Boogaerts, W.; Cavalié, T.; Christensen, U. R.; Dannenberg, A.; Eriksson, P.; Fränz, M.; Fouchet, T.; Frisk, U.; Hocke, K.; Janssen, C.; Jarchow, C.; Kasai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.; Krieg, J.-M.; Krupp, N.; Kuroda, T.; Lellouch, E.; Loose, A.; Maestrini, A.; Manabe, T.; Medvedev, A. S.; Mendrok, J.; Miettinen, E. P.; Moreno, R.; Murk, A.; Murtagh, D.; Nishibori, T.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Sagawa, H.; Steinmetz, E.; Thomas, B.; Urban, J.; Wicht, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Submillimetre Wave Instrument (SWI) is part of the JUICE (Jupiter ICy moon Explorer) payload. SWI's primary scientific objectives are the investigation of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter and the atmospheres and exospheres of the Galilean satellites. SWI will contribute to the understanding of the circulation regime in the atmosphere of Jupiter as a function of latitude and altitude, how the various atmospheric regions are dynamically coupled, and how the energy originating in Jupiter's interior vertically propagates to the upper layers to be radiated in space. In this sense SWI complements the Juno mission. Furthermore SWI will determine important isotopic radios, monitor and trace known gases and search for new molecules. SWI will - for the first time - investigate the density, structure and distribution of the water atmospheres of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa from ground up to a few hundred km, determine its isotopic composition and general circulation. Io's volcanic atmosphere will be studied through lines of SO2, SO, NaCl, and perhaps other species.. The secondary scientific objectives concerns the determination of thermophysical properties of the Galilean satellite surfaces by radiometric observations. In the proposed configuration SWI will operate in two submm wave bands around 600 GHz and 1200 GHz. Basline however at the present time are two 600 GHz receivers. Both receivers will be tunable within a bandwidth of approximately 20 % around the centre frequency. The antenna has a diameter of 30 cm and will be movable in two dimensions. Two high resolution Chirp Transform Spectrometers with 1 GHz bandwidth and two 5 GHz wide low resolution autocorrelator spectrometer are used for determining the spectral line shapes and for line surveys. The observations geometry includes limb and nadir sounding. The total mass of the instrument is aimed at below 10 kg and the power consumption below 50 W.

  9. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  10. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized...Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from...

  12. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated...juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with...

  13. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromski?, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  14. Kinetics of chlorophyll degradation in pandanus juice during pasteurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Punchira Vongsawasdi; Montira Nopharatana; Karan Sasaeng; Phatcharanee Tantek

    The objectives of this research are to study the kinetics of chlorophyll degradation and colour change of pandanus juice during pasteurization. Pandanus juice was prepared using pandanus leaves and water at the ratio of 1:4 (w\\/w). Total soluble solid of the juice extract was adjusted to 12+2oBrix before the juice underwent pasteurization. In this study, 4 pasteurization temperatures (63, 70,

  15. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations. PMID:10716568

  16. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranovi? Cindri?, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

  17. Gastric bicarbonate secretion in humans. Effect of pentagastrin, bethanechol, and 11,16,16-trimethyl prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M

    1983-01-01

    Although the stomach is mainly known for its ability to secrete hydrochloric acid, there is increasing evidence that the gastric mucosa also secretes bicarbonate. A simple method for simultaneous measurement of gastric HCO-3 secretion and H+ secretion was developed from a two-component model of gastric secretion. The method, which is based upon gastric juice volume, H+ concentration, and osmolality, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. In 14 healthy human beings, basal gastric HCO-3 secretion averaged 2.6 mmol/h (range, 0.7-8.7 mmol/h). Basal HCO-3 secretion was approximately 50% of basal H+ secretion and there was a significant correlation between basal HCO-3 and H+ secretion in individual subjects (r = 0.79). HCO-3 was secreted in basal nonparietal secretion at a concentration of approximately 90 mmol/liter. Intravenous pentagastrin infusion markedly stimulated H+ secretion but did not increase HCO-3 secretion. During pentagastrin infusion, the cholinergic agonist, bethanechol, significantly augmented H+ secretion (from 20.2 to 24.7 mmol/h) and increased HCO-3 secretion (from 2.2 to 4.2 mmol/h). A prostaglandin E2 analogue significantly reduced H+ secretion and increased HCO-3 secretion during pentagastrin infusion. The reduction in net gastric juice H+ output following prostaglandin E2 was due more to H+ secretory inhibition than to HCO-3 secretory stimulation. We conclude that the healthy human stomach actively secretes HCO-3 and that gastric HCO-3 secretion can be influenced by cholinergic stimulation and by prostaglandin E2. PMID:6135708

  18. RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS PROCESSING OF ORANGE JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonthermal process of radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) has been shown to inactivate bacteria in apple juice at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be extended to inactivate bacteria in orange juice. An 80 kW RFEF pasteurizer was used to process pulp-free orange juice at flow rates ...

  19. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution...concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY...termination of the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would...

  20. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

  1. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely...

  2. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice...juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...

  3. Antifungal activity of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis fresh aqueous juice.

    PubMed

    Sisti, M; Amagliani, G; Brandi, G

    2003-07-01

    The antifungal activity of fresh, aqueous Brassica oleracea var. botrytis juice against Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi was investigated. The juice was found to be effective both in inhibiting the growth of blastoconidia and reducing the appearance of C. albicans germ tubes. Furthermore, the juice inhibited the growth of some pathogenic, filamentous fungi. PMID:12837360

  4. Spray Drying of Fruit Juice Using Proteins as Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuosi Wang; Evelyn Konkol; Tim A. G. Langrish

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of manufacturing fruit juice powders was developed by using different proteins as additives when spray drying fruit juices. In this work, protein X was found to improve the yield during the spray drying of orange juice to greater than 80% recovery with less than 5% of protein X added. Other proteins were found to be less compatible

  5. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  6. Helicobacter pylori inhibits gastric cell cycle progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amel Ahmed; Duane Smoot; George Littleton; Robert Tackey; Curla S. Walters; Fatah Kashanchi; Cornell R. Allen; Hassan Ashktorab

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is associated with changes in gastric epithelial cell proliferation. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to H. pylori inhibits proliferation of gastric cells. This study sought to investigate the cell cycle progression of gastric epithelial cell lines in the presence and absence of H. pylori. Unsynchronized and synchronized gastric epithelial cell lines

  7. Gastric ulceration in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hepburn

    2011-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration syndrome (EGUS) was first described in 1986 and is common in all types of horses. The clinical signs are variable and often vague but EGUS can be easily diagnosed following thorough history taking and physical examination, and confirmed using gastroscopy. Ulcers can be effectively treated and prevented by introducing changes in management practices and instituting drug therapy.

  8. The effectiveness of gastric bypass over gastric partition in morbid obesity: consequence of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion.

    PubMed Central

    Pories, W J; Flickinger, E G; Meelheim, D; Van Rij, A M; Thomas, F T

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-seven morbidly obese patients were prospectively randomized to two operations: gastric bypass was performed on 42 and gastric partition on 45. Gastric bypass proved to be more effective; gastric bypass patients lost 15% more of their original weight at 12 months and 21% more at 18 months. There were no failures in the gastric bypass group; 28 of the 45 operations failed in the gastric partition group. An additional 60 patients underwent gastric bypass since the completion of the study. In the total series of 147 patients who underwent gastric bypass or gastric partition, there was no mortality, and the surgical complication rate was 12%. Because the gastric pouches and the anastomoses were similar in the two operations, the superiority of the gastric bypass may well be due to a heretofore unexplained effect of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion. PMID:7125726

  9. Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Khan Mueen; Aqil, Mansoor; Hussain, Altaf; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Hillis, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30) or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30). General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092) respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5). This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol. PMID:25558191

  10. Nutritional study of copper and zinc in grapes and commercial grape juices from Spain.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Manuel; Fernández, Javier; Cabrera, Carmen; Navarro, Miguel; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents the levels of copper and zinc determined in a total of 66 samples of the most widely consumed varieties of white and red grapes in Spain, as well as those of 60 samples of grape juice (39 from white varieties and 21 from red ones) chosen from the main commercial brands in the country. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used as analytical technique, with electrothermal atomization after digestion of the sample with HNO(3)-H(2)O(2) for grapes and with HNO(3) for grape juice. The mean Zn contents obtained (0.0462 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0460 mg/100 mL in grape juice) are lower than those provided by most of the more commonly used food composition tables. The mean Cu contents were 0.0515 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0063 mg/100 mL in grape juice. On the basis of these data and the official data on consumption of grapes and grape juice in Spain, the contribution of both products to the recommended daily intake of zinc (15 and 12 mg/day for healthy adult men and women, respectively) is estimated to be approximately 0.1%, whereas for Cu, this supply represents rather more than 0.25% of the established ESADDI (1.5-3 mg/day in adults). The growing popularity of these products in recent years, on the basis of its nutritional properties and beneficial effects, requires additional data, and the present findings are of potential use to food composition tables. PMID:15113181

  11. Gastric Migration and Strangulation After Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwenyth Fischer; Jonathan A. Myers; Wendy Huang; Vafa Shayani

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of gastric strangulation 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The 45-year-old\\u000a woman presented to our emergency department with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Initial upper gastrointestinal\\u000a studies after emergency department presentation showed no flow through the gastric band and an unusual air\\/fluid level just\\u000a above the band, not communicating with the proximal pouch. The

  12. Not only smoking is deadly: fatal ingestion of e-juice-a case report.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Svenja; Mercer-Chalmers-Bender, Katja; Beike, Justus; Rothschild, Markus A; Jübner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A fatal case of nicotine intoxication by oral intake of a nicotine solution, sold via the Internet, is reported. The concentrated nicotine solution (72 mg/mL) is usually diluted with polypropylene, polyethylene glycol or glycerine, respectively, in order to allow the user to generate their own solution for vaporisation in electronic cigarettes (e-juice). A 34-year-old man was found lifeless by his parents, who reported that their son had been in good health and had shown no hints of suicidal behaviour. The medicolegal autopsy revealed unspecific findings. Toxicological analysis revealed nicotine concentrations of 5.5 mg/L in femoral venous blood, 136 mg/L in heart blood, 12.0 mg/kg in brain tissue, 42.6 mg/kg in kidney tissue, 89.5 mg/kg in lung tissue and a total amount of 3,950 mg in the gastric contents. Cotinine concentrations were 0.9 mg/L in femoral venous blood, 7.6 mg/L in heart blood, 0.4 mg/kg in brain tissue, 0.9 mg/kg in kidney tissue and 0.8 mg/kg in lung tissue. No cotinine was detected in the gastric contents. The nicotine level measured in the femoral blood was in good accordance with the levels reported in other fatal cases caused by oral or patch application of nicotine. Moreover, the high level of nicotine in lung and kidney tissue, compared to that within femoral blood, strikingly emphasises the strong effect of post-mortem redistribution, underlined by the comparably low concentration of nicotine in the brain. The extremely high level of nicotine in the heart blood is more likely due to the high concentration in the gastric contents, due to oral intake, and by accumulation of the basic substance in the acidic gastric contents. This further highlights the effect of post-mortem redistribution. The mother of the deceased later admitted that her son had been suffering from psychosis and that she found a package containing five nicotine solution vials of the brand "Titanium Ice" (of 50 mL each). Three of the vials were empty. The nicotine concentration in the e-juice Titanium Ice was confirmed by HPLC analysis. PMID:25239221

  13. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... Gastric) Cancer Drugs Approved for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Adrucil (Fluorouracil) Cyramza ( ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed January 2014 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  15. Proanthocyanidins and Their Contribution to Sensory Attributes of Black Currant Juices.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar A; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Kallio, Heikki P; Yang, Baoru

    2015-06-10

    Black currant juices from five different cultivars were analyzed for composition, content, and mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of proanthocyanidins (PA) by UPLC-MS/MS. Juices contained both procyanidins (PC) and prodelphinidins (PD), but the PC-% varied significantly, from 28 to 82% of the total PA. In addition, high PD-% was related to high mDP and total PA content. Enzyme-assisted processing increased significantly total PA (5-14-fold), PD-% (12-65%), and mDP (1.8-6.2-fold) in the juices of all cultivars. Enzymatic treatment increased the contents of large PAs more than those of small PAs. The contents of PA and mDP were positively associated with the mouth-drying and puckering astringent characteristics. However, the PA content did not contribute to the bitter taste. Juices from the most bitter cultivars had the lowest contents of proanthocyanidins regardless of the processing method. This finding indicates the existence of other bitter compounds in black currants in addition to PA. PMID:25984593

  16. Development of an orange juice surrogate for the study of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Tais; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T; Ferreira, Stella S; Aoki, Idalina V; Sobral, Maria Angela P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a synthetic juice (SJ) to be used as a surrogate for natural orange juices in erosion studies, verifying its erosive potential. The SJ was formulated based on the chemical composition of orange juices from different locations. Forty enamel and 40 root dentin specimens were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 10): SJ; 1% Citric Acid (CA); Minute Maid Original® (MM) and Florida Natural Original® (FN). The specimens were immersed in their respective solutions for 5 min, 6x/day for 5 days, in an erosion-remineralization cycling model. Enamel specimens were analyzed by surface Knoop microhardness and optical profilometry and dentin specimens only by optical profilometry. Outcomes were analyzed statistically by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test considering a significance level of 5%. For enamel, the surface loss and microhardness changes found for MM and SJ groups were similar (p>0.05) and significantly lower (p<0.01) than those found in the CA group. For dentin, CA promoted significantly greater (p<0.01) surface loss compared with all the other groups. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in dentin surface loss between MM and SJ. In conclusion, CA was the most erosive solution, and SJ had a similar erosive potential to that of MM natural orange juice. PMID:22189642

  17. Shelflife prediction of fresh blood orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Zanoni; E. Pagliarini; A. Galli; M. Laureati

    2005-01-01

    Fresh blood orange juice is successful on the market because of its taste and nutritional value. Yet, it requires accurate control of the cold chain during storage and distribution. A kinetic study was carried out both on growth of spoilage microorganisms (i.e. yeasts) and on decrease of nutritional value (i.e. ascorbic acid and anthocyanin contents) of pasteurised fresh blood orange

  18. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel, seeds, and other coarse or... (ii) Not more than two defects for peel and blemishes, either singly or in combination...9 fluid ounces): (a ) Pieces of peel 3.2 millimeters (0.125 inch) or...

  19. Modeling Herbicide Bioconcentration Factor in Sugarcane Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourival C. Paraíba; Antonio L. Cerdeira

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of herbicides in sugarcane juice. The model correlates the BCF of herbicides with a) water transpiration rate (Q); b) transpiration steam concentration factor of the herbicides (TSCF); c) partition coefficient of plant- water of the herbicides (KPW); d) plant fresh weight (M); e) metabolic and dilution rate of the

  20. Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Xu, Jing; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yugang

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, 26 elderly subjects were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups, that is, apple (low in antioxidant capacity) and pomegranate (high in antioxidant capacity) groups, and 250 mL of juice was consumed daily for 4 weeks. Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and carbonyls, and the degree of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells were measured. Urine samples were collected for determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content. Increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma carbonyl content were demonstrated after daily consumption of pomegranate juice. In comparison, apple juice consumption presented a less significant effect on antioxidant function in elderly subjects. It is concluded that daily consumption of pomegranate juices is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in the elderly. Because the plasma ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione contents did not differ significantly between the 2 groups in this study, the phenolics may be the functional components contained in pomegranate juice that accounted for the observations. PMID:19083391

  1. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  2. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  3. Phytohaemagglutinin inhibits gastric acid but not pepsin secretion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Kordás, K; Szalmay, G; Bardocz, S; Pusztai, A; Varga, G

    2001-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a kidney bean lectin, is known for its binding capability to the small intestinal surface. There has been no data available, however, on the biological activity of PHA in the stomach. Recent observations indicate that PHA is able to attach to gastric mucosal and parietal cells. Therefore, we examined whether PHA affects gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats. Rats were surgically prepared with chronic stainless steel gastric cannula and with indwelling polyethylene jugular vein catheter. During experiments, animals were slightly restrained. Gastric acid secretion was collected in 30 min periods. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice with 0.02 N NaOH to pH 7.0. Pepsin activity was estimated by measuring enzymatic activity. Saline, pentagastrin and histamine were infused intravenously. PHA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) were dissolved in saline and given intragastrically through the gastric cannula. PHA significantly inhibited basal acid secretion. Inhibition of acid output reached 72% during the first collection period following PHA administration when compared, then gradually disappeared. Pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion was repressed dose-dependently by PHA as well. Maximal inhibition was observed during the first 30 min following application of PHA. Histamine-stimulated acid secretion was inhibited by PHA in a similar manner. Pepsin secretion was not affected by PHA under either basal or stimulated conditions. These results provide evidence that PHA is a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in conscious rats, but it does not affect pepsin output from the stomach. PMID:11595455

  4. Mechanism of activation of the gastric aspartic proteinases: pepsinogen, progastricsin and prochymosin.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, C; Tanaka, T; Yada, R Y

    1998-01-01

    The gastric aspartic proteinases (pepsin A, pepsin B, gastricsin and chymosin) are synthesized in the gastric mucosa as inactive precursors, known as zymogens. The gastric zymogens each contain a prosegment (i.e. additional residues at the N-terminus of the active enzyme) that serves to stabilize the inactive form and prevent entry of the substrate to the active site. Upon ingestion of food, each of the zymogens is released into the gastric lumen and undergoes conversion into active enzyme in the acidic gastric juice. This activation reaction is initiated by the disruption of electrostatic interactions between the prosegment and the active enzyme moiety at acidic pH values. The conversion of the zymogen into its active form is a complex process, involving a series of conformational changes and bond cleavage steps that lead to the unveiling of the active site and ultimately the removal and dissociation of the prosegment from the active centre of the enzyme. During this activation reaction, both the prosegment and the active enzyme undergo changes in conformation, and the proteolytic cleavage of the prosegment can occur in one or more steps by either an intra- or inter-molecular reaction. This variability in the mechanism of proteolysis appears to be attributable in part to the structure of the prosegment. Because of the differences in the activation mechanisms among the four types of gastric zymogens and between species of the same zymogen type, no single model of activation can be proposed. The mechanism of activation of the gastric aspartic proteinases and the contribution of the prosegment to this mechanism are discussed, along with future directions for research. PMID:9794784

  5. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  6. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  7. Gastric ulcer in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Qureshi, H; Alam, S E; Zuberi, S J

    1992-09-01

    Of 138 endoscopically or surgically confirmed cases of gastric ulcer, 102 (74%) were males and 36 (26%) females. Both sexes were affected most commonly in the 6th decade of life. Pain, vomiting and gastrointestinal bleeding were the major presenting symptoms, with a median duration of 6 months. Cigarette smoking was the most common (44%) addiction and 10% were on analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Family history of ulcer was uncommon (2%) and no predilection for any blood group was noted. Among males 53% were skilled workers while 94% of females were housewives. Forty five percent patients were migrants from India and the rest belonged to different provinces of Pakistan. Presentation and behaviour of different sites of gastric ulcers though varied but the results were not significant. Healing rates with H2 receptor antagonists were 33% at 4 weeks and 78% at 8 weeks. PMID:1433804

  8. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  9. Nutritional Value and Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruit Juices sold through Retail Outlets in Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional value of ten fresh fruit juices purchased from retail outlets in Doha, Qatar was calculated on the basis that approximately 100 g of fruit is used to make one glass of juice (250 ml). Avocado juice was the best source of energy and potassium followed by banana juice, while guava juice was an outstanding source of vitamin C

  10. New vegetable and fruit–vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Gabrovská; Jarmila Ouhrabková; Jana Rysová; Ivana Laknerová; Vlasta Fiedlerová; Marie Holasová; Renata Winterová; Ji?ina Pr?chová; Jan Strohalm; Milan Houška; Aleš Landfeld; Vladimír Erban; Eva Eichlerová; Irena N?me?ková; Marie Kejmarová; Pavlína Bo?ková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit–vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination

  11. Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Isabel Rech Franke; Daniel Prá; Raquel Giulian; Johnny Ferraz Dias; Maria Lúcia Yoneama; Juliana da Silva; Bernardo Erdtmann; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

    2006-01-01

    World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects

  12. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60°C and 3.0mL100kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  13. Pregnancy after adjustable gastric banding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis F. Martin; Kathleen M. Finigan; Thomas E. Nolan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine outcomes of pregnancies of obese women who had surgical placement of an adjustable gastric band to treat obesity.Methods: We conducted two clinical trials to evaluate adjustable gastric banding that involved 359 obese women of reproductive potential (age 18–51 years), of whom 20 conceived resulting in 23 pregnancies. Specific information about pregnancies and fetal outcomes was collected from

  14. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  15. Dynamic light-scattering study of gelatin and aggregation of gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; LaMont, Jeffrey T.

    1997-05-01

    Dynamic light scattering studies show that concentration and pH play important roles in determining pig gastric mucin's (PGM) ability to aggregate and gel. At low concentrations, PGM macromolecules exist in solution predominantly in the form of monomers. At high concentrations, PGM macromolecules aggregate to form supra-macromolecular clusters. When the pH of the high concentration PGM solution is changed from 7.0 to 2.0, the system undergoes a sol-gel transition: from a solution of polydisperse aggregates to a gel. This pH and concentration dependent sol-gel transition of PGM solution may provide a mechanism for the mammalian stomach to protect itself against being digested by the gastric juice.

  16. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  17. Fatty acid content and juice characteristics in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Maria Luisa Ruiz; Dobson, Gary; Brennan, Rex; Gordon, Sandra

    2004-02-25

    The fatty acid compositions of seeds from 29 black currant genotypes were determined using a rapid small-scale procedure. There was interest in alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, and, especially, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) contents, and most samples showed values between 11.1 and 18.7%, between 2.5 and 4.5%, and between 11.6 and 17.4%, respectively. However, six genotypes exhibited gamma-linolenic contents >18%, and values >20% were recorded in four of these genotypes. The fatty acid contents of the six genotypes were also analyzed by using a conventional procedure, and only slight differences in fatty acid composition were found between the two methods. Although GLA content was not strongly correlated with juice parameters, some genotypes had both high GLA contents and desirable juice characteristics. The results obtained provide evidence that it is possible to select for GLA contents without negatively affecting juice quality, and both aspects can be combined in a single cultivar, thereby increasing the added value of the whole fruit. PMID:14969555

  18. Malolactic fermentation in sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) juice processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Tiitinen; Marjatta Vahvaselkä; Mari Hakala; Simo Laakso; Heikki Kallio

    2006-01-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) traditionally used in winemaking was applied to sea buckthorn to reduce the high sourness of\\u000a the berry juice. Chemical and microbiological aspects, as well as sensory properties of the juice during MLF were studied\\u000a in order to develop an optimal process. In 1:1 water diluted juice with malic acid content of 15 g\\/l and pH 2.8, efficient\\u000a conversion

  19. Management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Sarin, S K; Lahoti, D

    1992-09-01

    Gastric varices (GV) are a common (20%) accompaniment of portal hypertension; they are more often seen in those patients who bleed than in those who do not (27% versus 4%, p < 0.01). They can develop in both segmental and generalized portal hypertension. Depending on their location and relation with oesophageal varices, GVs can be classified as gastrooesophageal varices (GOV) and isolated gastric varices (IGV); each of these can be further subdivided as follows: GOV1 (extension of oesophageal varices along lesser curve) and GOV2 (extension of oesophageal varices towards fundus); and IGV1 (varices in the fundus) and IGV2 (isolated varices anywhere in the stomach). The common presentation of GVs is variceal bleeding and encephalopathy. In comparison with oesophageal varices, GVs bleed significantly less often (64% versus 25%, p < 0.01) but more severely (2.9 +/- 0.3 versus 4.8 +/- 0.6 transfusion units, p < 0.01). Patients with GOV2 and IGV1 bleed more often than patients with other types of GVs. Sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices can significantly influence the natural history of GVs. GOV1, or lesser curve varices, disappear in the majority of cases (59%) after obliteration of oesophageal varices. In those with persisting GOV1, the incidence of bleeding and mortality is high and these patients require gastric variceal sclerotherapy (GVS). During oesophageal variceal sclerotherapy, bleeding can occasionally be induced from GVs. After obliteration of oesophageal varices, recurrence as GVs (secondary GVs) can occur in about 9% of patients. Emergency GVS is quite effective in controlling acute bleeding from GVs, more so than balloon tamponade. Potent sclerosants like tetradecyl sulphate and alcohol and a glue, bucrylate, have been quite effective. Elective GVS can achieve obliteration of GVs in nearly 70% of patients. Rebleeding and ulceration are common complications of GVS; probably related to incomplete obliteration and mucosal injury respectively. Splenectomy is quite effective in treating GVs due to segmental protal hypertension. For GV bleeding due to generalized portal hypertension, a shunt operation is often effective. TIPS procedure appear to be a very promising therapy for GV bleeding. Liver transplantation may be a superior alternative to sclerotherapy and shunt surgery for gastric varices. PMID:1421599

  20. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...FV-12-328] United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...has revised the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The grade standards for grapefruit juice have been...

  1. 77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...FV-12-327] United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural...revision to the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The proposal includes changes to the grade standards for grapefruit juice to...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies...

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies...

  5. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

  10. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  12. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  13. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

  14. Peptidomics study of anthocyanin-rich juice of elderberry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhi; Johnson, Mitch C; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L; Thomas, Andrew L; Lai, Yongquan; Cai, Zongwei; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-01-01

    Biologically active peptides play a role in plant signaling and defense. Elderberry juice is known to contain a variety of anthocyanin compounds, a sub-set of polyphenols, which are responsible for the deep purple color of the juice. In this paper, we describe a method utilizing solid phase extraction (SPE) to remove anthocyanins from peptides. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the peptides. The results showed that the use of SPE was an effective method to separate peptides from anthocyanins and other background compounds including high polyphenol content in the juice samples. More than 1000 peptides present in elderberry juice were successfully identified. PMID:25281152

  15. Internal Hernias and Gastric Perforation After a Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Serra; Aniceto Baltasar; Rafael Bou; Javier Miró; L. A. Cipagauta

    1999-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A retrocolic-retrogastric herniation of most of the small\\u000a bowel and later a gastric perforation due to internal hernia at the mesenteric defect of the jejuno-jejunostomy occurred.\\u000a These unusual, but not rare, complications are directly related to the neoanatomy that follows gastric bypass and can lead\\u000a to rapidly progressing and life-threatening situations. Proper

  16. Preparation of floating alginate gel beads for drug delivery to the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshifumi; Kofuji, Kyoko; Kawashima, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Alginate gel beads containing ethylcellulose (ALECs) were prepared and investigated with regard to buoyancy, in vitro and in vivo drug release profiles, and drug targeting specificity in the gastric mucosa. When the ethylcellulose (EC) content of ALECs containing metronidazole (MZ) was higher than 3%, the beads floated in all test solutions with a specific gravity of approx. 1.01. ALECs containing 5% EC released MZ gradually and floated throughout the experimental period in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.2), and all of the drug had been released after 90 min. When we orally administered ALECs to guinea pigs, about 85% of the incorporated MZ was released at 1 h. The MZ concentration of the gastric mucosa after administration of ALECs was greater than that observed with administration of MZ solution, despite lower serum concentrations. Furthermore, the similar data were obtained for ALECs with 7% EC. These results suggest that ALECs may become a practical vehicle for delivering drugs to the gastric mucosa. PMID:12901439

  17. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Pinelo; Birgitte Zeuner; Anne S. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and\\/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice. In this work, alternative, enzymatic clarification strategies of industrially pressed cherry juice were evaluated in a 24?1 factorial design set-up with addition of a pectinase, Pectinex

  18. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  19. Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice–triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Lilja; K. T. Kivistö; J. T. Backman; P. J. Neuvonen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of several drugs during first pass. In this study, the effect of grapefruit\\u000a juice dose on the extent of grapefruit juice–triazolam interaction was investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: In a randomised, four-phase, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received 0.25?mg triazolam with water, with 200?ml normal-strength\\u000a or double-strength grapefruit juice or, on the third day of multiple-dose [three

  20. Gastric Emptying in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Chris K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a diminished homeostatic regulation of physiologic functions, including slowing of gastric emptying. Gastric and small intestinal motor and humoral mechanisms in humans are complex and highly variable: ingested food is stored, mixed with digestive enzymes, ground into small particles, and delivered as a liquefied form into the duodenum at a rate allowing efficient digestion and absorption. In healthy aging, motor function is well preserved whereas deficits in sensory function are more apparent. The effects of aging on gastric emptying are relevant to the absorption of oral medications and the regulation of appetite, postprandial glycemia, and blood pressure. PMID:26195094

  1. Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Carroll, Jaqueline D.; Moss, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastric infection by the gram-negative bacterium H. pylori is strongly associated with the development of distal gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosal lymphoma in humans. Eradication of H. pylori with combination antibiotic therapy cures most cases of gastric lymphoma and slows progression to gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori promotes gastric neoplasia, principally via the induction of an intense gastric inflammatory response that lasts over decades. This persistent inflammatory state produces chronic oxidative stress and adaptive changes in gastric epithelial and immune cell pathobiology that in a minority of infected subjects eventually proceeds to frank neoplastic transformation. PMID:20692762

  2. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  3. The Effects of Broccoli Sprout Extract Containing Sulforaphane on Lipid Peroxidation and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Woon; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Jung-Wook; Shim, Jae-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The aims of this study were to investigate whether a broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSES) inhibited the Helicobacter pylori infection density and exerted an antioxidative effect on gastric mucosal damage. Methods The enrolled subjects were randomized in a double-blinded manner into three groups. Finally, 33 H. pylori (+) BSES treatment subjects (group A), 28 H. pylori (+) placebo subjects (group B), and 28 H. pylori (?) BSES treatment subjects (group C) were studied. H. pylori infection density was indirectly quantified by a 13C-urea breath test (UBT), and the ammonia concentration in gastric juice aspirates was measured through gastroscopic examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative damage biomarker, and reduced glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant biomarker, were measured in the gastric mucosa by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results BSES treatment did not significantly affect the UBT values or ammonia concentration in group A (p=0.634 and p=0.505, respectively). BSES treatment did significantly reduce mucosal MDA concentrations in group A (p<0.05) and group C (p<0.001), whereas the gastric mucosal GSH concentrations did not differ before and after treatment in any of the groups. Conclusions BSES did not inhibit the H. pylori infection density. However, BSES prevented lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa and may play a cytoprotective role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. PMID:25287166

  4. Adulteration of Fruit Juices: Dihydrochalcones as Quality Markers for Apple Juice Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Versari; S. Biesenbruch; D. Barbanti; P. J. Farnell

    1997-01-01

    Some phenolic compounds, (+) catechin, (?) epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin) and phloretin xyloglucoside, in several juice samples were separated and identified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography\\/diode array detection (RP-HPLC\\/DAD). Dihydrochalcones were identified as ‘markers’ in apple samples, their content was calculated and a ‘threshold concentration’ for detectable addition was evaluated. The direct injection method gives excellent

  5. Survival of bifidobacteria in yogurt and simulated gastric juice following immobilization in gellan–xanthan beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenrong Sun; Mansel W Griffiths

    2000-01-01

    A novel acid-stable bead made of gellan gum and xanthan gum was used to immobilize Bifidobacteria. The beads (0.75% gellan and 1% xanthan gum) had an average diameter of 3 mm and did not shrink in 25% lactic acid solution, pH 1.5, or 20% acetic acid solution, pH 1.5, after storage at 4°C for 4 weeks. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697,

  6. Freeze-Drying of the Black Currant Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irzyniec; J. Klimczak; S. Michalowski

    1995-01-01

    The effect of drying temperature of the black currant juice on the retention of vitamin C and anthocyanins content as well as drying kinetics in the freeze-dried process, has been studied. Non clarified, black currant juice was freered on plates in the layer of 15 mm thick until the temperature of -30 °C in the thermal center of sample has

  7. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated...concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

  9. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange...Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange...

  10. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune...a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a...

  11. Orange Juice: A Private Label Product for the Nineties?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Zellner

    1992-01-01

    Orange juice began as a branded product in the 1950s, but private and packer labels son became dominant. Brands gained share during the 1980s with the introduction of a third national brand and the growth of chilled juice. The large number of packer labels makes brand and private label share measures misleading for structure-performance studies. Private label appeals to manufacturers

  12. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo-Ting Wei; M. Ronnier Luo

    2008-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers' expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  14. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

  16. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  17. Chemical and Nutritional Constituents of Sea Buckthorn Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Sea buckthorn juice is one of the imperative product obtained from the sea buckthorn berries, is now commercially very important. The juice provides a nutritious beverage, high in suspended solids, and very high in vitamins especially in vitamin C and carotenoids. It contains different kinds of nutrients and bioactive substances including vitamins, fatty acids, free amino acids and elemental components.

  18. Trace elements in Australian orange juice and other products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne A. Simpkins; Honway Louie; Michael Wu; Mark Harrison; David Goldberg

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of 22 trace elements have been determined in 482 samples of Australian and Brazilian orange juices and Australian peel extracts and deacidified juices using inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Means and ranges of elements have been established over a five year survey. Regional differences were apparent for the levels of one or more

  19. Gastric Lymphosarcoma and Pseudolymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Berry, G. R.; Mathews, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Lymphoma localized to one organ is known to have a good prognosis. After a study of 131 cases of lymphosarcoma of the stomach Smith and Helwig3 reported that 42 were in reality a benign lymphoproliferative disorder which has been termed pseudolymphoma of the stomach. Of our series of 12 cases, six are now thought to be pseudolymphoma. Jacobs7 has enumerated the differentiating criteria. We have found a polymorphic cellular infiltrate, in nodular or diffuse pattern, associated with a fibrotic reaction located in the submucosa, muscularis or serosa, to be the most helpful criterion. The “good prognosis” associated with gastric lymphoma may be due partly to the difficulty in differentiating these two conditions and to the inclusion of cases of pseudolymphoma in any large series of these lymphomas. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:6071581

  20. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding: preliminary series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Catona; Marcus Gossenberg; Antonella La Manna; Giovanni Mussini

    1993-01-01

    Gastric banding as a laparoscopic procedure was performed on 40 morbidly obese patients. This operation matches the advantages\\u000a of the gastric banding (efficacy, reversibility and low invasivity) with the advantages of the laparoscopic procedure (low\\u000a surgical risk, short hospital stay and less complications in the short and long term). The maximum follow-up is 6 months and\\u000a so far the weight

  1. Gastric emptying in marathon runners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Carrio; M. Estorch; R. Serra-grima; M. Ginjaume; R. Notivol; R. Cal-abuig; F. Vilardell

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide gastric emptying studies using 99m-Tc human serum albumin egg omelette have been carried out in 10 long distance runners at rest and during a 90 minute run at sustained speed. Resting values are compared with controls comprising 10 sedentary subjects. Runners show a significantly accelerated basal gastric emptying (runners t 1\\/2 = 67.7 (5.9) min; sedentaries t 1\\/2 =

  2. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  3. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  4. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  5. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  6. Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25?years. PMID:23329705

  7. Research of enzymatic activities of fresh juice and water infusions from dry herbs.

    PubMed

    Chudnicka, Alina; Matysik, Grazyna

    2005-06-01

    Research was done on the presence of enzymes in juice obtained from fresh plant material from Chamomilla recutita L. (Rauschel)-anthodium, Lamium album L.-flos, Calendula officinalis L.-flos, Plantaginis lanceolata L.-folium and Euphrasiae rostkoviana Hayne-herba, and in the prepared water infusion of these materials; the objective was to determine the activity of enzymes which beside biologically active substances may have an influence of the final therapeutic effect of the applied plant preparations. The research was conducted by means of the API ZYM system (bioMerieux). Higher enzymatic activities were found in fresh juices of the examined plant material than in prepared water infusions from dried plants. In both cases naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase should have highest activity. The second one in terms of activity out of 17 studied enzymes was acidic phosphatase. The highest enzymatic activity of fresh juice was found in Lamii albi flos and Calendulae officinalis flos. Water infusions showed the highest enzymatic activity in Lamii albi flos, Chamomille recutita anthodium and Plantaginis lanceolata folium. Drying the plant material resulted in decreased enzymatic activities but not in the case of naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and acidic phosphatase which showed very low activities. The complex composition of plant materials in terms of content of biologically active substances may imply that the therapeutic effect might be directly related to the quantity and activity of plant enzymes present in preparations applied in therapeutics. PMID:15894139

  8. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign. PMID:15563212

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  10. Studies on the muscle-paralyzing components of the juice of the banana plant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y N; Inman, W D; Johnson, A; Linnell, E J

    1993-01-01

    The stem juice of the banana plant (Musa species) has been used as an arrow poison by African tribesmen. Lyophilized, partially purified extracts of the juice augment and then block both directly and indirectly evoked contractions of the mouse diaphragm. We have isolated, purified and determined the chemical composition of the active ingredients, and characterized their pharmacological activity. The lyophilized sample was extracted with a methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) (50/50) mixture and vacuum filtered. The filtrate was rotary evaporated and crystallized in a MeOH-H2O mixture to yield potassium nitrate crystals (melting point 332-334 degrees C). The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed over Sephadex LH-20 gel using MeOH-H2O (40/60) as the eluent. The active component was found to be magnesium nitrate crystals (melting point 87-89 degrees C). In the mouse isolated phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the pharmacological profile of the first component was similar to that for authentic potassium nitrate which augments in low concentrations, and in higher concentrations augments, and then blocks both directly evoked muscle contraction the neuromuscular transmission. The second component had a profile of activity similar to that for authentic magnesium nitrate which only blocks neuromuscular transmission. It can be concluded that the two major active principles in the banana stem juice are potassium nitrate and magnesium nitrate. PMID:8297182

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemys?aw; Lewandowicz, Gra?yna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; B?aszczak, Wioletta; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  12. Modeling of permeate flux of synthetic fruit juice and mosambi juice ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in stirred continuous ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rai; G. C. Majumdar; S. DasGupta; S. De

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafiltration studies of synthetic sucrose and pectin mixture and enzymatically treated mosambi juice have been performed in a stirred continuous cell. A model based on gel layer theory is developed to predict the flux decline during filtration for both synthetic and actual juice. From the steady state flux data, the mass transfer coefficient is observed to vary with operating pressure

  13. Development and evaluation of a low erosive blackcurrant juice drink in vitro and in situ1. Comparison with orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hughes; N. X. West; D. M. Parker; R. G. Newcombe; M. Addy

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether an experimental blackcurrant juice drink with added calcium was less erosive to enamel both in vitro and in situ compared with a proprietary orange juice product.Methods: The study was a single centre, blind, randomised, placebo controlled three cell crossover design. An intra oral appliance capable of retaining one enamel sample

  14. Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

  15. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  16. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

  17. Serum glycan signatures of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Torres, Javier; Cooke, Cara L.; An, Hyun Joo; Hua, Serenus; Williams, Cynthia C.; Dimapasoc, Lauren M.; Kim, Jae Han; Camorlinga, Margarita; Rocke, David; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Solnick, Jay V.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics, a comprehensive study of glycans expressed in biological systems, is emerging as a simple yet highly sensitive diagnostic tool for disease onset and progression. This study aimed to use glycomics to investigate glycan markers that would differentiate patients with gastric cancer (GC) from those with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). Patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) were also included because they are thought to represent a biologically different response to infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection that can cause either GC or DU. We collected 72 serum samples from patients in Mexico City that presented with NAG, DU, or GC. N-glycans were released from serum samples using the generic method with PNGase F and were analyzed by MALDI FT-ICR MS. The corresponding glycan compositions were calculated based on accurate mass. ANOVA based statistical analysis was performed to identify potential markers for each sub-group. Nineteen glycans were significantly different among the diagnostic groups. Generally, decreased levels of high-mannose type glycans, glycans with one complex type antenna, bigalactosylated biantennary glycans, and increased levels of non-galactosylated biantennary glycans were observed in gastric cancer cases. Altered levels of serum glycans were also observed in DU, but differences were generally in the same direction as GC. Serum glycan profiles may provide biomarkers to differentiate GC cases from controls with NAG. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings as biomarkers and identify the role of protein glycosylation in GC pathology. PMID:24327722

  18. The Presence of Dialkylphosphates in Fresh Fruit Juices: Implication For Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Risk Assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lu; R. Bravo; L. M. Caltabiano; R. M. Irish; G. Weerasekera; D. B. Barr

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were higher, for both apple and orange juices, in

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of blood orange juices as influenced by constituents, concentration process and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Arena; B Fallico; E Maccarone

    2001-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Activities (TAA) of freshly squeezed and processed blood and blond orange juices were measured using the ABTS radical-cation method. Blood juices have TAA values higher than blond juices, and freshly-squeezed juices are higher than processed. Levels of ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid and anthocyanins were determined in order to calculate relative contributions to TAA by Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity

  20. Quality characteristics of freshly squeezed orange juice in comparison to commercial products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted with a fresh-squeeze juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to commercially processed juice for the flavor and nutritional quality. Fresh juice had much higher peel oil content, but lower insoluble solids and pectin contents than in the commercial juic...

  1. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Ae Lee

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT) for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a

  2. Optimal management of resectable gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buscariollo, Daniela L; Mamon, Harvey J

    2015-08-01

    The worldwide incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma has rapidly declined in the past century, but gastric cancer remains the fifth most common malignancy in the world. Approximately half of all cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed in Eastern Asia. In this review, we provide an overview of the landmark studies investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in resectable gastric cancer and highlight ongoing efforts to define optimal population-adapted management strategies. PMID:26165449

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lehours, P; Mégraud, F

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is implicated in the development of two different gastric cancers: gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT lymphoma. The association with the gastric MALT lymphoma is strong and causal. It is currently the only cancer which can be treated by a simple antibiotic treatment. However, the evolution of an H. pylori infection towards lymphoma is exceptional. Host susceptibility factors and environmental factors predisposing a patient to lymphoma have not yet been determined. The bacterial factors are currently being identified. PMID:16358940

  4. Immature gastric teratoma in an infant.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, M G; Jagadishkumar, K; Girish, G N; Sunila

    2013-06-01

    Gastric teratomas are very rare tumors accounting for less than 1 % of all teratomas of infants and children. Little more than 100 cases of gastric teratomas are reported in the literature; out of which, very few of them are of immature variety. Complete excision of the gastric teratoma carries a good prognosis. We hereby report a case of immature gastric teratoma in a 3-month-old baby. PMID:24426646

  5. Optimum conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of citron waste juice using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Young Lim; Hyang-Sik Yoon; Kwang-Yup Kim; Ki-Sik Kim; Jae Goan Noh; In Gyu Song

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the optimum conditions, including pH, temperature, incubation time, and enzyme concentration, for\\u000a the enzymatic manufacture of citron waste juice by pectinase and cellulase using response surface methodology (RSM). A central\\u000a composite design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination. The highest yield was 71.1%\\u000a at pH 5.00, 51.15°C, 53.74 min, and 0.44%,

  6. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

  7. Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with isolated granulomatous gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Newton; Lucien Nochomovitz; Jonathan M. Sackier

    1998-01-01

    Background: Granulomatous gastritis is a rarely observed pathological diagnosis. This condition often mimics gastric adenocarcinoma clinically, resulting in gastric resection. However, granulomatous gastritis has long been viewed as a benign process not observed in association with adenocarcinoma of the stomach. This article describes a patient with granulomatous gastritis occurring in close proximity to an area of superficially invading gastric adenocarcinoma.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M E Craanen; P Blok; W Dekker; G N Tytgat

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal metaplasia were significantly more common in intestinal type early gastric cancer compared with diffuse type early gastric cancer

  9. Gastric dysrhythmias and nausea of pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Koch; R. M. Stern; M. Vasey; J. J. Botti; G. W. Creasy; A. Dwyer

    1990-01-01

    Gastric dysrhythmias have been recorded from patients with a variety of nausea syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectric activity in women with and without nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 32 pregnant women gastric myoelectric activity was recorded for 30–45 min with cutaneous electrodes that yielded electrogastrograms (EGGs). Frequencies of the EGG waves

  10. Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

    2000-01-01

    The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

  11. Accelerated gastric epithelial proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, M R; Darnton, S J; Hunt, J A; Irlam, R W; Nemeth, J; Wallace, H M

    1995-01-01

    Gastric body mucosal proliferation was quantified and localised under conditions of increased gastrin drive using a variety of techniques. Rats were given omeprazole 400 mumol/kg/day by gavage and after 30 days mean serum gastrin rose 11-fold (p < 0.001). Total mucosal polyamines rose 220% from 15.9 to 50.9 nmol/mg protein (p < 0.001). This was associated with a 238% increase in crypt cell production rate from 0.541 to 1.83 crypt cells/h by vincristine metaphase arrest (p < 0.02). Using computer aided counting of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostained nuclei to assess epithelial proliferation in hypergastrinaemia rat stomach: mucus neck cell PCNA labelling was increased by 41% (p < 0.001) and gland cell PCNA labelling was increased by 222% (p < 0.001). PCNA/AgNOR (argyrophilic nuclear organiser regions) co-stained sections were used to assess proliferative activity in cycling and non-cycling cell populations. Data from these experiments suggest that, in addition to increasing the number of mucosal cells in cycle, cell life and cell cycle duration may be reduced in hypergastrinaemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7737557

  12. Orange juice enhances aluminium absorption from antacid preparation.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, S; Hickson, K; McGaw, B; Reid, M

    1994-01-01

    Aluminium absorption from four doses of the antacid preparation 'Aludrox' when taken alone, with orange juice or with milk was compared by measuring the change in urinary aluminium following Aludrox dosage in 15 normal adults. There was an approximately 10-fold increase in 24 h urinary aluminium excretion following the Aludrox plus orange juice (232 micrograms) which was significantly higher than that following Aludrox alone (62 micrograms) (P < 0.001), but milk had no effect on aluminium absorption. The results showed that orange juice greatly enhanced aluminium absorption and should not therefore be taken in conjunction with aluminium-containing antacid preparations. PMID:8200332

  13. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked preventative effect on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in vivo, as a result of its antioxidative capacity.

  14. Inhibitory effect of whole strawberries, garlic juice or kale juice on endogenous formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Lee, Sung Ho; Sung, Nak Ju

    2002-08-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed on inhibition of nitrosation by strawberry, garlic, and kale extracts. Strawberry, garlic, and kale extracts inhibited nitrosation in vitro. However, garlic extract has a greater ability to inhibit the chemical nitrosation in vitro than strawberry and kale extracts. The garlic methanol-soluble fraction of the garlic extract was fractionated into G1-G4 fractions by Prep-LC. Fraction G1 inhibited N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation by 84+/-1%. We studied the formation of the carcinogen NDMA in humans after administration of nitrate (400 mg/day) in combination with an amine-rich diet and its possible inhibition by administration of whole strawberries (300 g), garlic juice (200 g: 75 g garlic juice in drinking water), or kale juice (200 g) in 27 males and 13 females (ten healthy volunteers in each group) of age 24+/-3 years. Nitrate intake resulted in a significant rise in mean salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations. Also, nitrate excretion in urine during the experimental day was significantly increased compared with the control days. When whole strawberries, garlic juice, or kale juice was provided immediately after an amine-rich diet with a nitrate, NDMA excretion was decreased by 70, 71, and 44%, respectively, compared with NDMA excretion after ingestion of an amine-rich diet with a nitrate. These results suggest that consumption of whole strawberries, garlic juice, or kale juice can reduce endogenous NDMA formation. PMID:12175517

  15. Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-03-01

    Carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of ?-tocopherol > quercetin >?carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both ?-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds. PMID:25578758

  16. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; V Singh, Satyavir

    2015-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

  17. Megaduodenum associated with gastric strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Amanda Pinter Carvalheiro; Boteon, Yuri Longatto; Tercioti, Valdir; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Coelho Neto, João; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2014-01-01

    Gastric strongyloidiasis and megaduodenum are rare diseases. Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyloidiasis has many clinical features. One of them is megaduodenum. We describe a case of a 32-years-old man who has come to us from an endemic area for Strongyloides stercoralis. He had had megaduodenum diagnosed in his childhood. We submitted him to two surgeries. He has recovered just after the second surgery, a Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy. After that, his follow-up was uneventful and the patient has gained 10 kg in weight. Histopathology confirmed gastric strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, if patients arrive from an endemic area of S. stercoralis and if they present GI symptoms or a previous diagnosis of megaduodenum, they must be considered for a histological evaluation for gastric strongyloidiasis. PMID:25951613

  18. Nitrosation of Nigerian medicinal plant preparations under 'chemical' and 'simulated' gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Lamorde, A G; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1995-01-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance, collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria, were nitrosated and analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines formed under chemical and simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitrosamines were determined on a Thermal Energy Analyser following gas chromatographic separation. Mean concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 7 to 58 ppb and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the range of 23 to 26 ppb were formed in 31 and 7%, respectively, of the preparations using artificial gastric juice (simulated gastric condition). Under chemically optimal conditions, relatively high levels of NDMA (72-2008 ppb), NDEA (23-1528 ppb) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (20-405 ppb) were formed in 100, 75 and 32% of the preparations, respectively; N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were formed in fewer preparations. These findings suggest that the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds from precursors present in medicinal plants might be another source of human exposure to environmental carcinogens in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:7821876

  19. Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1985-05-01

    Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies.

  20. Alterations in gastric mucus secretion in rhesus monkeys after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea-Donohue, T.; Danquechin-Dorval, E.; Montcalm, E.; El-Bayar, H.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on soluble gastric mucus. Six conscious chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied once before and twice after exposure to ionizing irradiation (800 rads). Using a marker (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) dilution technique, acidic glycoprotein (AG), neutral glycoprotein (NG), ion, and fluid output were determined during a basal period and after the administration of an 80-ml water load. Irradiation significantly increased the outputs of both AG and NG during the basal period. After the water load, NG output remained elevated but irradiation abolished postload AG output thus inhibiting the normal rise in AG output stimulated by the load. Two days after irradiation NG output had returned to control levels whereas AG output was still suppressed. Sodium and potassium ion outputs were unaltered by irradiation. Chloride and fluid outputs were significantly inhibited on the day of irradiation but had returned to control levels within 3 days. These results indicate that irradiation produces significant changes in both the quantity and nature of the soluble mucus glycoproteins secreted into the gastric juice. It is suggested that these changes may compromise the protective ability of gastric mucus.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Ganpathi; J. B.-Y. So; K.-Y. Ho

    2006-01-01

    Background  This study aimed to evaluate the utility and shortcomings of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging\\u000a of gastric cancer and its influence on treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The series included 126 patients (65 men and 44 women) with gastric cancer who underwent EUS from July 1997 to June 2003 at\\u000a the National University Hospital, Singapore. The final analysis included 109 patients

  2. 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: Effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Edwards; Michael E. Fitzsimmons; Erin G. Schuetz; Kazuto Yasuda; Murray P. Ducharme; Lawrence H. Warbasse; Patrick M. Woster; John D. Schuetz; Paul Watkins

    1999-01-01

    Background: 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin to the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine disposition

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated...

  4. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...such or indirectly as an added ingredient of any orange juice product used, the label shall bear the statement “___ added...conditions of purchase, the statements specified in this section for naming the optional ingredients used shall immediately and...

  5. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...such or indirectly as an added ingredient of any orange juice product used, the label shall bear the statement “___ added...conditions of purchase, the statements specified in this section for naming the optional ingredients used shall immediately and...

  6. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ? potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ? potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  7. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

  8. Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

    2012-01-01

    H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?18O = ?4.2‰ and ?D??46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?13C = ?28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value. PMID:22666164

  9. Isotopic and elemental determination in some romanian apple fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

    2012-01-01

    H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the ²H/¹H, ¹?O/¹?O, ¹³C/¹²C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?¹?O = -4.2‰ and ?D?-46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?¹³C = -28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value. PMID:22666164

  10. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Brophy, C.M.; Egger, M.J.; Taylor, A.; Moore, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 ..mu..Ci) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 ..mu..Ci) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences.

  11. Grapefruit juice substantially increases plasma concentrations of buspirone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jari J. Lilja; Kari T. Kivistö; Janne T. Backman; Tommi S. Lamberg; Pertti J. Neuvonen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Buspirone has a low oral bioavailability because of extensive first-pass metabolism. The effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered buspirone is not known.Methods: In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took either 200 mL double-strength grapefruit juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On day 3, each subject ingested

  12. Efficacy of ozone against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Torlak, Emrah

    2014-02-17

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris survives during the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of fruit juices thanks to its spore forming and thermo-acidophilic nature. In recent years, A. acidoterrestris has become a major concern to the fruit juices industry worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate ozone for the reducing number of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was bubbled with continuous stream of two different constant concentrations (2.8 and 5.3mg/L) of ozone at 4 and 22 °C up to 40 min. Level of A. acidoterrestris spores in juice decreased by 2.2 and 2.8 log after 40 min of ozonation at 4 °C with concentrations of 2.8 and 5.3mg/L, respectively. Treatments at 22 °C for 40 min with 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L ozone resulted in 1.8 and 2.4 log reductions of spore viability, respectively. At the ozone concentration of 5.3 mg/L, significant (P<0.05) reductions were observed in total phenolic content of juice at both temperature levels. However, treatments performed at 2.8 mg/L were observed to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on total phenolic content. The results presented in this study indicate that over the 2 log reduction in the count of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice can be achieved by bubbling ozonation at 4 °C without causing a significant decrease in total phenolic content of product. Therefore, it can be suggested that bubbling ozonation is a promising method for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. PMID:24361826

  13. Treatment of banama stem juice: Methane production and effluent purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Calzada; M. C. de Arriola; C. Rolz; J. Valladares

    1988-01-01

    The preparation of the banana steins for retting requires a mechanical crushing, yielding a polluting juice. This juice was fed to methanogenic reactors in which reticulated polyurethane foam was used as support for bacteria. Biogas productivities ranged from 0.66 to 1.76 v\\/vd for loads of 3.5 to 10 Kg vs m. Volatile solids reductions (at HRT of 3 and 2

  14. Self-forming dynamic membrane for ultrafiltration of pineapple juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jiraratananon; D. Uttapap; C. Tangamornsuksun

    1997-01-01

    The formation of self-forming dynamic membrane on a porous ceramic support was studied. Pineapple juice of 12° Brix concentration was used in the experiments which were carried out at 25°C by circulating the pineapple juice at the applied pressure of 100, 200, and 300 kPa and at cross-flow velocities of 1.30–2.95 m s?1 through the ceramic membrane module for 1

  15. Friction factors and rheological properties of orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Telis-Romero; V. R. N. Telis; F. Yamashita

    1999-01-01

    The rheological behavior of Brazilian orange juice with different water content (0.34–0.73 w\\/w) was studied at a wide range of temperatures (0.5–62oC) using a concentric cylinder viscometer. The results indicated that the juices behave as pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress, being represented by the Herschel–Bulkley model. The rheological parameters were fitted as functions of both temperature and water content in

  16. JUICE Planetary Protection Approach for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Erd, Christian; Grasset, Olivier

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa. The baseline mission architecture assumes development, launch and operation by ESA of a single spacecraft in the Jovian system. JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system. The JUICE planetary protection approach for Europa is to ensure that the probability of impact is less than 10-4 during all phases with a credible impact risk. The JUICE science team has published an analysis demonstrating that there is only a remote chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could compromise future investigations on Ganymede. This would qualify JUICE as a planetary protection category II mission with respect to the Ganymede phase without any impact constraints.

  17. Activity of Brassica oleracea leaf juice on foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Giorgio; Amagliani, Giulia; Schiavano, Giuditta F; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio

    2006-09-01

    Many vegetables of the Cruciferae family have been found to possess antimicrobial properties against several microorganisms of clinical importance. In this study, we reported the antibacterial effect of Brassica oleracea juice on several food-borne pathogens. The juice was found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli HB producing thermolabile toxin, nontoxigenic E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, but not Enterococcus faecalis. All cauliflower cultivars tested suppressed bacterial growth in a dose-dependent manner after 5 h of treatments, and the reduction in the number of viable cells ranged from 1 log with a 10% juice concentration to more than 3 log with a 20% juice concentration. The foodborne bacteria tested were also markedly reduced by isothiocyanates, natural components abundant in the genus Brassica, indicating that glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates can play a major role in the antimicrobial activity of cauliflower. The antimicrobial effect of juice was reduced in presence of cysteine, suggesting that one mechanism of action of the juice involves blocking bacterial sulfhydryl groups. PMID:16995537

  18. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C? and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C? and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  19. Gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Liang Lu; Pam Montgomery; Xiaoping Zou; William C Orr; J D Z Chen; F. A. C. G

    1998-01-01

    Objective:Dyspeptic symptoms are common in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The supraspinal control of sympathetic innervation to the stomach is interrupted in these patients. Gastric emptying has been reported to be delayed in some patients with cervical SCI. Gastric myoelectrical activity is known to regulate gastric motility and is correlated with gastric emptying. The change in gastric myoelectrical

  20. Suppressive effects of fruit-juice concentrate of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot, Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-induced glandular stomach lesions in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takafumi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Harunari; Inada, Kenichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kumagai, Toshiko; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Miki, Kazumasa; Tatematsu, Masae

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important factor in human gastric disorders, including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Since epidemiologic studies overwhelmingly agree on a protective influence of fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of gastric neoplasia and processed foods made from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot or "Ume" in Japanese) are traditionally known for their miscellaneous medical effects, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (CJA) in the glandular stomach of Hp-infected Mongolian gerbils. Hp-inoculated gerbils were given CJA in their drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 3% for 10 weeks. The microscopic scores for gastritis and mucosal hyperplasia in the CJA groups were significantly lower than in the Hp-inoculated control group, with dose-dependence. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitate Hp by demonstrating urease A gene amount using gerbils glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. Average relative urease A gene dosage in the glandular stomach in the 1 and 3% CJA and Hp-inoculated control groups was 26.6 +/- 11.6% (average +/- SE), 30.3 +/- 10.5%, 100 +/- 40.9%, respectively, the fruit-juice concentrate causing significant lowering (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, with 1 and 3%). These findings suggest that suppressive effects on gastric cancer development might also be expected as a result of decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA. PMID:16235996

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange ( Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H Choi; G. H Kim; H. S Lee

    2002-01-01

    Blood orange juice samples with two different levels of ascorbic acid content were placed in HDPE plastic bottles, pasteurized, and stored at 4.5 °C. The influence of ascorbic acid retention on color stability of blood orange juice was investigated using CIE L*a*b*, hue, chroma, polymeric color, and browning index during the storage period. Changes in monomeric anthocyanin pigments, total carotenoid contents,

  2. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  3. Tyrosine kinases and gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-chang Lin; Hsiao-Wei Kao; Daniel Robinson; Hsing-Jien Kung; Chew-Wun Wu; Hua-Chien Chen

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma of the stomach is one of the most prevalent cancer types in the world today. Two major forms of gastric cancer are distinguished according to their morphological and clinicopathological classifications (well differentiated\\/intestinal type and poorly differentiated\\/diffuse type), characteristics that could also be attributed to the altered expression of different types of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Significant differences exist

  4. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Siegel; J L Urbain; L P Adler; N D Charkes; A H Maurer; B Krevsky; L C Knight; R S Fisher; L S Malmud

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the

  5. Insulin hypoglycemia and gastric secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank P. Brooks

    1965-01-01

    HE EFI,'ECT of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on the secretion o[ hydrochloric acid by the stomach is a phenomenon valuable for research in gastrointestinal physiology) Babkin ~ used this phenomenon as a model of nervous as opposed to humoral stimulation of gastric secretion. Hollander ~ adapted it for a clinical test of the completeness of vagotomy in man. French and his associates

  6. Gastric dysmotility in major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Quick; Anna Kliem; Sandy Berger; Michael Hocke; Manuel Tancer; Georg Juckel; Vikram K. Yeragani; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSomatic symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract occur frequently in major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with the known autonomic imbalance in the disease. Hence, we have investigated gastric electrical activity in patients suffering from major depression before and after treatment by means of electrogastrography (EGG) to investigate a putative association with either the disease state and its symptoms

  7. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  8. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of...the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of...

  9. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  11. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  12. Gastroprotective effect of crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M; Shahin, Nancy N

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the gastroprotective effect of crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Rats were allocated into a normal group, an ulcer group, a crocin-treated group, an ulcer group pretreated with crocin, and an ulcer group pretreated with omeprazole as a reference anti-ulcer drug. Rats were sacrificed 3h after ethanol administration. Prophylactic administration of crocin (50mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 3 consecutive days before the administration of 70% ethanol (10 ml/kg, orally) resulted in significant gastroprotection compared to ethanol-ulcerated rats as manifested by significant reduction in the gastric ulcer index. Crocin pretreatment increased ethanol-lowered levels of gastric juice mucin and mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, crocin significantly decreased ethanol-elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level, myeloperoxidase activity and heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein levels. It also restored ethanol-altered mucosal levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, crocin-pretreatment alleviated ethanol-induced mucosal apoptosis as revealed by significant down-regulation of cytochrome c and caspase-3 mRNA expression, significant decrease in caspase-3 activity and mitigated DNA fragmentation as indicated by significant decrements in comet parameters. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by histological assessment. No significant difference was observed between crocin and omeprazole (20mg/kg orally 1h before ethanol administration) regarding their mucin-secretagogue and antioxidant effects, as well as their effects on TNF-?, IL-6 and cytochrome c. On the other hand, omeprazole was superior in enhancing PGE2 level and in alleviating neutrophil infiltration, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusively, crocin protects rat gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and mucin-secretagogue mechanisms that are probably mediated by enhanced PGE2 release. PMID:25637687

  13. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Jazmin D; Beuchat, Larry R; Tauxe, Robert V

    2008-02-01

    Outbreaks of illness associated with consumption of fruit juice have been a growing public health problem since the early 1990s. In response to epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks in which juice was implicated, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented process control measures to regulate the production of fruit juice. The final juice regulation, which became effective in 2002, 2003, and 2004, depending on the size of the business, requires that juice operations comply with a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) receives reports of food-associated outbreaks of illness. We reviewed fruit juice-associated outbreaks of illness reported to the CDC's Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System. From 1995 through 2005, 21 juice-associated outbreaks were reported to CDC; 10 implicated apple juice or cider, 8 were linked to orange juice, and 3 involved other types of fruit juice. These outbreaks caused 1,366 illnesses, with a median of 21 cases per outbreak (range, 2 to 398 cases). Among the 13 outbreaks of known etiology, 5 were caused by Salmonella, 5 by Escherichia coli O157:H7, 2 by Cryptosporidium, and one by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O111 and Cryptosporidium. Fewer juice-associated outbreaks have been reported since the juice HACCP regulation was implemented. Some juice operations that are exempt from processing requirements or do not comply with the regulation continue to be implicated in outbreaks of illness. PMID:18326187

  14. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-N?dza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  15. Gastric cancer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Alex; Guzmán, Sergio; Ibáñez, Luis; Meneses, Luis; Huete, Alvaro; Solar, Antonieta

    2005-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures for morbid obesity. Several complications that may develop in the short- and long-term have been reported. We present a patient who presented with cancer in the bypassed stomach 8 years after RYGBP. Although the development of this lesion is rare and only a few cases have been reported, there are aspects worthy of discussion. Several monitoring, diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives are analyzed. PMID:15826480

  16. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  17. Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-10-14

    Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

  18. THE ISOELECTRIC POINTS OF THE PROTEINS IN CERTAIN VEGETABLE JUICES

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Edwin J.; Gross, Joseph; Johnson, Omer C.

    1919-01-01

    The state in which a protein substance exists depends upon the nature of its combination with acids or bases and is changed by change in the protein compound. The nature of the compound of a protein that exists at any hydrogen ion concentration can be ascertained if the isoelectric point of the protein is known. Accordingly information regarding the isoelectric points of vegetable proteins is of importance for operations in which it may be desirable to change the state of protein substances, as in the dehydration of vegetables. The Protein in Potato Juice.—The hydrogen ion concentration of the filtered juice of the potato is in the neighborhood of 10–7N. Such juice contains the globulin tuberin to the extent of from 1 to 2 per cent. The character of the compound of tuberin that exists in nature was suggested by its anodic migration in an electric field. The addition of acid to potato juice dissociated this compound and liberated tuberin at its isoelectric point. The isoelectric point of tuberin coincided with a slightly lower hydrogen ion concentration than 10–4N. At that reaction it existed most nearly uncombined. The flow of current during cataphoresis was greatest in the neighborhood of the isoelectric point. This evidence supplements that of the direction of the migration of tuberin, since it also suggests the existence of the greatest number of uncombined ions near this point. At acidities greater than the isoelectric point tuberin combined with acid. The compound that was formed contained nearly three times as much acid as was needed to dissociate the tuberin compound that existed in nature. At such acidities tuberin migrated to the cathode. Though never completely precipitated tuberin was least soluble in the juice of the potato in the neighborhood of its isoelectric point. Both the compounds of tuberin with acids and with bases were more soluble in the juice than was uncombined tuberin. The nature of the slight precipitate that separated when potato juice was made slightly alkaline was not determined. The Protein in Carrot Juice.—The isoelectric point of the protein in carrot juice coincided with that of tuberin. Remarkably similar also were the properties of carrot juice and the juice of the potato. Existing in nature at nearly the same reaction they combined with acids and bases to nearly the same extent and showed minima in solubility at the same hydrogen ion concentrations. The greatest difference in behavior concerned the alkaline precipitate which, in the carrot, was nearly as great as the acid precipitate. The Protein in Tomato Juice.—The protein of the tomato existed in a precipitated form near its isoelectric point. Accordingly it was not present to any extent in filtered tomato juice. If, however, the considerable acidity at which the tomato exists was neutralized the protein dissolved and was filterable. It then migrated to the anode in an electric field. The addition of sufficient acid to make the hydrogen ion concentration slightly greater than 10–5N again precipitated the protein at its isoelectric point. At greater acidities migration was cathodic. PMID:19871798

  19. Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S McClain; Carrie L Shaffer; Dawn A Israel; Richard M Peek

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is associated with asymptomatic gastric inflammation (gastritis) and an increased risk of duodenal ulceration, gastric ulceration, and non-cardia gastric cancer. In previous studies, the genome sequences of H. pylori strains from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease have been analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of

  20. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  1. Different gastric, pancreatic, and biliary responses to solid-liquid or homogenized meals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan-R. Malagelada; Vay L. W. Go; W. H. J. Summerskill

    1979-01-01

    We have compared responses to an ordinary solid-liquid (S) meal and to a homogenized (H) meal of identical composition (sirloin steak, bread, butter, ice cream with chocolate syrup, and water) by measuring simultaneously postprandial gastric, pancreatic, and biliary functions by marker-perfusion techniques. Responses to each (S or H) meals differed strikingly both in magnitude and pattern. S meals elicited a

  2. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  3. Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshifusa Nakajima

    2002-01-01

    .  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

  4. Characteristics of juice from palmyrah palm (Borassus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Agbo N'zi, G; Simard, R E

    1992-01-01

    The ancestral palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) produces in the V-Baoulé region of Côte d'Ivoire, sweet and fragrant fruits in large numbers. Most of these spoil in the bush when ripe. The present work was to develop an efficient process for the extraction of juice from these fruits using a pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg), temperatures (25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 45 degrees C), and for different times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Some physico-chemical characteristics of the juice were determined in order to evaluate the quality of the product. Treatment at 45 degrees C for 120 min at an enzyme concentration of 0.6 mg/kg was selected for highest juice yield (73.14%). The colour parameters L; a; b) fluctuated in intensity between batches of rehydrated material. Juice consistency was found to be stable at 45 degrees C at the enzyme concentrations used. There was a slight variation in pH among the different treatments. In general, the yield and quality of the juice obtained were affected by treatment temperature, enzyme concentration and maceration time. PMID:1546055

  5. Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2006-08-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were monitored. L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum grew well on cabbage juice and reached nearly 10x10(8) CFU/mL after 48 h of fermentation at 30 degrees C. L. casei, however, produced a smaller amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid than L. delbrueckii or L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C, the viable cell counts of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii were still 4.1x10(7) and 4.5x10(5) mL(-1), respectively. L. casei did not survive the low pH and high acidity conditions in fermented cabbage juice and lost cell viability completely after 2 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Fermented cabbage juice could serve as a healthy beverage for vegetarians and lactose-allergic consumers. PMID:16125381

  6. Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.

    PubMed

    Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80 g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine. PMID:25766825

  7. Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma.

    PubMed

    Varming, Camilla; Andersen, Mogens L; Poll, Leif

    2004-12-15

    The influence of thermal treatment on black currant juice aroma was investigated in temperature and time ranges relevant for black currant juice concentration processes, namely, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees C. Forty-nine aroma compounds were quantified, and the thermal treatment resulted in concentration increases of most terpenes, aldehydes, furans, and phenols, whereas the concentration of esters slightly decreased. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times had larger effects on the aroma compounds. Odor triangle tests showed no sensory difference between pasteurized juice and juice heated at 60 degrees C, whereas juice heated at 90 degrees C differed significantly from pasteurized juice. It is concluded that a 90 degrees C thermal treatment of black currant juice, which is in the temperature range used for conventional evaporation of black currant juice, has an effect on the aroma and sensory properties. PMID:15675814

  8. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material...TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.248 Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling...

  9. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  10. Inhibitory properties of pepsin digested lactoferrin in apple and carrot juice 

    E-print Network

    Chantayasakorn, Panita

    1999-01-01

    .0 and lyophilized to determine the activity of the digests in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, apple juice, and carrot juice using E. coli (ATCC 35343) as the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of lactoferrin and apolactoferrin in peptone...

  11. Gastric Infection by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, George; Wen, Yi; Scott, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis, ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Current eradication regimens use a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics. Triple therapy now has a success rate less than 80%, below the cutoff for efficacious eradication. Antibiotic resistance, inconsistent acid control by PPIs, and poor patient compliance contribute to the failure rate. H. pylori is a neutralophile that has developed special acid acclimation mechanisms to colonize its acidic gastric niche. Identifying the components of these mechanisms will provide novel bactericidal drug targets. Alternatively, better 24-hour acid control would increase the efficacy of antibiotics, leading to dual therapy with improved PPIs and amoxicillin. Studies of acid acclimation by H. pylori have identified several potential eradication targets including UreI, ?-carbonic anhydrase, and a two-component system. Continuing improvement of PPIs has led to the development of at least three candidate drugs with improved 24-hour acid control. PMID:19903421

  12. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  13. Gastric Syphilis and Membranous Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Sung Jong; Kim, Ji Soong; Chung, Sung Jun; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-05-01

    Syphilis is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Gastric involvement and nephrotic syndrome are uncommon but well documented complications of syphilis, but the co-occurrence of these two complications in the same patient is extremely rare. Thus, because of their nonspecific presentation, suspicion of gastric syphilis (GS) and nephrotic syndrome is essential for diagnosis. Patients should be investigated thoroughly and a diagnosis made based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, in order to initiate appropriate therapy. We report of a 34-year-old male patient with a history of epigastric pain and a diagnosis of GS and syphilis-associated membranous glomerulonephritis confirmed by gastroscopy and kidney biopsy, who was treated successfully with penicillin G benzathine. This case report provides information on the typical features of GS that should help raise awareness of this rare disease entity among clinicians, resulting in earlier diagnosis and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:26064828

  14. Gastric Syphilis and Membranous Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Min; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Sung Jong; Kim, Ji Soong; Chung, Sung Jun; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Gastric involvement and nephrotic syndrome are uncommon but well documented complications of syphilis, but the co-occurrence of these two complications in the same patient is extremely rare. Thus, because of their nonspecific presentation, suspicion of gastric syphilis (GS) and nephrotic syndrome is essential for diagnosis. Patients should be investigated thoroughly and a diagnosis made based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, in order to initiate appropriate therapy. We report of a 34-year-old male patient with a history of epigastric pain and a diagnosis of GS and syphilis-associated membranous glomerulonephritis confirmed by gastroscopy and kidney biopsy, who was treated successfully with penicillin G benzathine. This case report provides information on the typical features of GS that should help raise awareness of this rare disease entity among clinicians, resulting in earlier diagnosis and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:26064828

  15. Influence of feeding regimen and postnatal developmental stages on antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Pierzynowski; Peeyush Sharma; Jerzy Sobczyk; Stanislaw Garwacki; Wieslaw Baref

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice in the pig (n = 8) was investigated during early postnatal development and in cattle (n = 6) receiving a different feeding regimen. For pancreatic juice collection, a catheter was surgically implanted in the pancreatic\\u000a duct. Reintroduction of pancreatic juice was achieved through a T-shaped cannula in the duodenum. Pancreatic juice was collected\\u000a for 30

  16. Malignant gastric ghrelinoma with hyperghrelinemia.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Portela-Gomes, Guida M; Stridsberg, Mats; Grimelius, Lars; Sundin, Anders; Eriksson, Barbro K; Oberg, Kjell E; Janson, Eva T

    2004-08-01

    A characteristic feature of neuroendocrine tumors is production and release of peptide hormone. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid hormone that stimulates GH release. In this paper, we describe a patient with a metastasizing gastric neuroendocrine tumor displaying intense immunoreactivity for ghrelin and extremely high circulating levels of ghrelin. Tumor tissue biopsies from the primary tumor and one liver metastasis were examined by immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin and several other hormones and tumor markers were measured in blood. The clinical course of the patient was followed. Tumor tissue biopsies showed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, human synaptic vesicle protein 2, synaptophysin, and ghrelin. Grossly elevated circulating levels of total ghrelin, 2100 microg/liter (reference interval < 5 microg/liter) and active ghrelin, 28 microg/liter (reference interval < 0.1 microg/liter) were found at presentation. Chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and calcitonin levels were also increased. Both total and active ghrelin increased, despite treatment, during follow-up of the patient. We have identified and characterized a patient with a malignant gastric neuroendocrine tumor secreting ghrelin as the main hormone. This might be a new tumor entity of the stomach, and it is suggested that patients with malignant gastric neuroendocrine tumors should be investigated for ghrelin production. PMID:15292299

  17. Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  18. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  19. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice: a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Nicemol; Sukumaran, R K; Prema, P

    2008-12-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30-45 degrees C), enzyme concentration (0.5-1.5 U), and treatment time (30-90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. Significant regression models describing the changes of viscosity and clarity with respect to the independent variables were obtained, with the coefficient of determination, R (2) , greater than 0.8. Based on response surfaces and contour plots, the optimum conditions for clarifying sapodilla juice were enzyme concentration 1.15 U, incubation temperature 34 degrees C, and incubation time 70 min. PMID:18670739

  20. Chemical guide parameters for Punica granatum cv. 'Mollar' fruit juices processed at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Lorente, José; Coll, Luís; Streitenberger, Sergio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-03-15

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice from the pomegranate variety 'Mollar', chemical composition of eighteen samples directly obtained and commercialised in 2012 from three different fruit juice factories was investigated. According to the findings, the relative density of direct pomegranate juices varied between 1.061 and 1.064, which correspond to 15.15 and 15.71°Brix; titratable acidity changed between 2.6 and 2.8g/L, citric acid between 2.3 and 2.8 g/L, l-malic acid in a range of 1.3-1.4 g/L, and d-isocitric acid at levels less than 20mg/L. Glucose values ranged from 61.4 to 65.0 g/L, whereas fructose displayed values between 65.3 and 68.0 g/L. The predominant mineral was potassium (2,400-2,900 mg/L), followed by phosphorous, magnesium, calcium and sodium at levels of 81-89 mg/L, 17.6-28.5mg/L, 5.8-7.5mg/L and 4.3-5.3mg/L, respectively. Chemical determinations of anthocyanin and ellagitannin profiles and amino acids contents were also carry out. Concentrations of anthocyanins in commercialised samples were Cy3,5dG (19.30 ± 3.47 mg/L), followed by Dp3,5dG (17.87 ± 6.74 mg/L) and Cy3G (12.91 ± 6.32 mg/L). Punicalagin levels ranged between 503.70 and 762.85 mg/L, punicalins between 239.9 and 364.5mg/L, and free ellagic acid level was typically between 268.67 and 389.64 mg/L. The juice samples exhibited high amount of total phenolics (1,136-3,581 mg/L) as well as high ABTS radical scavenging activity (18-31 mmol Trolox/L). PMID:24206706

  1. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  2. Identification of Natural Animicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Cranonbacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juice with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds identified in red muscadine juice (‘Noble’) were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. Commercial baby juices with high polyphenol content (176.7~347.7 mg/mL), showed poor antimicrobial a...

  3. Effect of probiotication on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of pomegranate juices from sour and sweet cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, M R; Bahmani, S; Jamalifar, H; Samadi, N

    2011-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in using pomegranate juice as a natural antioxidant rather than synthetic compounds. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of probioticated and nonprobioticated aril juices of sweet (SWV) and sour (SV) pomegranate cultivars were determined by two different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Total counts of Lactobacillus casei GG increased by about 3 log in SWV and 2 log in SV juices after incubation for 48 h. Probiotication improved the antioxidant activity of SWV juice from 74.4% to 91.82%, and SV juice from 82.64% to 97.8%. Based on the FRAP value, the reducing power of the probioticated pomegranate juices was also much stronger than the nonprobioticated juices. The FRAP values for SWV and SV probioticated juices were 97.34 and 120.7 mmol L(-1), respectively, which were notably higher than 85.87 and 93.4 mmol L(-1) for SWV and SV nonprobioticated juices. Both fermentated and nonfermentated juices exhibited a potent and wide-spectrum antibacterial effect, with the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SV juice showed wider zones of growth inhibition. The results of this study verify for the first time that probiotication of SWV and SV pomegranate juices can add to their beneficial antioxidant activities. PMID:21294041

  4. Effects of Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Sumner; Melanie Elliott-Eller; Gerdi Weidner; Jennifer J. Daubenmier; Mailine H. Chew; Ruth Marlin; Caren J. Raisin; Dean Ornish

    Pomegranate juice contains antioxidants such as soluble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins and may have antiatherosclerotic properties. However, no study has investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether daily consumption of pomegranate juice for 3 months would affect myocardial perfusion in 45 patients who had CHD and myocardial ischemia in

  5. Comparison of total isothiocyanates content in vegetable juices during high pressure treatment, pasteurization and freezing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tríska; N. Vrchotová; M. Houska; J. Strohalm

    2007-01-01

    Total isothiocyanates (ITCs) in juices prepared from cruciferous vegetables have been analysed. The white and red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts were used for juice preparation. The influence of preservation technology (freezing, heat pasteurization and high-pressure pasteurization) was studied. The ITCs content was lowest in white cabbage and the highest in Brussels sprouts. With exception of broccoli juice the

  6. Ozone Processing for Food Preservation: An Overview on Fruit Juice Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Cullen; V. P. Valdramidis; B. K. Tiwari; S. Patil; P. Bourke; C. P. ODonnell

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the efficacy of ozone an emerging non-thermal food preservation technique for fruit juices and highlights changes in key microbial, quality and nutritional parameters. Ozonation of fruit juices has been identified as a potential technology to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration's requirement of a 5 log reduction in pertinent microorganisms found in juices. This review

  7. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and ?-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

  8. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently...of the U.S. Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet...

  9. Density of juice and fruit puree as a function of soluble solids content and temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Ramos; A. Ibarz

    1998-01-01

    A study of the effect of temperature and concentration of soluble solids on density of depectined and clarified peach juice and orange juice and a study of the effect of the temperature on density of apple and quince purees are reported.The densities of the peach and orange juices were determined at concentrations of between 10 and 60 °Brix and temperatures

  10. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...imports of concentrated fruit juices, using the procedure set forth...20, HTSUS: Kind of fruit juice Average Brix value (degrees...0 Naranjilla 10.5 Orange 11.8 Papaya 10.2...

  11. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...imports of concentrated fruit juices, using the procedure set forth...20, HTSUS: Kind of fruit juice Average Brix value (degrees...0 Naranjilla 10.5 Orange 11.8 Papaya 10.2...

  12. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...imports of concentrated fruit juices, using the procedure set forth...20, HTSUS: Kind of fruit juice Average Brix value (degrees...0 Naranjilla 10.5 Orange 11.8 Papaya 10.2...

  13. Welfare, Market Power, and Price Effects of Product Diversity: Canned Juices

    E-print Network

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    markups, and prices in the canned juice industry. According to many food and beverage manufacturingWelfare, Market Power, and Price Effects of Product Diversity: Canned Juices Jeffrey M. Perloff Juices What effect does the introduction or elimination of a differentiated product have on welfare

  14. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...Second Review)] Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China would be likely to...

  15. MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

  16. Changes in antioxidant compounds during the shelf life of commercial tomato juices in different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Francisco J; Bravo, Sergio; Casas, Javier; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; Jacob, Karin; Periago, María J

    2009-08-12

    Tomatoes provide an optimal mix of dietary antioxidants that may be responsible for the reported health benefits of tomato consumption. However, technological processing, packaging materials, and storage conditions have an impact on the nutritional quality of tomato products by affecting the stability of antioxidant nutrients to different extents. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the antioxidant compounds (lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total flavonoids) present in commercially available tomato juices during storage extended for 12 months at three different temperatures (8, 22, and 37 degrees C). To further characterize the impact of storage conditions, two commonly used packaging materials (Tetra pack and glass bottles) were used to determine whether packaging materials affect antioxidant stability. Overall, the total lycopene, total phenolic compounds, and total flavonoids remained almost stable during storage for 12 months, regardless of the packaging material used, indicating that tomato juices maintain their nutritional value in terms of antioxidant composition during their shelf life. However, ascorbic acid was the most labile antioxidant and was markedly affected by storage conditions. The hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (TAA) paralleled the losses in ascorbic acid content, whereas the lipophilic TAA remained substantially stable throughout the storage trial. PMID:19586031

  17. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori. PMID:23570997

  18. Effect of grapefruit juice, naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin on the intestinal carrier-mediated transport of talinolol in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Whocely Victor; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2008-06-25

    The effect of two varieties of grapefruit juice (white and ruby red) and its selected components (naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin) was investigated on the activity of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Talinolol, a nonmetabolized P-gp substrate, was used as a marker compound. The white grapefruit juice (GFJ) had a minor effect on talinolol pharmacokinetics, but the ruby red GFJ reduced the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) by 60% and 50% of the control, respectively. However, among the GFJ constituents tested, bergamottin (0.22 mg/kg) was the most potent component augmenting the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) of talinolol by 2.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, if compared to the control group. The flavonoids naringenin (0.7 mg/kg) and naringin (2.4 and 9.4 mg/kg) had a similar effect increasing the talinolol C max and AUC (0-infinity) by 1.5- to 1.8-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the effect of GFJ on P-gp activity seems to depend on the variety, the concentration of compounds in the juice, and the composition of different ingredients. PMID:18494494

  19. Optimization of Enzymatic Clarification of Sapodilla Juice: A Statistical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicemol Jacob; R. K. Sukumaran; P. Prema

    2008-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice.\\u000a Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30–45 °C), enzyme\\u000a concentration (0.5–1.5 U), and treatment time (30–90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated\\u000a using a Box–Behnken design.

  20. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  1. Experimental gastric dysrhythmias and its correlation with in vivo gastric muscle contractions

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinhong; Qian, Liwei; Chen, Jiande

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the direct correlation between gastric dysrhythmias and in vivo gastric muscle tone. METHODS: Five healthy dogs were implanted with 4 pairs of electrodes along the greater curvature, with a strain gauge (SG) being sutured parallel to the distal electrodes (2 cm above the pylorus). Intravenous vasopressin was given to induce gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of regular slow waves and SG energy were calculated. RESULTS: (1) the regularity of gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) was reduced during and after infusion of vasopressin; (2) SG energy was significantly decreased during the infusion of vasopressin; (3) the decrease in SG energy was well correlated with the reduction in GMA regularity; (4) SG energy was negatively correlated with bradygastria and tachygastria. CONCLUSION: Vasopressin inhibits gastric contractions and impairs gastric slow waves; gastric dysrhythmias are associated with the reduced antral muscle contractions, and are indicative of antral hypomotility. PMID:16810746

  2. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid?Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post?explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13?52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20?53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin?secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. PMID:25937205

  3. Benign gastric ulceration in pernicious anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reid; T. V. Taylor; S. Holt; R. C. Heading

    1980-01-01

    Summary Benign gastric ulceration occurred in a patient with pernicious anemia in association with aspirin therapy. Previous reports of benign gastric ulceration in patients with achlorhydria are reviewed, and the potential role of aspirin in the pathogenesis of benign ulceration in the absence of acid is discussed.

  4. Palliative radiation therapy for primary gastric melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Jason M.; Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Primary gastric melanoma is an exceedingly rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding). Prior reports of primary gastric melanoma have mostly been treated with surgery with utilization of radiation therapy being unreported. Radiation therapy has been used to palliate bleeding of other cancers including lung, bladder, cervix, and more recently primary gastric cancers. Case presentation This case documents an 87-year-old male who presented with fatigue and melena, and was found to have severe anemia. Endoscopy with biopsy revealed an isolated focus of melanoma. After discharge, he presented two days later and was found to have continued bleeding. Because he was deemed a poor surgical candidate he elected to undergo palliative radiation therapy for bleeding control. Discussion The diagnosis of primary verses metastatic melanoma is a topic of debate. Case reports of patients with no known extra-gastric primary have undergone surgical treatment with varying outcomes. Patients with metastatic gastric melanoma have relied on chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery, with radiation being used in the palliative setting. The use of radiation to control bleeding in other cancers including primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been previously studied. This case documents the utilization of radiation therapy in bleeding due to primary gastric melanoma. Conclusions Radiation therapy can provide adequate bleeding palliation in patients with primary gastric melanoma. PMID:24490048

  5. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies.

  6. [Indications of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyu

    2014-08-01

    Consensus has been reached on the advantage and validity of laparoscopic surgery, but how to extend the usage of laparoscopic surgery in gastric cancer properly in China remains a problem as advanced gastric cancer occupies the majority of patients here. In the treatment of early gastric cancer, laparoscopic surgery nowadays is one of the standard treatments but surgeons still need to follow the indication of surgery strictly to avoid the excessive treatment in patients who are indicated for endoscopic therapy. There is still lack of evidence on the application of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, therefore these procedures should be performed in the context of clinical trials. With the development of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, training, certification and supervision systems are still not established. More attention should be paid to the choice of patients during the early period of learning curves and the indication of advanced stage. PMID:25164886

  7. [Importance of juices in nutrition of infants and preschool and school children].

    PubMed

    Kon', I Ia

    1999-01-01

    The data on assortments and nutritional value of infant's juices are reviewed. Special attention is devoted to the disputable problem of the time when the juice is to be introduced to the infant diet. The necessity of further investigations on the quality criteria of juices for infant nutrition is emphasized. Modern data on nutritional value and physiological role of juices for preschool and school children are also presented. The perspectives of future investigations on the development and manufacture of new juices for infants and children are outlined. PMID:10224644

  8. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%. PMID:25172702

  9. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

  10. Effects of dietary fibre-rich juice colloids from apple pomace extraction juices on intestinal fermentation products and microbiota in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Sembries; Gerhard Dongowski; Gisela Jacobasch; Katri Mehrländer; Frank Will; Helmut Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    Effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymic liquefaction on food intake, body and faecal weights, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and selected intestinal microbiota were investigated in rats. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets without any apple dietary fibre (DF) (control) or supplement with 5 % B-juice colloids or an

  11. Genotoxic effects of crude juices from Brassica vegetables and juices and extracts from phytopharmaceutical preparations and spices of cruciferous plants origin in bacterial and mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fekadu Kassie; Wolfram Parzefall; Stephen Musk; Ian Johnson; Günther Lamprecht; Gerhard Sontag; Siegfried Knasmüller

    1996-01-01

    Crude juices of eight Brassica vegetables as well as juices and extracts of spices and phytopharmaceutical preparations from cruciferous vegetables were tested for induction of point mutations in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, repairable DNA damage in E.coli K-12 cells and clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. In bacterial assays, all juices caused genotoxic effects in the absence of metabolic activation, the

  12. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  13. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  14. The effect of high pressure processing on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of Valencia and Navel orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle K Bull; Katherine Zerdin; Effie Howe; Dimitria Goicoechea; Priscilla Paramanandhan; Regine Stockman; Jay Sellahewa; Elizabeth A Szabo; Robert L Johnson; Cynthia M Stewart

    2004-01-01

    The quality and shelf-life of high pressure processed (HPP) Valencia and Navel orange juices were compared to fresh and thermally pasteurized juices. The juices were pressure processed at 600 MPa, 20 °C for 60 s and stored at 4 and 10 °C for up to 12 weeks. The microbiological, physical, chemical and nutritional properties of the juices and pectin methyl

  15. Fibulin 1 is downregulated through promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Y Cheng; H Jin; X Liu; J M T Siu; Y P Wong; E K O Ng; J Yu; W-k Leung; J J Y Sung; F K L Chan; FKL Chan

    2008-01-01

    Tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) were frequently inactivated through promoter hypermethylation in gastric carcinoma as well as pre-malignant gastric lesions, suggesting that promoter hypermethylation can be used as a marker to define novel TSGs and also biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. In an effort to search for such genes aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer development, fibulin 1 (FBLN1) was

  16. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A

    2015-04-01

    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice. PMID:25816898

  17. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Couturier, C S; Andersen, N G; Audet, C; Chabot, D

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore suggested that the square-root function be expanded with an initial lag phase, coupled to the mechanistically based cylinder model of gastric evacuation. PMID:23464544

  18. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. PMID:24418831

  19. A Modified Grapefruit Juice Eliminates Two Compound Classes as Major Mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo ‘Connect’

    PubMed Central

    Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p?0.008 and p?0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction. PMID:23878024

  20. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

  1. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  2. A consumer panel test of Texas fortified red grapefruit juice

    E-print Network

    Price, Carter

    1959-01-01

    , naringin (the bitter rrinciple of the grapefruit)z and other anality factors were essential for the production of a canned grapet'ruit juice with high color and flavor qualities, Iuring the research, lt became apparent that the stability of color...

  3. Process optimization for enzyme aided clarification of watermelon juice.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Deepali; Sabikhi, Latha; Chakraborty, Subir Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2014-10-01

    Watermelon juice was exposed to the enzyme masazyme at varying enzyme concentrations (0.01-0.1 % w/w) and different time (20-120 min) and temperature (30-50 °C) combinations. The effects of the treatments on selected responses (juice recovery, total dissolved solids (TDS), viscosity, turbidity, cloud stability and L value) were determined employing a second order Box Behnken Design in combination with Response Surface Methodology. Enzymatic treatment effectively degraded polysaccharides, resulting in reduced viscosity, turbidity and absorbance value and increased juice recovery, total dissolved solids and lightness. R(2) value for all models for the dependent variables were greater than 90 %. The maximum juice recovery (86.27 %), TDS (8.7°Brix) and L value (17.57) while minimum viscosity (0.0020 Pa.s.), turbidity (39.37 NTU) and cloud stability (0.033 abs) were obtained when enzyme treatment was set up with 0.09 % w/w enzyme concentration at 46.90 °C and 117.45 min. PMID:25328188

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange...frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange...

  5. Thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase, juice cloud loss and greening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple forms of pectin methylesterase (PME) have been isolated and characterized from citrus fruit tissue. PME is the causative agent responsible for destabilization of citrus juice cloud, a serious product quality defect. This report will present an up to date state of our knowledge regarding the...

  6. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:25384245

  7. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...

  8. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2?, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  9. Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Waheed; S. O. Jekayinfa; J. O. Ojediran; O. E. Imeokparia

    2008-01-01

    Energy and exergy studies were conducted in an orange juice manufacturing industry in Nigeria to determine the energy consumption pattern and methods of energy optimization in the company. An adaptation of the process analysis method of energy accounting was used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the eight defined unit operations. The types of energy used in the

  10. Microbial inactivation and physicochemical properties of ultrasound processed pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Pala, Çi?dem Uysal; Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Özcan, Gülçin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound treatment at various amplitudes (50, 75, and 100%) and times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min) on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2366 levels and physicochemical characteristics (monomeric anthocyanins, color values, total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids) were determined in pomegranate juice. More than a 5-log inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 and a 1.36-log inactivation of S. cerevisiae ATCC 2366 were achieved after 30 min of ultrasound treatment at 100% amplitude. The log-linear and Weibull models were successfully used to estimate the microbial inactivation as a function of ultrasound treatment time (R(2) > 0.97). No significant changes were observed in total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids of the treated juice (P > 0.05). The ultrasound treatment for up to 30 min resulted in more than 92 and 89% anthocyanin retention at 75 and 100% amplitude, respectively. The redness (a*) of the juice did not change significantly after the ultrasound treatment at amplitudes of 75 and 100% for up to 24 and 12 min, respectively. No significant changes in L* and b* values were observed after ultrasound treatment at all amplitudes and after up to 30 min of treatment for 50 and 75% amplitudes. Small differences in juice color were noted based on total color difference scores. PMID:25719877

  11. Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  12. Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  13. Back diffusion of hydrogen ions across gastric mucosa of patients with gastric ulcer and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ivey, K J; Clifton, J A

    1974-01-01

    Ionic permeability of the gastric mucosa was measured in six patients with an acute exacerbation of severe generalized rheumatoid arthritis receiving either aspirin and prednisone or aspirin and indomethacin as therapy. The results were compared with those in four patients with benign gastric ulcer and nine normal subjects. Compared with controls H(+) concentration was decreased and Na(+) concentration increased while corrected H(+) flux out of the lumen and Na(+) flux into the lumen were significantly increased in the patient groups, indicating increased mucosal permeability. Abnormality of the gastric mucosal barrier persisted in two patients despite healing of their ulcers. Mucosal permeability of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and gastric ulcer did not differ significantly from one another. One rheumatoid patient with a gastric ulcer showed no difference in mucosal permeability to that of the other rheumatoid patients. These studies suggest that increased H(+) ion loss contributes to the apparent hyposecretion of acid in patients gastric ulcer; persistence of an abnormal gastric mucosal barrier to H(+) ions may explain the high recurrence rate of gastric ulcers; and an abnormal gastric mucosal barrier may be a precursor to gastric ulceration in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:4808814

  14. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Tsuruoka, Shu-ichi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Gohki; Obi, Yuri; Kaneda, Tae; Takahashi, Masaki; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Fujimura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9. METHODS The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects. CONCLUSIONS Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations. PMID:19694738

  15. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p < 0.05). The TP, TMA, and IAC contents of the juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the frozen storage time, suggesting that both genotype and length of frozen storage time can affect the anthocyanin content of elderberry fruit juice. PMID:26028422

  16. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60°C, 20°C, 4°C, and -20°C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20°C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold. PMID:25977043

  17. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

  18. Nutrient composition and antimicrobial activity of sorrel drinks (soborodo).

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Elusiyan, C A

    2004-01-01

    Aqueous extracts (1,200 mL) of roselle calyx (40 g), fortified with either orange juice or pineapple juice as sweetener and lemon grass as flavorant (sorrel drink), were analyzed with regard to their mineral composition (Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Ca), vitamin C content, and sensory evaluation. While the medicinal potentials were determined with respect to their inhibitory effect on the growth of Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus sp., and Corynebacterium sp. The results revealed that the roselle extract fortified with orange juice had higher vitamin C content than did those fortified with pineapple juice, while those fortified with pineapple juice had the best general acceptability. Zn, Na, and Ca were generally high in all the drinks; however, fortification with either pineapple or orange juice reduced the mineral content of the roselle extract. However, Pb, Cu, and Mn (toxic metals) were not detected. The antimicrobial effect of the unfortified roselle extract was low against the entire organism; however, fortification with pineapple juice and lemon grass greatly enhanced the inhibition of the growth of those organisms. They all had their highest inhibitory effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa. In view of the high Zn, Ca, Fe, Na, and vitamin C content as well as the antimicrobial activity, this cheaply produced drink from purely local materials could serve as a good replacement for expensive carbonated drinks. PMID:15383229

  19. Effect of irradiation and storage on patulin disappearance and some chemical constituents of apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachmann, S

    1988-10-01

    The effect of irradiation on the patulin content and on the chemical composition of apple juice concentrate during storage at 4 degrees C over a period of several weeks was investigated. The radiation-induced disappearance of the mycotoxin in relation to the absorbed dose followed an exponential relationship. The radiation dose (D50), i.e., the dose which reduced the patulin content to 50% of its initial value was equal to 0.35 kGy. Storage of the irradiated concentrate had no effect on the patulin content; however, storage did lead to a slight increase in the titratable acidity and a decrease in the amounts of the carbonyl compounds and the ascorbic acid concentration. The development of non-enzymatic browning during storage of the irradiated samples followed the same kinetics as that of the non-irradiated samples. PMID:3206939

  20. [The evaluation of "natural" sweeteners, especially concentrated fruit juices, syrups and honey].

    PubMed

    Hötzel, D

    1990-01-01

    The present paper deals with the nutritional value of some natural sweeteners, like concentrated fruit juices, special syrups and honey. The following aspects are discussed: concentration of sweet-tasting carbohydrates, average composition of essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins, and occurrence of other substances like organic acids etc. The nutritional value of natural sweeteners is not significantly different from "sugar" (saccharose): Natural sweeteners do not contribute to fulfill the need for minerals, trace elements or vitamins in an important manner. The sensoric properties are different and the intensity of sweet-taste is usually higher in sucrose than in syrups. Descriptions of such products as "naturally", "healthy", "without sugar" are not justified. PMID:2085032

  1. MAJIS (Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer) for JUICE: objectives for the Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Y.; Piccioni, G.

    2013-09-01

    The MAJIS instrument is an imaging spectrometer on board the JUICE mission and it is perfectly suitable to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Jupiter system by combining information of the surfaces of the Galilean satellites, the Jupiter's atmosphere, and the other targets of opportunity. The level of details and the extended mapping capabilities of MAJIS will unveil crucial aspects of the Jovian system. In particular, MAJIS will play a major role in characterizing the surfaces of Galilean satellites. Surface constituents (water ice, salts/brines, minerals or CO2 ice on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, SO2 frost on Io…) have distinctive signatures in the VISNIR range (0.4 to 5.2 ?m). Surface composition is a critical element for understanding the formation and evolution of Galilean satellites as well as space weathering in the Jovian environment. A companion paper [1] is dedicated to the goals of MAJIS for the atmosphere of Jupiter and its environment.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed culture of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) juice: synergism in the aroma compounds production.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  3. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Caricio Martins; Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Corvelo

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expres- sion in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the pres- ence of gastric epithelial lesions. METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mu- cosa of H pylori -infected gastric ulcer patients was ana- lyzed. Forty-two

  4. Intestinalization of gastric signet ring cell carcinomas with progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamachika; Ken-ichi Inada; Yasunobu Fujimitsu; Shigeo Nakamura; Yoshitaka Yamamura; Tsuyoshi Kitou; Steven H. Itzkowitz; J. L. Werther; Kazumasa Miki; Masae Tatematsu

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in mucin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have made reliable determination of the gastric and\\u000a intestinal phenotypes of gastric carcinoma cells possible. Phenotypic expression changes from gastric epithelial cell type\\u000a to intestinal epithelial cell type with the growth of gastric tumours in experimental animals. We studied cell differentiation\\u000a in gastric signet ring cell carcinomas with progression in 203 surgically obtained

  5. Gastric tone determines the sensitivity of the stomach to distention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Notivol; Benoit Coffin; Fernando Azpiroz; Fermín Mearin; Jordi Serra; Juan-R. Malagelada

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Whether meal-related symptoms such as postcibal epigastric fullness and discomfort are caused by hypotonic gastric expansion or gastric hypertension is unknown. This study investigated whether symptoms in healthy individuals in response to gastric distention are produced by gastric expansion or by an increase in intragastric pressure. Methods: Increasing gastric distentions (for 5 minutes at 5-minute intervals) at fixed pressure

  6. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed. PMID:11995930

  7. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  8. [Progress in chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Hua; Teng, Kai-Yuan

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development in cytotoxic agents and molecular targeting drugs, some progress in palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer has been achieved and the median survival of advanced gastric cancer patients is prolonged to about one year. In this review, we summarized the application of new agents, such as docetaxel, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, capecitabine, S1 and targeting drugs in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. We focused on the results of phase III clinical trials and concluded that till now no standard regimens for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer are available. New combination regimens such as docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil (DCF), epirubicin-oxaliplatin-capecitabine (EOX), fluorouracil-leucovorine-oxaliplatin (FLO), irinotecan, leucovorin and 5-FU (ILF), cispaltin plus xeloda, S1 plus cisplatin are considered as new options for the first-line chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer. Due to uncertain efficacy and safety concerns, the role of molecular targeting agents in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer needs further investigation. It is suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a suitable choice for locally advanced gastric cancer. PMID:19799823

  9. Chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Fernando; Vega-Villegas, M Eugenia; López-Brea, Marta F

    2007-06-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the world. Approximately 84% of patients with gastric cancer will have advanced disease and median survival of these patients without chemotherapy is only 3-4 months. "Classical" chemotherapy regimens, mainly CF (cisplatin plus infusional 5FU) and ECF (cisplatin plus infusional 5FU plus Epirubicin) obtain responses in 20-40% of the patients and improve quality of life. Nevertheless, duration of these responses is short with very few complete responses. Median time to tumor progression (TTP) with these regimens is only about 4-5 months and median survival does not exceed 7-10 months. Moreover, benefit seems to be limited to patients with good performance status and treatment toxicity and discomfort are not negligible, specially that of regimens with cisplatin or infusional 5FU. Trying to improve these results, the incorporation of new drugs has been explored. Among the new combinations, the more developed ones are those with Docetaxel (DCF), oxaliplatin (EOX, FLO), Capecitabine (EOX, cisplatin-Xeloda) and irinotecan (ILF). We have final results from Phase III trials that suggest that all these regimens could have a role in the treatment of these patients but survival is still very poor and toxicity remains important. It would be interesting to investigate other new combinations and the incorporation of drugs directed against new therapeutic targets in this setting. It would be of utmost interest that these clinical trials would also explore clinical and molecular prognostic and predictive factors. PMID:17376598

  10. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kay?l?o?lu, Selami Ilgaz; Akyol, Cihangir; Esen, Ebru; Cans?z-Ersöz, Cevriye; Kocaay, Ak?n F?rat; Genç, Volkan; Kepenekçi, ?lknur; Demirer, Seher

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis. PMID:25574403

  11. Late gastric prolapse with pouch necrosis after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Lunca, Sorinel; Vix, Michel; Rikkers, Andrew; Rubino, Francesco; Marescaux, Jacques

    2005-04-01

    One of the most significant complications of the gastric banding procedure is gastric prolapse. However, pouch necrosis after gastric prolapse is an extremely rare complication. We present the case of a morbidly obese 41-year-old woman who had had a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure 3 years before. She developed a pouch necrosis after a late gastric prolapse. After failure of conservative treatment, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. This resulted in removal of the band and the diagnosis of pouch necrosis. A laparotomy was indicated and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. A delay in the diagnosis of gastric prolapse can lead to major complications. Initial referral to a specialized center is necessary for proper care of this complication. Failure of conservative treatment mandates early operative intervention. PMID:15946441

  12. Surgical management of gastric cancer: Review and consideration for total care of the gastric cancer patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samielle Brancato; Thomas J. Miner

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement  Surgical therapy remains the most effective modality in the treatment of gastric cancer. Staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic\\u000a ultrasound may increase the accuracy of staging and prevent patients with unresectable gastric cancer from undergoing unnecessary\\u000a operations. Resection of proximal and distal gastric cancer is best accomplished with an appropriate gastrectomy that ensures\\u000a adequate resection margins. A D2 lymphadenectomy can be

  13. EFFECT OF NIMBIDIN ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, N. R.; Santhakumari, G.

    1985-01-01

    Nimbidin, the crude bitter compound from neem has been investigated for its gastric anti secretory activity in rats and cats. It exhibited significant anti – secretory activity in pylorus ligated rats and cats. In lumen – perfused rats it suppressed the basal as well as histamine and carbachol stimulated gastric acid output at 40 mg/kg (i.v). However it had no effect on ASA – induced back – diffusion of H+ ions. This anti secretory activity of nimbidin was found to be similar to that of H2 – receptor antagonists, which are reported to suppress the histamine induced gastric secretion in animals and man. PMID:22557506

  14. Laparoscopic resection for gastric carcinoma: Western experience.

    PubMed

    Strong, Vivian E

    2012-01-01

    There has been much speculation regarding differences in outcome for patients who have gastric cancer in the Eastern versus Western world. Among other factors, these differences have contributed to a unique cohort of patients and experience in the Western staging/evaluation of gastric cancer and in the application of minimally invasive approaches for treatment. This review summarizes the current state of laparoscopic approaches for the staging and treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma for patients presenting in Western countries, with their associated unique presentation, comorbidities, and outcomes. PMID:22098837

  15. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to paraesophageal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Selcuk; Soylu, Lutfi; Sahin, Mahir; Demiray, Taylan

    2015-04-01

    The most common causes of acute gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) are duodenal and type 3 gastric ulcers. However, mechanical or functional causes may also lead to this pathology. Acute GOO is characterized by delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, or nausea accompanied by vomiting. Herein we report a 56-year-old man diagnosed with GOO secondary to paraesophageal hiatal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication. Because of the rarity of this disease, common gastrointestinal complaints may mislead the emergency physician to diagnose a nonsurgical gastrointestinal disease if a detailed history and physical examinations are not obtained. PMID:25813602

  16. Fertilisation and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Breksa, Andrew P; Mishchuk, Darya O; Fake, Cindy E; O'Mahony, Michael A; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2012-09-15

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilisation and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using (1)H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertiliser and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, amino acid and organic acid composition. To determine whether the difference in sugar concentration was enough for the consumer to detect, a sensory experiment was performed in which two orange juice samples were prepared to resemble the sweet/sour taste balance of juice from mandarin oranges in which foliar fertilisation was either applied or not. In a test using non-trained individuals, 68% could correctly identify which juice had a sourer, or less sweet, taste. The implications of this study could impact citrus growers, and ultimately aid in development of fruit with superior sensory quality. PMID:23107722

  17. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

    2012-12-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands. PMID:23270108

  18. Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Giulian, Raquel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2006-03-01

    World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects may be mediated by the interaction of juice components with transition metals or by sub-products of juice auto-oxidation. In this study, the mutagenic potential of orange juice and two metallic agents used in dietary supplementation, FeSO(4) and CuSO(4), were investigated using the comet assay in mouse blood cells (in vivo). Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis indicated a positive correlation between DNA damage and the hepatic levels of iron and a negative correlation between whole blood copper and DNA damage. A negative correlation between hepatic iron and whole blood copper content was also seen in the treatment with both ferrous and cupric sulfates. PMID:16263202

  19. Quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in dhaka city, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, F; Anwar Hossain, M; Kamal Hossain, M; Lopa, D; Formuzul Haque, K M

    2010-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in Dhaka City. The highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. In this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango juices than in orange juices. The pH of all samples varied from 3.50±0.10 to 4.70±0.05. Vitamin C content was comparatively higher in mango juices. The levels of metals tested namely, arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in the juices were within the limits of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) for fruit juices. The microbiological qualities of all the products were within the limits of the Gulf standards (the recommended Microbiological Standards for any fruit juice sold in the Gulf Region). Based on the above results, it is suggested that processed juices be prepared under hygienic conditions. PMID:22691996

  20. Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food–drug interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David G

    2010-01-01

    A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758