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Sample records for gastric juice composition

  1. Effects of simulated gastric juice on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of laboratory-processed composites.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Seda; Sarac, Sinasi; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Medical problems such as gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause considerable damage to restorations in the oral environment. This study evaluated the effects of gastric juice on the surface characteristics of different types of laboratory-processed indirect composites with different filler particles and polymerization modes. Specimens were prepared from Tescera (TES; Bisco), Sinfony (SIN; 3M ESPE), Solidex (SOL; Shofu), and Adoro (AD; Ivoclar Vivadent). Before exposing the specimens to simulated gastric juice for 24 h, color, surface roughness, and microhardness were measured on one half of the polished flat surface of each specimen. After exposure to the simulated gastric juice, the same tests were repeated on the other half of specimen surface. Results indicated that gastric juice had a significant impact on color change (p<0.001). AD showed the largest surface roughness change among the resins (p<0.001). Gastric juice also significantly affected the microhardness of the materials, and AD and TES showed statistically similar change in microhardness (p>0.05). PMID:24882109

  2. Comparison of Gastric Microbiota Between Gastric Juice and Mucosa by Next Generation Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori in human health and disease. In this study, we aimed to detect human gastric microbiota in both gastric mucosa and gastric juice by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare the results from mucosa and juice. Methods: Gastric biopsies and stomach juices were collected from 4 subjects who underwent standard endoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota of antral mucosa, corpus mucosa samples, and gastric fluids were analyzed by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis focused on bacteria, such as H. pylori and nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria. Results: Gastric fluid samples showed higher diversity compared to that of gastric mucosa samples. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in gastric fluid than in gastric mucosa. The samples of gastric fluid and gastric mucosa showed different composition of phyla. The composition of H. pylori and Proteobacteria was higher in mucosa samples compared to gastric fluid samples (H. pylori, 66.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.033; Proteobacteria, 75.4% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041), while Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were proportioned relatively less in mucosa samples than gastric fluid. However there was no significant difference. (Actinobacteria, 3.5% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.312; Bacteroidetes, 6.0% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.329; Firmicutes, 12.8% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.246). Conclusions: Even though these samples were small, gastric mucosa could be more effective than gastric fluid in the detection of meaningful gastric microbiota by pyrosequencing. PMID:27051651

  3. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations. PMID:26377936

  4. Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Maurizio G; Norberto, Lorenzo; Damini, Roberta; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    Chitin digestion by humans has generally been questioned or denied. Only recently chitinases have been found in several human tissues and their role has been associated with defense against parasite infections and to some allergic conditions. In this pilot study we tested the gastric juices of 25 Italian subjects on the artificial substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',diacetylchitobiose or/and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chitin to demonstrate the presence of a chitinase activity. Since this chitinase activity was demonstrated at acidic pH, it is currently referred to acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). AMCase activity was present in gastric juices of twenty of 25 Italian patients in a range of activity from 0.21 to 36.27 nmol/ml/h and from 8,881 to 1,254,782 fluorescence emission (CPS), according to the used methods. In the remaining five of 25 gastric juices, AMCase activity was almost absent in both assay methods. An allosamidine inhibition test and the measurement at different pH values confirmed that this activity was characteristic of AMCase. The absence of activity in 20% of the gastric juices may be a consequence of virtual absence of chitinous food in the Western diet. PMID:17587796

  5. Downregulated MicroRNA-133a in Gastric Juice as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Fang, Peng-Hua; He, Biao; Guo, Li-Li; Shi, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhen-Wen, Zhen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Circulatory miR-133a is a marker shared by several types of cancer. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using miR-133a levels in gastric juice to screen for gastric cancer. A total of 204 samples of gastric juice and mucosa from gastric cancer, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, superficial gastritis and healthy cases were collected by gastroscopy. The results showed that miR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated and positively correlated. Moreover, miR-133a in gastric juice has high operability, high reliability, high sensitivity, high specificity and relative stability, fit for clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer. PMID:27268657

  6. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  7. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  8. A chemometric optimization of method for determination of nitrosamines in gastric juices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Şevket; Dinç, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A chemometrically optimized isolation procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection technique has been proposed for quantitative determination of trace levels of nitrosamines in gastric juice samples of patients with the gastrointestinal tract problems. The extraction conditions of each nitrosamine were optimized using regression modelling based on central composite design. The extraction conditions for all nitrosamines were selected to be 10.7 min for extraction time, 4.2 for pH and 23 for 2-propanol percentage in extraction solution. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 94.0 (NDMA) to 99.3 (NDPheA) %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations was within the range of 0.7 (NDPheA) and 2.6 (NDMA) %. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 0.3 to 1.1 pg/mL. Total nitrosamine concentrations were found at the highest concentration up to 2431.12 pg/mL in cancer patients, whereas they were found at the lowest concentration down to 12.18 pg/mL in gastritis patients. The classification results of the gastric juice samples in different patient groups were very satisfactory, allowing 100% of patients to be correctly grouped. A new mathematical model has been developed allowing for the classification of gastric juices with a 93.1% success rate based on just the ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ. The ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ might be considered as a biomarker for the classification of gastric juices of patients and might act as an indicator of increased risk for stomach cancer. PMID:26342445

  9. LC determination of dinitrosopiperazine in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Ibrahim, F; Hefnawy, M; Eid, M

    2001-12-01

    A simple and specific reversed phase HPLC method for the determination of dinitrosopiperazine in simulated gastric juice using UV detection was reported. The chromatographic resolution of the analyte and the internal standard isosorbide dinitrate was performed without extraction from the gastric juice on a reversed phase ODS column. Isocratic elution was carried out with methanol-0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (60:40 v/v, pH 3.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1) with UV detection at 238 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range 0.072-2.88 microg ml(-1) of dinitrosopiperazine with minimum detectability (S/N=2) of 0.01 microg ml(-1) (8 x 10(-8) M). Inter-day and intra-day precisions calculated as % RSD were in the range 0.32-0.38% and 0.19-0.25% respectively. Inter-day and intra-day accuracies calculated as % error were in the range 0.18-0.21 and 0.08-0.11% respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the study of the possible in-vivo production of DNPZ under the standard nitrosation conditions recommended by WHO. PMID:11600313

  10. Antigens with glycoprotein structure in the gastric juice. I. Immunological and chemical determinations.

    PubMed

    Vântu, A; Voiculet, N; Ivănescu, M; Balaban, C

    1978-01-01

    To demonstrate the presence of specific antigens in the normal and malignant gastric juice the immunological and chemical features of certain antigens with glycoprotein structure from malignant gastric jucice and gastric tumors were studied comparatively with those of antigens obtained from normal gastric juice and gastric tissue. The investigation was carried out in tumor tissue extracts from 7 patients with malignant gastric tumors and in gastric juice from 45 patients with other non-cancerous diseases. From the five fractions obtained, which gave immunoelectrophoretic precipitin lines in the beta and alpha-globulin regions with the antiserum against total normal gastric juice, a single specific was separated by means of successive chromatographies on sephadex G--100 and DEAE-Sephadex -a--50 (eluted in NaCl concentration gradient). This fraction represented 11.1 per cent of the total proteins. None of the five fractions could be identified with carcinoembryonic antigen (value in gastric juice and gastric malignant tumors = 2 to 10 ng per mg lyophilized products). PMID:635406

  11. Dissociation of Intrinsic Factor from its Antibody: Application to Study of Pernicious Anaemia Gastric Juice Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael S.; Chanarin, I.

    1969-01-01

    Intrinsic factor antibody may sometimes be concealed in the gastric secretions of pernicious anaemia subjects, being complexed with residual amounts of intrinsic factor. A method is described for dissociating intrinsic factor from its antibody. Antibody to the vitamin-B12-binding site of intrinsic factor was identified in 16 (57%) out of 28 samples of pernicious anaemia gastric juice after dissociation but in only 10 before dissociation. There was no clear relationship between the incidence of antibody in the serum and in the gastric juice of these patients. PMID:5764247

  12. N-nitroso compounds, genotoxins and their precursors in gastric juice from humans with and without precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Chen, C; Hautefeuille, A; Thuillier, P; Muñoz, N; Moulinier, B; Berger, F; De Montclos, H; Ohshima, H

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the interrelationships between levels of total N-nitroso compounds (NOC), genotoxic activity (both before and after nitrosation), degree of bacterial colonization in gastric juice and degree of severity or absence of precancerous lesions of the stomach. The mean level of constitutive total NOC in gastric juice was similar in the different groups of patients, but it was higher in acidic gastric juice (n = 30) than in gastric juice at pH greater than 4.5 (n = 12). Acid-catalysed nitrosation of gastric juice in vitro increased the concentration of total NOC by up to several thousand fold, to a maximum of 1330 mumol/l. Genotoxicity, expressed as SOS-inducing potency per 100 microliters of gastric juice was measurable in only 20% of gastric juice samples tested. After acid-catalysed nitrosation, however, all samples showed genotoxic activity, the mean SOS-inducing potency being four to seven times greater than the corresponding constitutive value. There was no association between the mean SOS-inducing potency of gastric juice and the severity of precancerous lesions. The mean SOS-inducing potency of neutral or basic gastric juice was slightly greater than that of acidic samples. In a kinetic study on N-nitrosation of gastric juice in vitro, a mixture of amino and amido substrates was nitrosated; both qualitative and quantitative individual differences in nitrosatable substrates in gastric juice were seen. Fractionation of acidic, neutral and basic nitrosated gastric juice samples revealed a preponderance of nonvolatile, unknown NOC with varying polarities. The results of our study suggest that only pH determines the nature and level of precursors of NOC and of nitrosation-dependent genotoxins in gastric juice. PMID:1855844

  13. Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 μm and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

  14. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  15. The changes of metabolism balance of zinc and copper in gastric juice with widely varying dietary zinc intake.

    PubMed

    Leung, P L; Li, X L

    1993-10-01

    The concentrations of zinc and copper in gastric juice of humans who had widely varying dietary zinc intake were evaluated. In order to compare this with zinc and copper levels of normal dietary individuals, we also determined the zinc and copper levels in healthy individuals' plasma and in cancer patient's natural tissue, all of whom had normal diets. The correlation coefficients between zinc and copper were 0.71, 0.45, and 0.55, respectively, in gastric juice, plasma, and tissue of normal dietary subjects. Such correlation changed and was destroyed when there was a high zinc level in gastric juice. When gastric juice zinc level changed from mean value 16.8 mumol/L to 262.5 mumol/L, the correlation coefficient varied from 0.71 to -0.04, and the copper level also varied from mean value 8.96 mumol/L to 4.89 mumol/L. These findings probably give the evidence to suggest that a high zinc level will restrain the copper level and break the balance of the human body's zinc and copper metabolism. PMID:7505097

  16. Mechanism for high PCO2 in gastric juice: roles of bicarbonate secretion and CO2 diffusion.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M H; Thirlby, R C; Feldman, M

    1987-10-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in gastric juice often exceeds the PCO2 of blood. CO2 in gastric juice may originate from blood and enter luminal fluid by diffusion, or CO2 may be produced in the lumen of the stomach from the reaction of HCO3- and H+. Because CO2 production from HCO3- is dependent on acid (low pH), we suppressed acid secretion with intravenous cimetidine to estimate to what extent appearance of CO2 in luminal fluid is due to production from HCO3-. When denervated fundic pouches of dogs were distended with saline, the PCO2 of the solution increased to the PCO2 of blood in approximately 20 min, with the initial rate of appearance of CO2 in the pouch solution only minimally affected by cimetidine. Thereafter, PCO2 of luminal fluid continued to increase to 50-60 mmHg in the absence of cimetidine, whereas PCO2 of luminal fluid remained approximately equal to that of blood when cimetidine was infused (P less than 0.001, cimetidine vs. control). The mean pH in the pouch solution remained between 6.3 and 6.9 during cimetidine infusion but decreased to 4.75 without cimetidine (P less than 0.001). In additional experiments, an acidic solution with high PCO2 (242 +/- 3 mmHg) was infused into the fundic pouches. PCO2 in luminal fluid decreased rather slowly toward plasma PCO2, requiring 240 min for luminal fluid PCO2 to decrease to 56 +/- 2 mmHg. Thus the permeability of the gastric mucosa to luminal CO2 was relatively low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3116857

  17. Exposure to gastric juice may not cause adenocarcinogenesis of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Yong-Zhong; Gong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of gastric juice on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: A animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established in Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy. The development of EAC and forestomach adenocarcinoma was investigated 40 wk after the treatment. Intraluminal pH and bile of the forestomach were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pH (t = 0.117, P = 0.925) or bile (χ2 = 0.036, P = 0.85) in the forestomach before and 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. There were also no significant differences between the model and controls during esophagoduodenostomy or 40 wk after esophagoduodenostomy. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia (88%) and intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (28%) in the esophagus in the model was higher than in the controls 40 wk after surgery (χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 9.33, P = 0.002, respectively) and in the forestomach in the model (χ2 = 32.05, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 8.14, P = 0.004, respectively). The incidence rates of inflammation in the esophagus and forestomach were 100% and 96%, respectively (χ2 = 1.02, P = 0.31) in the model, which was higher than in the esophageal control (6.8%) (χ2 = 42.70, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Gastric juice exposure may not cause intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia or adenocarcinoma of the forestomach and may not be related to EAC. PMID:23613638

  18. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Marazova, K; Krasnaliev, I; Galunska, B; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A

    2005-04-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in phenolic substances-mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and other activities. We studied the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and its possible relation to the oxidative status. AMFJ (5, 10 and 20 ml kg(-1)) was applied orally as a pretreatment 1 h before the subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (30 mg kg(-1)). Gastric ulcer formation was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 4h after the indomethacin administration. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat plasma and gastric mucosa and also reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in gastric mucosa were determined and used as biochemical markers of the oxidative status. AMFJ-pretreatment diminished the number and area of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Histopathological examination of rat stomachs demonstrated that AMFJ induced an increase in gastric mucus production and a reduction of the depth and severity of indomethacin-induced mucosal lesions. AMFJ dose-dependently reduced the elevated indomethacin plasma and gastric MDA levels and at the doses of 10 and 20 ml kg(-1) they were not significantly different from the control values. Neither indomethacin-treatment, nor AMFJ-pretreatment had a significant influence on GSH and GSSG gastric mucosal levels. These results demonstrated that indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage was accompanied by the development of oxidative stress, evidenced by the accumulation of MDA. AMFJ-pretreatment decreased the gastric lesions caused by indomethacin. It could be suggested that this effect of AMFJ was probably due to the increased mucus production and interference with oxidative stress development as evidenced by the decreased plasma and gastric mucosal MDA. PMID:15945278

  19. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity. PMID:26429932

  20. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  1. Voltammetric determination of N-nitrosoderivatives of atenolol and propranolol in simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Belal, F; al-Deeb, O A; al-Majed, A A; Gad-Kariem, E A

    1999-10-30

    A highly sensitive and simple voltammetric method is proposed for the determination of N-nitrosoatenolol (NA) and N-nitrosopropranolol (NP) in simulated gastric juice. The method is based on measuring the differential-pulse polarographic peak produced by NA and NP in Britton-Robinson buffers of pH 3 and 4 for NA and NP, respectively. Both compounds yielded diffusion-controlled current with diffusion-current constants of 7.23 +/- 0.03 and 9.46 +/- 0.06 for NA and NP, respectively. The current-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range 0.16-9.6 micrograms ml-1 with minimum detectability (S/N = 2) of 0.015 microgram ml-1 (5 x 10(-8) M) for NA; for NP the range was 0.08-8.0 micrograms ml-1 with minimum detectability (S/N = 2) of 0.009 microgram ml-1 (3 x 10(-8) M). The proposed method was successfully applied to study the possible in vivo production of the nitroso-derivatives under the standard nitrosation reaction conditions recommended by WHO. The method is characterized by simplicity and higher sensitivity as compared with the reported HPLC method. PMID:10575740

  2. Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

  3. Citrus juice composition does not influence radiation sensitivity of Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Niemira, B A

    2001-06-01

    Food substrate chemistry is known to influence radiation sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria. The sensitivity of a citrus juice outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis to gamma radiation was determined in five commercial orange juice formulations. The juices differed in pH (3.87 to 4.13), calcium concentration (2.1 versus 36.9 mM), juice composition (orange versus orange-tangerine blend), and antioxidant power (11,751 to 12,826 microM ferric reducing-antioxidant power units). The Dgamma (dose required to achieve 90% destruction) varied only slightly (0.35 to 0.37 kGy), with no significant (P < 0.05) differences among any of the suspending juices. These results indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis sensitivity to gamma radiation is not strongly influenced by the composition of formulated commercial orange juices. PMID:11403141

  4. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Paul M. Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.

  5. A Rapid and Accurate Method to Evaluate Helicobacter pylori Infection, Clarithromycin Resistance, and CYP2C19 Genotypes Simultaneously From Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Liu, Chung-Jung; Yang, Ching-Chia; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Hui-Min David; Ren, Jian-Lin; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Lin-Li

    2016-05-01

    Because Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) would cause carcinogenesis of the stomach, we need sufficient information for deciding on an appropriate strategy of eradication. Many factors affect the efficacy of eradication including antimicrobial resistance (especially clarithromycin resistance) and CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study was to survey the efficiency of gastric juice for detecting H pylori infection, clarithromycin resistance, and CYP2C19 polymorphism.The specimens of gastric juice were collected from all patients while receiving gastroscopy. DNA was extracted from gastric juice and then urease A and cag A were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the existence of H pylori. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), the 23S rRNA of H pylori and CYP2C19 genotypes of host were examined respectively. During endoscopy examination, biopsy-based specimens were also collected for rapid urease test, culture, and histology. The blood samples were also collected for analysis of CYP2C19 genotypes. We compared the results of gastric juice tests with the results of traditional clinical tests.When compared with the results from traditional clinical tests, our results from gastric juice showed that the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy to detect H pylori infection were 92.1% (105/114), 92.9% (143/154), 90.5% (105/116), 94.1% (143/152), and 92.5% (248/268), respectively. The SEN, SPE, PPV, and NPV to detect clarithromycin resistance were 97.3% (36/37), 91.5% (43/47), 90.0% (36/40), and 97.7% (43/44), respectively. By using PCR-RFLP, the consistency of human CYP2C19 gene polymorphism from blood samples and gastric juice was as high as 94.9% (149/157).The manipulated gastric juice is actually an effective diagnostic sample for evaluation of H pylori existence, clarithromycin resistance, and host CYP2C19 polymorphism. PMID:27227911

  6. A Rapid and Accurate Method to Evaluate Helicobacter pylori Infection, Clarithromycin Resistance, and CYP2C19 Genotypes Simultaneously From Gastric Juice

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Liu, Chung-Jung; Yang, Ching-Chia; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Hui-Min David; Ren, Jian-Lin; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Lin-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Because Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) would cause carcinogenesis of the stomach, we need sufficient information for deciding on an appropriate strategy of eradication. Many factors affect the efficacy of eradication including antimicrobial resistance (especially clarithromycin resistance) and CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study was to survey the efficiency of gastric juice for detecting H pylori infection, clarithromycin resistance, and CYP2C19 polymorphism. The specimens of gastric juice were collected from all patients while receiving gastroscopy. DNA was extracted from gastric juice and then urease A and cag A were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the existence of H pylori. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), the 23S rRNA of H pylori and CYP2C19 genotypes of host were examined respectively. During endoscopy examination, biopsy-based specimens were also collected for rapid urease test, culture, and histology. The blood samples were also collected for analysis of CYP2C19 genotypes. We compared the results of gastric juice tests with the results of traditional clinical tests. When compared with the results from traditional clinical tests, our results from gastric juice showed that the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy to detect H pylori infection were 92.1% (105/114), 92.9% (143/154), 90.5% (105/116), 94.1% (143/152), and 92.5% (248/268), respectively. The SEN, SPE, PPV, and NPV to detect clarithromycin resistance were 97.3% (36/37), 91.5% (43/47), 90.0% (36/40), and 97.7% (43/44), respectively. By using PCR-RFLP, the consistency of human CYP2C19 gene polymorphism from blood samples and gastric juice was as high as 94.9% (149/157). The manipulated gastric juice is actually an effective diagnostic sample for evaluation of H pylori existence, clarithromycin resistance, and host CYP2C19 polymorphism. PMID:27227911

  7. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Paul M; Sasso, Alan F

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. PMID:25151221

  8. [Quantitative evaluation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu, 241Am transfer from polluted soil to gastric and intestine juice of cows].

    PubMed

    Chizhevskiĭ, I V

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative parameters of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am transfer from solid phase of soil to gastric, intestine juice of cows as well as to imitating solutions have been estimated on the base of results of laboratory incubation experiments. A prevailing role of enzyme complex and microflora of gastrointestinal tract in radionuclides transfer from solid phase of soil to solution has been shown. PMID:11605246

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  10. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  11. The use of election paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in early preformulation experiments: the impact of different experimental formulations on the release of a lipophilic spin probe into gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Isel, H; Mountfield, R J

    2001-03-01

    The lipophilic spin probe TEMPOL-benzoate was dissolved in different experimental formulations, including polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Miglyol, glycerol monooleate (GMO), and Cremophor RH-40. Samples were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy before and after addition to human gastric juice. The distance between the first and the third peak in the EPR spectrum (2a(N)) was measured to monitor the polarity of the spin probe's microenvironment. Moreover, the ratio between the signal amplitudes of the second and the third peak (a/b ratio) was used to monitor the mobility of the spin probe in a certain formulation. Thus, by calculating 2a(N) and the a/b ratio of the EPR spectra it was possible to determine a potential release of the spin probe from different formulations into gastric juice. It was found that oily and surface-active vehicles (Miglyol, Cremophor RH-40, and GMO) were more suitable to protect a lipophilic compound from being released within a gastric environment than PEG 400. Our results demonstrate that EPR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool in early preformulation experiments to monitor the release of spin probes from formulations of different nature. This kind of experiment can be of value for the optimization of exploratory formulations. PMID:11226824

  12. Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Kim T; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena

    2006-06-01

    An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp, 2-Rhap, 2,4-Rhap), arabinan (5-Araf, 3,5-Araf, t-Araf), type I arabinogalactan (4-Galp, 3,4-Galp, t-Araf) and beta-glucosyl Yariv-binding type II arabinogalactan (3,6-Galp, t-Araf). Low levels of xyloglucan (4-Glcp, 4,6-Glcp, t-Xylp, t-Fucp), heteroxylan (4-Xylp) and heteromannan (4-Manp) are also present. PMID:16777156

  13. A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rotkvić, I; Turković, B; Jagić, V; Mildner, B; Duvnjak, M

    1993-01-01

    The possibility that the stomach, affected by general stress, might initiate a counter-response has not until recently been considered in theories of stress. We suggest that the stomach, as the most sensitive part of the gastrointestinal tract and the largest neuroendocrine organ in the body, is crucial for the initiation of a full stress response against all noxious stress pathology. The end result would be a strong protection of all organs invaded by 'stress'. Consistent with this assumption, this coping response is best explained in terms of 'organoprotection'. Endogenous organoprotectors (eg prostaglandins, somatostatin, dopamine) are proposed as mediators. Such an endogenous counteraction could even be afforded by their suitable application. A new gastric juice peptide, M(r) 40,000, named BPC, was recently isolated. Herein, a 15 amino acid fragment (BPC 157), thought to be essential for its activity, has been fully characterized and investigated. As has been demonstrated for many organoprotective agents using different models of various tissue lesions, despite the poorly understood final mechanism, practically all organ systems appear to benefit from BPC activity. These effects have been achieved in many species using very low dosages (mostly microgram and ng/kg range) after ip, ig, and intramucosal (local) application. The effect was apparent already after one application. Long lasting activity was also demonstrated. BPC was highly effective when applied simultaneously with noxious agents or in already pathological, as well as chronical, conditions. Therefore, it seems that BPC treatment does not share any of the so far known limitations for 'conventional organoprotectors'. No influence on different basal parameters and no toxicity were observed. These findings provide a breakthrough in stress theory. BPC, as a possible endogenous free radical scavenger and organoprotection mediator, could be a useful prototype of a new class of drugs, organoprotective agents

  14. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  15. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Malinauskytė, Ernesta; Ramanauskaitė, Jovita; Leskauskaitė, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

  16. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  17. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  18. Mutagens, N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in gastric juice from patients with and without precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Rogatko, A; Hautefeuille, A; Thuillier, P; Muñoz, N; Moulinier, B; Berger, F; De Montclos, H; Lambert, R

    1993-01-01

    This study examined whether elevated risk of gastric cancer is associated with high levels of total N-nitroso compounds (NOC), their precursors and nitrosation-dependent genotoxins in gastric juice (GJ). An improved method for quantifying total NOC was used and genotoxicity was assayed in E. coli. Results from patients (n = 210) with or without precancerous lesions of the stomach and living in three areas with up to 8-fold variations in gastric cancer risk (U.K., France, Colombia) were compared. The level of nitrite (range < 1-472 mumol/l) was found to increase with the pH of GJ from the three countries and was dependent on country of collection. The levels of NOC (range: < or = 0.01-8.0 mumol/l) in GJ were not affected by stomach histology and country of collection. NOC levels increased linearly with nitrite concentrations, but the slope of the regression line was greater for acidic GJ (pH < or = 4). These data together suggest that chemical nitrosation contributes at least as much as other nitrosation pathways to the intragastric formation of NOC. Acid-catalysed nitrosation of GJ in vitro increased the NOC concentration (range: 7-1332 mumol/l) up to several 1000-fold but this increase was not predictive of gastric cancer risk either by country or by stomach histology. After acid-catalysed nitrosation, direct genotoxicity (SOS-inducing potency) was significantly higher in GJ with original pH > 4 and highest in samples from Colombia. The results (a) provide no support that intragastric total NOC levels are elevated in subjects with precancerous stomach lesions or living in a high risk area for stomach cancer; (b) confirm that a high nitrite level and elevated pH in GJ are strongly associated, the level of nitrite being associated with precancerous stomach conditions only in Colombia; (c) reveal the presence of precursor compounds in GJ, that after nitrosation yield direct mutagens that probably contain NOC and other substances. As their concentrations were

  19. Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  20. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  1. In vitro studies of the digestion of caprine whey proteins by human gastric and duodenal juice and the effects on selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Almaas, Hilde; Holm, Halvor; Langsrud, Thor; Flengsrud, Ragnar; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2006-09-01

    The in vitro digestion of caprine whey proteins was investigated by a two-step degradation assay, using human gastric juice (HGJ) at pH 2.5 and human duodenal juice (HDJ) at pH 7.5. Different protein and peptide profiles were observed after the first (HGJ) and second (HDJ) enzymatic degradation. The minor whey proteins serum albumin, lactoferrin and Ig were rapidly degraded by HGJ, while alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were more resistant and survived both 30 and 45 min of the enzymatic treatment. Further digestion with HDJ still showed intact beta-LG, and the main part of alpha-LA also remained unchanged. The protein degradation by HGJ and HDJ was also compared with treatment by commercial enzymes, by using pepsin at pH 2.5, and a mixture of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.5. The two methods resulted in different caprine protein and peptide profiles. The digests after treatment with HGJ and HDJ were screened for antibacterial effects on some selected microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus mutans. Active growing cells of E. coli were inhibited by the digestion products from caprine whey obtained after treatment with HGJ and HDJ. Cells of B. cereus were inhibited only by whey proteins obtained after reaction with HGJ, while the products after further degradation with HDJ demonstrated no significant effect. Screenings performed on cells of Lb. rhamnosus GG and S. mutans all showed no signs of inhibition. PMID:16925863

  2. Sensory quality and compositional characteristics of blackcurrant juices produced by different processes.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Tahvonen, Risto; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2013-06-15

    Effects of enzymatic and non-enzymatic juice pressing on key orosensory and chemical quality factors of blackcurrant juices were studied in laboratory scale using berries of five different cultivars (Mortti, Mikael, Marski, Ola and Breed15). Enzymatic processing increased the juice yield by 10-22% and the content of various phenolic compounds in juice by 4-10-fold as compared to the non-enzymatic process. Higher intensity of the mouth-drying astringency of the enzyme-aided juice was the most significant orosensory difference between the processes. Juices of different blackcurrant cultivars varied in sweetness, sourness and bitterness. The most intensive sensory attributes of the juices were sourness and puckering astringency regardless of processing method. They correlated positively with each other and were contributed by acid content and pH. In enzyme-aided juices, the contents of flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acids were associated with mouth-drying astringency, and sugar/acid ratio correlated with sweetness. These correlations were less clear in non-enzyme juices possibly due to lower content of phenolic compounds and the high content of pectin. PMID:23497904

  3. Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohata, Yukiko; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Latiful Bari, Md; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0.6 log CFU/g after 2 h-incubation at 37℃ in artificial gastric juice. Prevention from initial contamination of E. coli O157 on the ingredients of Chinese cabbage products is important to reduce the risk of food poisoning because the reduction of the bacterial counts after processing and consumption are limited. PMID:27009510

  4. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen. PMID:26613762

  5. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  6. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

  7. Processing effects on the composition of sea buckthorn juice from Hippophae rhamnoides L. Cv. Indian Summer.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T; Harrison, J E; Drover, J

    2002-01-01

    Sea buckthorn juice is one product that can be derived from the sea buckthorn berry, a new alternative crop for the Canadian western provinces. Fresh pressed juice separates into three phases when allowed to stand overnight in the refrigerator: an upper cream phase, juice in the middle portion, and a sediment at the bottom. Enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial, broad spectrum carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme preparations reduced the juice viscosity, assisted juice separation, and provided an opalescent juice. Soluble solids averaged 10.2 degrees Brix, pH averaged 3.13, ascorbic acid averaged 174.2 mg/100 mL, and titratable acidity averaged 1.97% as malic acid all determined on centrifuged (10 000 rpm, 15 min) juice. Soluble sugars included glucose, fructose, and an unidentified component that was not sucrose or other common soluble monomeric or dimeric sugar. Quinic acid was quantitatively most important, while malic was next, and oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids were minor components. Washing berries by dipping reduced soluble solids (degrees Brix) in juice suggesting uptake of wash water. PMID:11754553

  8. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Kitazawa, Masato; Mochizuka, Akiyoshi; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC)/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component. PMID:22482081

  9. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

  10. Effect of pulsed electric fields treatment and mash size on extraction and composition of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Turk, Mohammad F; Baron, Alain; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (E=450 V/cm; tt=10 ms; E<3 kJ/kg) and apple mash size on juice yield, polyphenolic compounds, sugars, and malic acid. Juice yield increased significantly after PEF treatment of large mash (Y=71.4%) and remained higher than the juice yield obtained for a control small mash (45.6%). The acid sweet balance was not altered by PEF. A correlation was established between the decrease of light absorbance (control: 1.43; treated: 1.10) and the decline of native polyphenols yield due to PEF treatment (control: 9.6%; treated: 5.9% for small mash). An enhanced oxidation of phenolic compounds in cells due to electroporation of the inner cell membrane and the adsorption of the oxidized products on the mash may explain both the lower light absorbance and the lower native polyphenol concentration. PMID:20701245

  11. SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for compositional surface mapping for the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Gruen, E.; Hand, K. P.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M. R.; Lebreton, J.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2012-12-01

    We developed a dust mass spectrometer to measure the composition of ballistic dust particles populating the thin exospheres that were detected around each of the Galilean moons. Since these grains are direct samples from the moons' icy surfaces, unique composition data will be obtained that will help to define and constrain the geological activities on and below the moons' surface. The proposed instrument will make a vital contribution to ESA's planned JUICE mission and provide key answers to its main scientific questions about the surface composition, habitability, the icy crust, and exchange processes with the deeper interior of the Jovian icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The SUrface Dust Aanalyser (SUDA) is a time-of-flight, reflectron-type impact mass spectrometer, opti-mised for a high mass resolution which only weakly depends on the impact location. The small size (268×250×171 mm3), low mass (< 4 kg) and large sen-sitive area (220 cm2) makes the instrument well suited for the challenging demands of the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. A full-size prototype SUDA instrument was built in order to demonstrate its performance through calibra-tion experiments at the Heidelberg dust accelerator with a variety of cosmo-chemically relevant dust ana-logues. The effective mass resolution of m/Δm of 150-200 is achieved for mass range of interest m = 1-150.

  12. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    PubMed

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (p<0.05), indicating a higher safety of consumption of potatoes produced in Russia. When studying--the isotopic D/H composition of

  13. Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

  14. Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

  15. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  16. Comparison of stem damage and carbohydrate composition in the stem juice between sugarcane and sweet sorghum harvested before and after late fall frost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars...

  17. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  18. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  19. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  2. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  3. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  5. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  9. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27297504

  10. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Relation to Body Weight and Composition Following Gastric Restriction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Franco, Robert L; Cyrus, John C; Celi, Francesco; Evans, Ronald K

    2016-07-01

    In comparison to gastric bypass surgery, gastric restriction without malabsorption more closely simulates dietary adherence while still producing durable weight loss. The latter is achieved despite considerable reductions in resting energy expenditure (REE), and whether REE is adjusted for body weight/composition using ratio- or regression-based methods could influence understanding of how these procedures affect energy balance. This systematic review identified studies that reported REE before and after gastric restriction in order to compare changes using each method. Ratio assessments revealed increases and decreases when REE was expressed per kilogram of body weight and per kilogram of fat-free mass, respectively. In comparison, measured REE tended to be less than predicted from linear regression after surgery. Explanations for these seemingly disparate findings and future directions are discussed. PMID:27103027

  11. Formulation and optimization of gastric floating drug delivery system using Central composite design and its biopharmaceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Thing, Lim Kee; Gorajana, Adinarayana; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana-Murthy

    2015-07-01

    The present work investigates the formulation and biopharmaceutical estimation of gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) of propranolol HCl using semi-synthetic polymer carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) and a synthetic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). A central composite design was applied for optimization of polymer quantity (CMEC or PEO) and sodium bicarbonate concentration as independent variables. The dependent variables evaluated were: % of drug release at 1 hr (D1hr), % drug release at 3 hr (D3hr) and time taken for 95% of drug release (t95). Numerical optimization and graphical optimization were conducted to optimize the response variables. All observed responses of statistically optimized formulations were in high treaty with predicted values. Accelerated stability studies were conducted on the optimized formulations at 40 ± 2°C/75% ± 5% RH and confirm that formulations were stable. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vivo buoyancy characterization in human volunteers and were found buoyant in gastric fluid. Gastric residence time was enhanced in the fed but not the fasted state. The optimized formulations and marketed formulation were administered to healthy human volunteers and evaluated for pharmacokinetic parameters. Mean residence time (MRT) was prolonged and AUC levels were increased for both optimized floating tablets when compared with marketed product. High relative bioavailability obtained with optimized gastric floating tablets compared to commercial formulation, indicated the improvement of bioavailability. PMID:26142528

  12. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

  13. Enhancement of iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide by thiocyanate and accumulation of iron(II)/thiocyanate/nitric oxide complex under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2012-01-13

    Iron(III) ingested as a food component or supplement for iron deficiencies can react with salivary SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+) and can be reduced to iron(II) by ascorbic acid in the stomach. Iron(II) generated in the stomach can react with salivary nitrite and SCN(-) to produce nitric oxide (NO) and FeSCN(+), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to make clear the reactions among nitrite, SCN(-), iron ions, and ascorbic acid under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice. Iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to NO was enhanced by SCN(-) in acidic buffer solutions, and the oxidation product of iron(II) reacted with SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+). Almost all of the NO produced was autoxidized to N(2)O(3) under aerobic conditions. Iron(II)-dependent production of NO was also observed in acidified saliva. Under anaerobic conditions, NO transformed Fe(SCN)(2+) and FeSCN(+) to Fe(SCN)NO(+) in acidic buffer solutions. Fe(SCN)NO(+) was also formed under aerobic conditions when excess ascorbic acid was added to iron(II)/nitrite/SCN(-) systems in acidic buffer solutions and acidified saliva. The Fe(SCN)NO(+) formed was transformed to Fe(SCN)(2+) and iron(III) at pH 2.0 and pH 7.4, respectively, by O(2). Salivary glycoproteins could complex with iron(III) in the stomach preventing the formation of Fe(SCN)(2+). Ascorbic acid reduced iron(III) to iron(II) to react with nitrite and SCN(-) as described above. The above results suggest (i) that iron(II) can have toxic effects on the stomach through the formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species from NO when supplemented without ascorbic acid and through the formation of both reactive nitrogen oxide species and Fe(SCN)NO(+) when supplemented with ascorbic acid, and (ii) that the toxic effects of iron(III) seemed to be smaller than and similar to those of iron(II) when supplemented without and with ascorbic acid, respectively. Possible mechanisms that cause oxidative stress on the stomach

  14. Fluid intake and industrial processing in apple juice induced chronic non-specific diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Ghoos, Y F; Hartemink, R; Kneepkens, C M

    1995-01-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to contribute to the occurrence or persistence of chronic non-specific diarrhoea (CNSD). Among these are low dietary fat, high fluid consumption, and the consumption of apple juice. Prompted by the clinical impression that freshly pressed and unprocessed ('cloudy') apple juice was less likely to induce diarrhoea than normal, enzymatically processed ('clear') apple juice, both juices were compared in terms of carbohydrate malabsorption, gastric emptying, and effects on defecation patterns. Clear and cloudy apple juice differ in their fibre and non-absorbable monosaccharide and oligosaccharide contents. Ten healthy children aged 3.6 to 5.9 years ingested 10 ml/kg of clear and cloudy apple juice; in five of them it was enriched with 40 mg of [1-13C]-glycine. Clear apple juice resulted in increased (> or = 20 ppm) breath hydrogen excretion in 8/10, compared with 5/10 after cloudy apple juice; peak breath hydrogen was higher in the clear apple juice group (35 (4) and 18 (3) ppm, respectively). Gastric emptying as determined by means of labelled breath carbon dioxide (13CO2) excretion was similar with both juices. In a four week crossover clinical trial 12 children, formerly diagnosed as having CNSD, were given extra clear fluids (excluding fruit juices; > or = 50% over basal consumption), clear apple juice, or cloudy apple juice, for five day periods. Extra fluids and cloudy apple juice did not influence stool frequency and consistency compared with the basal period. In contrast, clear apple juice significantly promoted diarrhoea. It is suggested that, in addition to fructose, the increased availability of non-absorbable monosaccharides and oligosaccharides as a result of the enzymatic processing of apple pulp is an important aetiological factor in apple juice induced CNSD. PMID:7574855

  15. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro‐esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000‐fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  16. Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-02-01

    Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

  17. Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.

    PubMed

    Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria

    2011-07-01

    Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids. PMID:21834231

  18. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs. PMID:22382183

  19. Elemental composition of dog foods using nitric acid and simulated gastric digestions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David G; White, Steven D; Weir, Ron D

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen dry dog foods obtained commercially in the United States were digested using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and a simulated gastric digestion. Digests were analysed for 23 elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data, expressed as dry matter concentrations, were compared to published nitric acid digestion results. Nitric acid data obtained in the present study were not statistically different from published data, with the exception of Mo, Sn, Sb, Tl and Th. However, significant differences in individual intra-sample results were observed between published studies and the present work. Simulated gastric digestions demonstrated lower extraction efficiencies (<50% nitric acid digestions) that were statistically significant. Much lower bioavailability was observed for Al, Ba and Pb. In general, elemental concentrations were determined to be lower than the appropriate Mineral Tolerance Limit or consistent with background concentrations in foodstuffs. Evaluation against Reference Doses (RfDs) showed concentrations for many elements obtained by nitric acid digestion to be above RfD levels. However, the respective simulated gastric digestion data were below or only moderately elevated above RfDs. Only arsenic displayed median and maximum concentrations at factors of five and ten above the relevant RfD. PMID:23402861

  20. A comparison between the gastric and salivary concentration of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide in man

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R. McG.; Alexander, W. D.; Shimmins, J.; Chisholm, D.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of iodide (I−) and pertechnetate (TcO4−) and bromide (Br−) has been measured simultaneously in gastric juice and parotid saliva. The combined gastric and salivary clearance for iodide and pertechnetate is more than twice the clearance of these ions by the thyroid gland. The concentration of the ions was in the order I−>TcO4−>Br− in both gastric juice and saliva. Differences exist between the secretion of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide. Bromide, in contrast to iodide and pertechnetate, was found to be more concentrated in gastric juice than in saliva. The ratio of the iodide to pertechnetate clearance was greater in gastric juice than in saliva. PMID:5358585

  1. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  2. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-08-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals.

  3. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  4. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

  5. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice, shalgam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and anti...

  6. Altering sphingolipid composition with aging induces contractile dysfunction of gastric smooth muscle via K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Shinkyu; Kim, Ji Aee; Kim, Tae Hun; Li, Hai-Yan; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon; Oh, Seikwan; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2015-12-01

    K(Ca) 1.1 regulates smooth muscle contractility by modulating membrane potential, and age-associated changes in K(Ca) 1.1 expression may contribute to the development of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important structural components of cellular membranes whose altered composition may affect K(Ca) 1.1 expression. Thus, in this study, we examined whether altered SL composition due to aging may affect the contractility of gastric smooth muscle (GSM). We studied changes in ceramide synthases (CerS) and SL levels in the GSM of mice of varying ages and compared them with those in young CerS2-null mice. The levels of C16- and C18-ceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were increased, and levels of C22, C24:1 and C24 ceramides were decreased in the GSM of both aged wild-type and young CerS2-null mice. The altered SL composition upregulated K(Ca) 1.1 and increased K(Ca) 1.1 currents, while no change was observed in K(Ca) 1.1 channel activity. The upregulation of KC a 1.1 impaired intracellular Ca²⁺mobilization and decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain levels, causing GSM contractile dysfunction. Additionally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase Cζ , c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and nuclear factor kappa-B were found to be involved in K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that age-associated changes in SL composition or CerS2 ablation upregulate K(Ca) 1.1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase Cζ /c-Jun N-terminal kinases/nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated pathway and impair Ca²⁺ mobilization, which thereby induces the contractile dysfunction of GSM. CerS2-null mice exhibited similar effects to aged wild-type mice; therefore, CerS2-null mouse models may be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of aging-associated motility disorders. PMID:26288989

  7. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  8. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  9. Zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite as coating for solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for trace analysis of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza; Kashkoei, Parvin Khodaei; Kazemipour, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    In the present research, the ZnO-CuO nanoplate composite (ZCNC), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating, was prepared and its extraction capability for certain chlorophenols (CPs) was studied through directly sampling the typical CPs mixed standard solution of 4-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high performance liquid chromatography. ZCNC thickness was in the range of 50-65 nm. The effective variables on ZCNC-SPME extraction efficiency were extraction time, salt percentage, and desorption time. Accordingly, a multivariate strategy was applied based on an experimental design by using central composite design for optimizing the significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 6), that include repeatability and reproducibility as the target analytes, were in the range of 0.5-5 ng ml(-1) and 5.1-14 % of standard solutions at 50 ng ml(-1) concentration of CPs, respectively. The developed technique is believed to be successfully applicable to preconcentration and determination of target analytes in environmental water and tomato juice samples. Graphical Abstract Application of zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite for extraction of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples and optimizing condition by experimental design method. PMID:26995010

  10. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  11. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  12. Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Teleszko, Mirosława; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935

  13. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  14. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins. PMID:26299317

  15. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC. PMID:24569566

  16. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

  17. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied. PMID:18494487

  18. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  19. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  20. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  1. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  2. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. PMID:15182901

  3. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  4. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health. PMID:26809803

  5. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established. PMID:21892892

  6. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  7. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  8. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  9. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  10. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and....185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption..., ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill). The juice may have been concentrated and...

  11. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  12. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  13. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  14. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  15. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  16. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  17. Effect of lapachol, a naphthaquinone isolated from Tectona grandis, on experimental peptic ulcer and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Pathak, N K; Biswas, M; Pandey, V B; Sanyal, A K

    1987-02-01

    Lapachol, a naphthaquinone isolated from the roots of Tectona grandis given at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 p.o. twice daily for 3 days was found to have an anti-ulcerogenic effect on subsequently induced experimental gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats and guinea-pigs. Its action appears to be associated with an effect on the protein content of gastric juice, and it reversed aspirin-induced changes in peptic activity, protein and sialic acid. PMID:2882001

  18. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an alcohol content exceeding 24 percent by volume. Although not considered to be wine, juice or...

  19. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an alcohol content exceeding 24 percent by volume. Although not considered to be wine, juice or...

  20. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  2. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  3. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  4. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  5. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  6. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  7. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  8. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato...

  9. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  11. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  14. Identification of Gastric Cancer Biomarkers Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gokula Krishnan; Yong, Wei Peng; Yeow, Chen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Existing gastric cancer diagnosing methods were invasive, hence, a reliable non-invasive gastric cancer diagnosing method is needed. As a starting point, we used 1H NMR for identifying gastric cancer biomarkers using a panel of gastric cancer spheroids and normal gastric spheroids. We were able to identify 8 chemical shift biomarkers for gastric cancer spheroids. Our data suggests that the cancerous and non-cancerous spheroids significantly differ in the lipid composition and energy metabolism. These results encourage the translation of these biomarkers into in-vivo gastric cancer detection methodology using MRI-MS. PMID:27611679

  15. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  16. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  17. RAPID HEALING OF PEPTIC ULCERS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING FRESH CABBAGE JUICE

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Garnett

    1949-01-01

    Thirteen patients with peptic ulcer were treated with fresh cabbage juice, which, experiments have indicated, contains an antipeptic ulcer factor. This factor (vitamin U) prevents the development of histamin-induced peptic ulcers in guinea pigs. The average crater healing time for seven of these patients who had duodenal ulcer was only 10.4 days, while the average time as reported in the literature, in 62 patients treated by standard therapy, was 37 days. The average crater healing time for six patients with gastric ulcer treated with cabbage juice was only 7.3 days, compared with 42 days, as reported in the literature, for six patients treated by standard therapy. The rapid healing of peptic ulcers observed radiologically and gastroscopically in 13 patients treated with fresh cabbage juice indicates that the anti-peptic ulcer dietary factor may play an important role in the genesis of peptic ulcer in man. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:18104715

  18. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

  19. The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marszałek, Krystian; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

  20. Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program

    PubMed Central

    Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36 051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant. PMID:23629613

  1. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the β-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  2. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  3. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  4. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  5. Determination of Zinc(II) Ions Released into Artificial Digestive Juices from Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetidae), Biomass of In Vitro Cultures Using an Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Method.

    PubMed

    Kala, Katarzyna; Muszynska, Bozena; Zajac, Magdalena; Krezalek, Remigiusz; Opoka, Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is one of those microelements that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body and must be supplemented in our food at a daily dose of 15 mg. It is well known that mushrooms accumulate elements; thus, in order to determine the extent of accumulation and the level of zinc released from mushrooms, in vitro cultures of Agaricus bisporus were established. The cultures were run on a modified Oddoux medium (a control culture) as well as on the same medium with the addition of zinc hydroaspartate (100 and 200 mg/L) and zinc sulfate (87.23 and 174.47 mg/L). These compounds were chosen to help estimate which form, organic or inorganic, results in a better assimilation of zinc(II) ions by biomass. As the next step, the level of zinc(II) ions released from the lyophilized biomass of in vitro cultures to the digestive juices, under thermal conditions of the human body (37°C), was determined. For this purpose, artificial digestive juices, imitating the composition of human digestive juices, were used. For determination of zinc(II) ions in the digestive tract, an anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed. The amount of zinc released into artificial saliva over 1 minute varied from 0.15 mg/100 g d.w. in the control culture to 2.35 mg/100 g d.w. in the biomass in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. Values were higher in gastric juice and depended on incubation time (2.66 to 30.63 mg/100 g d.w.). In intestinal juice, the highest value of the released zinc grew to 24.20 mg/100 g d.w. (biomass of A. bisporus in vitro cultures in medium with the addition of 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate). Total average amount of zinc released into artificial digestive juices was the highest (56.26 mg/100 g d.w.) from A. bisporus biomass of in vitro cultures in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. PMID:27279537

  6. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  7. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  8. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  9. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  10. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  11. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element. PMID:26579582

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products

    PubMed Central

    PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ≤6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice. PMID:18290732

  14. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store varieties aren't strong ... popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a doctor says. Many people drink cranberry juice ...

  15. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either...

  16. The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–∞ and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine). PMID:20865058

  17. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice. PMID:10888515

  18. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice. PMID:25996796

  19. Quantitative study of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus by competitive PCR using synthetic DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, T; Kaneko, E; Suzuki, M; Arai, H; Futami, H

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is closely related to upper gastrointestinal diseases, and the precise evaluation of H. pylori infection is necessary for the treatment of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish a method for the quantitative detection of H. pylori. We applied a competitive PCR method using various amounts of synthetic DNA fragments containing the same primer-binding and a subset of the same template sequences as the target competing for primer binding and amplification in order to quantify H. pylori in gastric mucus. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of histological examination, the rapid urease test, bacterial culture, the [13C]urea breath test, and urea and ammonia measurements in gastric juice. As the quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus increased, the rates of positivity of histological examination, the rapid urease test, and bacterial culture increased. The quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus was also significantly correlated with the results of the [13C]urea breath test and was negatively correlated with the urea/ammonia ratio in gastric juice. The competitive PCR method provides an objective measure of the quantity of H. pylori and makes it possible to distinguish true negatives from false negatives due to incomplete PCR and true positives from false positives due to contamination. This method is very useful for the precise evaluation of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:8880492

  20. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-05-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. PMID:7541007

  1. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. Images p665-a PMID:7541007

  2. Cashew juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Moreira; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2014-09-01

    The enzyme dextransucrase in a medium containing sucrose and an acceptor as substrate synthesizes prebiotics oligosaccharides. The cashew apple juice works as a source of acceptors because it is rich in glucose and fructose (enzyme acceptors). The use of cashew apple juice becomes interesting because it aims at harnessing the peduncle of the cashew that is wasted during the nut processing, which is the product of greater economic expression. The production of dextransucrase enzyme was done by fermentative process by inoculating the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F into a culture medium containing sucrose as the only carbon source. Thus, the aim of this work was the production of prebiotic oligosaccharides by enzymatic process with addition of the dextransucrase enzyme to the clarified cashew apple juice. Dextran yield was favored by the combination of low concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars. The formation of oligosaccharides was favored by increasing the concentration of reducing sugars and by the combination of high concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars, the highest concentration of oligosaccharides obtained was 104.73 g/L and the qualitative analysis showed that at concentrations of 25 g/L and 75 g/L of sucrose and reducing sugar, respectively, it is possible to obtain oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization up to 12. The juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharide is a potential new functional beverage. PMID:25190866

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of chokeberry juice phenolics during in vitro simulated digestion in the presence of food matrix.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Samardžić, Jelena; Janković, Teodora; Šavikin, Katarina; Mojsin, Marija; Topalović, Vladanka; Stevanović, Milena

    2015-05-15

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to in vitro gastric digestion in the presence of food matrix in order to determine the changes in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Addition of food matrix immediately decreased the total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, DPPH scavenging activity as well as total reducing power by 36%, 90%, 45% and 44%, respectively. After in vitro digestion, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and reducing power are slightly elevated, but they are still lower than in initial non-digested juice. The effect of digested juice on Caco-2 cells proliferation was also studied, and the reduction of proliferative rate by approximately 25% was determined. Our results suggested that although a large proportion of chokeberry phenolics undergo transformation during digestion they are still potent as antioxidant and antiproliferative agents. PMID:25577114

  4. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  5. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  6. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics evaluation of non-thermal processing of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Almeida, Francisca D L; Cavalcante, Rosane S; de Brito, Edy S; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus M; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma and ozone treatments on the key compounds (sugars, amino acids and short chain organic acids) in orange juice by NMR and chemometric analysis. The juice was directly and indirectly exposed to atmospheric cold plasma field at 70kV for different treatment time (15, 30, 45 and 60sec). For ozone processing different loads were evaluated. The Principal Component Analysis shown that the groups of compounds are affected differently depending on the processing. The ozone was the processing that more affected the aromatic compounds and atmospheric cold plasma processing affected more the aliphatic compounds. However, these variations did not result in significant changes in orange juice composition as a whole. Thus, NMR data and chemometrics were suitable to follow quality changes in orange juice processing by atmospheric cold plasma and ozone. PMID:26988481

  7. An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

    2012-09-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the mission science goals do not include any astronomical observations, we find by modeling the Interstellar Dust (ISD) trajectories that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in-situ observations of Interstellar Dust, due to highly increased flux levels at that time at the orbit of Jupiter. If JUICE would carry a dust detector, this could lead to exclusive highresolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

  8. An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Postberg, F.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

    2012-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the current mission science goals do not include any astrophysical observations, we find that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in situ measurements of Interstellar Dust (ISD), due to highly increased flux levels at that time. In case that JUICE carries a dust detector, this could lead to in situ high-resolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

  9. Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.

    PubMed

    Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2015-04-22

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for β-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than β-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  12. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  15. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  16. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  17. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

  18. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

    1995-01-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

  19. Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

  20. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  2. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  3. Update on gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence. PMID:24891929

  4. Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; de Lima Filho, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140 rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

  5. Drug interactions with grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ameer, B; Weintraub, R A

    1997-08-01

    Some drugs demonstrate a significantly greater (up to 3-fold) mean oral bioavailability on coadministration with grapefruit juice. With some calcium antagonists, the benzodiazepines midazolam and triazolam and the antihistamine terfenadine, changes in bioavailability are accompanied by altered drug action. Study design factors possibly contribute to the magnitude of changes in drug bioavailability; they include the source of the citrus, its intake schedule, drug formulations and individual metabolising capacity. The components of citrus juice that are responsible for clinical drug interactions have yet to be fully determined. Based on the flavonoid naringin's unique distribution in the plant kingdom, abundance in grapefruit and ability to inhibit metabolic enzymes, naringin is likely to be one of the grapefruit components influencing drug metabolism. Other components present in citrus fruit, such as furanocoumarins, may be more potent inhibitors than flavonoids and are under investigation. Conclusions drawn from clinical drug interaction studies should be considered specific to the citrus fruit products evaluated because of the variation in their natural product content. The predominant mechanism for enhanced bioavailability is presumably the inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism in the small intestine. The consistent findings across studies of diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrates support the mechanistic hypothesis that 1 or more grapefruit juice components inhibit CYP3A enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The evaluation of the need to avoid the concomitant intake of grapefruit products with drugs is best done on an individual drug basis rather than collectively by drug class. Based on the narrow therapeutic range of cyclosporin and research experience in organ transplant recipients, its interaction with grapefruit juice is likely to be clinically significant. PMID:9260034

  6. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P < 0.01 =, and reached the lowest point, 0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ± 2.58mmol/L and 2.23mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION:Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  7. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    PubMed

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. PMID:24287419

  8. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  9. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  10. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  11. Long noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: functions and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajun; Sun, Jingxu; Wang, Jun; Song, Yongxi; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jinxin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, genome-wide studies have revealed that only a small fraction of the human genome encodes proteins; long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) account for 98% of the total genome. These RNA molecules, which are >200 nt in length, play important roles in diverse biological processes, including the immune response, stem cell pluripotency, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying lncRNA function are only partially understood. Recent studies showed that many lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, gastric juice, plasma, and cells, and these alterations are linked to the occurrence, progression, and outcome of GC. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biological functions and clinical aspects of lncRNAs in GC. PMID:26929639

  12. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  13. Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 μg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-∞ of midazolam by ∼30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1′-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-∞ ratio by ∼40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  14. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  15. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be

  16. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  17. Importance of luminal and mucosal zinc in the mechanism of experimental gastric ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Opoka, W; Adamek, D; Plonka, M; Reczynski, W; Bas, B; Drozdowicz, D; Jagielski, P; Sliwowski, Z; Adamski, P; Brzozowski, T

    2010-10-01

    Zinc has been reported to exert a gastroprotective action against various experimental gastric lesions suggesting that this trace element is involved in the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Compounds containing zinc, such as polaprezinc, were developed in Japan and used as an antiulcer drugs in the treatment of human peptic ulcer disease. However, the precise mechanism of Zn(2+) containing compounds and their effects on mucosal integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing remain unclear. We have determined the efficacy of zinc hydroaspartate, a compound containing Zn(2+), in the mechanism of gastric secretion and ulcer healing in rats with chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid (initial ulcer area = 28 mm(2)). Rats with gastric ulcers were randomized into two groups: A) with gastric fistulas (GF) and B) without gastric fistulas and received a daily treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (32-130 mg/kg-d i.g.) for 3, 7 and 14 days. At the termination of each treatment, the area of gastric ulcers were examined by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and H(2)-gas clearance methods. The venous blood was withdrawn for a measurement of plasma gastrin levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The concentration of Zn(2+) in the gastric juice and mucosa at the ulcer margin were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) methods and the gastric biopsy samples were taken for histopathological assessment of the quality of ulcer healing. The ulcers healed gradually, with the ulcer area in the vehicle control rats being diminished by 15%, 48% and 78% upon ulcer induction at 3, 7 and 14 days, respectively. Zinc hydroaspartate dose-dependently inhibited the area of gastric ulcer, the dose reducing this area by 50% (ID(50)) being about 60 mg/kg-d. The mucosal concentration of Zn(2+) significantly was unchanged from the baseline immediately after ulcer

  18. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  19. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., may be seasoned with salt, and may be acidified with any safe and suitable organic acid. The juice may... which such tomato juice fails to meet, as follows: (i) “Poor color”. (ii)(a) “Excessive pieces of...

  20. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized... label may bear the alternative statement, “Below Standard in Quality ___”, the blank to be filled in.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  1. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  2. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  3. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  4. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  5. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  6. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  7. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  8. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining... grapefruit juice (grapefruit juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert...

  9. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  10. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  11. Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIAO-GANG; XIE, CHUAN; CHEN, JIANG; XIE, YONG; ZHANG, KUN-HE; LU, NONG-HUA

    2015-01-01

    A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in

  12. Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Gang; Xie, Chuan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Zhang, Kun-He; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in

  13. The release of histamine during gastric acid secretion in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    el Munshid, H. A.; Lake, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Conscious gastric-cannulated rats were given [3H]histidine and aminoguanidine by dosage procedures intended to build up fast-turnover and slow-turnover pools of tissue [3H]histamine. Acid secretion was stimulated by I.V. infusion of pentagastrin, and the [3H]histamine content of gastric juice and excretion in urine were determined at 30 min intervals. 2. The amount of [3H]histamine in gastric juice derived from either a slow-turnover or fast-turnover pool was very low in unstimulated animals, and was not altered during pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. 3. From a slow-turnover pool pentagastrin caused increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. This was abolished by gastrectomy, so that the [3H]histamine liberated by pentagastrin from this pool appears to have been derived from the stomach. Evidence was not found for the existence of a slow-turnover histamine pool in the glandular mucosa of the stomach, and the source within the stomach of this pentagastrin-liberated histamine is thus uncertain. 4. From a fast-turnover pool pentagastrin did not cause an increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. The amount of [3H]histamine excreted by gastrectomized rats was not different from that produced by gastric-cannulated animals. This suggests that a high proportion of urinary histamine derived from a fast-turnover pool was non-gastric in origin. 5. Differences in the time scale of [3H]histamine release and acid secretion were not found. In some experiments the urinary output of [3H]histamine was prolonged beyond the end of pentagastrin administration and gastric acid secretion. However, the overall data do not suggest that urinary histamine output and gastric acid secretion take different time courses. PMID:4141368

  14. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice).

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Abellán, Ángel; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-04-20

    In this study we analyzed whether our aronia-citrus juice (ACJ, the composition is based on a mixture of 95% citrus juice with 5% of Aronia melanocarpa juice), rich in polyphenols, and physical exercise had an effect on seven catabolites of DNA identified in plasma and on a urine isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α). Sixteen elite triathletes on a controlled diet for triathlon training (45 days) were used in this clinical trial. Our results show a decrease in the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration due to chronic physical exercise. The ACJ intake and physical exercise maintained the guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plasmatic concentrations and decreased the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanine as well as urinary values of 8-iso-PGF2α. Finally, we observed a significant increase in the 8-nitroguanosine levels in triathletes after ACJ intake, compared to the placebo stage. It is concluded that the combination of the intake of ACJ, rich in polyphenolic compounds, with adequate training was able to influence the plasmatic and urinary values of oxidative stress biomarkers. This suggests a positive effect on the oxidative damage and potential associations with DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27050256

  15. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  19. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  1. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  6. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  7. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  8. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  12. Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

  13. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

  14. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  15. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  16. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  17. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  18. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  19. Occupation and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

    2003-05-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  20. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ... panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity . 2009;17:842-62. PMID: 19396063 www.ncbi. ...

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  2. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  4. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  5. Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA. PMID:23970937

  6. Modelling of NIM/PEP/JUICE measurements of Callisto's ice-sputtered exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Galli, A.; Mousis, O.; Barabash, S.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission[1], which is currently in implementation by the European Space Agency (ESA), is intended for the detailed investigation of the giant gaseous planet Ju- piter and its three largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. The Particle Environment Package (PEP), part of JUICE's science payload, contains 6 sensors for comprehensive in situ measurements of electrons, ions and neutrals found in the Galilean moons' vicinity [2]. One of the suite's sensors, the Neutral and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM), will measure the neutral and ion composition of the exospheres of the three satellites during flybys and in orbit.

  7. Structure and preventive effects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer of an expolysaccharide from Lachnum sp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ru-Yue; Ye, Zi-Yang; Ye, Hui-Ran; Ye, Ming

    2016-05-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide of Lachnum sp. (LEP) was purified by DEAE-cellulose 52 column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 3.22×10(4)Da. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, periodate oxidation-smith degradation, infrared spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a (1→3)-,(1→6)-β-D-Glcp, whose branch chain was consist of two d-glucopyranosyl residues linked by β-1,3-glycosidic linkage, which was linked at C6 of the backbone chain by β-1,6-glycosidic linkage. To study the protective effects of LEP-2a on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice, LEP-2a (100, 200 and 400mg/kg/d) was given to mice by gavage for 2 weeks. Results showed that LEP-2a significantly decreased the ulcer bleeding areas, pepsin activity, gastric juice volume, gastric juice total acidity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum. Meanwhile, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly. The above findings suggested that LEP-2a had a significant preventive effect against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. PMID:26774377

  8. Effective gastric acid suppression after oral administration of enteric-coated omeprazole granules.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M A; Pursnani, K G; Katzka, D A; Gideon, R M; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    1997-04-01

    Omeprazole is inactivated by exposure to gastric acid and is formulated as a gelatin capsule containing enteric-coated granules that release the drug in alkaline medium. In clinical situations where patients are unable to take the capsule orally, the optimum means of administration is uncertain. Eleven normal volunteers were given omeprazole 20 mg every day for one week before breakfast in random order as either a 20-mg capsule with water or free enteric-coated granules with either 8 oz of orange juice, 8 oz of water with 2 Alka-Seltzer antacid tablets (aspirin free), or 1 teaspoon of apple sauce. On day 7 of each regimen, an 8-hr intragastric pH study was performed following omeprazole 20 mg and standard breakfast. The median percentage of time of gastric acid pH > 4 after an omeprazole capsule was 68.5 (25-100); after granules with orange juice 59 (43-100); after granules in Alka-Seltzer solution 63 (31-100), and after granules in apple sauce 65 (30-99), with no significant differences (ANOVA). The time for the gastric pH to reach <4' after having been above was also similar for all four regimens (ANOVA). Omeprazole granules administered orally in a variety of ways achieve gastric acid suppression as effectively as the intact capsule. PMID:9125637

  9. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  10. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. PMID:26562229

  11. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05) smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  12. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit

    PubMed Central

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

  13. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

  14. [Stability and antioxidant activity of black currant and black aronia berry juices].

    PubMed

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Briedis, Vitalis

    2003-01-01

    The berries of black currant and black aronia are rich in polyphenolic compounds and especially in anthocyanins, demonstrating antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of thermal technological processes on the quantity of polyphenols and anthocyanins in berry juice concentrates, and on the antioxidant activity. After 8 hour storage of black currant and black aronia berry juice concentrates at 60 degrees C, the amount of polyphenols decreased by 46% and 22%, anthocyanins 31% and 35%, respectively. Antioxidant activity decreased by 26% and 56%, respectively. The results demonstrated insufficient stability of juice concentrates, and impropriety of application of long lasting drying processes in manufacturing of black currant and black aronia berry dry products. Fast and efficient drying methods for liquid products should be applied to preserve qualitative and quantitative composition and their antioxidant activity. PMID:14617862

  15. Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mata, A; Ferreira, J P; Semedo, C; Serra, T; Duarte, C M M; Bronze, M R

    2016-11-01

    Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. PMID:27211682

  16. Stability of anthocyanins from commercial black currant juice under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2008-08-01

    Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin) was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (-1.83%) in commercial black currant juice. PMID:18816259

  17. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  18. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  19. Antioxidant activity evaluation and HPLC-photodiode array/MS polyphenols analysis of pomegranate juice from selected italian cultivars: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Chiara; Belluomo, Maria Giovanna; Cirilli, Marco; Cristofori, Valerio; Zecchini, Maurizio; Cacciola, Francesco; Russo, Marina; Muleo, Rosario; Dugo, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Chemical composition of pomegranate juice can vary due to cultivar, area of cultivation, ripening, climate, and other variables. This study investigates the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of juices obtained from six old Italian pomegranate cultivars. Fruit accessions physicochemical characteristics were determined. Total polyphenols content (TPC), anthocyanin content (TAC) and proanthocyanidin content (TPAC) were measured in the juice samples. Phenolic bioactive molecules were analyzed by HPLC-photodiode array (PDA)/ESI-MS in all the pomegranate juices. In total, seven nonanthocyanidinic and six anthocyanidinic compounds were identified. The six anthocyanins were found in all juices although at different amounts. These results were correlated with antioxidant activity measured by three different chemical assays: 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) scavenging activity assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Pomegranate juices obtained by six different varieties show variable polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity methods used have shown variable sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that different methods for the assessment of antioxidant capacity of food compounds are indeed necessary, due to complexity of sample composition and assay chemical mechanism and sensitivity. Juices from Italian pomegranate show good levels of polyphenols content and antioxidant activity making them potential candidates for employment in the food industry. PMID:26814700

  20. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  1. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  2. Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely "FVBH" for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

  3. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

  4. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

  5. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  6. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    PubMed

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication. PMID:12611197

  7. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO. PMID:26818981

  9. Formation of N-nitrosamine and N-nitrosamino acids from food products and nitrite under simulated gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Groenen, P J; de Cock-Bethbeder, M W; Bouwman, J; Dhont, J H

    1980-01-01

    Average-sized portions of a variety of food products were reacted with nitrite under realistically simulated gastric conditions. The aqueous incubation medium contained sodium nitrite (10 mg/l) and potassium thiocyanate to mimic the incoming flux of saliva, as well as pepsin, sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid, reflecting the composition of gastric juice. After incubation for 2 hr at 37 degrees C, volatile N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamino acids were determined in the reaction mixtures. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was present in the incubation mixtures of smoked mackerel (8.5 micrograms per portion), canned herring (0.66 micrograms per portion) and beer (0.70 micrograms per 'portion'). Smaller amounts per portion, sometimes of other nitrosamines as well, were observed with canned salmon and anchovy, mustard, yoghurt and coffee brew. Negative results were obtained for canned tuna, soya sauce, ketchup, white bread, 'nasi goreng', tea brew and cocoa milk. Nitrosamino acids were detected in the reaction mixtures of smoked mackerel (58 micrograms per portion), soya sauce (24 micrograms per portion) and canned salmon (6.9 micrograms per portion) and in smaller amounts in those of canned herring, anchovy and cocoa milk. In order to reduce the number of analyses to be performed, most products have been studied only after incubation, so that the nitrosamines and nitrosamino acids found may already have been present -- wholly or partly -- in the original products, before incubation. Such is the case for part of the NDMA in the reaction mixture of smoked mackerel and for all the NDMA in beer. The toxicological implications of these findings remain to be established. PMID:7228254

  10. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA

  11. GASTRIC MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC RAPID GASTRIC EMPTYING

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S.; Fidler, Jeff; Edwards, Phillip; Grimm, Roger C.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms of “idiopathic” rapid gastric emptying, which is associated with functional dyspepsia and functional diarrhea, are not understood. Our hypotheses were that increased gastric motility and reduced postprandial gastric accommodation contribute to rapid gastric emptying. Methods Fasting and postprandial (300kCal nutrient meal) gastric volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 20 healthy people and 17 with functional dyspepsia; 7 had normal and 10 had rapid gastric emptying. In 17 healthy people and patients, contractility was analyzed by spectral analysis of a time-series of gastric cross-sectional areas. Logistic regression models analyzed whether contractile parameters, fasting volume, and postprandial volume change could discriminate between health and patients with normal or rapid gastric emptying. Results While upper gastrointestinal symptoms were comparable, patients with rapid emptying had a higher (p = 0.002) body mass index (BMI) than normal gastric emptying. MRI visualized propagating contractions at ~ 3 cpm in healthy people and patients. Compared to controls (0.16 ± 0.02, Mean ± SEM), the amplitude of gastric contractions in the entire stomach was higher (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.0) in patients with rapid (0.24 ± 0.03) but not normal gastric emptying (0.10 ± 0.03). Similar differences were observed in the distal stomach. However, the propagation velocity, fasting gastric volume, and the postprandial volume change were not significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusions MRI provides a noninvasive and refined assessment of gastric volumes and contractility in humans. Increased gastric contractility may contribute to rapid gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia. PMID:21470342

  12. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  13. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  14. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Cha, In-June; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-04-01

    There have been very limited reports on the effects of commercial fruit juices on human CYP3A activity. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of readily available commercial fruit juices on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity, a marker of CYP3A, were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes. The fruit juices investigated were black raspberry, black mulberry, plum, and wild grape. White grapefruit, pomegranate, and orange juice were used as positive and negative controls. The black mulberry juice showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A except for grapefruit juice. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture. The inhibitory potential of human CYP3A was in the order: grapefruit > black mulberry > wild grape > pomegranate > black raspberry. The IC(50) values of all fruit juices tested were reduced after preincubation with microsomes in the presence of the NADPH-generating system, suggesting that a mechanism-based inhibitory component was present in these fruit juices, as in the case of grapefruit. The results suggest that, like grapefruit juice, commercial fruit juices also have the potential to inhibit CYP3A-catalzyed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. Therefore, in vivo studies investigating the interactions between fruit juices such as black mulberry and wild grape and CYP3A substrates are necessary to determine whether inhibition of CYP3A activity by fruit juices is clinically relevant. PMID:16415112

  15. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  16. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity. PMID:26091353

  17. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromskiĭ, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  18. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing. PMID:26540032

  19. 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily: CDC These beverages linked to greater risk ... drink at least one sugar-laden soda or juice every day, federal health officials report. Sugary drinks ...

  20. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  1. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  2. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  3. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  4. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  5. Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157954.html Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar Study was conducted in Britain, ... fruit drinks and juices give kids a full day's worth of sugar in a single serving, a ...

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in orange juice containing antimicrobial agents by pulsed electric field.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ziwei; Mittal, Gauri S; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2002-07-01

    Combinations of different hurdles, including moderately high temperatures (<60 degrees C), antimicrobial compounds, and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, to reduce Salmonella in pasteurized and freshly squeezed orange juices (with and without pulp) were explored. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium were found to decrease with an increase in pulse number and treatment temperature. At a field strength of 90 kV/cm, a pulse number of 20, and a temperature of 45 degrees C, PEF treatment did not have a notable effect on cell viability or injury. At and above 46 degrees C, however, cell death and injury were greatly increased. Salmonella numbers were reduced by 5.9 log cycles in freshly squeezed orange juice (without pulp) treated at 90 kV/cm, 50 pulses, and 55 degrees C. When PEF treatment was carried out in the presence of nisin (100 U/ml of orange juice), lysozyme (2,400 U/ml), or a mixture of nisin (27.5 U/ml) and lysozyme (690 U/ml), cell viability loss was increased by an additional 0.04 to 2.75 log cycles. The combination of nisin and lysozyme had a more pronounced bactericidal effect than did either nisin or lysozyme alone. An additional Salmonella count reduction of at least 1.37 log cycles was achieved when the two antimicrobial agents were used in combination. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in cell death was attained by lowering the pH value; only cell injury increased. Inactivation by PEF was significantly more extensive (P < 0.05) in pasteurized orange juice than in freshly squeezed orange juice under the same treatment conditions. This increase might be due to the effect of the chemical composition of the juices. PMID:12117238

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  8. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  9. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  12. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  13. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations. PMID:10716568

  14. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  15. Protective effect of palm vitamin E and α-tocopherol against gastric lesions induced by water immersion restraint stress in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Yusof, Kamisah; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd; Fahami, Nur Azlina Mohd

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress can lead to various changes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of palm vitamin E (PVE) and α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementations on the gastric parameters important in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity in rats exposed to water immersion restraint stress (WRS). These parameters include gastric acidity, plasma gastrin level, gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three equal groups: a control group, which received a normal rat diet (RC), and two treatment groups, receiving oral supplementation of either PVE or α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Each group was further divided into two groups: the nonstress and stress groups. The stress groups were subjected to 3.5 h of WRS once at the end of the treatment period. Blood samples were then taken to measure the gastrin level, after which the rats were killed. Gastric juice was collected for measurement of gastric acidity and gastric tissue was taken for measurement of gastric mucosal lesions and PGE2. Results: Exposure to stress resulted in the production of gastric lesions. PVE and α-TF lowered the lesion indices as compared to the stress control group. Stress reduced gastric acidity but pretreatment with PVE and α-TF prevented this reduction. The gastrin levels in the stress group were lower as compared to that in the nonstress control. However, following treatment with PVE and α-TF, gastrin levels increased and approached the normal level. There was also a significant reduction in the gastric PGE2 content with stress exposure, but this reduction was blocked with treatment with both PVE and α-TF. Conclusion: In conclusion, WRS leads to a reduction in the gastric acidity, gastrin level, and gastric PGE2 level and there is increased formation of gastric lesions. Supplementation with either PVE or α-TF reduces the formation of gastric

  16. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles. PMID:26988479

  17. Muscarinic blockade inhibits gastric emptying of mixed-nutrient meal: effects of weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Alavi, A; Chen, J; Pourdehnad, M; Townsend, R R

    1999-03-01

    We compared the vagal contribution to gastric emptying in lean and obese subjects by monitoring gastric emptying of a meal during muscarinic blockade. Lean (n = 6) and obese subjects (n = 6) underwent two treatments: 1) saline infusion and 2) atropine infusion [0.4 mg/m2 bolus, 0.4 mg. (m2)-1. h-1] for 2 h, initiated 30 min before ingestion of a 600-kcal breakfast (64% carbohydrate, 23% fat, 13% protein) composed of orange juice (labeled with Indium-111), egg sandwich (labeled with Technetium-99m), cereal, milk, and banana. Anterior and posterior images were taken every 90 s for 90 min using a dual-headed camera. Atropine significantly delayed emptying of both solid (P < 0.007) and liquid (P < 0.002). Obese subjects exhibited a greater delay in liquid emptying during muscarinic blockade compared with lean subjects (P < 0.02). Female subjects exhibited a slower rate of gastric emptying and were less sensitive to atropine. These data suggest that obese subjects exhibit altered gastric cholinergic activity compared with lean subjects and that gender differences in gastric emptying rate may be due to differences in autonomic tone. PMID:10070130

  18. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

  19. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  20. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  1. Gastric Aspiration Models

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Bruce A.; Alluri, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The procedures described below are for producing gastric aspiration pneumonitis in mice with alterations for rats and rabbits described parenthetically. We use 4 different injury vehicles delivered intratracheally to investigate the inflammatory responses to gastric aspiration: Normal saline (NS) as the injury vehicle controlNS + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid)NS + gastric particles, pH ≈ 5.3 (part.)NS + gastric particles + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid + part.) The volume, pH, and gastric particle concentration all affect the resulting lung injury. In mice, we generally use an injury volume of 3.6 ml/kg (rat: 1.2 ml/kg, rabbit: 2.4 ml/kg), an injury pH (for the acid-containing vehicles) of 1.25, and a gastric particulate concentration (in the particulate-containing vehicles) of 10 mg/ml (rat: 40 mg/ml). In our hands this results in a maximal, non-lethal lung injury with ≤ 10% mortality for the most injurious vehicle (i.e., acid + part.) The maximum tolerable particulate concentration needs to be determined empirically for any new strains to be used, especially in genetically-altered mice, because an altered inflammatory response may have detrimental affects on mortality. We have extensive experience utilizing these procedures in the outbred strain, CD-1, as well as many genetically-altered inbred stains on the C57BL/6 background. Choice of strain should be carefully considered, especially in terms of strain-specific immune bias, to assure proper data interpretation. The size of the mouse should be ≥ 20 g at the time of injury. Smaller mice can be attempted, if necessary, but the surgical manipulation becomes increasingly more difficult and the surgery survival rate decreases substantially. There are no size or strain constraints for rat and rabbit models, but we generally use Long-Evans rats at 250–300 g and New Zealand White rats at ≈ 2 kg at the time of initial injury.

  2. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance. PMID:25892778

  3. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  4. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Archana, B S; Singh, Asha; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 experiments at centre point. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression technique and the quadratic equations (R(2), 98.14-99.89 %) were found to fit well in describing the effect of variables on responses studied. An optimum condition for the coconut water beverage was obtained at 13.5°Brix blended with 2 % lemon juice. The mature coconut water beverage blended with lemon juice showed a shelf-life of 6 months in packed conditions at low (5 °C), ambient (25 ± 2 °C) and high (37 °C) temperatures on the basis of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. PMID:26396331

  5. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. PMID:12913860

  6. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. PMID:26896712

  7. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  8. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  9. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  10. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  11. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  12. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  13. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  14. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  15. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  16. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  17. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  18. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., seeds, and other coarse or hard substances, but contains finely divided insoluble solids from the...

  19. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Huang, decreasing the effectiveness of the drug. Fexofenadine (brand name Allegra) is available in both prescription and non-prescription forms to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. Fexofenadine may also be less effective if taken with orange or apple juice, so the drug label states “do not ...

  20. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  1. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (2) Labeling. (i) The name of the food is: (a) “Tomato juice” if it is prepared from... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. Detection of cancer cells and tumor markers in gastric lavage of patients with gastric cancer: Do these findings have a clinicopathological significance and oncological implication?

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Giarnieri, Enrico; Montagnini, Monica; D'Urso, Rosaria; Proietti, Antonella; Mesiti, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Mercantini, Paolo; Cavallini, Marco; Balducci, Genoveffa

    2016-09-01

    Although decreasing in the incidence over the last years, currently gastric adenocarcinoma represents the second cause of cancer related-death worldwide. Further knowledge and novel therapies are desperately needed in order to make the prognosis of these patients more acceptable. Infact, even though in recent years numerous staging parameters have been largely studied and unanimously recognized for their clinical and prognostic value, today too many shadows still exist around the capacity to predict exactly the natural history or post-treatment behavior of this cancer even among patients of the same stage. This study has identified the presence of isolated cancer cells as well as tumor markers (CEA, Ca 19.9, Ca 72.4 and Ca 50) from the gastric lavage of patients affected by gastric adenocarcinoma. Such findings led to the hypothesis that endoluminal exfoliation of neoplastic cells and the release of their products (tumor markers) into the gastric juice might be an expression of neoplastic behavior as well as aggressive malignancy. Should this hypothesis become a reality, some important progress could be made in the knowledge, staging, prediction as well as management and follow-up of this inauspicious type of cancer. PMID:27515187

  3. Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

  4. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach syndrome. In addition, gastric polyps occur in Lynch syndrome and in a few rare conditions that are not primarily gastrointestinal. While some of these syndromes are clearly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, others are not. Interestingly, even in disorders with a well-established risk of gastric cancer, the neoplastic potential and the precursor status of these gastric polyps are not always clear. Although rare, recognition of syndromic gastric polyps is important for individual patient management. These conditions also serve as important models to study gastric homeostasis and gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26721304

  5. Levan-Producing Leuconostoc citreum Strain BD1707 and Its Growth in Tomato Juice Supplemented with Sucrose.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Xu, Xiaofen; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    A levan-producing strain, BD1707, was isolated from Tibetan kefir and identified as Leuconostoc citreum. The effects of carbon sources on the growth of L. citreum BD1707 and levan production in tomato juice were measured. The changes in pH, viable cell count, sugar content, and levan yield in the cultured tomato juice supplemented with 15% (wt/vol) sucrose were also assayed. L. citreum BD1707 could synthesize more than 28 g/liter of levan in the tomato juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 30°C for 96 h. Based on the monosaccharide composition, molecular mass distribution, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the levan synthesized by L. citreum BD1707 was composed of a linear backbone consisting of consecutive β-(2→6) linked d-fructofuranosyl units, with an estimated average molecular mass of 4.3 × 10(6) Da. PMID:26682858

  6. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  7. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  8. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  9. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  10. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  11. Variations of Weight Loss Following Gastric Bypass and Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Livingston, Edward H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Provost, David A.; Rush, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and describe the weight loss outcomes from gastric bypass and gastric band so as to define the variation of excess weight loss (EWL) among individual patients, the time to onset of effect, and the durability of weight loss in severely obese adults. Summary Background Data Gastric bypass and gastric band are the most common operations for obesity performed in the United States, but few reports have compared these 2 procedures. Methods Patients (N = 1733, aged 18–65 years) met National Institutes of Health criteria for obesity surgery and underwent either gastric bypass or gastric band between March 1997 and November 2006. The selection of bypass versus band was based on patient/surgeon discussion. The evaluable sample consisted of 1518 patients. The percentage of EWL was assessed over 2 years. Successful weight loss was defined a priori as ≥40% EWL in each of four 6-month postoperative measurement periods. The analyses included a mixed model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with repeated measures. Odds ratios and descriptive analyses were also provided. Results Gastric bypass was associated with less individual variation in weight loss than gastric band. Both procedures were associated with a significant EWL benefit (Treatment Group effect P < 0.0001), but they differed in terms of time to effect (Treatment Group × Period interaction effect P < 0.0001). The mean EWL for gastric bypass was greater at each measurement period (6, 12, 18, 24 months) compared with gastric band (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, at each of the postoperative measurement periods within each treatment group (bypass and band), the mean EWL was greater for those who had preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≤50 kg/m2 than for those who had preoperative BMI >50 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Gastric bypass was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of at least a 40% EWL in each of the 6-month postoperative measurement periods (GEE, P < 0.0001). The odds ratio

  12. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    1-hour intervals, the mass of the magnesium wire was determined on an analytical balance. A digital multimeter was used to measure the voltage every hour and the current every other hour. The pH of the juice, initially 3.85 at 20 °C, was 3.93 at the end of the experiment, as measured with a portable pH meter. This is a typical result. A comparison system (called "no clock" in Table 1) was set up merely by putting a 0.3317-g strip of magnesium in 400 mL of orange juice. With this system we can exemplify a "corrosion process" where the anode and the cathode are in the same place. There is consumption of magnesium and evolution of molecular hydrogen but no useful current can be obtained. The mass of this magnesium strip was measured at 1-hour intervals. Faraday's constant, which relates coulombs to moles of electrons, can be used to calculate the approximate current available to the clock in this system. The current will not be constant because the H+ concentration (related to pH) is changing and also because the surface area and composition of the magnesium electrode change with time. The change is not necessarily regular, because although the surface is being oxidized, it is not smooth. The actual available surface area will therefore be considerably greater than the geometric surface. The mass of magnesium oxidized in the clock reaction over the 4-hour period is approximately equal to the change in grams of magnesium while running the clock minus the mass of magnesium oxidized in orange juice without the clock. Using the data from Table 1, grams Mg oxidized to run clock = approx. (0.3317 - 0.3089) - (0.3317 - 0.3136) = 0.0047 g Mg The average current can then be calculated via Faraday's constant: This is a rather simplistic way to get the current, but it shows well the use of Faraday's constant. The Value of Computer Interfacing - Exploring the Physics of Current/Voltage Measurements A more instructive measure of voltage vs. time, which opens up the activity to

  13. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  14. Focus on ulcerative colitis: stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Turkovic, B; Rokotov, D S; Brcic, L; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Drmic, D; Ilic, S; Kolenc, D; Stambolija, V; Zoricic, Z; Vrcic, H; Sebecic, B

    2012-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419) may be the new drug stable in human gastric juice, effective both in the upper and lower GI tract, and free of side effects. BPC 157, in addition to an antiulcer effect efficient in therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (PL 14736) so far only tested in clinical phase II, has a very safe profile, and exhibited a particular wound healing effect. It also has shown to interact with the NO-system, providing endothelium protection and angiogenic effect, even in severely impaired conditions (i.e., it stimulated expression of early growth response 1 gene responsible for cytokine and growth factor generation and early extracellular matrix (collagen) formation (but also its repressor nerve growth factor 1-A binding protein-2)), important to counteract severe complications of advanced and poorly controlled IBD. Hopefully, the lessons from animal studies, particularly advanced intestinal anastomosis healing, reversed short bowel syndrome and fistula healing indicate BPC 157's high significance in further IBD therapy. Also, this supportive evidence (i.e., no toxic effect, limit test negative, LD1 not achieved, no side effect in trials) may counteract the problems commonly exercised in the use of peptidergic agents, particularly those used on a long-term basis. PMID:22300085

  15. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  16. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  17. Mutagenicity of white grape juice in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Patrineli, A; Clifford, M N; Walker, R; Ioannides, C

    1996-06-01

    The mutagenicity of commercially available white grape juice was evaluated in the Ames mutagenicity test. Grape juice elicited a positive mutagenic, response in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA104 and a weaker response in strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA1530. The mutagenic response was evident in the absence of an activation system and inclusion of such a system did not influence mutagenicity. The grape juice-mediated mutagenic response was not due to histidine residues in the juice or likely treatment with sulfite. Moreover, freshly prepared grape juice displayed a similar mutagenic response. Three different brands of commercially available white grape juice were investigated in the Ames test; they all provoked a clear positive mutagenic response, but the degree of mutagenicity differed and could not be attributed to differences in the content of solids. It is concluded that grapes contain direct-acting genotoxic component(s). PMID:8690316

  18. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  19. Apocynin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by attenuating the upregulation of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2015-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting many people all over the world. Absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Apocynin (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard. Interestingly, apocynin pre-treatment provided 93.5% gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulceration. Biochemically, gastric mucin content was significantly increased with apocynin pre-treatment. This finding was further supported by alcian blue staining of stomach sections obtained from the different treated groups. Also, gastric juice volume and acidity were significantly reduced. Apocynin significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by replenishing reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels as well as reducing elevated malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissues. Besides, ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased by apocynin pre-treatment via reducing elevated levels of pro-inflammatory markers; interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, caspase-3 tissue level was significantly reduced in apocynin pre-treated group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) and NOX-4 up-regulation was shown to be partially involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and was significantly reversed by apocynin pre-treatment. Gastroprotective properties of apocynin were confirmed by histopathological examination. It is worth mentioning that apocynin was superior in all aspects except gastric mucin content parameter where it was significantly increased by 13.5 folds in the omeprazole pre-treated group. This study was the first to show that apocynin is a promising gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, partially via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects as well as down-regulating NOX-1 and NOX-4

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  1. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae in orange juice concentrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, F A; Hazen, T C; López-Torres, A J; Rechani, P

    1985-01-01

    Fecal coliform-positive, capsule-forming Klebsiella pneumoniae cells were observed in high densities (10(4) to 10(8) CFU/100 ml) in two commercial batches of frozen orange juice concentrate at a cannery in Puerto Rico. Contamination of both lots was gross and included off colors and odors. Isolates of K. pneumoniae from these concentrates revealed growth at 4, 25, and 34 degrees C with generation times from 0.39 to 1.84 h. PMID:3893321

  3. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  4. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  5. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

  6. Bioactive compounds and quality parameters of natural cloudy lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Uçan, Filiz; Ağçam, Erdal; Akyildiz, Asiye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bioactive compounds (phenolic and carotenoid) and some quality parameters (color, browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) of natural cloudy lemon juice, pasteurized (90 °C/15 s) and storage stability of concentrated lemon juice (-25 °C/180 days) were carried out. Fifteen phenolic compounds were determined in the lemon juice and the most abounded phenolic compounds were hesperidin, eriocitrin, chlorogenic acid and neoeriocitrin. In generally, phenolic compound concentrations of lemon juice samples increased after the pasteurization treatment. Four carotenoid compounds (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) were detected in natural cloudy lemon juice. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were the most abounded carotenoid compounds in the lemon juice. Color values of the lemon juices were not affected by processing and storage periods. HMF and browning index of the lemon juices increased with concentration and storage. According to the results, storing at -25 °C was considered as sufficient for acceptable quality limits of natural cloudy lemon juice. PMID:27570271

  7. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  8. [Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hatogai, Ken; Doi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer has been classified based on the pathological characteristics including microscopic configuration and growth pattern. Although these classifications have been used in studies investigating prognosis and recurrence pattern, they are not considered for decisions regarding the therapeutic strategy. In the ToGA study, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated clinical efficacy for gastric cancer with HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification. Based on these findings of the ToGA study, the definition of HER2-positive gastric cancer was established. Thereafter, several molecular targeted agents, including agents targeting other receptor tyrosine kinases, have been investigated in gastric cancer. However, to date no biomarker, except HER2, has been established. Based on the recent technological development in the field of gene analysis, a comprehensive molecular evaluation of gastric cancer was performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, and a new molecular classification was proposed that divided gastric cancer into the following 4 subtypes: tumors positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite instability tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Each subtype has specific molecular alterations including gene mutation and amplification, DNA methylation, and protein overexpression. Additionally, some subtypes were suggested to be correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics or as targets of some molecular targeted agents that are currently under development. The new molecular classification is expected to be a roadmap for patient stratification and clinical trials on molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer. PMID:27067842

  9. A comparative study of the major glycoprotein isolated from normal and neoplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Schrager, J; Oates, M D

    1973-04-01

    The isolation and composition of glycoproteins from mucosae of normal stomachs, of stomachs with gastric ulcer, and of stomachs with carcinoma is described. The glycoproteins from the mucosae of normal stomachs and with gastric ulcer showed virtually the same carbohydrate and amino acid content as the principal gastric glycoprotein isolated from gastric aspirates. They all revealed a common basic carbohydrate composition: galactose, fucose, glucosamine, and galactosamine were present in approximate molar ratios of 4:3:3:1. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT THE GLYCOPROTEINS ISOLATED FROM GASTRIC ASPIRATES FROM NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC GASTRIC MUCOSAE SHARE A NUMBER OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES: (1) a protein core with a characteristic amino acid composition; (2) the range of sugars forming the carbohydrate side chains; (3) galactosamine approximately equimolar with the sum of threonine and serine; (4) galactose approximately equimolar with the sum of glucosamine and galactosamine; (5) absence of mannose; (6) a high carbohydrate content (80-85%); and (7) blood group activity. The neoplastic glycoproteins differed from the normal glycoproteins in that the quantitative relationships of the carbohydrate components of the neoplastic glycoproteins showed variations dividing the extracts investigated into groups, each group with a distinctive and constant carbohydrate composition. The blood group specificity of 15 out of 24 cases investigated differed from that of the hosts' red cells. PMID:4706916

  10. Gastric Emptying in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Chris K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a diminished homeostatic regulation of physiologic functions, including slowing of gastric emptying. Gastric and small intestinal motor and humoral mechanisms in humans are complex and highly variable: ingested food is stored, mixed with digestive enzymes, ground into small particles, and delivered as a liquefied form into the duodenum at a rate allowing efficient digestion and absorption. In healthy aging, motor function is well preserved whereas deficits in sensory function are more apparent. The effects of aging on gastric emptying are relevant to the absorption of oral medications and the regulation of appetite, postprandial glycemia, and blood pressure. PMID:26195094

  11. CE-UV for the characterization of passion fruit juices provenance by amino acids profile with the aid of chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Passos, Heloisa Moretti; Cieslarova, Zuzana; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2016-07-01

    A separation method was developed in order to quantify free amino acids in passion fruit juices using CE-UV. A selective derivatization reaction with FMOC followed by MEKC analysis was chosen due to the highly interconnected mobilities of the analytes, enabling the separation of 22 amino acids by lipophilicity differences, as will be further discussed. To achieve such results, the method was optimized concerning BGE composition (concentrations, pH, and addition of organic modifier) and running conditions (temperature and applied voltage). The optimized running conditions were: a BGE composed by 60 mmol/L borate buffer at pH 10.1, 30 mmol/L SDS and 5 % methanol; running for 40 min at 23°C and 25 kV. The method was validated and applied on eight brands plus one fresh natural juice, detecting 12 amino acids. Quantification of six analytes combined with principal component analysis was capable to characterize different types of juices and showed potential to detect adulteration on industrial juices. Glutamic acid was found to be the most concentrated amino acid in all juices, exceeding 1 g/L in all samples and was also crucial for the correct classification of a natural juice, which presented a concentration of 22 g/L. PMID:26800985

  12. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  13. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  14. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone activates KCa channels in gastric smooth muscle cells via intracellular Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Petkova-Kirova, P S; Lubomirov, L T; Gagov, H S; Kolev, V B; Duridanova, D B

    2001-03-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is released in high concentrations into gastric juice, but its direct effect on gastric smooth muscles has not been studied yet. We undertook studies on TRH effect on gastric smooth muscle using contraction and patch clamp methods. TRH was found to inhibit both acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions of gastric strips. TRH, applied to single cells, inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents and activated the whole-cell K+ currents. The TRH-induced changes in K+ currents and membrane potential were effectively abolished by inhibitors of either intracellular Ca2+ release channels or phospholipase C. Neither activators, nor blockers of protein kinase C could affect the action of TRH on K+ currents. In conclusion, TRH activates K+ channels via inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced release of Ca2+ in the direction to the plasma membrane, which in turn leads to stimulation of the Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance, membrane hyperpolarization and relaxation. The data imply that TRH may act physiologically as a local modulator of gastric smooth muscle tone. PMID:11508821

  15. Carotenoid profile modification during refrigerated storage in untreated and pasteurized orange juice and orange juice treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Clara; Torregrosa, Francisco; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2006-08-23

    A comparative study was made of the evolution and modification of various carotenoids and vitamin A in untreated orange juice, pasteurized orange juice (90 degrees C, 20 s), and orange juice processed with high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (30 kV/cm, 100 micros), during 7 weeks of storage at 2 and 10 degrees C. The concentration of total carotenoids in the untreated juice decreased by 12.6% when the juice was pasteurized, whereas the decrease was only 6.7% when the juice was treated with HIPEF. Vitamin A was greatest in the untreated orange juice, followed by orange juice treated with HIPEF (decrease of 7.52%) and, last, pasteurized orange juice (decrease of 15.62%). The decrease in the concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamin A during storage in refrigeration was greater in the untreated orange juice and the pasteurized juice than in the juice treated with HIPEF. During storage at 10 degrees C, auroxanthin formed in the untreated juice and in the juice treated with HIPEF. This carotenoid is a degradation product of violaxanthin. The concentration of antheraxanthin decreased during storage, and it was converted into mutatoxanthin, except in the untreated and pasteurized orange juices stored at 2 degrees C. PMID:16910715

  16. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  17. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be ... Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  18. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  19. [Gastric duplication of 3 observations].

    PubMed

    Bugallo, M; Carauni, D; Serra, E; De los Reyes, C; Briend, S; Valdovinos, B; Lanari, A

    2000-01-01

    Gástric duplicación si an infrequent congenital malformation present in both, neonatal period and childhood, and exceptionally during adulthood. We present here there cases of gastric duplication from patients of different ages, in which it was not possible to make diagnosis before surgery. In all of them cystic form was the predominating one, without communication with gastric lumen (cavity). Diagnosis was performed after laparotomy and histopathological examination. PMID:11086515

  20. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  1. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  2. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  3. HPLC-ESI-MS ANALYSIS OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice inhibit intestinal and liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and are responsible for the effects in humans caused by grapefruit juice consumption on the metabolism of certain prescription drugs. A number of the (furano)coumarins that occur in the highest concen...

  4. Enzyme and temperature effect on juice recovery in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making blueberry juice has multiple steps, and to evaluate how these steps influence juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In lab scale trials, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberries were pressed at varying temperatures. Temperatures included fresh, frozen then ...

  5. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  7. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  8. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  9. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  10. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  11. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions...

  12. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  13. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  14. Gastric control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P H; McHugh, P R; Moran, T H; Stephenson, J D

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying leads to enhanced satiety and this mechanism may contribute to the undereating observed after administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and fenfluramine, and in patients with anorexia nervosa. Pyloric smooth muscle bears specific CCK receptors and the evidence suggests that a major site of action for CCK satiety is in the periphery. CCK receptors are widespread in the neonatal rat stomach but not in the brain and over the first two weeks of life binding in the stomach decreases and that in the brain increases. This and the finding that independent ingestion as well as gastric emptying are inhibited by CCK at birth suggest the stomach as its likely site of action in the neonatal rat. Fenfluramine inhibits feeding in animals and in patients with bulimia nervosa. In monkeys, fenfluramine inhibits gastric emptying and this action correlates with its feeding inhibition. Patients with anorexia nervosa who are acutely starving and rats maintained on a restricted diet have delayed gastric emptying. Anorexic patients showed abnormal reporting of both hunger and satiety, and, together with those with bulimia nervosa, often associated gastric contents with symptoms of eating disorder, indicating disturbed interpretation of gastric signals. PMID:3065484

  15. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  16. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  17. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  18. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  19. Clarification of pomegranate juice with chitosan: changes on quality characteristics during storage.

    PubMed

    Tastan, Ozge; Baysal, Taner

    2015-08-01

    In this study, for the first time, the use of chitosan as a clarifying agent in the production of clear pomegranate juice was evaluated and its effects on quality characteristics of juice were investigated. A central composite face centered design was used to establish the optimum conditions for clarification of pomegranate juice (PJ) using response surface methodology. The three factors were concentration of chitosan (10-120 mg/100ml), process temperature (10-20°C), and process time (30-90 min) and their effects on turbidity and a(∗) values were investigated. Using a desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were found to be 68.93 mg/100ml chitosan at a process temperature and time of 10°C and 30 min, respectively. PJ was produced using the optimum conditions and the quality characteristics such as turbidity, colour characteristics (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗)), titratable acidity, total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanin, and protein contents were evaluated during storage at 4 and 20°C for 6 months. PMID:25766820

  20. Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; González-Peñas, E; Amézqueta, S

    2008-01-01

    A novel and validated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method using ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of patulin (PAT) in commercial apple juice. Patulin was extracted from samples with an ethylacetate solution. The micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) parameters studied for method optimization were buffer composition, voltage, temperature, and a separation between PAT and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (main interference in apple juice PAT analysis) peaks until reaching baseline. The method passes a series of validation tests including selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification (0.7 and 2.5 microgL(-1), respectively), precision (within and between-day variability) and recovery (80.2% RSD=4%), accuracy, and robustness. This method was successfully applied to the measurement of 20 apple juice samples obtained from different supermarkets. One hundred percent of the samples were contaminated with a level greater than the limit of detection, with mean and median values of 41.3 and 35.7 microgL(-1), respectively. PMID:17707570

  1. Research of enzymatic activities of fresh juice and water infusions from dry herbs.

    PubMed

    Chudnicka, Alina; Matysik, Grazyna

    2005-06-01

    Research was done on the presence of enzymes in juice obtained from fresh plant material from Chamomilla recutita L. (Rauschel)-anthodium, Lamium album L.-flos, Calendula officinalis L.-flos, Plantaginis lanceolata L.-folium and Euphrasiae rostkoviana Hayne-herba, and in the prepared water infusion of these materials; the objective was to determine the activity of enzymes which beside biologically active substances may have an influence of the final therapeutic effect of the applied plant preparations. The research was conducted by means of the API ZYM system (bioMerieux). Higher enzymatic activities were found in fresh juices of the examined plant material than in prepared water infusions from dried plants. In both cases naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase should have highest activity. The second one in terms of activity out of 17 studied enzymes was acidic phosphatase. The highest enzymatic activity of fresh juice was found in Lamii albi flos and Calendulae officinalis flos. Water infusions showed the highest enzymatic activity in Lamii albi flos, Chamomille recutita anthodium and Plantaginis lanceolata folium. Drying the plant material resulted in decreased enzymatic activities but not in the case of naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and acidic phosphatase which showed very low activities. The complex composition of plant materials in terms of content of biologically active substances may imply that the therapeutic effect might be directly related to the quantity and activity of plant enzymes present in preparations applied in therapeutics. PMID:15894139

  2. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign. PMID:15563212

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  4. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  5. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  6. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  7. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  8. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  9. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  10. Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

  11. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. PMID:26694339

  12. Effects of Pantoprazole on Systemic and Gastric Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Tabeefar, Hamed; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Honarmand, Hooshyar; Najafi, Atabak; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Stress-related mucosal damage (SRMD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients due to the gastrointestinal blood loss. Prophylaxis of SRMD with proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2 blockers has gained widespread use in intensive care units. Both demonstrated to be effective in reducing clinically significant bleedings, while PPIs has shown to exert some anti inflammatory effects including the inhibition of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. As cytokines have role in developing SRMD, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PPIs on the inhibition of cytokine release following the critical illness. A total of 27 critically ill patients with risk factors of developing stress ulcer and intragastric pH < 3.0 enrolled to this Randomized clinical trial study. Patients were randomly assigned in three treatment groups; group one received 40 mg of intravenous pantoprazole every 12 h for 48 h (four doses), group two received 80 mg of intravenous pantoprazole every 24 h continuous infusion for 48 h and the third group received 150 mg of ranitidine intravenously as 24 h continuous infusion for 48 h. Plasma and gastric juice samples were obtained at 0th, 12th, 24th and 48th h for the measurement of EGF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Pantoprazole infusion have decreased the plasma IL-1β concentrations (p = 0.041). No other significant differences in concentrations of EGF, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were detected. There were reverse correlations between the intragastric pH with gastric juice IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations and a direct correlation between the intragastric pH and gastric juice EGF in pantoprazole groups. Our data suggest that pantoprazole may have some anti-inflammatory effects on patients. However, the exact impact of this effect on patients should be assessed by further studies. PMID:24250536

  13. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Huayi; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Sun, Peng; Zhu, Kai; Li, Jian; Sun, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin), SP (substance P), ET (endothelin) levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-12 (interleukin 12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), NO (nitric oxide) and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde) activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase) mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB), and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use

  14. Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

  15. Development of flavor lexicon for fresh pressed and processed blueberry juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lexicon with thirty-two aroma/flavor, taste, and mouth feel attributes were developed for blueberry juice. Commercial frozen blueberries were thawed and hand pressed to make three juices (P1, P2 or P3), which were compared to four bottled juices (B1, B2, B3 or B4). Fresh pressed juices had signi...

  16. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of concentrated and... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original... juice for the purpose of standard wine production. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to...

  17. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of concentrated and... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original... juice for the purpose of standard wine production. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to...

  18. A comparison of commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice: nutrients and phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied different juicing methods resulting in commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice with or without pasteurization for effect on level of nutrients and phytonutrinets in ‘Valencia’ and ‘Hamlin’ orange juices. Commercial processing included use of a juice extractor, finisher,...

  19. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  20. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  1. Quality characteristics of freshly squeezed orange juice in comparison to commercial products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted with a fresh-squeeze juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to commercially processed juice for the flavor and nutritional quality. Fresh juice had much higher peel oil content, but lower insoluble solids and pectin contents than in the commercial juic...

  2. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  3. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  4. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  5. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  6. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

  7. Voice as Juice: Some Reservations about Evangelic Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dangers of writing instruction that encourages "voice" (expressiveness of style) by capitalizing on the same kinds of fears that power evangelism. Claims this approach is not appropriate for all students, may cause problems when a piece is to be written by a committee, and may not be essential at all in factual, informative writing.…

  8. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  9. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ankur; Jaiswal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional medicine healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other diseases. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice leading to severe vomiting and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As emergency physicians we need to be aware of this very rare poisoning specially in India. METHODS: We present a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of hematemesis and shock to the emergency department (ED) after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and shifted to the intensive care unit (ICU) under the care of a gastroenterology team for urgent endoscopy and further management. RESULTS: The patient received intravenous fluids, antibiotics, antiemetics, and antacids and underwent upper gastroenterologic endoscopy during the hospitalization. She was discharged in a stable condition 4 days later. CONCLUSIONS: As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only. It is important to educate the public about the harmful effects of this potentially life-threatening toxicity. PMID:26693268

  10. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    PubMed

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min. PMID:17822056

  11. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  12. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  13. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  14. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  15. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  16. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the

  17. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies. PMID:21401890

  18. [Gastric cancer in Lima].

    PubMed

    Pilco, Paul; Payet, Eduardo; Cáceres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be one of the most common malignant neoplasias in the world. Despite the decreasing incidence of this disease in developed countries, Eastern Europe and Latin America show the highest incidences. It accounted for 8.6% of all new cases of cancer in 2002. In Peru it has increased between 1990 and 1997 amounting to 24.3/100000 in men and 17.6/100000 in women, during the last period studied, thus it is considered a high risk area. Mortality: it is still the leading cause of death for both sexes, in men it is 19.3/100000 and in women 14.2/100000. Incidence is directly proportional to the place of origin in Metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 8 million inhabitants, and the districts with the highest incidences are Puente Piedra and Lince followed by Villa El Salvador, El Augustino, Breña and Rimac among others. These are districts with medium-low socioeconomic levels, whereas the lowest incidences are found in districts with high socioeconomic levels, such as San Isidro and Miraflores, among others. PMID:17211488

  19. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Y; Om, A S; Chee, K M; Bennink, M R

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has shown that hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside in orange juice, inhibits colon carcinogenesis and that feeding double-strength orange juice delays the onset of chemically induced mammary cancer in rats. This study determined whether feeding single-strength, pasteurized orange juice would inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in male Fischer 344 rats. Colon cancer was initiated by injecting AOM (15 mg/kg body wt) at 22 and 29 days of age. One week after the second AOM injection, orange juice replaced drinking water for the experimental group (n = 30). The rats were killed 28 weeks later, and tumors were removed for histological analysis. Feeding orange juice reduced tumor incidence by 22% (p < 0.05). Tumor reduction was associated with a decreased labeling index and proliferation zone in the colonic mucosa. Hesperidin, other flavonoids, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and other limonoid glucosides are potential chemopreventive agents in orange juice that could account for the decreased colon tumorigenesis associated with feeding orange juice. PMID:10890034

  20. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene). PMID:19807162

  1. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

  2. Ingestion, gastric fill, and gastric emptying before and after withdrawal of gastric contents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Siemers, W; Grill, H J

    1994-11-01

    The notion that satiation signals are derived from the stomach with no additional contribution of postgastric sources (J. A. Deutsch. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, Food and Water Intake. 1990, vol. 10, p. 151-182) was evaluated in two experiments. In experiment 1, the gastric contents were withdrawn after the rat met the satiety criterion for an initial intraoral intake test (12.5% glucose delivered at 1.0 ml/min). Ten minutes later, the intraoral infusion was continued until the rat again met the satiety criterion. We found that rats reingested an amount closely corresponding to the amount withdrawn, in agreement with previous studies using spout-licking tests. Despite a lower gastric emptying rate during reingestion than during the initial test, the amount recovered from the stomach (both volume and solute content) after reingestion was significantly less (gastric volume 16% less; gastric glucose 18% less) than that withdrawn initially. In experiment 2, a portion (8 ml) of the gastric contents was removed after the end of an initial intraoral intake test and, after 10 min, rats were again given an opportunity to ingest to satiety. The procedure was repeated for a total of three withdrawals (24 ml) and three reingestion opportunities. Rats accurately replaced the amounts withdrawn such that net intake at the end of the experiment did not differ from that ingested during the initial test. In addition, the amount recovered from the stomach after the terminal test was considerably less (gastric volume 25% less; gastric glucose 29% less) than that recovered at the end of single-test control sessions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977874

  3. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  4. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

    2013-07-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  5. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

  6. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested. PMID:27185134

  7. Nitrosation of Nigerian medicinal plant preparations under 'chemical' and 'simulated' gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Lamorde, A G; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1995-01-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance, collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria, were nitrosated and analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines formed under chemical and simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitrosamines were determined on a Thermal Energy Analyser following gas chromatographic separation. Mean concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 7 to 58 ppb and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the range of 23 to 26 ppb were formed in 31 and 7%, respectively, of the preparations using artificial gastric juice (simulated gastric condition). Under chemically optimal conditions, relatively high levels of NDMA (72-2008 ppb), NDEA (23-1528 ppb) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (20-405 ppb) were formed in 100, 75 and 32% of the preparations, respectively; N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were formed in fewer preparations. These findings suggest that the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds from precursors present in medicinal plants might be another source of human exposure to environmental carcinogens in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:7821876

  8. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Karimi, Gholam_Reza; Ameri, Maryam

    2002-01-01

    Background As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens in mice. Results Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N) and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g/kg, i.p., (1.5, 6.16) and 6.98 g/kg, i.p., (5.69, 8.56), respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o.) was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. Conclusions The results suggest that A. graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice. PMID:12493079

  9. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinomas and gastric stump carcinomas: a late event in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    zur Hausen, A; van Rees, B P; van Beek, J; Craanen, M E; Bloemena, E; Offerhaus, G J A; Meijer, C J L M; van den Brule, A J C

    2004-01-01

    Background: To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach—gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) and gastric stump carcinoma (GSC)—and their presumed precursor lesions. Patients and methods: Eleven patients with EBV positive GCIS and eight patients with EBV positive GSC, demonstrated by the highly sensitive EBV encoded RNA 1/2 (EBER1/2) RNA in situ hybridisation (RISH) technique, were studied. Paraffin wax embedded tissue available from preoperative gastric biopsies and tumour adjacent tissue from the resection specimens containing normal gastric mucosa, inflamed gastric mucosa, and preneoplastic lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) was investigated by EBER1/2 RISH, in addition to EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In both GCIS and GSC and their precursor lesions EBER1/2 transcripts were restricted to the carcinoma cells. In addition, positivity of EBNA-1 IHC was also restricted to the tumour cells. IHC for LMP-1 was negative in all cases tested. Conclusions: The absence of EBER1/2 transcripts in preneoplastic gastric lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) and their presence in two distinct types of gastric carcinoma strongly suggest that EBV can only infect neoplastic gastric cells and thus is a late event in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:15113855

  10. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion. PMID:19009648

  11. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

  12. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Safic, Hana; Suran, Jelena; Rak, Davor; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2013-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. Recently, we claim that BPC 157 may be used as an antidote against NSAIDs. We focused on BPC 157 beneficial effects on stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and brain injuries, adjuvant arthritis, pain, hyper/hypothermia, obstructive thrombus formation and thrombolysis, blood vessel function, counteraction of prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia after application of various anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents and wound healing improvement. The arguments for BPC 157 antidote activity (i.e., the role of BPC 157 in cytoprotection, being a novel mediator of Robert's cytoprotection and BPC 157 beneficial effects on NSAIDs mediated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and brain and finally, counteraction of aspirin-induced prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia) obviously have a counteracting effect on several established side-effects of NSAIDs use. The mentioned variety of the beneficial effects portrayed by BPC 157 may well be a foundation for establishing BPC 157 as a NSAIDs antidote since no other single agent has portrayed a similar array of effects. Unlike NSAIDs, a very high safety (no reported toxicity (LD1 could be not achieved)) profile is reported for BPC 157. Also, unlike the different dosage levels of aspirin, as a NSAIDs prototype, which differ by a factor of about ten, all these beneficial and counteracting effects of BPC 157 were obtained using the equipotent dosage (μg, ng/kg) in parenteral or peroral regimens. PMID:22950504

  13. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  14. Evaluation of the anthocyanin release and health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir grape juices after pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir juices (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained at different maceration times after pulsed electric fields (PEF) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and human intestinal Caco-2 cells assays. Juice quality, anthocyanins, total phenolics and vitamin C were also determined. The evaluation of bioprotective capacity of the juice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells was determined using biomarkers for cellular health and integrity: cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compared to untreated grape juice, PEF pre-treatment on grapes enhanced the release of the major anthocyanin found in Pinot Noir, i.e. malvidin-3-O-glucoside (+224%). Increase in the content of total phenolic (+61%) and vitamin C (+19%) as well as improvement in the DPPH scavenging activity (+31%) and bioprotective capacity (+25% for cell viability and +30% for LDH leakage) were observed in grape juices following PEF treatment. Bioprotective capacity determined by the cellular biomarkers had significant linear correlations with malvidin-3-O-glucoside content (0.71⩽r⩽0.73) whereas DPPH scavenging activity was not well correlated with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (r=0.30) and total phenolics (r=0.30). Therefore, evaluation of the bioprotective capacities using Caco-2 cell assay performed in this study makes a novel contribution to the current knowledge that demonstrates the capability of PEF technology to produce plant-based foods with better phytochemical composition and exhibiting the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26593562

  15. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  16. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress. PMID:25724149

  17. Transfer and Mass Balance of Ellagitannins, Anthocyanins, Flavan-3-ols, and Flavonols during the Processing of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) to Juice.

    PubMed

    Sójka, Michał; Macierzyński, Jakub; Zaweracz, Wojciech; Buczek, Maria

    2016-07-13

    The putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. Their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics in raspberries and the products of their processing (that is, juice and press cake, including its seed and seedless fractions). The study also examined the relationship between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. The average percentage contributions of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols to total polyphenolics in the fruits were 64.2%, 17.1%, 16.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. Analysis of raspberry products showed that the dominant compounds in juice were anthocyanins, with 65.1% contribution to total polyphenolics, while in raspberry press cake, they were tannins (98.0%, mainly ellagitannin including lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6). As shown by our mass-balance calculations, on average, 68.1% of ellagitannins and 87.7% of flavanols were retained in press cake, especially in its seedless fraction. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. An increase in molecular mass from 1568 to 2805 Da resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in ellagitannin transfer. PMID:27292440

  18. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  19. Choroidal and cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shoichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Yoshito; Ezaki, Hisao; Yamada, Takuya; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Nakai, Kei; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Nishida, Kohji; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Choroidal or cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer is rare. Gastrointestinal cancer was found in only 4% in patients with uveal metastasis. Choroidal metastasis from gastric cancer was reported in two cases in earlier literature. The frequency of gastric cancer as a primary lesion was 6% in cutaneous metastasis of men, and cutaneous metastasis occurs in 0.8% of all gastric cancers. We report a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in his left eye and skin pain on his head as his initial symptoms. These symptoms were diagnosed to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Two cycles of chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 and intravenous cisplatin (SPIRITS regimen); this was markedly effective to reduce the primary gastric lesion and almost all the metastatic lesions. PMID:23538460

  20. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  1. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  5. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. PMID:21669544

  6. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  7. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  8. "Meat juice" is not a homogeneous serological matrix.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Camilla; Frössling, Jenny; Vågsholm, Ivar; Burrells, Alison; Lundén, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Meat juice samples are used in serological assays to monitor infectious diseases within the food chain. However, evidence of inferior sensitivity, presumably due to low levels of antibodies in the meat juice compared to serum, has been presented, and it has been suggested that adjusting the dilution factor of meat juice in proportion to its blood content could improve sensitivity. In the present study, the agreement between Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in meat juice and serum was evaluated, and whether the level of immunoglobulins in meat juice was dependent on its blood content. Serum and meat juice from diaphragm, heart, tongue, Musculus triceps brachii and M. semitendinosus were collected from 20 pigs experimentally infected with T. gondii. Analysis of total IgG, heme-containing proteins (hematin), and hemoglobin (Hb) revealed significant differences between samples from different muscles, with the highest levels in samples from heart and tongue, and the lowest in samples from leg muscles. Comparison of T. gondii-specific antibody titers in meat juice and serum revealed a strong positive correlation for meat juice from heart (rs=0.87; p<0.001), while it was lower for M. semitendinosus (rs=0.71; p<0.001) and diaphragm (rs=0.54; p=0.02). Meanwhile, the correlation between total IgG and T. gondii titer ratio (meat juice/serum) was highest in diaphragm (rs=0.77; p<0.001) followed by M. semitendinosus (rs=0.64; p=0.005) and heart (rs=0.50; p=0.051). The correlation between Hb and T. gondii titer ratio was only significant for diaphragm (rs=0.65; p=0.008), and for hematin no significant correlation was recorded. In conclusion, the specific IgG titers in meat juice appeared to depend on the total IgG level, but the correlation to blood (Hb or hematin) was poor. Importantly, large significant differences in total IgG levels as well as in specific antibody titers were recorded, depending on the muscle the meat juice had been extracted from

  9. De Novo Gastric Cancer After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chung-Sik; Yoo, Moon-Won; Kim, Beom-Su; Hwang, Shin; Kim, Ki-Hun; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In South Korea, which has a high incidence of gastric cancer, the most common de novo malignancy associated with liver transplantation is gastric cancer. This study sought to identify clinicopathologic characteristics in gastric cancer patients after liver transplantation, and to help manage these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated gastric cancer patients after liver transplantation at Asan Medical Center. We analyzed sex, age, cause of liver transplantation, initiating immunosuppressant, pre-transplantation gastric fibroscopy findings, time interval between transplantation and gastric cancer occurrence, follow-up period, existence of gastric cancer screening, Helicobacter pylori infection, family cancer history, gastric cancer treatment, cancer location, size of tumor, macroscopic gross type, WHO histologic type, Lauren's classification, TNM stage, and survival. RESULTS Of 2968 adult liver transplantation patients at our hospital, 19 were diagnosed with gastric cancer. The mean age at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis was 60.2±6.8 (46-71) years and mean time interval between liver transplantation and diagnosis of gastric cancer was 56.0±30.7 (3.20-113) months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was done for 10 patients, 4 of whom underwent surgical resection. Surgical resection as an initial treatment was done in 8 patients. One patient received chemotherapy first. The standard incidence ratio of gastric cancer in these patients was 1036 per 100 000 persons (95% CI, 623.7-1,619) in men and 318.9 per 100 000 (95% CI, 4.170-1,774) in women. CONCLUSIONS For long-term survival of liver transplant patients, early detection of de novo cancer is necessary. Therefore, annual screening for gastric cancer after liver transplantation is needed, especially in areas where the incidence of gastric cancer is high, such as South Korea. PMID:27334929

  10. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  11. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  12. J-MAG: Magnetometer science on the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The magnetometer instrument onboard JUICE is one of the core instruments on the payload and is critical for resolving some of the prime science objectives of the mission. The primary science objectives of JUICE which will be constrained by the magnetic field observations will be described. They include characterising ocean properties at Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, resolving the dynamo magnetic field at Ganymede as well as better understanding magnetospheric dynamics.

  13. Effect of grapefruit juice on the bioactivation of prasugrel

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Mikko T; Tornio, Aleksi; Hyvärinen, Hanna; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T; Niemi, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Aims The P2Y12 inhibitor prasugrel is a prodrug, which is activated after its initial hydrolysis partly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Grapefruit juice, a strong inactivator of intestinal CYP3A4, greatly reduces the activation and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of grapefruit juice on prasugrel. Methods In a randomized crossover study, seven healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 4 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 10 mg dose of prasugrel with an additional 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water. Plasma concentrations of prasugrel metabolites and the antiplatelet effect were measured. Results Grapefruit juice increased the geometric mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞) of the primary, inactive metabolite of prasugrel to 164% of the control value (95% confidence interval 122–220%, P = 0.008), without a significant effect on its peak plasma concentration (Cmax). The Cmax and AUC0–∞ of the secondary, active metabolite were decreased to 51% (95% confidence interval 32–84%, P = 0.017) and 74% of the control value (95% confidence interval 60–91%, P = 0.014) by grapefruit juice (P < 0.05). The average platelet inhibition, assessed with the VerifyNow® method at 0–24 h after prasugrel intake, was 5 percentage points (95% confidence interval 1–10 percentage points) lower in the grapefruit juice phase than in the water phase (P = 0.034). Conclusions Grapefruit juice reduces the bioactivation of prasugrel, but this has only a limited effect on the antiplatelet effect of prasugrel. PMID:25557052

  14. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  15. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  16. Effects of ultrasound treatments on quality of grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Rana Muhammad; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Sonication is recognised as a potential technique for improvement in the quality of fruit juices. This study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effect of sonication treatments on some important quality parameters of grapefruit juice such as physico-chemical (pH, acidity and °Brix), Hunter colour values (L(*), a(*) and b(*)), cloud value, electrical conductivity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Sonication of grapefruit juice was done in a bath type sonicator at a frequency of 28 kHz by maintaining a constant temperature of 20 °C. Results showed that there was significant improvement in the cloud value, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols in all the juice samples sonicated for 30, 60 and 90 min but no changes occurred in the pH, acidity and °Brix value as compared to control. Some differences in all the colour values were also observed but overall quality of grapefruit juice was improved, suggesting that sonication technique may successfully be implemented an industrial scale for the processing of grapefruit juice. PMID:23871078

  17. JUICE Planetary Protection Approach for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Erd, Christian; Grasset, Olivier

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa. The baseline mission architecture assumes development, launch and operation by ESA of a single spacecraft in the Jovian system. JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system. The JUICE planetary protection approach for Europa is to ensure that the probability of impact is less than 10-4 during all phases with a credible impact risk. The JUICE science team has published an analysis demonstrating that there is only a remote chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could compromise future investigations on Ganymede. This would qualify JUICE as a planetary protection category II mission with respect to the Ganymede phase without any impact constraints.

  18. Advances in gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  19. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  20. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  1. Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Ryan T.

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were

  2. Molecular classification and prediction in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongzhong; Song, Won-min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a highly heterogeneous disease, is the second leading cause of cancer death and the fourth most common cancer globally, with East Asia accounting for more than half of cases annually. Alongside TNM staging, gastric cancer clinic has two well-recognized classification systems, the Lauren classification that subdivides gastric adenocarcinoma into intestinal and diffuse types and the alternative World Health Organization system that divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas. Both classification systems enable a better understanding of the histogenesis and the biology of gastric cancer yet have a limited clinical utility in guiding patient therapy due to the molecular heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Unprecedented whole-genome-scale data have been catalyzing and advancing the molecular subtyping approach. Here we cataloged and compared those published gene expression profiling signatures in gastric cancer. We summarized recent integrated genomic characterization of gastric cancer based on additional data of somatic mutation, chromosomal instability, EBV virus infection, and DNA methylation. We identified the consensus patterns across these signatures and identified the underlying molecular pathways and biological functions. The identification of molecular subtyping of gastric adenocarcinoma and the development of integrated genomics approaches for clinical applications such as prediction of clinical intervening emerge as an essential phase toward personalized medicine in treating gastric cancer. PMID:26380657

  3. Increased gastric production of platelet-activating factor, leukotriene-B4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in children with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hüseyinov, A; Kütükçüler, N; Aydogdu, S; Caglayan, S; Coker, I; Göksen, D; Yagci, R V

    1999-04-01

    The concentrations of platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in homogenate supernatants of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens and in gastric juice from Helicobacter pylori-positive (N = 21) and -negative children (N = 14) were investigated in order to determine whether these lipid mediators and the cytokine are involved in the inflammatory reaction of H. pylori-associated gastritis. PAF and LTB4 concentrations were measured after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification by specific radioimmunoassay, and TNF-alpha concentrations were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentrations of PAF, LTB4, and TNF-alpha measured in gastric juice and biopsy homogenate supernatants of children with H. pylori-positive gastritis were found to be statistically elevated and in positive correlation with each other. This study suggested that increased local mucosal production of potent proinflammatory agents such as PAF, LTB4, and TNF-alpha may be implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastritis in childhood. PMID:10219821

  4. Variations of gastric corpus microbiota are associated with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ploner, Alexander; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Fahimi, Saman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Kamangar, Farin; Abnet, Christian C.; Winckler, Björn; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies revealed a relationship between changes in gastric mucosa and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which suggested a possible role for gastric microbiota in ESCC carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to compare pattern of gastric corpus microbiota in ESCC with normal esophagus. Cases were included subjects with early ESCC (stage I–II) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) as the cancer precursor. Control groups included age and sex-matched subjects with mid-esophagus esophagitis (diseased-control), and histologically normal esophagus (healthy-control). DNA was extracted from snap-frozen gastric corpus tissues and 16S rRNA was sequenced on GS-FLX Titanium. After noise removal, an average of 3004 reads per sample was obtained from 93 subjects. We applied principal coordinate analysis to ordinate distances from beta diversity data. Pattern of gastric microbiota using Unifrac (p = 0.004) and weighted Unifrac distances (p = 0.018) statistically varied between cases and healthy controls. Sequences were aligned to SILVA database and Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichales orders were more abundant among cases after controling for multiple testing (p = 0.011). No such difference was observed between mid-esophagitis and healthy controls. This study is the first to show that composition of gastric corpus mucosal microbiota differs in early ESCC and ESD from healthy esophagus. PMID:25743945

  5. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  6. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  7. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma in a child presenting with spontaneous gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Emir, Suna; Karakurt, Neslihan; Karakuş, Esra; Şenel, Emrah; Kırsaçlıoğlu, Ceyda; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Orhan, Diclehan

    2014-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a rare entity in the pediatric population. Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is seen extremely rarely in children. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with complaint of abdominal pain. X-ray revealed free air density below the diaphragm. Emergent laparotomy showed perforated stomach. Four weeks after the operation, he was readmitted with severe gastrointestinal obstruction symptoms. He underwent an explorative laparotomy, which revealed intestinal edema and diffuse small solid nodules covering the peritoneum. Serum AFP level was mildly elevated. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed, and a gastric mass was detected. All pathological findings were compatible with gastric carcinoma showing hepatoid differentiation. We report an unusual case of AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of AFP- producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation in a child. PMID:24827954

  8. Methods for the detection and enumeration of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and investigation of growth and production of taint in fruit juice and fruit juice-containing drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettipher, G L; Osmundson, M E; Murphy, J M

    1997-03-01

    Methods for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris at a level of 1 cell per 100 ml and enumeration with a sensitivity of 5 cells ml-1 were developed. Spores of A. acidoterrestris survived pasteurization and outgrew and multiplied at a similar rate to vegetative cells in both orange juice and apple juice. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris grew readily in orange juice, apple juice and a non-carbonated fruit juice-containing drink at temperatures of 25-44 degrees C producing a taint and elevated levels (1-100 ppb) of guaiacol. Isolates of A. acidoterrestris can be identified using the DuPont RiboPrinter. It was isolated from apple drinks, apple juice concentrate and freshly squeezed orange juice. PMID:9080697

  9. Contactless conductivity detection of sodium monofluoroacetate in fruit juices on a CE microchip.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Wu, Peter; Collins, Greg E

    2007-10-01

    Rapid and quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in diluted fruit juices (dilution 1:9 v/v in deionized water) and tap water was performed by microchip CE, using contactless conductivity detection. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the monofluoroacetate (MFA) anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. The analyte was very well separated from interfering anionic species present in juices and tap water. LODs in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 microg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. Taking into account the dilution factor, the LODs for juice samples range from 1 to 2 mg/L, which is adequate for monitoring the toxicity of MFA in these juice beverages and tap water. The calibration curves for MFA in diluted fruit juices were linear over the range of 500 microg/L to 80 mg/L. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis. PMID:17768724

  10. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. PMID:20145582

  11. Gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy in unresectable distal gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Joon; Lee, Ha Gyoon

    2004-04-01

    The main purpose of bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer is to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, the result of conventional gastroenterostomy is dismal including continuous bleeding due to the contact of food material on the tumor surface and early obstruction of the stoma by tumor growth. Developing more effective surgery is warranted to improve the QoL of these patients. Among the 1158 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery from March 1993 to July 2002 at Hanyang University Medical Center, 54 (4.7%) had unresectable cancers. Various types of gastrojejunostomy (G-Jstomy), including conventional G-Jstomy (CGJ) (n = 18), antral exclusion G-Jstomy (n = 7), and gastric partitioning G-Jstomy (GPGJ) (n = 17), as well as exploratory laparotomy only (n = 12) were performed in these unresectable cases. In this study, survival and postoperative QoL were compared for the CGJ and GPGJ groups. The median survivals were 120 and 209 days for the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively (p = 0.046). The rates of postoperative body weight loss compared to the preoperative weight were 9.3% and 3.1% in the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively; the difference showed borderline significance (p = 0.067). The volume of blood transfusion was much less during the postoperative period than during the preoperative period in the GPGJ group but not in the CGJ group. The GPGJ procedure minimized food contact on the tumor surface, which was confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal barium meal series. GPGJ can be recommended as the procedure of choice for bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer considering their improved survival and postoperative QoL compared to those who underwent CGJ. PMID:14994143

  12. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  13. Fortified juice drink improved iron and zinc status of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R; Capanzana, Mario V

    2011-01-01

    Energy and micronutrient deficiency remain prevalent among Filipino children. Juice drinks are commonly consumed and could be a viable vehicle for fortification to supplement the nutrient gap. This study determined the effects of a newly developed non-carbonated fortified juice drink on the iron, zinc and nutritional status of schoolchildren. One hundred randomly selected anemic children were randomly allocated into two groups in a doubly-masked placebo controlled manner: Group 1 received the fortified juice, Group 2 received the non-fortified juice for 100 days, five days a week under strict supervision. The juice drink was fortified with vitamin A, zinc, iron, vitamin C and lysine. The non-fortified juice was fortified only with vitamin C. All children were dewormed prior to the intervention. Hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma zinc, weight and height were assessed using standard methods before and after intervention. A two-day 24-hour food recall was also collected. The basal prevalence of anemia was significantly reduced in both the fortified group (100% to 13%) and the non-fortified group (100% to 40%) at endline. The mean plasma ferritin levels were similar in both groups at baseline and endline. At endline, mean plasma zinc in the fortified group has significantly increased by 20 μg/dL from a baseline value of 83.9 μg/dL to 103.9 μg/dL, while the non-fortified group remained at similar levels with baseline. Basal weight and height significantly increased among all children at endline. The fortified juice drink was effective in reducing the prevalence of anemia and improved the zinc status of children. PMID:22094838

  14. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations. PMID:19610336

  15. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  16. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    PubMed

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future. PMID:11490764

  17. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Kao, John Y.; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mönkemüller, Klaus E.; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of retinol synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric DCs. Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  18. Gastric duplication cyst: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Doepker, Matthew P.; Ahmad, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon finding, especially in the adult population. Presenting symptoms can be non-specific, but can include abdominal pain, nausea and emesis. In this report, we present a 28-year-old female diagnosed with a communicating gastric cyst with both gastric and duodenal mucosa, along with pancreatic tissue and no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. The clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described and compared to findings in the literature. PMID:27150283

  19. Gastric duplication cyst: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Doepker, Matthew P; Ahmad, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon finding, especially in the adult population. Presenting symptoms can be non-specific, but can include abdominal pain, nausea and emesis. In this report, we present a 28-year-old female diagnosed with a communicating gastric cyst with both gastric and duodenal mucosa, along with pancreatic tissue and no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. The clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described and compared to findings in the literature. PMID:27150283

  20. Quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid during enzymatic browning of potato juice.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-02-20

    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO(3) (S control). To study the composition of phenolic compounds in potato in their native states, also a potato extract was made with 50% (v/v) methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid (MeOH control). Water-soluble low molecular weight fractions (LMWFs) and high molecular weight fractions (HMWFs) from S and OX extracts were obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis, respectively. Pellets obtained after the OX treatment and the S and MeOH controls were also analyzed for ChA content. Whereas in the S-LMWF all ChA was converted to sulfonic acid adducts, no free ChA was found in the OX-LMWF, indicating its high reactivity upon enzymatic browning. Analysis of protein in the HMWFs showed a higher content of "reacted" ChA in OX (49.8 ± 7.1 mg ChA/100 g potato DW) than in S (14.4 ± 1.5 mg ChA/100 g potato DW), as evidenced by quinic acid release upon alkaline hydrolysis. The presence of quinic acid in S-HMWF was unexpected, but a mass balance incorporating the ChA content of LMWF, HMWF, and pellet for the three extractions suggested that ChA might have been attached to polymeric material, soluble in the aqueous environment of S but not in that of MeOH. Size exclusion chromatography, combined with proteolysis, revealed that ChA reacted with patatin and protease inhibitors to produce brown soluble complexes. PMID:23360289

  1. Gastric Syphilis and Membranous Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Sung Jong; Kim, Ji Soong; Chung, Sung Jun; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-05-01

    Syphilis is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Gastric involvement and nephrotic syndrome are uncommon but well documented complications of syphilis, but the co-occurrence of these two complications in the same patient is extremely rare. Thus, because of their nonspecific presentation, suspicion of gastric syphilis (GS) and nephrotic syndrome is essential for diagnosis. Patients should be investigated thoroughly and a diagnosis made based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, in order to initiate appropriate therapy. We report of a 34-year-old male patient with a history of epigastric pain and a diagnosis of GS and syphilis-associated membranous glomerulonephritis confirmed by gastroscopy and kidney biopsy, who was treated successfully with penicillin G benzathine. This case report provides information on the typical features of GS that should help raise awareness of this rare disease entity among clinicians, resulting in earlier diagnosis and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:26064828

  2. Gastric Syphilis and Membranous Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Min; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Sung Jong; Kim, Ji Soong; Chung, Sung Jun; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Gastric involvement and nephrotic syndrome are uncommon but well documented complications of syphilis, but the co-occurrence of these two complications in the same patient is extremely rare. Thus, because of their nonspecific presentation, suspicion of gastric syphilis (GS) and nephrotic syndrome is essential for diagnosis. Patients should be investigated thoroughly and a diagnosis made based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, in order to initiate appropriate therapy. We report of a 34-year-old male patient with a history of epigastric pain and a diagnosis of GS and syphilis-associated membranous glomerulonephritis confirmed by gastroscopy and kidney biopsy, who was treated successfully with penicillin G benzathine. This case report provides information on the typical features of GS that should help raise awareness of this rare disease entity among clinicians, resulting in earlier diagnosis and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:26064828

  3. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  4. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  5. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  6. Involvement of leukotrienes in acute gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Boughton-Smith, N K

    1989-01-01

    The leukotrienes have potent inflammatory actions which could be of importance in gastric mucosal integrity. In animals, LTC4 produces vasoconstriction in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, acute gastric damage produced by ethanol is accompanied by marked increases in the mucosal formation of LTC4 and LTB4. Depending on the extent of protection, prostaglandins either have no effect or prevent the increases in leukotriene formation which accompany ethanol-induced damage. Various non-specific inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis prevent ethanol and indomethacin-induced damage to the gastric mucosa. However, a novel selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (BW A4C) had no effect on these models of acute gastric damage at doses which completely inhibited gastric mucosal leukotriene synthesis. These studies cast doubt on the role of the leukotrienes in these models of acute gastric damage. However, the potent biological actions of the leukotrienes may be of importance in the pathogenesis of other forms of gastric damage, or as mediators of chronic gastric ulceration or inflammation. PMID:2657289

  7. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  8. The psyche and gastric functions.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24732184

  9. Pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Morton, J D; Bekhit, A E D; Sedcole, J R

    2009-07-01

    The ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. Lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (Ac), water (W) and a non-infusion control (C) treatment. Infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. The infused treatment carcasses of Ac and W had lower (P<0.05) pH values than C carcasses during the initial 12h post-mortem. The LD muscles from Ac carcasses were more tender with significantly lower shear force (P<0.001) compared with C and W carcasses during the six days following infusion with the kiwifruit juice. The enhanced proteolytic activity (P=0.002) resulting from the infused kiwifruit juice in Ac carcasses was associated with significant degradation of the myofibrillar proteins, appearance of new peptides and activation of m-calpain during post-mortem ageing. Thus, kiwifruit juice is powerful and easily prepared meat tenderizer, which could contribute efficiently and effectively to the meat tenderization process. PMID:20416722

  10. Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

  11. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked. PMID:25537500

  12. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  13. 7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section 51... Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section 51... Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)”: (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of...

  15. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori. PMID:23570997

  16. Dietary intake of flavonoids and oesophageal and gastric cancer: incidence and survival in the United States of America (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, J L; Steck, S E; Bradshaw, P T; Trivers, K F; Abrahamson, P E; Engel, L S; He, K; Chow, W-H; Mayne, S T; Risch, H A; Vaughan, T L; Gammon, M D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds concentrated in fruits and vegetables, have experimentally demonstrated chemopreventive effects against oesophageal and gastric cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have examined flavonoid intake and incidence of these cancers, and none have considered survival. Methods: In this USA multicentre population-based study, case participants (diagnosed during 1993–1995 with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OEA, n=274), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA, n=248), oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OES, n=191), and other gastric adenocarcinoma (OGA, n=341)) and frequency-matched controls (n=662) were interviewed. Food frequency questionnaire responses were linked with USDA Flavonoid Databases and available literature for six flavonoid classes and lignans. Case participants were followed until 2000 for vital status. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) were estimated, comparing highest with lowest intake quartiles, using polytomous logistic and proportional hazards regressions, respectively. Results: Little or no consistent association was found for total flavonoid intake (main population sources: black tea, orange/grapefruit juice, and wine) and incidence or survival for any tumour type. Intake of anthocyanidins, common in wine and fruit juice, was associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of incident OEA (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.29–0.66) and OES (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.26–0.70). The ORs for isoflavones, for which coffee was the main source, were increased for all tumours, except OES. Anthocyanidins were associated with decreased risk of mortality for GCA (HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.42–0.95) and modestly for OEA (HR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60–1.26), but CIs were wide. Conclusions: Our findings, if confirmed, suggest that increased dietary anthocyanidin intake may reduce incidence and improve survival for these cancers. PMID:25668011

  17. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  18. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

  19. Identification of Natural Animicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Cranonbacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juice with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds identified in red muscadine juice (‘Noble’) were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. Commercial baby juices with high polyphenol content (176.7~347.7 mg/mL), showed poor antimicrobial a...

  20. Identification of Natural Antimicrobial Substances in Red Muscadine Juice against Enterobacter sakazakii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) juices with natural organic, phenolic acids and polyphenol compounds were tested against Cronobacter sakazakii. The concentration of total phenolic compounds of commercial baby juices ranged from 176.7 to 347.7 mg/mL. Commercial baby juices showed poor antim...