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1

Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.  

PubMed

The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though differences may be due to variability in the data associated with the small masses of materials that dissolved. Nonetheless, ingestion exposure may not contribute appreciably to total body burden given the short residence time of material in the stomach and relatively long dissolution half-times of these materials (t(1/2) = 60 to 380 days). PMID:20096630

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

2010-03-01

2

A glycopeptide isolated from human gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

A glycopeptide containing 69% carbohydrate was isolated from human gastric juice. The complex was found to be homogeneous and to have mol.wt. 9600. The glycopeptide consisted of a protein core to which were linked, by O-glycosidic linkages to threonine and N-glycosidic linkages, carbohydrate side chains composed of N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialic acid, in the proportions 2:10:7:4:12:1.

Goso, K; Hotta, K

1977-01-01

3

Clot lysis by gastric juice: an in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric juice from patients with peptic ulcer disease and from patients with no upper gastrointestinal abnormality was studied in order to assess its effect on a formed fibrin clot. In both groups of patients gastric juice caused a marked increase in fibrinolysis as evidenced by a shortening of the euglobulin clot lysis time. This plasmin mediated fibrinolytic activity was found

S E Patchett; H Enright; N Afdhal; W OConnell; D P ODonoghue

1989-01-01

4

Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric

S. Banerjee; C. Hawksby; S. Miller; S. Dahill; A D Beattie; K E McColl

1994-01-01

5

Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease.

Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

1997-01-01

6

Histamine in the plasma and gastric juice of cats during infusions of [14C]histamine  

PubMed Central

1. In anaesthetized cats with gastric fistulae, the relation was investigated between the rate of gastric secretion and the histamine contents of the plasma and the gastric juice during intravenous infusions of [14C]histamine for 3 hr. 2. In the first hour only, some endogenous histamine appeared in the gastric juice. 3. There was no quantitative relation between the histamine that was infused and that which appeared in the gastric juice. 4. There was no correlation between the rate of gastric secretion and the concentration of histamine in either plasma or gastric juice. 5. It was concluded that the secretion of histamine into the gastric juice was not essential to gastric secretion.

Born, G. V. R.; Sewing, K.-Fr.

1967-01-01

7

Secretion of intravenously administered antibiotics in gastric juice: implications for management of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To study whether differences in eradication rates of antibiotics may be explained by differences in secretion of antibiotics in gastric juice. METHODS: A single intravenous dose of either ampicillin 500 mg, erythromycin 500 mg, or metronidazole 500 mg was administered to four healthy Helicobacter pylori negative volunteers on different days. Antibiotic concentrations were measured in gastric juice before and every 10 minutes after administration of the drug for two hours and after one hour in serum. RESULTS: No ampicillin was detected in gastric juice. Erythromycin concentrations in gastric juice showed considerable individual variation and reached maximum concentrations of 2.2-4.8 mcg/ml between 30 and 80 minutes after dosing. Metronidazole concentrations in gastric juice showed much less individual variation and maximum concentrations of 5-6 mcg/ml were reached within 30 minutes and remained high during the study period. CONCLUSION: Metronidazole and erythromycin are secreted across the gastric mucosa, but ampicillin is not.

van Zanten, S. J.; Goldie, J.; Hollingsworth, J.; Silletti, C.; Richardson, H.; Hunt, R. H.

1992-01-01

8

High Levels of Aromatic Amino Acids in Gastric Juice during the Early Stages of Gastric Cancer Progression  

PubMed Central

Background Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. Methods Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD), advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC). The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The median values (25th to 75th percentile) of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7–7.5) µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3–9.9) µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4–2.8) µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8–72.4) µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5–73.7) µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1–28.0) µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001). For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.703–0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750–0.911); and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739–0.900). The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted ? coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001). Conclusion Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for screening early gastric cancer development in the general population.

Deng, Kai; Lin, Sanren; Zhou, Liya; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Yuwen

2012-01-01

9

Structural transformation of saikosaponins by gastric juice and intestinal flora.  

PubMed

Structural transformation of saikosaponin a and saikosaponin d, main components of Bupleuri Radix, were investigated using rat gastric juice (pH 1.5) and mouse intestinal flora in vitro and the excretion of saikosaponin derivatives in rat feces was also studied. Quantitative analysis of saikosaponins and their derivatives was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. By the incubation of saikosaponins in rat gastric juice, saikosaponin a decreased with time dependently. After 3 h, saikosaponin a disappeared completely and saikosaponin b1 which possessed heteroannular diene moiety at C-11,13(18) and saikosaponin g which possessed homoannular diene moiety at C-9(11),12 were detected with the ratio of 3:1. On the other hand, saikosaponin d rapidly changed to only saikosaponin b2 (heteroannular diene structure) completely 30 min after the incubation. Next, by the anaerobic incubation of saikosaponin a with mouse intestinal flora, the formation of saikogenin F, a genuine aglycone of saikosaponin a, reached to the maximum 1 h after the incubation and its yield was 80%. A minor peak of prosaikogenen F, a monofucoside of saikogenin F, was also detected at 15 min. By the same procedures, saikosaponin b1, g, d and b2 also changed to the corresponded prosaikogenin A, H, G and D and saikogenin A, H, G and D with the almost similar pattern to that of saikosaponin a. Finally, the contents of nine excreted metabolites from saikosaponin a, 5 and 20 mg/kg, in feces after its oral administration was investigated using fasted or non-fasted rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4087133

Shimizu, K; Amagaya, S; Ogihara, Y

1985-09-01

10

Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.  

PubMed

Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability. PMID:9477424

Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

1997-01-01

11

Transformation of ginsenosides from notoginseng by artificial gastric juice can increase cytotoxicity toward cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multicomponent metabolic profile of notoginseng saponins in artificial gastric juice was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated, showing that ginsenosides were transformed via multiple pathways including deglycosylation, dehydration, hydration, and oxygenation. A total of 83 metabolites was identified by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, among which 16 new dammarane glycosides were further characterized by comparing with synthesized authentic compounds. Transformation time-course of notoginseng saponins in artificial gastric juice was quantitatively measured for the first time, showing rapid degradation of primary ginsenosides and concomitant formation of deglycosylation, hydration, and dehydration products. It was further demonstrated that the resultant metabolites exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. The extensive metabolism of ginsenosides within a transit time span in stomach, together with the formation of metabolites with diversified chemical structures possessing enhanced biological activities, indicated an important role of transformation in gastric juice in the systematic effects of ginsenosides. PMID:24555416

Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee Fong; Zhang, Rui; Xia, Yun; Ma, Jing; Ho, Hing Man; Hu, Ping; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

2014-03-26

12

Effect of omeprazole on the distribution of metronidazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin in human gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mechanism by which antimicrobial therapy against Helicobacter pylori is enhanced by acid suppression is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of omeprazole on gastric juice, plasma, and saliva concentrations of metronidazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. METHODS: Single doses of antibiotic were administered intravenously to 24 healthy men (each antibiotic to 8 subjects)

AF Goddard; MJ Jessa; DA Barrett; PN Shaw; JP Idstrom; C Cederberg; RC Spiller

1996-01-01

13

Effects of Juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Gastric Emptying in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml\\/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the

Hsiao-Fung Pu; Wei-Ju Huang; Wen-Min Tseng; Shyi-Wu Wang; Yu-Wen Liu; Ming-Long Doong; Paulus S. Wang

2004-01-01

14

[The effect of food intake on the gastric emptying of gastric juice-resistant tablets and capsules].  

PubMed

To test the effect of food intake on gastric emptying of gastric juice-resistant drugs, emptying time of a 11 x 6 mm tablet and a 20 x 7 mm capsule was measured by means of a metal detector in 10 healthy persons (5 men and 5 women; mean age 25 [18-30] years) after fasting and after eating three main and three in-between meals. After fasting the tablets left the stomach after 78 +/- 18 min, the capsules after 60 +/- 16 min, while meal intake delayed emptying by a factor of 10 to 12 +/- 1.3 hours and 10 +/- 1.8 hours, respectively. The slightly shorter emptying time of capsules was statistically not significant. The results indicate that gastric juice-resistant tablets taken during day-time may, if several meals are eaten, accumulate in the stomach and then be emptied together at night. It is recommended that such drugs be taken in the fasting state in the morning and between meals, while avoiding in-between meals. PMID:1537265

Ewe, K; Press, A G; Oestreicher, M

1992-02-21

15

Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 ?m and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

2012-12-01

16

Effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on gastric emptying in male rats.  

PubMed

The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed in rats 15 min after intragastric instillation of a test meal containing charcoal (10%) and Na251CrO4 (0.5 microCi/ml). Gastric emptying was determined by measuring the amount of radiolabeled chromium contained in the small intestine as a percentage of the initial amount received. Then, gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radiolabeled marker. Finally, blood samples were collected for measurement of CCK by radioimmunoassay. The administration of noni at 0.25 ml/kg, but not at 1 ml/kg and 4 ml/kg, for 1 day significantly inhibited gastric emptying. In contrast, gastric emptying was significantly inhibited by oral noni (0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg) for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injection of lorglumide (5 or 10 mg/kg), a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, effectively attenuated the noni-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. The intestinal transit and body weight, food intake, water intake, urine volume as well as feces weight were not altered by the administration of noni either acutely or chronically, but the administration of oral noni (1 ml/kg) for 7 days increased the level of plasma CCK in male rats. These results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation. PMID:15803749

Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Huang, Wei-Ju; Tseng, Wen-Min; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Liu, Yu-Wen; Doong, Ming-Long; Wang, Paulus S

2004-12-31

17

Process for Preserving Raw Fruit and Vegetable Juices Using Cyclodextrins and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruit and vegetable juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of cyclodextrins and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable juices.

K. B. Hicks G. M. Sapers P. A. Seib

1988-01-01

18

Relationship between undissociated acidity of gastric juice and gastric protein secreted in response to graded doses of pentagastrin in duodenal ulcer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of free and total hydrogen ions, total protein and pepsin were measured in gastric juice fractions collected during basal secretion and upon stimulation by graded doses of pentagastrin administered intravenously. Undissociated hydrogen ion and non-pepsin protein concentrations were calculated as derived quantities.The studies were carried out in nine patients with duodenal ulcer both before and after truncal vagotomy. It

T Popiela; Z Szafran; H Szafran; M Komorowska

1977-01-01

19

[Determination of total mercury and ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice of Tibetan medicine Dangzuo by GAE-AFS].  

PubMed

The mercury in Tibetan medicine has become important focus in the research on medicine safety evaluation. The total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice of Tibetan medicine Dangzuo were detected by Gold Amalgam Enrichment-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GAE-AFS). In the present study, Tibetan medicine Dangzuo was prepared by H2SO4-KNO3 digestion system and artificial gastric juice. The established method and condition of instrument were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions and instrumental operation parameters, the recovery (n=6) of HgS is 99.56$ (RSD = 1.94%), the limit of detection for mercury is 0.2 ng x L(-1), the linear range is 0-500 ng x L(-1), and r = 0.9999. Then, the total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice in Dangzuo samples from different Tibetan regions were assayed. The result showed that the ranges of total mercury and ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice were 3.9980-16.7358 x mg x g(-1) and 45.5377-1033.9850 ng x g(-1), respectively. The analytical method mentioned above is rapid and accurate for determining the amount of mercury in Tibetan medicine Dangzuo. PMID:21942059

Li, Cen; Yang, Hong-xia; Wei, Li-xin; Du, Yu-zhi; Zhang, Guo-ying

2011-07-01

20

Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age ?=? 25.4 ± 0.7 years, height ?=? 177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass ?=? 78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg?1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (?45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ ?=? 219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW ?=? 305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L?1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ's osmolality and acidity. Cardiovascular reflexes resulting from gastric distension are likely responsible for the plasma volume shift and rise in plasma sodium concentration despite nonsignificant changes in plasma sodium content. These data support our theory that PJ does not relieve cramps via a metabolic mechanism.

Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

2010-01-01

21

Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

1988-01-01

22

Tobacco smoking and vitamin C concentration in gastric juice in healthy subjects and patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Low gastric juice total vitamin C concentration in the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection probably plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis. Vitamin C plays a role in the neutralization of various pathogenic factors connected with H. pylori infection, including the destruction of free radicals, which damage tissues and cell DNA, and inhibition of the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which have a strong carcinogenic activity. The aim of the study was to determine whether tobacco smoking had any effect on gastric juice vitamin C concentration in healthy subjects and in patients infected with H. pylori. Eighty-six patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing routine endoscopy entered the study after giving informed consent. In all patients plasma and gastric juice total vitamin C levels were measured by a spectrophotometric method. They were entered into four groups: group I (controls) - H. pylori-negative non-smokers (n = 17), group II - H. pylori-negative smokers (n = 16), group III - non-smokers with H. pylori infection (n = 21), and group IV - H. pylori-infected smokers (n = 32). In the control group (I) the mean gastric juice total vitamin C concentration was 17.1 microg/ml (range 5.3-40.0 microg/ml), which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in group II (12.6 microg/ml, range 5.1-21.0 microg/ml), group III (5.8 microg/ml range 2.1-13.7 microg/ml) and group IV (3.9 microg/ml, range 1.1-10.6 microg/ml) (P < 0.001). Statistically significant differences also were noted between groups II and III (P < 0.01) and groups II and IV (P < 0.001) and between groups III and IV (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the concentration of vitamin C in gastric juice is significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers. This was observed in healthy subjects as well as H. pylori-infected patients. This phenomenon may be one of the mechanisms whereby smoking contributes to the production of gastric lesions, impairs healing of peptic ulcers and also increases the recurrence rate of peptic ulcers in cases with H. pylori infection. PMID:11201681

Jarosz, M; Dzieniszewski, J; Dabrowska-Ufniarz, E; Wartanowicz, M; Ziemlanski, S

2000-12-01

23

Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in phenolic substances—mainly flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and other activities. We studied the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and its possible relation to the oxidative status. AMFJ (5, 10 and 20mlkg?1) was applied

S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova; K. Marazova; I. Krasnaliev; B. Galunska; P. Borisova; A. Belcheva

2005-01-01

24

Use of a Gastric Juice-Based PCR Assay To Detect Helicobacter pylori Infection in Culture-Negative Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gastric juice-based PCR assay was compared with culture, microscopy, and a rapid urease test with specimens from 114 subjects. The PCR and conventional tests were positive for 76 and 62% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of gastroduodenal disease and seropositivity for anti-Helicobacter pylori immuno- globulin G were similarly high among conventional-test-positive and PCR-only-positive subjects compared to all-negative ones.

HARUHIKO YOSHIDA; KATSUTARO HIROTA; YASUSHI SHIRATORI; TAKESHI NIHEI; SHIN AMANO; AKIRA YOSHIDA; OSAMU KAWAMATA; MASAO OMATA

1998-01-01

25

Amperometric microsensor for direct probing of ascorbic acid in human gastric juice.  

PubMed

This article reports on a novel microsensor for amperometric measurement of ascorbic acid (AA) under acidic conditions (pH 2) based on a carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) modified with nickel oxide and ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (NiO-RuHCF). This sensing layer was deposited electrochemically in a two-step procedure involving an initial galvanostatic NiO deposition followed by a potentiodynamic RuHCF deposition from solutions containing the precursor salts. Several important parameters were examined to characterize and optimize the NiO-RuHCF sensing layer with respect to its current response to AA by using cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. With the NiO-RuHCF coated CFME, the AA oxidation potential under acidic conditions was shifted to a less positive value for about 0.2 V (E(p) of ca. 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl) as compared to a bare CFME, which greatly improves the electrochemical selectivity. Using the hydrodynamic amperometry mode, the current vs. AA concentration in 0.01 M HCl, at a selected operating potential of 0.30 V, was found to be linear over a wide range of 10-1610 ?M (n=22, r=0.999) with a calculated limit of detection of 1.0 ?M. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) ranging from 4% to 5% (n=6), depending on the AA concentration, and with a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (r.s.d.) of 6.9% at 100 ?M AA. The long-term reproducibility, using the same microsensor for 112 consecutive measurements of 20 ?M AA over 11 h of periodic probing sets over 4 days, was 16.1% r.s.d., thus showing very good stability at low AA levels and suitability for use over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, using the proposed microsensor, additionally coated with a protective cellulose acetate membrane, the calibration plot obtained in the extremely complex matrix of real undiluted gastric juice was linear from 10 to 520 ?M (n=14, r=0.998). These results demonstrated the unique featuring of the proposed NiO-RuHCF microsensor under acidic conditions with enhanced sensitivity and stability and proved its promising potentiality for direct amperometric probing of AA at physiological levels in real gastric juice environments. PMID:20888449

Hutton, Emily A; Pauliukait?, Rasa; Hocevar, Samo B; Ogorevc, Božidar; Smyth, Malcolm R

2010-09-30

26

In vivo antioxidative capacity of a composite berry juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the health protective potential of a special antioxidant-rich juice (containing 30% white grape-, 25% blackcurrant-, 15% elderberry-, 10% sour cherry-, 10% blackberry- and 10% aronia-juice), the bioavailability of its most important bioactive compounds (anthocyanins and ascorbic acid) and the influence of juice consumption on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was assessed by six healthy

Michael Netzel; Gabriele Strass; Caroline Kaul; Irmgard Bitsch; Helmut Dietrich; Roland Bitsch

2002-01-01

27

Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.  

PubMed

The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

2007-01-01

28

Changes in nutraceutical composition of lemon juices according to different industrial extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids and ascorbic acid have gained especial relevance due to their functional properties. Their level in processed foodstuffs depend not only on the raw material composition but also on the processing system employed. The contents of these two nutraceuticals in juice are determined in two lemon varieties. The highest ascorbic acid contents are in Fino lemon juice, irrespective of the

F. R Mar??n; M Martinez; T Uribesalgo; S Castillo; M. J Frutos

2002-01-01

29

Applicability of the silver amalgam electrode in voltammetric determination of zinc and copper in gastric juice and gastric mucosa of rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to compare two analytical methods of trace analysis in respect to their applicability in heavy metals determination in biological samples. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) may be considered as the method of choice in such analyses due to its accuracy, precision and low detection limit. On the other hand, voltammetric methods seem to be as useful, but rarely applied. Having in mind that there is no universal analytical method, we have compared two AAS and voltammetric methods as the tools for Zn and Cu determination in the samples collected from rat gastric juice and gastric mucosa. Construction of the renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) for stripping voltammetry was described. Detailed optimization of measurements procedure and sample preparation for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DP ASV) and AAS were also performed and presented. The obtained results of quantitative analysis of the chosen parameters by means of both methods are discussed. PMID:21796930

Opoka, W?odzimierz; Ba?, Bogus?aw; Reczy?ski, Witold; P?onka, Ma?gorzata; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Brzozowski, Tomasz

2011-01-01

30

An investigation of the chemical stability of arsenosugars in simulated gastric juice and acidic environments using IC-ICP-MS and IC-ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A more quantitative extraction of arsenic-containing compounds from seafood matrices is essential in developing better dietary exposure estimates. More quantitative extraction often implies a more chemically aggressive set of extraction conditions. However, these conditions may result in undesirable chemical changes in the native arsenicals which may further complicate the toxicological risk assessment. This balance between quantitative extraction and species-specific integrity may be best addressed by using simulated gastric juice as an extraction solvent to mimic 'bioavailability'. This, conceptually, should extract the bioavailable fraction and induce any chemical changes that would occur because of ingestion. The most chemically labile species associated with seafood are thought to be the arsenosugars and for this reason their chemical stability is investigated in this study. Four arsenosugars (3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropylene glycol, As(328); 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid, As(392); 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxyl-2-hydroxypropyl hydrogen sulfate, As(408); and 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-hydroxypropyl phosphate, As(482)) were isolated from seaweed extracts and subjected to simulated gastric juice and acidic conditions which mimic the stomach's pH of 1.1. Three acid solutions were used to test the chemical stability of the arsenosugars: simulated gastric juice, 78 mM nitric acid and 78 mM hydrochloric acid. The composition of the solutions was monitored over time (up to 48 h) using IC-ICP-MS for detection. The arsenosugars were found to degrade at the rate of 1.4% per h at 38 degrees C and 12.2% per h at 60 degrees C. The plots of percent conversion versus time were found to be independent of the starting arsenosugar and all had r2 values of greater than 0.97. A single common degradation product was observed in all the stability studies. A mass balance between the starting arsenosugar (As(392), As(408) and As(482)) and the degradation product was conducted with each set of experiments. This mass balance indicated that the degradation process did not produce any unchromatographable species. This degradation product was tentatively identified as As(254) as determined by ESI-MS/MS spectral data. An acid hydrolysis mechanism was proposed for the formation of As(254) from each of the native arsenosugars by hydrolysis at the C-1 carbon on the ribose ring. PMID:12146911

Gamble, Bryan M; Gallagher, Patricia A; Shoemaker, Jody A; Wei, Xinyi; Schwegel, Carol A; Creed, John T

2002-06-01

31

Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402

Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

2013-08-01

32

Pathophysiological Investigation of the Gastric Surface Mucous Gel Layer of Patients with Helicobacter pylori Infection by Using Immunoassays for Trefoil Factor Family 2 and Gastric Gland Mucous Cell-Type Mucin in Gastric Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The trefoil factor family (TFF) 2 protein is produced by gastric gland mucous cells (GMCs), and the secreted TFF2 shares a\\u000a mucosal barrier function with GMC-type mucin. Recently, we presented an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for\\u000a measurement of GMC-type mucin in the gastric juice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We aimed to develop an ELISA for TFF2 and to assess pathophysiological changes in the

Seiko Kubota; Kazuyoshi Yamauchi; Mitsutoshi Sugano; Kenji Kawasaki; Atsushi Sugiyama; Kenji Matsuzawa; Taiji Akamatsu; Yasukazu Ohmoto; Hiroyoshi Ota

33

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

1991-01-01

34

Increasing gastric juice pH level prior to anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy may be beneficial to the healing of duodenal ulcers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy of clarithromycin-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected duodenal ulcer when combined with different pH levels of gastric juices. A total of 160 patients with Hp-infected duodenal ulcers were randomly allocated into two groups. Patients in the treatment group (n=80) were administered a 20-mg dose of omeprazole twice daily for 1 week and then the treatment and control groups (n=80) received therapy for Hp infection and duodenal ulcers. We observed the ulcer healing stage, the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice and the Hp eradication rate before and after proton pump inhibitor therapy in the two groups. Results revealed that the Hp eradication rate in the treatment group was 93% compared with 81% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The ulcer healing rate in the treatment group was 93%, compared with 70% in the control group (P<0.05). A positive linear correlation was observed between gastric pH and the content of anti-Hp IgA in gastric juice (P<0.05). Increasing gastric pH prior to anti-Hp therapy may be beneficial to the eradication of Hp and for promoting the healing of duodenal ulcers.

FAN, HONG-YUN; WANG, JUAN; YAN, GUO-CHAO; HUO, XIAO-HUI; MU, LI-JUAN; CHU, JIAN-KUN; NIU, WEI-WEI; DUAN, ZHI-YING; MA, JIN-CHENG; WANG, JING; WANG, ZHI-YU

2013-01-01

35

Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice were studied. The antioxidative constituents of 184.6 g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents, and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system

Chang-hong LIU; Ya-rong XUE; Yong-hang YE; Feng-feng YUAN; Jun-yan LIU; Jing-lei SHUANG

2007-01-01

36

[Total peptic activity in gastric juice and peptic cell mass (chief fundic cells and mucopeptic fundic-antral cells): cellular-secretory correlations in normal subjects].  

PubMed

The aim of this experience has been to evaluate cytosecretory correlations between total peptic activity in gastric juice and gastric peptic cell mass (chief cells and fundic-antral mucopeptic cells) in normal subjects. Gastric peptic cell mass and total peptic activity do not change depending on sex. Concerning age, in spite of a significant decrease of gastric peptic cell mass, peptic activity does not significantly decrease. This apparent disagreement between decreasing anatomic data and functional data, remaining unchanged, may be explained by analyzing the behaviour of fundic and antral peptic cell masses in detail. A difference emerges in the behaviour of chief and mucopeptic cells. The first decrease significantly after 50 years, while the second ones do not show variations, regardless of their fundic and antral location. In particular, fundic mucopeptic cell component increase, but not significantly. The lack of variation in peptic activity in gastric juice after 50 years may be assumed to be connected with the unchanged integrity of mucopeptic cells. PMID:8519857

Testino, G; Cornaggia, M; Cheli, R

1995-09-01

37

Bactericidal activities of the cationic steroid CSA13 and the cathelicidin peptide LL37 against Helicobacter pylori in simulated gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains of H. pylori motivates a search for new agents with therapeutic potential against this family of bacteria that colonizes the stomach,\\u000a and is associated with adenocarcinoma development. This study was designed to assess in vitro the anti-H. pylori potential of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, which is naturally present in gastric juice, its optimized synthetic analog

Katarzyna Leszczy?ska; Andrzej Namiot; David E Fein; Qi Wen; Zbigniew Namiot; Paul B Savage; Scott Diamond; Paul A Janmey; Robert Bucki

2009-01-01

38

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,

Anh Kim T. Bui; Antony Bacic; Filomena Pettolino

2006-01-01

39

The effect of anticholinergic drugs on the mucus content of gastric juice  

PubMed Central

Increasing suppression of gastric secretion by anticholinergic drugs is accompanied by a rising mucus concentration; the actual output of mucus shows little change despite a marked reduction in the secretory volume. The problems involved in the estimation of mucus secretion and the importance of the above findings in relation to the therapeutic use of anticholinergic drugs in peptic ulceration are discussed.

Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Fenton, Barbara

1962-01-01

40

Bactericidal activities of the cationic steroid CSA-13 and the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 against Helicobacter pylori in simulated gastric juice  

PubMed Central

Background The worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains of H. pylori motivates a search for new agents with therapeutic potential against this family of bacteria that colonizes the stomach, and is associated with adenocarcinoma development. This study was designed to assess in vitro the anti-H. pylori potential of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, which is naturally present in gastric juice, its optimized synthetic analog WLBU2, and the non-peptide antibacterial agent ceragenin CSA-13. Results In agreement with previous studies, increased expression of hCAP-18/LL-37 was observed in gastric mucosa obtained from H. pylori infected subjects. MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values determined in nutrient-containing media range from 100-800 ?g/ml for LL-37, 17.8-142 ?g/ml for WLBU2 and 0.275-8.9 ?g/ml for ceragenin CSA-13. These data indicate substantial, but widely differing antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of H. pylori. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (low pH with presence of pepsin) CSA-13, but not LL-37 or WLBU2, retained antibacterial activity. Compared to LL-37 and WLBU2 peptides, CSA-13 activity was also more resistant to inhibition by isolated host gastric mucins. Conclusion These data indicate that cholic acid-based antimicrobial agents such as CSA-13 resist proteolytic degradation and inhibition by mucin and have potential for treatment of H. pylori infections, including those caused by the clarithromycin and/or metronidazole-resistant strains.

2009-01-01

41

Unbuffered Highly Acidic Gastric Juice Exists at the Gastroesophageal Junction After a Meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Gastroesophageal reflux typically occurs after meals. During dualgastric and esophageal pH monitoring, we observed that postprandialrefluxate was often more acidic than the gastric contents. This studyaimed to investigate this phenomenon. Methods: Dualgastric and esophageal pH tracings were analyzed from 40 dyspepticpatients. Dual pH electrode pull-through studies were performed inhealthy volunteers to document regional variation in intragastric pHunder

Jonathan Fletcher; Angela Wirz; Joanne Young; Ramsey Vallance; Kenneth E. L. McColl

2001-01-01

42

Identification of phenolic compositions and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices and wines.  

PubMed

This research was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of juices and wines obtained from Robinson, Fremont and Satsuma mandarins. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection was used for identifying and quantifying phenolic compounds. The total amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 36.6 to 132.6 mg/L for the mandarin juice, and from 14.1 to 54.5 mg/L for the wines. In the juices and wines, the major hydroxybenzoic acid was vanillic acid; the major hydroxycinnamic acid was ferulic acid; and the major flavanone was hesperidin. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices was found to be higher than that of wines. Results of this study indicated that these mandarin wines had a composition similar to other beverages, thus demonstrating that these fruits have the potential to be used to produce fermented beverages. PMID:24876641

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2014-06-01

43

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).  

PubMed

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp, 2-Rhap, 2,4-Rhap), arabinan (5-Araf, 3,5-Araf, t-Araf), type I arabinogalactan (4-Galp, 3,4-Galp, t-Araf) and beta-glucosyl Yariv-binding type II arabinogalactan (3,6-Galp, t-Araf). Low levels of xyloglucan (4-Glcp, 4,6-Glcp, t-Xylp, t-Fucp), heteroxylan (4-Xylp) and heteromannan (4-Manp) are also present. PMID:16777156

Bui, Anh Kim T; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena

2006-06-01

44

Cobalt as a gastric juice volume marker: Comparison of two methods of estimation  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the use of cobalt-EDTA, a novel, nonabsorbable liquid phase marker, in the estimation of secretory volumes during topical misoprostol (synthetic PGE, analog) administration in the canine chambered gastric segment. We compared atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the estimation of (Co). Mucosal bathing solutions containing cobalt-EDTA were instilled into and recovered from the chamber by gravity every 15-min period as follows: (i) basal--60 min; (ii) misoprostol periods--150 min (plus 0.1-, 1-, 10-, 100-, and 1000-micrograms doses of misoprostol for two periods per dose). The recovered solutions were analyzed for (Co) by AAS and INAA. Total cobalt recovery by AAS after chamber washout was 102.97 +/- 0.98%. Mean +/- SE volumes (12.14 +/- 0.33 and 13.24 +/- 0.60 ml/15 min) obtained respectively from AAS and INAA were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than the recovered mean volumes (10.51 +/- 0.17 ml/15 min). The percentage error in volume collection increased (range: 9.3-52.7%) with the volume of secretion. Values of (Co) obtained by the two techniques were comparable and not significantly different from each other (P greater than 0.05). INAA-estimated mean +/- SE (Co) showed consistently higher coefficients of variation. Spectra obtained for all samples during INAA measurements showed significant Compton background activity from 24Na and 38Cl. Cobalt-EDTA did not grossly or histologically damage the gastric mucosa. We conclude that cobalt is not adsorbed, absorbed, or metabolized, and is a suitable and reliable volume marker in this model.

Gana, T.J.; MacPherson, B.R.; Ng, D.; Koo, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1990-01-01

45

A new composite gastric seromuscular and omental pedicle flap.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a study to see if gastric seromuscular patch elevation is anatomically feasible and to estimate the maximum size of the patch relative to its blood supply. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A flap composed of greater omentum and a full-thickness segment of the greater curvature of the stomach, based on the right gastroepiploic artery, was first described in 1977. Elevation of the greater omentum along with a seromuscular patch of stomach has not been reported previously. METHODS: Angiography was performed via the right gastroepiploic artery in a stomach obtained from ten patients who underwent gastrectomy, then india ink was injected. The stomach was then fixed in 10% formalin, and histochemical examination was performed to determine if seromuscular patch elevation was possible. RESULT: Results of the angiography and injection experiment of india ink indicated that the territory of a single gastric ramus was approximately 5 cm x 5 cm in both anterior and posterior walls of the stomach. Histology revealed that the gastric rami lay between the muscular layer and the mucosa. CONCLUSION: The authors believed that a composite gastric seromuscular patch and omental pedicle flap would be clinically applicable. The authors also believed that the maximum size of the patch was 10 cm x 10 cm. They used this flap to successfully treat three patients with chronic soft-tissue defects--two bronchopleural fistulae and a radiation ulcer. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7.

Kamei, Y; Torii, S

1994-01-01

46

Clonality Analysis of Helicobacter pylori in Patients Isolated from Several Biopsy Specimens and Gastric Juice in a Japanese Urban Population by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Background. The number of Helicobacter pylori clones infecting a single host has been discussed in numerous reports. The number has been suggested to vary depending on the regions in the world. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of clones infecting a single host in a Japanese urban population. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one Japanese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study. H. pylori isolates (total 104 strains) were obtained from biopsy specimens (antrum, corpus, and duodenum) and gastric juice. Clonal diversity was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting method. Results. The RAPD fingerprinting patterns of isolates from each patient were identical or very similar. And the isolates obtained from several patients with 5- to 9-year intervals showed identical or very similar RAPD patterns. Conclusion. Each Japanese individual of an urban population is predominantly infected with a single H. pylori clone. PMID:24348543

Toita, Nariaki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Konno, Mutsuko

2013-01-01

47

Clonality Analysis of Helicobacter pylori in Patients Isolated from Several Biopsy Specimens and Gastric Juice in a Japanese Urban Population by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Background. The number of Helicobacter pylori clones infecting a single host has been discussed in numerous reports. The number has been suggested to vary depending on the regions in the world. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of clones infecting a single host in a Japanese urban population. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one Japanese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study. H. pylori isolates (total 104 strains) were obtained from biopsy specimens (antrum, corpus, and duodenum) and gastric juice. Clonal diversity was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting method. Results. The RAPD fingerprinting patterns of isolates from each patient were identical or very similar. And the isolates obtained from several patients with 5- to 9-year intervals showed identical or very similar RAPD patterns. Conclusion. Each Japanese individual of an urban population is predominantly infected with a single H. pylori clone.

Toita, Nariaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Konno, Mutsuko

2013-01-01

48

Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.  

PubMed

In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

2014-12-15

49

Rapid determination of the main organic acid composition of raw Japanese apricot fruit juices using near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to rapidly determine citric and malic acid contents of raw Japanese apricot (Japanese "ume", also known as the Japanese plum) fruit juice was investigated. In total, 314 raw juice samples with different organic acid compositions were collected over a long growth period, and spectra (1100-1850 nm) of these samples were acquired using an NIR spectrophotometer with a 1-mm path length. Calibrations were performed using a partial least-squares regression method based on a calibration sample set (211 samples), while validations were performed based on a validation sample set (103 samples). The results revealed good agreement between NIR spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis, including the correlation coefficient (r2), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias; no statistically (p = 0.05) significant differences were found for these parameters. Moreover, standard deviation ratios of reference data in the validation sample set to the SEP were higher than 3, indicating that NIR spectroscopy may represent an acceptable method for quantitative evaluation of citric and malic acids in raw Japanese apricot fruit juice. PMID:17177483

Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Matsunaga, Ryuji

2006-12-27

50

Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of ?-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

2007-01-01

51

SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for compositional surface mapping for the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a dust mass spectrometer to measure the composition of ballistic dust particles populating the thin exospheres that were detected around each of the Galilean moons. Since these grains are direct samples from the moons' icy surfaces, unique composition data will be obtained that will help to define and constrain the geological activities on and below the moons' surface. The proposed instrument will make a vital contribution to ESA's planned JUICE mission and provide key answers to its main scientific questions about the surface composition, habitability, the icy crust, and exchange processes with the deeper interior of the Jovian icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The SUrface Dust Aanalyser (SUDA) is a time-of-flight, reflectron-type impact mass spectrometer, opti-mised for a high mass resolution which only weakly depends on the impact location. The small size (268×250×171 mm3), low mass (< 4 kg) and large sen-sitive area (220 cm2) makes the instrument well suited for the challenging demands of the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. A full-size prototype SUDA instrument was built in order to demonstrate its performance through calibra-tion experiments at the Heidelberg dust accelerator with a variety of cosmo-chemically relevant dust ana-logues. The effective mass resolution of m/?m of 150-200 is achieved for mass range of interest m = 1-150.

Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Gruen, E.; Hand, K. P.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M. R.; Lebreton, J.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M. Y.

2012-12-01

52

High concentration of kynurenic acid in bile and pancreatic juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal\\u000a tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal\\u000a content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentrations of KYNA in human\\u000a gastric juice is

Piotr Paluszkiewicz; Wojciech Zgrajka; Tomasz Saran; Janusz Schabowski; Jose L. Valverde Piedra; Olexandr Fedkiv; Sofia Rengman; Stefan G. Pierzynowski; Waldemar A. Turski

2009-01-01

53

Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.  

PubMed

Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

2002-02-13

54

Color, sugars and organic acids composition in aril juices and peel homogenates prepared from different pomegranate accessions.  

PubMed

The current study describes differences in pomegranate fruit size and aril weight of 29 accessions grown in Israel. The contents of sugars and organic acids in their aril juices and peel homogenates, as well as color parameters, were determined. While the levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble sugars in the aril juices differ only slightly, those of titratable acidity (TA) and citric acid changed significantly, suggesting that they are the main contributors to juice taste. In general, significant positive correlations were found between TA values and the red color parameters, and these two parameters, as well as TSS, appeared to be higher in the juices of accessions harvested late in the season. Peel homogenates exhibited lower levels of TSS, TA, soluble sugars and organic acids than aril juices. Some red color parameters, TA and citric acid were found to correlate significantly between the aril juices and peel homogenates. PMID:20232916

Dafny-Yalin, Mery; Glazer, Ira; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Kerem, Zohar; Holland, Doron; Amir, Rachel

2010-04-14

55

Library Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Library Juice is a current awareness newsletter for librarians and other information professionals, published weekly by editor-librarian Rory Litwin. Each issue of Library Juice compiles recent news, articles, and announcements gleaned from a wide range of mailing lists related to librarianship, information science, intellectual freedom, and social responsibility. The Website posts the current issue of the newsletter and maintains an archive of all past issues.

1998-01-01

56

Comparison of Nutritional Compositions and Antioxidant Activities of Building Blocks in Shinseoncho and Kale Green Vegetable Juices  

PubMed Central

Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p<0.05). Neutral sugar content showed higher values in SS (21.740 mg/mL) and SL (18.657 mg/mL) when compared with KS (1.497 mg/mL) and KL (1.452 mg/mL) (p<0.05). Protein content showed the highest value in SL (7.610 mg/mL) (p<0.05), while SS (0.403 mg/mL) and KS (0.403 mg/mL) showed similar lower values. Total polyphenol contents of SL (423.139 ?g/mL) was significantly higher value (p<0.05) than those of other samples, which occurred in the following order: SL> KL (218.494 ?g/mL)> KS (107.269 ?g/mL)> SS (75.894 ?g/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: KL> SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (p<0.05). In general, leaf parts had much higher antioxidant activities as well as total polyphenol contents than those of the stem parts. In conclusion, shinseoncho and kale, particularly their leaf parts, offer antioxidant properties in green vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection.

Kim, Seong Yeong

2012-01-01

57

Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.  

PubMed

The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed. PMID:19572518

Oszmia?ski, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

2009-08-12

58

Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis. PMID:18557623

Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

2008-07-01

59

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

60

Opalescent and Cloudy Fruit Juices: Formation and Particle Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Ronald Wrolstad, Department of Food Science and Technology, Wiegand Hall 100, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6692 Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate

Tom Beveridge

2002-01-01

61

Volatile composition of hybrids Citrus juices by headspace solid-phase micro extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds of Citrus juices have been extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). This work deals with the analysis of 65 cross pollinated hybrid fruits and their parents: mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Willow Leaf) and clementine (Citrus reticulata×Citrus sinensis var. Commune). Among the 44 components identified which

Toussaint Barboni; François Luro; Nathalie Chiaramonti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

2009-01-01

62

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

63

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2012-07-12

64

Clarification of Citrus Juices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for the clarification of citrus juices is disclosed. Polygalacturonic acid is added to cloudy citrus juice. The resultant coagulated material is removed from solution leaving a clear liquid.

R. A. Baker J. H. Bruemmer

1977-01-01

65

Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.  

PubMed

Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism. PMID:23631498

Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

2013-05-01

66

The relation between gastric vitamin C concentrations, mucosal histology, and CagA seropositivity in the human stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Vitamin C may be protective against gastric cancer though infection withHelicobacter pylori is associated with a reduction in intragastric concentrations of vitamin C.Aims—To examine the effects ofH pylori infection, gastric juice pH, the severity and extent of gastric inflammation, and CagA antibody status of the individual on gastric juice and mucosal vitamin C concentrations.Patients—One hundred and fifteen patients undergoing routine

Z W Zhang; S E Patchett; D Perrett; P H Katelaris; P Domizio; M J G Farthing

1998-01-01

67

The K(+) affinity of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is affected by both lipid composition and the beta-subunit.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that negatively charged residues present in the alpha-subunit of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase are involved in K(+) binding and transport. Despite the fact that there is no difference between various species regarding these negatively charged residues, it was observed that the apparent K(+) affinity of the pig enzyme was much lower than that of the rat H(+),K(+)-ATPase. By determining the K(+)-stimulated dephosphorylation reaction of the phosphorylated intermediate K(0.5) values for K(+) of 0.12+/-0.01 and 1.73+/-0.03 mM were obtained (ratio 14.4) for the rat and the pig enzyme, respectively. To investigate the reason for the observed difference in K(+) sensitivity, both enzymes originating from the gastric mucosa were either reconstituted in a similar lipid environment or expressed in Sf9 cells. After reconstitution in K(+)-permeable phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes K(0.5) values for K(+) of 0.16+/-0.01 and 0.35+/-0.05 mM for the rat and pig enzyme respectively were measured (ratio 2.2). After expression in Sf9 cells the pig gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase still showed a 4.1 times lower K(+) sensitivity than that of the rat enzyme. This means that the difference in K(+) sensitivity of the rat and pig gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase is not only due to a different lipid composition but also to the structure of either the alpha- or beta-subunit. Expression of hybrid enzymes in Sf9 cells showed that the difference in K(+) sensitivity between the rat and pig gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is primarily due to differences in the beta-subunit. PMID:11004562

Hermsen, H P; Swarts, H G; Wassink, L; Dijk, F J; Raijmakers, M T; Klaassen, C H; Koenderink, J B; Maeda, M; De Pont, J J

2000-07-14

68

Chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fruit juice by precipitation with ethanol or ferric chloride.  

PubMed

Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation. PMID:19739640

Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan

2009-10-14

69

The relation between gastric vitamin C concentrations, mucosal histology, and CagA seropositivity in the human stomach  

PubMed Central

Background—Vitamin C may be protective against gastric cancer though infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with a reduction in intragastric concentrations of vitamin C. ?Aims—To examine the effects of H pylori infection, gastric juice pH, the severity and extent of gastric inflammation, and CagA antibody status of the individual on gastric juice and mucosal vitamin C concentrations. ?Patients—One hundred and fifteen patients undergoing routine gastroscopy for investigation of dyspepsia. ?Methods—High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin C concentrations. CagA antibody was detected by western blot analysis. ?Results—Gastric juice ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in patients infected with H pylori compared with those uninfected (19.3 µmol/l (interquartile range (IQR) 10.7-44.5) versus 66.9 µmol/l (IQR 24.4-94.2), p=0.003). The reduction in gastric juice ascorbic acid concentration was inversely related to the severity of gastritis (p=0.01). CagA positive patients had significantly lower gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations than CagA negative ones (14.8 µmol/l (IQR 7.9-52.2) versus 39µmol/l (IQR 19.9-142.2), p=0.05). Decreased gastric juice dehydroascorbic acid concentrations were observed in patients with gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Mucosal ascorbic acid concentrations were also significantly lower in infected patients than uninfected patients (p=0.04). ?Conclusions—The reduction in gastric vitamin C concentrations is related to gastric juice pH, the severity and extent of gastritis, the presence of H pylori, and the CagA antibody status of the individual. These findings may have implications in H pylori associated carcinogenesis. ?? Keywords: ascorbic acid; Helicobacter pylori; gastric juice; gastric mucosa; premalignancy

Zhang, Z; Patchett, S; Perrett, D; Katelaris, P; Domizio, P; Farthing, M

1998-01-01

70

Continent gastric pouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1985 and June 1995 a total of 12 patients (9 female, 3 male) underwent total reconstruction of the lower urinary tract using gastric tissue. Their mean age was 10 years (range, 5–25 years). Total gastric bladder substitution was performed in seven patients, whereas five other patients had composite continent reservoirs (stomach plus bowel) created. The diagnoses were cloacal

M. C. Carr; M. E. Mitchell

1996-01-01

71

Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature. The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and

U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

72

Rapid authentication of concord juice concentration in a grape juice blend using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Concord grape juice is associated with many health benefits, and so it can be sold at a premium price. However, there is currently no method to verify the percent composition of Concord grape juice in grape juice blends. In order to guard against potential adulteration, a rapid method for authentication is required. Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to develop a model which predicts the percent composition of Concord grape juice. The model was based on a training set of 64 samples with Concord concentrations ranging from 50% to 100%. Data was collected on an external validation set with a standard error of prediction of 5.6% using 7 factors. The results suggest the feasibility of using FT-IR coupled with chemometrics as a production-scale tool for authentication claims of Concord in grape juice blends, protecting consumers and businesses against deceptive labelling. PMID:24206721

Snyder, Abigail B; Sweeney, Christian F; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E; Giusti, M Monica

2014-03-15

73

Elemental composition of dog foods using nitric acid and simulated gastric digestions.  

PubMed

Eighteen dry dog foods obtained commercially in the United States were digested using microwave assisted nitric acid digestion and a simulated gastric digestion. Digests were analysed for 23 elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data, expressed as dry matter concentrations, were compared to published nitric acid digestion results. Nitric acid data obtained in the present study were not statistically different from published data, with the exception of Mo, Sn, Sb, Tl and Th. However, significant differences in individual intra-sample results were observed between published studies and the present work. Simulated gastric digestions demonstrated lower extraction efficiencies (<50% nitric acid digestions) that were statistically significant. Much lower bioavailability was observed for Al, Ba and Pb. In general, elemental concentrations were determined to be lower than the appropriate Mineral Tolerance Limit or consistent with background concentrations in foodstuffs. Evaluation against Reference Doses (RfDs) showed concentrations for many elements obtained by nitric acid digestion to be above RfD levels. However, the respective simulated gastric digestion data were below or only moderately elevated above RfDs. Only arsenic displayed median and maximum concentrations at factors of five and ten above the relevant RfD. PMID:23402861

Kelly, David G; White, Steven D; Weir, Ron D

2013-05-01

74

Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

1980-01-01

75

5.NF Drinking Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had $\\frac{1}{2}$ a liter of juice in a bottle. She drank $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the juice that was in the bottle. How many liters of juice did she dri...

76

[Gastric secretory function and the energy component of the mixtures used in parenteral feeding].  

PubMed

Experiments on dogs with a gastric fustula and Pavlov's (miniature) isolated pouch, kept on a high-standard mixed ration evidenced that intravenous administration of various substances acts on the fundal gastric glands differently. Some of such substances stimulate the secretion of an acid gastric juice (xylitol and ethyl alcohol), while others are inert in this respect (sorbitol, 1.2-propandiol, 1.3-butandiol, fatty intralipid emulsion). Five percent solutions of glucose and fructose do not provoke any significant secretion of juice, although also lead to a short-lived pH fall in the gastric secretion. At the same time the action of the said substances is markedly less intensive than the caseine hydrolysate (TSOLIPK) has an effect on the gastric juice. In the practice of parenteral nutrition with the preparation of nutrative mixtures the ability to provoke the gastric secretion by the ethyl alcohol and xylitol an account should be taken of. PMID:6769239

Sysoev, Iu A; Kremer, Iu N; Shlygin, G K

1980-01-01

77

[Effect of nicotine on the production of gastric acid (author's transl)].  

PubMed

15 test persons underwent intravenous injection of nicotine hydrogen tartrate. The acute effect on secretion rates and ionic composition of gastric acid was determined. Submaximal stimulation of gastric mucosa was reached with 50 mg/hr histalog applied intravenously. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate application of 0.012 to 0.020 mg/kg body weight in non smokers and of 0.022 to 0.034 mg/kg body weight in smokers caused the following changes: increase of concentration of hydrogen and chloride ions, decrease of ionic concentration of sodium and potassium in the gastric juice as well as slower secretion of sodium ions per time unit. A stomach stimulated intravenously by infusion of 2 mg/hr histalog per kg body weight is affected by intravenous injection of nicotine hydrogen tartrate in amounts of 0.018 to 0.032 mg per kg body weight in non smokers and of 0.033 to 0.048 mg per kg body weight in smokers by a significant increase of concentration and secretion rates of hydrogen ions as well as a decrease of ionic potassium concentration in the gastric secretion. The increased gastric acid concentration caused by nicotine under maximal stimulation with histalog is discussed as promoting factor of ulceration and as retarding factor for the healing process. PMID:1250196

Mertz, D P; Thongbhoubesra, T

1976-01-23

78

Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935

Wojdy?o, Aneta; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Oszmia?ski, Jan

2014-06-01

79

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...juice may contain finely divided insoluble solids, but it does not contain pieces...juice is as follows: (i) The soluble solids content of pineapple juice (exclusive...of water, the soluble pineapple juice solids content (exclusive of added...

2014-04-01

80

High concentration of kynurenic acid in bile and pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentrations of KYNA in human gastric juice is 9.91 +/- 0.71 nM in contrast to human bile (832.5 +/- 204.1 and 306.8 +/- 35.2 nM) obtained from patients with cholecystolithiasis and obstructive jaundice, respectively. In pigs, the KYNA levels in bile and pancreatic juice are 1,113.3 +/- 63.34 and 757.0 +/- 394.4 nM, respectively. The KYNA concentration increases along the digestive system, reaching 1,638 nM in the colon content. We suggest that the liver and pancreas affect the content of kynurenic acid in the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:18836681

Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Saran, Tomasz; Schabowski, Janusz; Piedra, Jose L Valverde; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Rengman, Sofia; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Turski, Waldemar A

2009-10-01

81

Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment.

Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

2014-01-01

82

Adventitious Citrus Juice Vesicles from Pre-Existing Juice Vesicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention comprises adventitious citrus juice vesicles having the unique characteristic that they branch out of pre-existing citrus juice vesicles. This is in contrast to tree-produced citrus juice vesicles which arise from the endocarp of the citrus ...

B. Tisserat

1989-01-01

83

The influence of sterilization with EnbioJet ® Microwave Flow Pasteurizer on composition and bioactivity of aronia and blue-berried honeysuckle juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fruit juices that are rich sources of anthocyanins, obtained from aronia (Am. chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa) and blue-berried honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. edulis) were used to examine the preservation of plant phytochemicals and bioactivity upon sterilization—either thermal, or with an EnbioJet® Microwave Flow Pasteurizer. The chemical properties verified included determinations of anthocyanins and other polyphenols by HPLC,

Anita Piasek; Barbara Kusznierewicz; Iwona Grzybowska; Edyta Malinowska-Pa?czyk; Anna Piekarska; Amaya Azqueta; Andrew R. Collins; Jacek Namie?nik; Agnieszka Bartoszek

2011-01-01

84

Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

2010-03-01

85

A dangerous fruit juice.  

PubMed

We report the case of a female patient presenting to the emergency department with postprandial syncope and atrial fibrillation. After amiodarone administration, the electrocardiogram showed marked QT prolongation associated with ventricular arrhythmias, including an episode of torsade de pointes requiring immediate electrical cardioversion. During history taking, the patient reported that she had been drinking large amounts of grapefruit juice regularly. The inhibition of amiodarone metabolism induced by grapefruit juice was responsible for enhancing the proarrhythmic effects of the drug with development of electrical storm. PMID:20970282

Agosti, Sergio; Casalino, Laura; Bertero, Giovanni; Barsotti, Antonio; Brunelli, Claudio; Morelloni, Silvana

2012-01-01

86

The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

1980-01-01

87

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

A gastric culture is a test to examine a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis . ... This gastric culture can help diagnose lung (pulmonary) tuberculosis in children. This method is used because children cannot cough up and ...

88

Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reassessment of the `gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach

R. A. Giannella; S. A. Broitman; N. Zamcheck

1972-01-01

89

Studies on Natural Gastric Flora  

PubMed Central

The presence and survival of ingested micro-organisms, both pathogenic and commensal, is of practical interest because the stomach is one of the principal portals of entry of bacteria in humans. A study of the environmental factors governing the survival of indigenous flora in the gastric lumen will assist in determining whether potentially pathogenic organisms will survive in the stomach and pass on. The authors set out to determine the significance of gastric mucin in such survival, with the ultimate objective of learning what factors provide optimal bactericidal conditions. Samples of gastric juice were aspirated from 149 fasting individuals; samples of saliva, nose and throat swabs were also obtained. Positive gastric cultures were found in 82%. The study of the effects of gastric pH demonstrated an increase in the number of samples showing growth above pH 2.0 and a concomitant increase in total bacterial growth. At a pH lower than 2.0, certain organisms are selected out. It appears that even minor changes in gastrointestinal physiology disrupt the normal clearing of the flora.

Franklin, Maxine A.; Skoryna, Stanley C.

1966-01-01

90

A secretin releasing peptide exists in dog pancreatic juice.  

PubMed

Canine pancreatic juice has been shown to stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion in the dog. In the present study we investigated whether there is a secretin-releasing peptide in canine pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice was collected from the dogs with Thomas gastric and duodenal cannulas while pancreatic secretion was stimulated by intravenous administration of secretin at 0.5 microg/kg/h and CCK-8 at 0.2 microg/kg/h, respectively. The pancreatic juice was separated into three different molecular weight (MW) fractions (Fr) by ultrafiltration (Fr 1; MW > 10,000, Fr 2; MW=10,000-4,000 and Fr 3; MW < 4,000), respectively. All the fractions were bioassayed in anesthetized rats. Fraction 3 dose-dependently and significantly stimulated pancreatic juice flow volume from 78.0% to 99.4% (p<0.05) and bicarbonate output from 128.9% to 202.1% (p<0.01), respectively. Plasma secretin concentration also increased from 1.2 +/- 0.5 pM to 5.0 +/- 0.8 pM and 6.0 +/- 1.0 pM (p<0.05). None of these fractions increased pancreatic protein secretion or plasma CCK level. The stimulatory effect of Fraction 3 on pancreatic secretion and the release of secretin was completely abolished by treatment with trypsin (1 mg/ml for 60 min at 37 degrees C) but not by heating (100 degrees C, 10 min). Intravenous injection of a rabbit anti-secretin serum, which rendered plasma secretin almost undetectable in rat plasma, also abolished Fr 3-stimulated pancreatic secretion of fluid and bicarbonate secretion. These observations suggest that a secretin-releasing peptide exists in the canine pancreatic juice. It is trypsin-sensitive and heat-resistant. This peptide may play a significant physiological role on the release of secretin and regulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion. PMID:10755466

Li, P; Song, Y; Lee, K Y; Chang, T M; Chey, W Y

2000-02-25

91

Detection of filter media derived haze in apple juice concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haze particles were centrifugally recovered from selected apple juice concentrates produced in the Rio Negro region of Argentina during the production year 1992. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, light and electron microscopy were combined with a number of haze composition screening tests to characterize the haze morphologically and compositionally. Screening tests indicated all concentrate samples contained pectin, and 6 out

T. Beveridge; J. E. Harrison; L. Veto; E. N. Pallares

1996-01-01

92

beta-Glucoronidase and the gastric epithelial cell. A study using organ culture.  

PubMed

In an attempt to determine the significance of increased beta-glucuronidase content of gastric juice of patients with gastric carcinoma, gastric mucosal cells were exposed, in organ culture technique, to a known gastric carcinogen and indices of carcinogenic activity were studied in the ambient fluid and in the mucosal cells. Isotopic methods were used to determine cell viability. Indices of carcinogenic activity in the ambient fluid were beta-glucuronidase and lactate production and changes in the LDH isoenzyme pattern of the homogenates of the exposed cells were also studied. Incubation with the carcinogen resulted in increased production of beta-glucuronidase and lactate, suggesting the increased beta-glucuronidase activity in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer indicates malignancy. PMID:615735

Tayler, R; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

1977-01-01

93

76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to...

2011-02-02

94

Process for Preparing Carrot Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a novel process for preparing carrot juice in such a manner as as to avoid the formation of a coagulum upon further processing. A revised pretreatment procedure is employed; which permits the extraction of juice by conventional me...

T. S. Stephens G. Saldana H. E. Brown

1972-01-01

95

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

96

A review on gastric leptin: the exocrine secretion of a gastric hormone  

PubMed Central

A major advance in the understanding of the regulation of food intake has been the discovery of the adipokine leptin a hormone secreted by the adipose tissue. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, leptin reaches its main site of action at the level of the hypothalamic cells where it plays fundamental roles in the control of appetite and in the regulation of energy expenditure. At first considered as a hormone specific to the white adipose tissue, it was rapidly found to be expressed by other tissues. Among these, the gastric mucosa has been demonstrated to secrete large amounts of leptin. Secretion of leptin by the gastric chief cells was found to be an exocrine secretion. Leptin is secreted towards the gastric lumen into the gastric juice. We found that while secretion of leptin by the white adipose tissue is constitutive, secretion by the gastric cells is a regulated one responding very rapidly to secretory stimuli such as food intake. Exocrine-secreted leptin survives the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice by forming a complex with its soluble receptor. This soluble receptor is synthesized by the gastric cells and the leptin-leptin receptor complex gets formed at the level of the gastric chief cell secretory granules before being released into the gastric lumen. The leptin-leptin receptor upon resisting the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice is channelled, to the duodenum. Transmembrane leptin receptors expressed at the luminal membrane of the duodenal enterocytes interact with the luminal leptin. Leptin is actively transcytosed by the duodenal enterocytes. From the apical membrane it is transferred to the Golgi apparatus where it binds again its soluble receptor. The newly formed leptin-leptin receptor complex is then secreted baso-laterally into the intestinal mucosa to reach the blood capillaries and circulation thus reaching the hypothalamus where its action regulates food intake. Exocrine-secreted gastric leptin participates in the short term regulation of food intake independently from that secreted by the adipose tissue. Adipose tissue leptin on the other hand, regulates in the long term energy storage. Both tissues work in tandem to ensure management of food intake and energy expenditure.

Cammisotto, Philippe

2012-01-01

97

Determination of bioactive compounds in the juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).  

PubMed

The juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was analyzed to determine its composition of flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, coumarins and psoralens. The analyses were carried out by HPLC using columns packed with small diameter Fused-Core C18 particles to achieve high resolution in short analysis time. In addition, the profile of the native carotenoids present in the juice was determined using a C30 column. Identification of flavonoids was achieved by MS with ESI in negative mode; the MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was performed in positive APCI; carotenoids were detected with a PDA detector. Nineteen native carotenoids were determined in pummelo juice for the first time. The composition of this juice is also discussed in comparison with other Citrus juices, especially grapefruit. PMID:23513720

Russo, Marina; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Torre, Germana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2013-02-01

98

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

99

Quality Acceptance of Juices of Two Cultivars of Muscadine Grapes Mixed with Other Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juices from 2 cultivars of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.), 'Noble' (dark-skinned) and 'Carlos' (bronze-skinned), were mixed with juices of 'Concord' and 'Niagara' grapes, cranberry or apple. 'Noble' juice, combined with 'Concord' juice, resulted in the highest quality among the dark mixtures prepared. Also, the mixtures retained most color and flavor during a 12 month storage period. 'Carlos' juice rated

W. A. Sistrunk; J. R. Morris

100

Gastric infarction.  

PubMed

We have described a patient with an acute condition of the abdomen who had infarction of the stomach and the small intestine due to atheromatous thrombus of celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. We believe this unusual simultaneous occurrence of gastric and small intestinal infarction is coincidental. The outcome of gastric infarction is frequently fatal. PMID:2000538

Lin, J I; Park, Y S; Gopalsway, N

1991-03-01

101

Possible interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.  

PubMed

Pomegranate juice is growing in popularity in the UK. We report a potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Laboratory studies have shown that pomegranate juice inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in warfarin metabolism. As with previous reports of interactions between food and warfarin, this case does not definitively prove the association between pomegranate juice consumption and increased warfarin bioactivity but highlights the importance of taking a complete drug, food and juice history when assessing patients with unstable anticoagulation. PMID:20029019

Jarvis, S; Li, C; Bogle, R G

2010-01-01

102

Delavirdine malabsorption in HIV-infected subjects with spontaneous gastric hypoacidity.  

PubMed

To determine the impact of gastric hypoacidity and acidic beverages on delavirdine mesylate pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected subjects, matched subjects with (n = 11) and without (n = 10) gastric hypoacidity received delavirdine 400 mg tid with either water or an acidic beverage (usually orange juice). The pharmacokinetics of delavirdine and its N-desalkyl metabolite were determined over 8 hours after 14 days of each treatment. Gastric pH was measured at baseline and during each pharmacokinetic evaluation. Delavirdine exposure (Cmax, AUC0-->8 h, and Cmin) was approximately 50% lower and the extent of delavirdine metabolism was higher in subjects with gastric hypoacidity. Orange juice produced a lower mean gastric pH compared to water and increased delavirdine absorption by 50% to 70% in subjects with gastric hypoacidity. However, orange juice had a marginal impact on delavirdine exposure in subjects without gastric hypoacidity. HIV-infected subjects with gastric hypoacidity significantly malabsorb delavirdine. Delavirdine administration with acidic beverages improves, but dose not normalize, absorption in these subjects. PMID:12616670

Shelton, Mark J; Hewitt, Ross G; Adams, John M; Cox, Steve R; Chambers, James H; Morse, Gene D

2003-02-01

103

Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of an ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schult. Bip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schult. Bip. is used in folk medicine to treat stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The ethanolic extract (0.5–2 g\\/kg) decreased the gastric juice volume, acid secretion, as well as pepsin secretion in pylorus ligated rats. B. pilosa extract showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The extract effectively inhibited gastric haemorragic lesions induced by ethanol, and

A. Alvarez; F. Pomar; M. A. Sevilla; M. J. Montero

1999-01-01

104

Hirims: A High Resolution IR Spectrometer Proposed For Juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIRIMS is a high spectral resolution spectrometer proposed for the ESA-led JUICE mission. Its spectral range covers the 2.6- to 4.75-micron window at a sampled spectral resolution power of 10,000. It can operate both in nadir, limb and solar occultation modes. Its scientific objectives comply with the scientific objectives of the JUICE mission: 1. Study the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's atmosphere with an emphasis on the upper and middle atmosphere, its relations with the Jupiter environment; 2. Study the exospheres of the icy Galilean satellites: their sources and sinks, and their relations with the jovian environment; 3. Study the evolution of icy satellites surfaces in a high radiation environment and link the surface composition with interior processes; 4. Monitor Io's activity and atmosphere. The presentation will highlight the unique measurements a high resolution IR spectrometer can perform to address JUICE scientific objectives and investigations.

Fouchet, Thierry; HIRIMS Team

2012-10-01

105

The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.  

PubMed

A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Rembia?kowska, Ewa

2013-06-01

106

Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36?051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant.

Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

2013-01-01

107

Gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection, as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there are still 700?000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis. None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates: at present, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%. Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation, injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia. It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating, sustaining and advancing tumor growth. It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic. Additional mutations can be acquired, and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype. Intestinalization of gastric units, which is called “intestinal metaplasia”; phenotypic antralization of fundic units, which is called “spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia”; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis. Also, an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma. However, the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial. Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation, and our paper attempts to highlight recent progress in this field of cancer research.

Gomceli, Ismail; Demiriz, Baris; Tez, Mesut

2012-01-01

108

Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%,

Erika P. Knight; Lisa House; Jonq-Ying Lee; Thomas H. Spreen

2008-01-01

109

Comparison of DXA and water measurements of body fat following gastric bypass surgery and a physiological model of body water, fat, and muscle composition  

PubMed Central

Measurement of body composition changes following bariatric surgery is complicated because of the difficulty of measuring body fat in highly obese individuals that have increased photon absorption and are too large for the standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) table. We reproducibly measured body composition from half-body DXA scans and compared the values of total body fat estimated from total body water (TBW) and DXA measurements before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). DXA, TBW (deuterium dilution), extracellular water (ECW; bromide dilution), and intracellular water (ICW) measurement (by subtraction) were made before surgery and at 2 wk, 6 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo after surgery. Twenty individuals completed baseline and at least four follow-up visits. DXA appeared to underestimate the fat and bone mass in extreme obesity (before surgery), whereas at 6 and 12 mo after surgery, the DXA and TBW fat measurements were similar. The ECW-to-ICW ratio was increased in obese individuals and increased slightly more after surgery. We describe a new model that explains this abnormal water composition in terms of the normal physiological changes that occur in body composition in obesity and weight loss. This model is also used to predict the muscle mass loss following RYGB.

Levitt, David G.; Beckman, Lauren M.; Mager, Jennifer R.; Valentine, Bret; Sibley, Shalamar D.; Beckman, Tiffany R.; Kellogg, Todd A.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

2010-01-01

110

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer.

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

111

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-04-28

112

Quality Attributes of Cupua?u Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586  

PubMed Central

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity.

Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Duran, Nelson; de Lima Filho, Jose Luiz

2011-01-01

113

[Effect of a 10-day partial parenteral feeding on gastric secretion].  

PubMed

Investigations conducted on dogs subjected to a lengthy (10 days) parenteral introduction of the caseine hydrolysate ascertained an intensification of gastric secretion and an increase of total proteinases in the juice in the course of the experiment, reaching its peak on the 8-9th day. A study of the juice secretion in response to the food stimulant showed that this becomes more intensive during the first phase of the gastric secretion, which points to the importance of the nervous factor in the action of nitrogenous substances on the stomach. PMID:414447

Vasilevskaia, L S; Klimashina, T A; Shlygin, G K

1977-01-01

114

Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of digestion kinetics of solid foods in human stomach, as affected by food processing methods, is critical in establishing processing conditions at the manufacturing stage to achieve desirable release of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate how roasting affected disintegration and solid release properties of almond in simulated gastric environment. In vitro trials were performed for raw and roasted almonds by using static soaking method and a model stomach system. The changes in sample weight, dry mass, and moisture during the trials were determined. Both compression and penetration tests were used to investigate the texture of almonds with a focus on the influence of absorption of gastric juice. Light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the change in microstructure of the raw and roasted almonds after simulated digestion. The results suggested that the slow disintegration rate and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. Roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and increased loss of solids during simulated digestion, which is well correlated with the decrease in the rigidity of almond samples after absorbing gastric juice. Microstructure of digested almonds showed breakage and breach of cell walls due to acid hydrolysis. Intercellular and intracellular channels formed in almonds during roasting are important for penetration of gastric juice that may facilitate an effective digestion.

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

115

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions.

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

116

How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

2011-01-01

117

Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2011-05-01

118

Gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Infection of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella typhi) can lead to various organ diseases. This research first proposed that Salmonella typhi-infection could result in gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcers that were ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Male Wistar rats were given intrajejunally the live culture of Salmonella typhi [1 x 10(10) colony-forming unit (CFU)/rat] and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. Infection of Salmonella typhi produced an aggravation of ulcerogenic factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation and hemorrhagic ulcer as well as an attenuation of mucosal GSH level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P<0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. In conclusion, infection of Salmonella typhi substantially caused gastric oxidative stress and disruption of gastric mucosal barriers, consequently resulted in gastric hemorrhagic ulcerations that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and various antioxidants. PMID:15102534

Hung, Chen-Road; Wang, Paulus S

2004-04-26

119

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or...

2009-04-01

120

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or...

2010-04-01

121

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds (except embryonic seeds and small fragments of seed which...

2009-04-01

122

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds (except embryonic seeds and small fragments of seed which...

2010-04-01

123

Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic  

MedlinePLUS

... products, including fruit juices and juice concentrates. * Some scientific studies have shown that two forms of organic arsenic ... type of arsenic considered harmful to humans. Some scientific studies have shown that two forms of organic arsenic ...

124

Evaluation of the dialysing yield of membranes with different composition. Application to the analysis of chloride in fruit juices by flow injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, several home-made dialysing membranes with a high yield (around 56%) have been obtained allowing the easy and rapid analysis of minor components in food samples. Commercially available and home-made membranes with different chemical composition were tested by using a flow injection manifold. Polyetherimide-composed membranes (PEI) were selected because they showed a high dialysing yield and analytical signal,

S. Morais; M. I. Alcaina-Miranda; F. Lázaro; M. Planta; A. Maquieirá; R. Puchades

1997-01-01

125

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

126

Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.

PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

2009-01-01

127

Noni juice is not hepatotoxic.  

PubMed

Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI Juice, as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity. PMID:16773722

West, Brett-J; Jensen, C-Jarakae; Westendorf, Johannes

2006-06-14

128

Reflux of gastric juice and glue ear in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

immunity is not known. To test the hypo- thesis that contacts with children increase exposure to varicella-zoster virus and pro- tect latently infected adults against zoster, we did a case-control study in south Lon- don, UK. Methods: From 22 general practices, we identified patients with recently diagnosed zoster, and control individuals with no his- tory of zoster, matched to patients

Andrea Tasker; Peter W Dettmar; Marguerite Panetti; James A Koufman; John P Birchall; Jeffery P Pearson

2002-01-01

129

Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.  

PubMed

Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

2012-03-28

130

ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE ALKALI PREPARATION OF THE ROOT AND FRESH LEAF JUICE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM  

PubMed Central

The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose –depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors.

Ruckmani, K.; Kavimani, S.; Jayakar, B.; Anandan, R.

1998-01-01

131

Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.  

PubMed

Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers. PMID:2447444

Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

1987-01-01

132

Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick’s second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75?×?10?11 and 8.72?×?10?11 m2/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid.

Kong, Fanbin

2010-01-01

133

Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten stem on gastric damages in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of the dried stem powder of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF-s) were investigated on gastric lesion and ulcer models in rats. It showed significant inhibition in HCl ethanol-induced gastric lesion at the doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg p.o. and in HCl.aspirin-induced gastric lesion at 600 mg/kg p.o. OF-s also showed significant inhibition in indomethacin-induced gastric lesion at the doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. However, it did not affect both the aspirin-induced and Shay ulcers in rats. It also did not affect gastric juice secretion, acid output and pH. These data indicate that OF-s only possesses pronounced inhibitory action on gastric lesion without antiulcer activity in rats. PMID:11885695

Lee, Eun Bang; Hyun, Jin Ee; Li, Da Wei; Moon, Yung In

2002-02-01

134

Gastric lipoma  

PubMed Central

We report a 12-year-old-boy with gastric lipoma. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy with biopsy and abdominal computed tomogram (CT) scan revealed the diagnosis. Open surgical excision of the mass with stomach preservation was done. The clinical presentation and management are discussed and the literature reviewed here. This is the sixth pediatric case reported in the English literature.

Zameer, M.; Kanojia, R. P.; Rao, K. L. N.; Menon, P.; Samujh, R.; Thapa, B. R.

2010-01-01

135

Fiber from tangerine juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four main tangerine varieties (Oroval, Hernandina, Fortuna and Clemenville) processed in the Mediterranean region were analyzed for juice yield, diverse by-products obtained in industrial processing (peel, core and frit) and fiber content: crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), from the by-products (peel, core and frit) obtained in tangerine processing in pilot plant tests.

N. Martí; D. Saura; E. Fuentes’; V. Lizama; E. García; M. J. Mico-Ballester; J. Lorente

2011-01-01

136

JUICE, software for vegetation classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program JUICE was designed as a Microsoft® WINDOWS ® application for editing, classification and analy- sis of large phytosociological tables and databases. This soft- ware, with a current maximum capacity of 30 000 relevés in one table, includes many functions for easy manipulation of table and header data. Various options include classification using COCKTAIL and TWINSPAN methods, calculation of

Lubomír Tichý

2002-01-01

137

Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.  

PubMed

Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:15383234

Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

2004-01-01

138

Characterization of statistically produced xylanase for enrichment of fruit juice clarification process.  

PubMed

Critical factors for xylanase production of Bacillus stearothermophilus under batch fermentation and for clarification of citrus fruit juice using this xylanase were optimized through central composite design of response surface methodology. Statistical approach resulted in an increase of 1.19-fold in xylanase yield over conventional method. Model equation for juice clarification included independent variables viz. temperature, incubation time and enzyme dose to study the dependent variables such as yield, acidic neutrality and filterability etc. Coefficient of determination, R(2) for enzyme production model and for different juice properties were in accordance with the linearity of the model. On the basis of the contour plots the optimum enzyme dose was 12.5 IU/g of xylanase. Enzymatic treatment has resulted in the improvement of twofold in the release of reducing sugars and 52.97% in juice yield, whereas 35.34% reduction in turbidity was observed. PMID:21093618

Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Mahajan, Ritu

2011-10-01

139

An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the mission science goals do not include any astronomical observations, we find by modeling the Interstellar Dust (ISD) trajectories that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in-situ observations of Interstellar Dust, due to highly increased flux levels at that time at the orbit of Jupiter. If JUICE would carry a dust detector, this could lead to exclusive highresolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

2012-09-01

140

An optimum opportunity for interstellar dust measurements by the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L-class mission concept designed to explore the Galilean satellites of the Jovian system. Although the current mission science goals do not include any astrophysical observations, we find that the planned period of the JUICE mission is optimal for in situ measurements of Interstellar Dust (ISD), due to highly increased flux levels at that time. In case that JUICE carries a dust detector, this could lead to in situ high-resolution mass spectra of ISD grains. Such compositional information on the ISD grains is important for understanding the origins of solar/planetary systems, and therefore could represent a valuable addition to the core JUICE mission science.

Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Postberg, F.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

2012-10-01

141

77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely...4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation...

2012-04-13

142

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? CLEAN PRODUCTION ON FRUIT JUICE PROCESSING BY USING FRUIT JUICE PILOT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of commercial production on lime juice processing to meet the zero discharge criteria were proposed. The main objective in this study was waste utilization on lime juice processing that caused high productivity. Addressing the clean production system can improve environmental protection, increase productivity and decrease operating cost. The clean production using clean technology (Johansson, 1992) on commercial lime juice

Supachai Boonnumma; Tanong Chayawattana; Panadda Nonthanum

143

Solar Still Part II: Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members repeat an experiment designed to separate fresh water from a liquid solution, this time using colored sugar water in one solar still and orange juice in another. The basic still design they employ traps water vapor that is created when the Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. As the vapor cools, it condenses and trickles down to a collection container. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

144

Characterization and comparison of digestive proteinases of the Cortez swimming crab, Callinectes bellicosus, and the arched swimming crab, Callinectes arcuatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protease activity in the midgut gland, gastric chamber, and gastric juice from the crabs Callinectes bellicosus and Callinectes arcuatus was characterized by several methods, confirming that the composition of digestive proteases is the same in the gastric juice and the midgut gland. Gastric juice was suitable for the identification and characterization of the proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin. Such enzymes were

Lourdes M. Diaz-Tenorio; Fernando L. Garcia-Carreno; M. Angeles Navarrete del Toro

2006-01-01

145

Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not affect the aspirin-induced reduction in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content; however, it did ameliorate the aspirin-induced increases in mucosal activity of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? levels. In the next experiment, high and low doses of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were used instead of ginger powder in the same experimental model to examine their roles in the anti-ulcer mechanism of ginger. Both 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced aspirin induced ulcer formation, mucosal iNOS and plasma TNF-? and IL-1? levels. In conclusion, ginger powder prevents the aspirin induced gastric ulcer formation by reducing mucosal iNOS activity and the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines but does not affect gastric juice or acid production or mucosal PGE2 content. This protective effect of ginger powder against gastric ulcers may be attributable to both gingerol and shogaol.

Wang, Zhongzhi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

146

Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of ?-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis.

Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

2013-01-01

147

Diffuse gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the world. This article provides an overview of gastric cancer using a unique case study involving a New Zealand Maori family genetically predisposed to diffuse gastric cancer. The pathophysiology of diffuse gastric cancer, including prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment, along with important patient considerations is highlighted. PMID:16770139

Framp, Ann

2006-01-01

148

Should peri-gastrectomy gastric acidity be our focus among gastric cancer patients?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the necessity and correctness of acid suppression pre- and post-gastrectomy among gastric carcinoma (GC) patients. METHODS: From June 2011 to April 2013, 99 patients who were diagnosed with GC or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (type II or III) and needed surgical management were enrolled. They all underwent gastrectomy by the same operators [35 undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) plus Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 34 distal gastrectomy (DG) plus Billroth I reconstruction, and 30 proximal gastrectomy (PG) plus gastroesophagostomy]. We collected and analyzed their gastrointestinal juice and tissues from the pre-operational day to the 5th day post-operation, and 6 mo post-surgery. Gastric pH was detected with a precise acidity meter. Gastric juice contents including potassium, sodium and bicarbonate ions, urea nitrogen, direct and indirect bilirubin, and bile acid were detected using Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. Data regarding tumor size, histological type, tumor penetration and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage were obtained from the pathological records. Reflux symptoms pre- and 6 mo post-gastrectomy were evaluated by reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GERD-Q). SPSS 16.0 was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Before surgery, gastric pH was higher than the threshold of hypoacidity (4.25 ± 1.45 vs 3.5, P = 0.000), and significantly affected by age, tumor size and differentiation grade, and potassium and bicarbonate ions; advanced malignancies were accompanied with higher pH compared with early ones (4.49 ± 1.31 vs 3.66 ± 1.61, P = 0.008). After operation, gastric pH in all groups was of weak-acidity and significantly higher than that pre-gastrectomy; on days 3-5, comparisons of gastric pH were similar between the 3 groups. Six months later, gastric pH was comparable to that on days 3-5; older patients were accompanied with higher total bilirubin level, indicating more serious reflux (r = 0.238, P = 0.018); the TG and PG groups had higher RDQ (TG vs DG: 15.80 ± 5.06 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000; PG vs DG: 15.37 ± 3.49 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000) and GERD-Q scores (TG vs DG: 10.54 ± 3.16 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.039; PG vs DG: 11.00 ± 2.07 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.001) compared with the DG group; all gastric juice contents except potassium ion significantly rose; reflux symptom was significantly associated with patient’s body mass index, direct and indirect bilirubin, and total bile acid, while pH played no role. CONCLUSION: Acidity is not an important factor causing unfitness among GC patients. There is no need to further alkalify gastrointestinal juice both pre- and post-gastrectomy.

Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Li, Tuan-Jie; Han, Wen-Xiu; Xu, Jing

2014-01-01

149

Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

Haddad, Paul

1977-01-01

150

How to Interpret Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying scintigraphy has long been the standard method for measuring gastric motility. Various methodologies for this study have been used including meal composition, patient positioning, instrumentation, frequency of data acquisition, study length and quantitative method. For accurate quantification, it is not important which method is in use, except that the methodology should always be the same and normal values need to be derived and validated for that methodology.

2011-01-01

151

Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.  

PubMed Central

The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic nature of gastric emptying allowing for quantification of the lag phase and the rate of emptying for both solids and liquids.

Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

1988-01-01

152

Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary citrus juices in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our preliminary studies showed that in mildly hypercholesterolemic rats with chemically induced breast cancer, dietary orange juice reduced total plasma cholesterol and dietary grapefruit juice tended to reduce VLDL + LDL cholesterol. We therefore investigated whether orange juice and grapefruit juice (double strength) could influence cholesterol metabolism in rabbits with high LDL cholesterol levels induced by feeding a semipurified, cholesterol-free,

E. M. Kurowska; N. M. Borradaile; J. D. Spence; K. K. Carroll

2000-01-01

153

Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm  

PubMed Central

We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes.

HISAKA, TORU; HORIUCHI, HIROYUKI; UCHIDA, SHINJI; ISHIKAWA, HIROTO; KAWAHARA, RYUICHI; KAWASHIMA, YUSUKE; AKASHI, MASANORI; MIKAGI, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; YANO, HIROHISA; TAIRA, TOMOKI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; KINOSHITA, HISAFUMI; SHIROZU, KAZUO

2013-01-01

154

Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability.

Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2013-01-01

155

Species composition of Gasterophilus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) causing equine gastric myiasis in southern Italy: parasite biodiversity and risks for extinction.  

PubMed

Horse gastrointestinal myiasis caused by larvae of Gasterophilus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) flies has a worldwide distribution and, where present, it is primarily caused by larvae of Gasterophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis. Other species, i.e., Gasterophilus inermis, Gasterophilus pecorum and Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis, present in different or in the same regions of the gastrointestinal tract, were only occasionally reported in very limited areas of eastern European Countries and in central Italy. With the aim to contribute data on the species composition of Gasterophilus and on the seasonal variation of the infection pattern in southern Italy, 152 native horses were necropsied from January to December 2003 and Gasterophilus larvae were collected from the stomach, the small intestine and the rectum of each of them. On the whole, 125 (82.2%) horses were infected by larvae of Gasterophilus spp. and 214 second stage larvae (L2) and 13,342 third stage larvae (L3) collected. Five species of Gasterophilus were identified with the following prevalence: G. intestinalis=95.2%, G. nasalis=44.8%, G. inermis=15.2%, G. pecorum=2.6% and G. haemorrhoidalis=0.8%. L3 were retrieved throughout the observation period with the highest mean burdens from January to August 2003 while the lowest mean was registered from September to November 2003. L2 were collected in February-March 2003 and from September to December 2003. The majority of the animals (n=66, 43.4%) were infected with a single Gasterophilus species, however, 45 animals (29.6%) harboured 2 species, 12 animals (7.9%) 3 species and 2 animals (1.3%) 4 species. The trend of abundance in the L3 of G. intestinalis and G. nasalis, the most represented species, was highly concordant (r=0.5, p<0.001). A retrospective comparison of our results and of other data from four seasons of observation (1983-1986) in central Italy showed that the number of G. inermis, G. pecorum and G. haemorrhoidalis have been decreasing relative to G. intestinalis and G. nasalis which may suggest tendency toward the extinction of the three former species of Gasterophilus. PMID:15978726

Otranto, Domenico; Milillo, Piermarino; Capelli, Gioia; Colwell, Douglas D

2005-10-10

156

Consumer Acceptance of Mayhaw (Crataegus opaca Hook, and Arn.) Juice Blended with Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices are among the top 10 products occupying grocery store shelf space. They are also one of the top five consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables. There is a strong potential for growth in blended juices and juice-based beverages. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for mayhaw and muscadine juices to compete in this growing market. Mayhaws

A. F. Trappey; C. E. Johnson; P. W. Wilson

2007-01-01

157

Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.  

PubMed

Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

2008-08-01

158

Rapid Gastric Emptying  

MedlinePLUS

... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services What is rapid gastric emptying? Rapid gastric ... Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information ...

159

Survival of human norovirus surrogates in milk, orange, and pomegranate juice, and juice blends at refrigeration (4 °C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh fruits, juices, and beverages have been implicated in human noroviral and hepatitis A virus outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in juices (orange and pomegranate juices), juice blends (pomegranate and orange juice) and milk over 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and

Katie Marie Horm; Doris Helen D’Souza

2011-01-01

160

Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.  

PubMed

In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast. PMID:17120082

Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

2007-02-01

161

Neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) expressed in the gastric epithelium regulates bacterial infection in mice  

PubMed Central

Neonatal Fc receptors for immunoglobulin (Ig)G (FcRn) assume a central role in regulating host IgG levels and IgG transport across polarized epithelial barriers. We have attempted to elucidate the contribution of FcRn in controlling Helicobacter infection in the stomach. C57BL/6J wild-type or FcRn?/? mice were infected with Helicobacter heilmannii, and gastric lesions, bacterial load and the levels of antigen-specific IgG in serum and gastric juice were analyzed. The elevated levels of anti-H. heimannii IgG in gastric juice were observed exclusively in wild-type mice but not in FcRn?/? mice. In contrast, an increase in lymphoid follicles and bacterial loads along with deeper gastric epithelium invasion were noted in FcRn?/? mice. C57BL/6J wild-type or FcRn?/? mice were also infected with Helicobacter pylori SS1, and the results of the bacterial load in stomachs of these mice and the anti-H. pylori IgG levels in serum and gastric juice were similar to those from H. heilmannii infection. Our data suggest that FcRn can be functionally expressed in the stomach, which is involved in transcytosis of IgG, and prevent colonization by H. heilmannii and the associated pathological consequences of infection.

Ben Suleiman, Y; Yoshida, M; Nishiumi, S; Tanaka, H; Mimura, T; Nobutani, K; Yamamoto, K; Takenaka, M; Aoganghua, A; Miki, I; Ota, H; Takahashi, S; Matsui, H; Nakamura, M; Blumberg, RS; Azuma, T

2014-01-01

162

Diversity of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence of this disease has been gradually decreasing. The diversity of gastric cancer is well known. However, the mechanism underlying this diversity is still unknown. We have performed experimental and clinical studies on gastric carcinogenesis. These results suggest that the variety in the type and extent

Michio Kaminishi

2005-01-01

163

Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.  

PubMed

To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values. PMID:24874375

Lorente, José; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Luís; Hernández, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

2014-11-01

164

Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

2014-05-01

165

Development of a small scale orange juice extractor.  

PubMed

A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities. PMID:23572610

Olaniyan, A M

2010-01-01

166

The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

2014-07-01

167

Interaction Between Warfarin and Cranberry Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Warfarin is commonly used to treat or prevent thromboembolic events. Cranberry juice has been suggested to have an interaction with warfarin. However, there have been few reported cases of warfarin-cranberry juice interaction.Case summary: A 78-year-old, 86-kg man receiving warfarin at a total weekly dose of 45 mg for atrial fibrillation presented at the Bakersfield Healthcare Center of the VA

Christine H. Paeng; Michael Sprague; Cynthia A. Jackevicius

2007-01-01

168

Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in Trials for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PL10, PLD-116, PL14736, Pliva, Croatia) Heals Ileoileal Anastomosis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (BPC 157), which has been shown to be safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease\\u000a (PL-10, PLD-116, PL14736, Pliva, Croatia), may be able to cure intestinal anastomosis dehiscence. This antiulcer peptide shows\\u000a no toxicity, is limit test negative, and a lethal dose is not achieved. It is stable in human gastric juice. In comparison\\u000a with

Tihomir Vuksic; Ivan Zoricic; Luka Brcic; Marko Sever; Robert Klicek; Bozo Radic; Vedran Cesarec; Lidija Berkopic; Neike Keller; Alenka Boban Blagaic; Neven Kokic; Ivan Jelic; Juraj Geber; Tomislav Anic; Sven Seiwerth; Predrag Sikiric

2007-01-01

169

Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

2014-01-01

170

Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus: a sign of gastric hypersecretion  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus on the double-contrast radiograph was investigated in 60 patients. Radiographic findings were correlated with endoscopic features and biochemical analysis of gastric juice as well as with the clinical and endoscopic features of 98 controls with a regular mucosal pattern. The patients with the coarse pattern had more gastric secretion than the control group. Ulcers were seen in 65% of patients, particularly in the duodenum (48%); they were more commonly associated with a coarse pattern and closely related to gastric hyperacidity. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus may be a useful radiographic sign in assessment of gastric secretion.

Watanabe, H. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan); Magota, S.; Shiiba, S.; Ebata, K.; Yoshiya, K.

1983-02-01

171

[Gastric epithelial dysplasia].  

PubMed

Gastric epithelial dysplasia represents the only true histological marker of gastric cancer. In this bringing up to date, such subject is reproposed in consideration of taking into account the most recent acquisitions, subdividing gastric dysplasia into two degrees only: moderate and severe. For the first time an immunophenotypic study is made by means of the evaluation of gastric-entero-pancreatic antigens, which better identify the evolutive potential of the two degrees of gastric dysplasia and, furthermore, the clinical development is evaluated, thus showing the necessity of a strict endoscopic surveillance of such lesion. PMID:11008411

Cornaggia, M; Testino, G

2000-01-01

172

Antibacterial activity of citrus fruit juices against Vibrio species.  

PubMed

Lemon, lime and sudachi juices were tested for antibacterial activity against seven strains of Vibrio species. All juices were effective in inhibiting the growth of the Vibrio strains. Citric acid, the major organic acid in these juices, was found to be responsible for inhibiting the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Sauce prepared from sudachi juice showed a strong bactericidal activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the sauce adjusted to higher pH values had no bacterial activity. Diluted sudachi juice or citric acid solution also had antibacterial activity independently. These results suggest that citrus fruit juices are effective in preventing infection with Vibrio species. PMID:16802698

Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Koga, Tetsuro; Yamato, Masayuki; Kassu, Afework; Ota, Fusao

2006-04-01

173

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will be reported on the TTB F 5120.17, Report of Bonded Wine Premises Operations, as wine, but a separate record will be maintained. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2009-04-01

174

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will be reported on the TTB F 5120.17, Report of Bonded Wine Premises Operations, as wine, but a separate record will be maintained. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1383, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2010-04-01

175

Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

2011-01-01

176

Efficacy of polymer coating of probiotic beads suspended in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices on the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal environment.  

PubMed

Alginate-coated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 or Lactobacillus casei 01 was recoated with either 0.1-0.5% (w/v) alginate or 0.05-0.15% (w/v) poly-L-lysine (PLL) plus 0.2% (w/v) alginate or 5-15% (w/v) gelatin, after which they were determined for survivability in gastric or bile longan juices. The morphology of encapsulated probiotic cells illustrated that recoated beads with 0.5% alginate showed a more compact surface and a greater protective effect than other recoating materials. The recoated beads with 0.5% alginate and 0.05-0.15% PLL plus 0.2% alginate of both strains showed the highest viability in gastric longan juice. In bile longan juice, only 0.5% alginate showed the best protection for both recoated beads. When considering the storage stability, encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited a higher viable count than those of the free cells, whereas L. casei 01 showed equivalent viability of both free and double-coated cells. Based on the impact of pressurization or pasteurization, both processed juices gave rise to equivalent survivability of the probiotic cells during storage. PMID:23701113

Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; George, Trevor; Jirarattanarangsri, Wachira

2013-11-01

177

Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (inventors)

1980-01-01

178

N-Nitroso Compounds, Bacteria, and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Gastric Stump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of biochemical and microbiological parameters such as pH,N-nitroso compound (NOC) concentration, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, and total viable counts (TVCs), and identification of microorganisms were carried out on 65 fasting gastric juice samples obtained at endoscopy from 45 patients previously submitted to partial gastrectomy for benign peptic ulcer disease (23 Billroth I, 22 Billroth II\\/Reichel–Polya) and 20 normal controls.

Stefano Guadagni; Maria A. Pistoia; Marco Valenti; Pietro Leocata; Gino Coletti; Giuseppe Calvisi; Raffaella Madonna; Marcello Deraco; Peter I. Reed

1998-01-01

179

A Direct Role for Secretory Phospholipase A2 and Lyso-Phosphatidylcholine in the Mediation of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Gastric Injury  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Endotoxemia from sepsis can injure the GI tract through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. We have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an increase in gastric permeability in parallel with the luminal appearance of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and its product, lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). We proposed that sPLA2 acted on the gastric hydrophobic barrier, composed primarily of PC, to degrade it and produce lyso-PC, an agent that is damaging to the mucosa. In the present study we have tested whether lyso-PC and/or sPLA2 have direct damaging effects on the hydrophobic barriers of synthetic and mucosal surfaces. Methods Rats were administered LPS (5 mg/kg, ip), and gastric contents were collected 5 h later for analysis of sPLA2 and lyso-PC content. Using these measured concentrations, direct effects of sPLA2 and lyso-PC were determined on: 1) surface hydrophobicity as detected with an artificial PC surface and with intact gastric mucosa (contact angle analysis); and 2) cell membrane disruption of gastric epithelial cells (AGS). Results Both lyso-PC and sPLA2 increased significantly in the collected gastric juice of LPS-treated rats. Using similar concentrations to the levels in gastric juice, the contact angle of PC-coated slides declined after incubation with either pancreatic sPLA2 or lyso-PC. Similarly, gastric contact angles seen in control rats were significantly decreased in sPLA2 and lyso-PC treated rats. Additionally, we observed dose-dependent injurious effects of both lyso-PC and sPLA2 in gastric AGS cells. Conclusions An LPS-induced increase in sPLA2 activity in the gastric lumen, and its product lyso-PC, are capable of directly disrupting the gastric hydrophobic layer and may contribute to gastric barrier disruption and subsequent inflammation.

Dial, Elizabeth J.; Tran, Duy M.; Romero, Jimmy J.; Zayat, Mayssa; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.

2010-01-01

180

Constraints in the Kenyan Fruit Juice Processing Industry. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to identify problems facing Kenya's fruit juice industry, the study catalogued the economic, institutional, infrastructural, and technological constraints as perceived by fruit juice processors and fruit growers. For fruit processors, the main im...

M. D. Wenner W. Escudero

1993-01-01

181

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata...practice) are removed, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in accordance...more of the optional concentrated orange juice ingredients specified...

2009-04-01

182

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata...practice) are removed, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in accordance...more of the optional concentrated orange juice ingredients specified...

2010-04-01

183

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2) Honey, in a quantity not less than 2 percent and not more than 3 percent by weight of the finished...

2013-04-01

184

Management of gastric adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The prognosis for patients with gastric\\u000a adenocarcinoma depends on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and treatment. Early gastric cancer, limited to\\u000a the mucosa and submucosa, is best treated surgically and has a five-year survival rate of 70–95%. Surgical resection remains\\u000a the primary curative

P. Khosravi Shahi; V. M. Díaz Muñoz de la Espada; P. García Alfonso; S. Encina García; Y. Izarzugaza Perón; J. L. Arranz Cozar; B. Hernández Marín; G. Pérez Manga

2007-01-01

185

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: A body mass index (BMI) of 40 or above represents clinically severe obesity, and warrants operative treatment, if requested\\u000a to bariatric surgery. The Adjustable Silicone Gastric Banding (Lap-Band, Bioenterics) and the Swedish Adjustable Gastric\\u000a Band (SAGB, Obtech) are recently produced laparoscopic gastric restrictive procedures. The aim of this study was to assess\\u000a all the possible complications linked to

K. Miller; E. Hell

1999-01-01

186

Update on gastric varices  

PubMed Central

Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence.

Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

2014-01-01

187

77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United...investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely...obtained by accessing its Internet server (http://www...imports of lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico (72 FR 53991...

2012-08-01

188

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

189

Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses. No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed.

Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

190

Process for Fortifying the Flavor of Prune Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prune juice of improved flavor is prepared by producing a juice from fresh prunes, grinding prune pits and extracting the ground prune pits with water to prepare a pit extract containing prune flavor components. A major proportion of the juice is admixed ...

F. S. Nury G. G. Watters

1965-01-01

191

Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.  

PubMed

Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ?20% of total anthocyanins to ?30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria. PMID:23660747

Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

2013-06-01

192

Survival of human norovirus surrogates in milk, orange, and pomegranate juice, and juice blends at refrigeration (4 °C).  

PubMed

Fresh fruits, juices, and beverages have been implicated in human noroviral and hepatitis A virus outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in juices (orange and pomegranate juices), juice blends (pomegranate and orange juice) and milk over 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Juices, juice blends, and milk were inoculated with each virus over 21 days, serially diluted in cell culture media, and plaque assayed. MNV-1 showed no reduction in titer after 21 days in orange juice and milk, but moderate reduction (1.4 log) in pomegranate juice from a titer of 5 log(10) PFU/ml. However, MNV-1 was completely reduced after 7 days in the orange and pomegranate juice blend. FCV-F9 from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml was completely reduced after 14 days in orange as well as pomegranate juice and by ? 3 logs after 21 days in milk at 4 °C. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was completely reduced after 1 day in the orange and pomegranate juice blend at 4 °C. MS2 was reduced by ? 1.28 log after 21 days in orange juice from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml, and <1 log after 21 days in milk or pomegranate juice, with juice blends showing minimal reduction (<1 log) after 21 days at 4 °C. These results show the survival pattern of noroviruses that aid in the transmission of foodborne viral outbreaks. The data obtained can be used in quantitative viral risk assessment studies and to develop improved measures to prevent virus survival towards controlling outbreaks. PMID:21569952

Horm, Katie Marie; D'Souza, Doris Helen

2011-08-01

193

Pomelo juice, but not cranberry juice, affects the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate whose bioavailability increases when administered with grapefruit juice. It is unknown whether pomelo, a closely related citrus fruit, interacts with cyclosporine in humans. In addition, a case study reports that cranberry juice interacts with warfarin, a drug with a narrow therapeutic range. Cranberries have a high

Julie Grenier; Caroline Fradette; Gaetano Morelli; Gerald J. Merritt; Manon Vranderick; Murray P. Ducharme

2006-01-01

194

Epidemiology of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socio-economic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socio-economic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

Crew, Katherine D; Neugut, Alfred I

2006-01-01

195

Toxicological and analytical investigations of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia (noni) is known to contain genotoxic anthraquinones in the roots. Because of the widespread use of noni juice, the possible genotoxic risk was examined through a battery of short-term tests. Noni juice was also chemically analyzed for the possible presence of anthraquinones. Noni juice extract in the Salmonella microsome assay showed a slight mutagenic effect in strain TA1537, due to the presence of flavonoids. No mutagenicity was observed in the mammalian mutagenicity test with V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Rats treated with a noni juice concentrate did not show DNA repair synthesis (UDS) in primary rat hepatocytes, nor could DNA adducts or DNA strand breaks be observed. HPLC analysis of noni juice for anthraquinones was negative, with a sensitivity of <1 ppm. In summary, chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests reveal that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice. PMID:17227089

Westendorf, Johannes; Effenberger, Katharina; Iznaguen, Hassan; Basar, Simla

2007-01-24

196

Treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status

Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

197

Large gastric lipoma.  

PubMed

Gastric lipoma is a rare benign tumor and seen in five percent of gastro-intestinal lipomas and accounts for less than one percent of all gastric tumors. Gastric lipomas are located submucosally and usually in antral region of Stomach. Computed tomography is considered as valuable tool in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lipomas. Due to their relative rarity, gastric lipomas are often left out of the differential diagnosis for upper gastro-intestinal submucosal masses. We report a case of 70 year female that presented with upper abdominal pain since last two years. Abdominal Computed tomography revealed a large gastric lipoma in antral region. Patient refused for any surgical intervention due to old age. Patient was provided symptomatic treatment and was under regular followup. PMID:23434967

Sharma, B K; Dhakal, O P

2012-01-01

198

Effective gastric acid suppression after oral administration of enteric-coated omeprazole granules.  

PubMed

Omeprazole is inactivated by exposure to gastric acid and is formulated as a gelatin capsule containing enteric-coated granules that release the drug in alkaline medium. In clinical situations where patients are unable to take the capsule orally, the optimum means of administration is uncertain. Eleven normal volunteers were given omeprazole 20 mg every day for one week before breakfast in random order as either a 20-mg capsule with water or free enteric-coated granules with either 8 oz of orange juice, 8 oz of water with 2 Alka-Seltzer antacid tablets (aspirin free), or 1 teaspoon of apple sauce. On day 7 of each regimen, an 8-hr intragastric pH study was performed following omeprazole 20 mg and standard breakfast. The median percentage of time of gastric acid pH > 4 after an omeprazole capsule was 68.5 (25-100); after granules with orange juice 59 (43-100); after granules in Alka-Seltzer solution 63 (31-100), and after granules in apple sauce 65 (30-99), with no significant differences (ANOVA). The time for the gastric pH to reach <4' after having been above was also similar for all four regimens (ANOVA). Omeprazole granules administered orally in a variety of ways achieve gastric acid suppression as effectively as the intact capsule. PMID:9125637

Mohiuddin, M A; Pursnani, K G; Katzka, D A; Gideon, R M; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

1997-04-01

199

Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA  

PubMed Central

The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20?mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60?mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA.

Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

2013-01-01

200

Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide pasteurization on the physical and quality attributes of a red grapefruit juice.  

PubMed

Red grapefruit juice was treated with continuous dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) equipment to inactivate yeasts and molds and total aerobic microorganisms. A central composite design was used with pressure (13.8, 24.1, and 34.5 MPa) and residence time (5, 7, and 9 min) as variables at constant temperature (40 degrees C), and CO(2) level (5.7%) after experimentally measuring CO(2) solubility in the juice. Five log reduction for yeasts and molds and total aerobic microorganisms occurred at 34.5 MPa and 7 min of treatment. A storage study was performed on the fresh juice DPCD treated at these conditions. degrees Brix, pH, titratable acidity (TA), pectinesterase (PE) inactivation, cloud, color, hue tint and color density, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and ascorbic acid were measured after the treatment and during 6 wk storage at 4 degrees C. During storage, the DPCD-treated juice showed no growth of total aerobic microorganisms and yeasts and molds. Cloud increased (91%) while percent PE inactivation was partial (69.17%). No significant (alpha= 0.05) differences were detected between treated and untreated samples for degrees Brix, pH, and TA. Treated juice had higher lightness and redness and lower yellowness. No significant differences (alpha= 0.05) were detected for the hue tint values while the color density value was higher for the treated samples compared to the untreated. The treatment and the storage did not affect the total phenolic content of the juice. Slight differences were detected for the ascorbic acid content and the antioxidant capacity. The experimental results showed evidence that the treatment can maintain the physical and quality attributes of the juice, extending its shelf life and safety. PMID:19723197

Ferrentino, G; Plaza, M L; Ramirez-Rodrigues, M; Ferrari, G; Balaban, M O

2009-08-01

201

Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (? 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (?11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (?18%, p?composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet.

2013-01-01

202

Gastric Bypass Operation for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Gastric bypass is considered by many to be the gold standard for surgical treatment of obesity. Gastric bypass was\\u000a a natural evolution from gastric operations that were used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Gastric bypass, first\\u000a described in 1967, has undergone many modifications. It presently exists as a hybrid operation. Gastric bypass operation has\\u000a been extensively scrutinized

Mathias A. L. Fobi; Hoil Lee; Ronald Holness; DeGaulle Cabinda

1998-01-01

203

Separation, identification, and quantification of amino acids in L-lysine fermentation potato juices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The amino acid composition of L-lysine fermentation juices from potatoes and cane molasses from a green biorefinery has been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. N-Methyl-N-tert(butyldimethylsilyl)tri-fluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was used as derivatization reagent to prepare the t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives of the amino acids present in the juices. The amino acids in these derivatives were identified from both their EI and CI mass spectra and their retention times in the gas chromatogram, and they were quantified employing the GC response signals relative to cycloleucine as internal standard. PMID:11688654

Starke, I; Kleinpeter, E; Kamm, B

2001-10-01

204

Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.  

PubMed

Infection with Salmonella typhimurium can produce multiple organ dysfunctions. However, document concerning with gastric hemorrhagic ulcers occur in this infectious disease is lacking. The aim was to study modulation of gastric hemorrhagic ulcer by oxidative stress and mast cell histamine in S. typhimurium-infected rats. Additionally, the protective effects of drugs, such as ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were injected intrajejunally with a live culture of S. typhimurium (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units/rat) and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received sterilized vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. S. typhimurium caused aggravation of offensive factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine release, microvascular permeability and hemorrhagic ulcer, as well as an attenuation of defensive substances, such as mucosal GSH and mucus level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in S. typhimurium infected rats. In conclusion, gastric oxidative stress and histamine play pivotal roles in the formation of hemorrhagic ulcers that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, diamine oxidase and various antioxidants in S. typhimurium-infected rats. PMID:16259743

Hung, Chen-Road

2005-01-01

205

Gastric mucosal nerve density  

PubMed Central

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy.

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.

2010-01-01

206

Effects of artichoke leaf extract on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to clarify the effects of an ethanol extract of artichoke leaf on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Oral administration of artichoke leaf extract dose-dependently prevented absolute ethanol-induced (125-500 mg/kg) or restraint plus water immersion stress-induced gastric mucosal injury (1000-2000 mg/kg). The artichoke leaf extract contains 1% cynaropicrin and 0.8% chlorogenic acid as main components and 70% dextrin as a vehicle. Cynaropicrin at doses of 1/100 of artichoke leaf extract [ethanol-induced mucosal injury: 5 mg/kg, per os (p.o.); stress-induced mucosal injury: 20 mg/kg, p.o.] also prevented gastric mucosal injury in both animal models. However, dextrin and chlorogenic acid at doses contained in the leaf extract were ineffective in both models. When artichoke leaf extract was given orally to normal rats, it (500-2000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently increased gastric mucus content. In addition, it (125-500 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content by absolute ethanol. When the effects of artichoke leaf extract on basal gastric acid secretion in rats were evaluated, it (500-2000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently increased the volume of gastric juice in normal rats. However, it was ineffective in decreasing basal gastric acid secretion in normal rats. These results indicate that artichoke leaf extract is effective against acute gastritis and its beneficial effect is due to that of cynaropicrin. The gastric mucus-increasing action of artichoke leaf extract may be, at least in part, related to the anti-gastritic action of the extract. PMID:20118544

Ishida, Kazuo; Kojima, Ryoji; Tsuboi, Makoto; Tsuda, Yuka; Ito, Mikio

2010-01-01

207

Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.  

PubMed

The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:24300194

Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

2014-02-01

208

Formation of N-nitrosamine and N-nitrosamino acids from food products and nitrite under simulated gastric conditions.  

PubMed

Average-sized portions of a variety of food products were reacted with nitrite under realistically simulated gastric conditions. The aqueous incubation medium contained sodium nitrite (10 mg/l) and potassium thiocyanate to mimic the incoming flux of saliva, as well as pepsin, sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid, reflecting the composition of gastric juice. After incubation for 2 hr at 37 degrees C, volatile N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamino acids were determined in the reaction mixtures. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was present in the incubation mixtures of smoked mackerel (8.5 micrograms per portion), canned herring (0.66 micrograms per portion) and beer (0.70 micrograms per 'portion'). Smaller amounts per portion, sometimes of other nitrosamines as well, were observed with canned salmon and anchovy, mustard, yoghurt and coffee brew. Negative results were obtained for canned tuna, soya sauce, ketchup, white bread, 'nasi goreng', tea brew and cocoa milk. Nitrosamino acids were detected in the reaction mixtures of smoked mackerel (58 micrograms per portion), soya sauce (24 micrograms per portion) and canned salmon (6.9 micrograms per portion) and in smaller amounts in those of canned herring, anchovy and cocoa milk. In order to reduce the number of analyses to be performed, most products have been studied only after incubation, so that the nitrosamines and nitrosamino acids found may already have been present -- wholly or partly -- in the original products, before incubation. Such is the case for part of the NDMA in the reaction mixture of smoked mackerel and for all the NDMA in beer. The toxicological implications of these findings remain to be established. PMID:7228254

Groenen, P J; de Cock-Bethbeder, M W; Bouwman, J; Dhont, J H

1980-01-01

209

Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use.  

PubMed

Two clonal selections of lemon tree (Citrus limon Burm. f. cv. Fino), named Fino-49-5 and Fino-95, were studied to ascertain the influence of genetic (clone) and environmental (season) factors on the human-health bioactive compounds of lemon juice (vitamin C and flavonoids) and the possible relationship between composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of the juice. The cultivar Fino-49-5 performed better in terms of flavonoid and vitamin C contents. Variability in the weather conditions determined, at least in part, differences in the content of lemon juice bioactives more importantly than the genetic background did. Therefore, the food industry would have phytochemically rich and nutritive lemons with practically complete independence of the harvest time and the selected cultivar. PMID:18254590

González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2008-03-12

210

Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selection.  

PubMed

High-quality standards in blueberry juice can be obtained only taking into account fruit compositional variability and its preservation along the processing chain. In this work, five highbush blueberry cultivars from the same environmental growing conditions were individually processed into juice after an initial blanching step and the influence was studied of the cultivar on juice phenolic content, distribution and relative antioxidant activity, measured as scavenging capacity on the artificial free-radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). A chromatographic protocol was developed to separate all main phenolic compounds in berries. A total of 15 glycosylated anthocyanins, catechin, galactoside, glucoside, and rhamnoside quercetin 3-derivatives, and main benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified. The total content and relative distribution in anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin of each juice were dependent upon cultivar, and the total content was highly correlated (rxy=0.97) to the antioxidant capacity. A selective protective effect of berry blanching in juice processing can be observed on more labile anthocyanin compounds. PMID:18370394

Brambilla, Ada; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Bertolo, Gianni; Torreggiani, Danila

2008-04-23

211

Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.  

PubMed

Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions. PMID:24996350

Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

2014-12-01

212

Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago. Answer Cranberry juice has been shown to be effective in preventing adhesion of bacteria such as Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelium. Current evidence supports the use of cranberry juice for prevention of UTI in adult women, but no such evidence exists at this time for the prevention of UTI in children. While cranberry juice is very safe for most children, its acidity reduces palatability among children. The dose of cranberry juice to prevent UTI in children has also yet to be determined.

Goldman, Ran D.

2012-01-01

213

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration.

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

214

77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review...1\\ See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Preliminary...

2012-10-16

215

A Dust Spectrometer for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo spacecraft characterised the dust environment in the jovian system. The discoveries included an extended dusty ring system, the nano-metre sized stream particles originating from the moon Io, and the dust exospheres around the Galilean satellites Ganymed, Europa and Callisto. The study of the nanodust-magnetosphere interaction and the compositional analysis of dust particles ejected by the surfaces of Ganymed or Europa offer unique future opportunities. New dust instrumentation is a factor of 10 more sensitive than the former Galileo detector and adds compositional analysis for moon surface studies complementary to neutral gas or ion particle investigations. A dust spectrometer is highly sensitive for organic, salty water ice and mineral particles. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects of this investigation.

Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Krüger, H.; Thissen, R.; Sternosky, Z.; Engrand, C.; Fiege, K.; Hillier, J. K.; Horanyi, M.; Khalisi, E.; Mocker, A.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Grün, E.; Röser, H. P.

2012-09-01

216

[Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection].  

PubMed

Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain two compounds with anti-adherence properties, which prevent fimbriated E. coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately a dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials have a number of apparent limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and have employed different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15666710

Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

2004-12-01

217

Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain 2 compounds with antiadherence properties that prevent fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately 1 dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials suffer from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, cranberry juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and they have used different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15156480

Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

2004-05-15

218

Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices.

Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

2014-01-01

219

Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.  

PubMed

Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

2014-06-01

220

Aluminium migration to orange juice in laminated paperboard packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration of aluminium (Al) from aseptic laminated paperboard packages was studied by monitoring the Al content of orange juice (plain juice, no additives) filled into such packages and stored at ambient temperature (23°C) for up to 1 year. Analytical procedure includes MW-assisted digestion of orange juice with concentrated nitric acid followed by determination of Al concentration by double-focusing sector

Ilia Rodushkin; Astrid Magnusson

2005-01-01

221

Antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and of three cranberry extracts (water-soluble (E1) and apolar phenolic compounds (E2), and anthocyanins (E3)) was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Each cranberry

J. Côté; S. Caillet; G. Doyon; D. Dussault; J.-F. Sylvain; M. Lacroix

2011-01-01

222

Diagnosis of Pancreatic Neoplasms Using a Novel Method of DNA Methylation Analysis of Mucin Expression in Pancreatic Juice  

PubMed Central

Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel ‘methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)’ method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms.

Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitamoto, Sho; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Yuko; Hara, Taro; Ikebe, Dai; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Niihara, Toru; Nishimata, Hiroto; Tanaka, Sadao; Takaori, Kyoichi; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

223

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

224

The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted.

Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

2011-01-01

225

Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): hidden potential for hyperkalemia?  

PubMed

We report the case of a man with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine product known as noni juice (Morinda citrifolia). The patient presented to the clinic with hyperkalemia despite claiming adherence to a low-potassium diet. The potassium concentration in noni juice samples was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq/L, similar to that in orange juice and tomato juice. Herbal remedies and alternative medicine products may be surreptitious sources of potassium in patients with renal disease. PMID:10676732

Mueller, B A; Scott, M K; Sowinski, K M; Prag, K A

2000-02-01

226

Thorough investigation of the oxygen heterocyclic fraction of lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) juice.  

PubMed

Reversed-phase-HPLC analysis by means of superficially porous silica particle columns (fused-core) was applied to the investigation of flavonoids, coumarins, and psoralens in lime juice samples. Hesperidin (367.0 ± 16.0 ppm) and eriocitrin (148.0 ± 7.9 ppm) were the most abundant flavonoids. Fifteen coumarins and furocoumarins were determined, including bergamottin (29.6 ± 1.1 ppm), 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (16.5 ± 0.6 ppm), and oxypeucedanin hydrate (9.9 ± 0.5 ppm) as predominant compounds. These molecules are today well known for their beneficial effects on human health. As a consequence, the present study, beyond investigating for the first time the chemical composition of lime juice, highlights also its health-promoting qualities, due to its content of flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:24478239

Costa, Rosaria; Russo, Marina; De Grazia, Selenia; Grasso, Elisa; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2014-04-01

227

Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric outlet obstruction in a child.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5?cm × 2?cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Alghamdi, Salem; Alsaaran, Rasha; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

2014-01-01

228

Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5?cm × 2?cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

2014-01-01

229

Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis  

PubMed Central

Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

2014-01-01

230

Congenital gastric teratoma with gastric perforation mimicking meconium peritonitis.  

PubMed

A case of congenital immature gastric teratoma along with spontaneous gastric perforation in a 1-day-old boy is presented. The clinical features are similar to those of meconium peritonitis. Coincidentally, the child had an arachnoid cyst at 25 months of age. To the best of the authors knowledge, this case of congenital immature gastric teratoma associated with gastric perforation mimicking meconium peritonitis, is the first description in the English-language literature. PMID:11987111

Park, Woo-Hyun; Choi, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jong-In

2002-05-01

231

Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer.

Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

2013-01-01

232

Acute Gastric Necrosis Due to Gastric Outlet Obstruction Accompanied with Gastric Cancer and Trichophytobezoar  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to gastric outlet obstruction is a very rare condition, but it might be fatal if missed or if diagnosis is delayed. Our patient was a 73-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain, distension and dyspnea for 1 day. In plain radiography and computed tomography, a markedly distended stomach and decreased enhancement at the gastric wall were noted. He underwent explo-laparotomy, and near-total gastric mucosal necrosis accompanied by sludge from the soaked laver was noted. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed, and he recovered without sequelae. Final pathologic examination revealed advanced gastric cancer at the antrum with near-total gastric mucosal necrosis.

Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung

2011-01-01

233

Gastric Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity. Background Gastroparesis - Epidemiology Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women. The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously. Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes. The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest. GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP. The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. Treatment for Gastroparesis To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients. Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP. For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying. Few small studies

2006-01-01

234

One year of pomegranate juice intake decreases oxidative stress, inflammation, and incidence of infections in hemodialysis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are well established as nontraditional key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are also involved in the innate immunity dysregulation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study aim was to investigate the effect of 1-year intake of pomegranate juice, an antioxidant source, on oxidative stress, inflammation, and long-term clinical outcomes. A randomized placebo controlled double-blind trial was designed, enrolling 101 chronic HD patients to receive during each dialysis 100 cc of pomegranate juice, or matching placebo, three times a week for 1 year. The primary endpoints were levels of oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. Secondary endpoints were hospitalization due to infections and the progression of atherosclerotic process based on a composite of variables of the carotid arteries: intima media thickness (IMT), number, and structure of plaques. Pomegranate juice intake yielded a significant time response reduction in polymorphonuclear leukocyte priming, protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and inflammation biomarkers levels. These beneficial effects were abolished 3 months postintervention. Pomegranate juice intake resulted in a significantly lower incidence rate of the second hospitalization due to infections. Furthermore, 25% of the patients in the pomegranate juice group had improvement and only 5% progression in the atherosclerotic process, while more than 50% of patients in the placebo group showed progression and none showed any improvement. Prolonged pomegranate juice intake improves nontraditional CV risk factors, attenuates the progression of the atherosclerotic process, strengthens the innate immunity, and thus reduces morbidity among HD patients. PMID:22609423

Shema-Didi, Lilach; Sela, Shifra; Ore, Liora; Shapiro, Galina; Geron, Ronit; Moshe, Goldfeld; Kristal, Batya

2012-07-15

235

Laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIndications for and results of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB) are still controversial, especially between Europe and the United States. The recent availability of gastric bandings in the United States made it necessary to compare the two techniques.

Laurent Biertho; Rudolf Steffen; Thomas Ricklin; Fritz F Horber; Alfons Pomp; William B Inabnet; Daniel Herron; Michel Gagner

2003-01-01

236

Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

2013-01-01

237

Role of gastric oxidative stress and nitric oxide in formation of hemorrhagic erosion in rats with ischemic brain  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of gastric oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) in the formation of gastric hemorrhagic erosion and their protection by drugs in rats with ischemic brain. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Under chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg) anesthesia, bilateral carotid artery ligation was performed. The pylorus and carotid esophagus of the rats were also ligated. The stomachs were then irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or simulated gastric juice containing 100 mmol/L HCl plus 17.4 mmol/L pepsin and 54 mmol/L NaCl. Rats were killed and stomachs were dissected. Gastric mucosa and gastric contents were harvested. The rat brain was dissected for the examination of ischemia by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining method. Changes in gastric ulcerogenic parameters, such as decreased mucosal glutathione level as well as enhanced gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine concentration, luminal hemoglobin content and mucosal erosion in gastric samples, were measured. RESULTS: Bilateral carotid artery ligation produced severe brain ischemia (BI) in rats. An exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters and mucosal hemorrhagic erosions were observed in these rats. The exacerbated ulcerogenic parameters were significantly (P?gastric parameters were also improved by intraperitoneal aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg) but were aggravated by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME: 25 mg/kg). Intraperitoneal L-arginine (0-500 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated BI-induced aggravation of ulcerogenic parameters and hemorrhagic erosions that were reversed by L-NAME. CONCLUSION: BI could produce hemorrhagic erosions through gastric oxidative stress and activation of arginine-nitric oxide pathway.

Hung, Chen-Road

2006-01-01

238

GASTRIC MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC RAPID GASTRIC EMPTYING  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The mechanisms of “idiopathic” rapid gastric emptying, which is associated with functional dyspepsia and functional diarrhea, are not understood. Our hypotheses were that increased gastric motility and reduced postprandial gastric accommodation contribute to rapid gastric emptying. Methods Fasting and postprandial (300kCal nutrient meal) gastric volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 20 healthy people and 17 with functional dyspepsia; 7 had normal and 10 had rapid gastric emptying. In 17 healthy people and patients, contractility was analyzed by spectral analysis of a time-series of gastric cross-sectional areas. Logistic regression models analyzed whether contractile parameters, fasting volume, and postprandial volume change could discriminate between health and patients with normal or rapid gastric emptying. Results While upper gastrointestinal symptoms were comparable, patients with rapid emptying had a higher (p = 0.002) body mass index (BMI) than normal gastric emptying. MRI visualized propagating contractions at ~ 3 cpm in healthy people and patients. Compared to controls (0.16 ± 0.02, Mean ± SEM), the amplitude of gastric contractions in the entire stomach was higher (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.0) in patients with rapid (0.24 ± 0.03) but not normal gastric emptying (0.10 ± 0.03). Similar differences were observed in the distal stomach. However, the propagation velocity, fasting gastric volume, and the postprandial volume change were not significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusions MRI provides a noninvasive and refined assessment of gastric volumes and contractility in humans. Increased gastric contractility may contribute to rapid gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.

Bharucha, Adil E.; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S.; Fidler, Jeff; Edwards, Phillip; Grimm, Roger C.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

239

Molecular biology of gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer involves changes in multiple oncogenes and multiple suppressor genes, and it causes genetic instability. Aberrant expression and amplification of the c-met gene, inactivation of the p53 gene, and CD44 abnormal transcripts are common events of both well differentiated and poorly differentiated gastric cancers. Amplification of the cyclin E gene is also observed in gastric cancer regardless of histologic

Eiichi Tahara

1995-01-01

240

Gastric emptying following vagotomy and antrectomy and proximal gastric vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying of solid meals labelled with 129Cs was studied in patients for up to one year after vagotomy and antrectomy or after proximal gastric vagotomy. Significant delay was found one month after vagotomy and antrectomy but this had returned to normal by six months. No delay was found after proximal gastric vagotomy. The effect of posture on gastric emptying was also studied in the same subjects. No significant differences were found between gastric emptying in the supine or sitting positions after solid meals.

Kalbasi, H; Hudson, F R; Herring, A; Moss, S; Glass, H I; Spencer, J

1975-01-01

241

Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition.

Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol

2014-01-01

242

The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

1996-01-01

243

Interaction between grapefruit juice and midazolam in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of midazolam.Methods: Eight healthy male subjects participated in this open crossover study. Intravenous (5 mg) or oral (15 mg) midazolam was administered after pretreatment with water or grapefruit juice. We measured the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (reaction time, Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], general impression judged by the

Hugo H. T. Kupferschmidt; Huy Riem Ha; Walter H. Ziegler; Peter J. Meier; Stephan Krähenbühl

1995-01-01

244

21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Brix and Brix-acid ratio for such oranges, and to which juice may be added...the unfermented juice obtained from oranges of the species Citrus reticulata...practice) are removed, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in...

2010-04-01

245

21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Brix and Brix-acid ratio for such oranges, and to which juice may be added...the unfermented juice obtained from oranges of the species Citrus reticulata...practice) are removed, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in...

2009-04-01

246

Modeling of clarified tropical fruit juice deacidification by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis (ED) using two-stack configurations with homopolar or bipolar membranes was investigated for deacidification of tropical fruit juices (passion fruit, mulberry, naranjilla). The objective was to develop a mathematical treatment for ED to predict the behavior of a fruit juice at industrial scale from ED performances at laboratory scale. From parameters such as current efficiency, electric resistance of the anion

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2009-01-01

247

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Research, Cornell C.

2003-01-01

248

Volume and acidity of residual gastric fluid after oral fluid ingestion before elective ambulatory surgery.  

PubMed Central

We studied 211 unselected, healthy, adult patients scheduled to undergo elective ambulatory surgery to determine whether the volume or pH of gastric fluid at induction of anesthesia is correlated with the duration of the preoperative fluid fast. Patients were instructed that they must not eat any solid food after midnight but that they were permitted to drink 150 ml of tea, coffee, apple juice or water until 3 hours before their scheduled time of surgery. Patients with gastric disorders and those taking medications that affect gastric motility or secretion were excluded. No premedicant drugs were given. Following induction of general anesthesia the gastric fluid was aspirated through an orogastric tube, its volume recorded and its pH measured with a calibrated pH meter. The patients were retrospectively assigned to one of four groups according to the interval from last fluid ingestion until induction of anesthesia (less than 3 hours, 3 to 4.9 hours, 5 to 8 hours and nothing after midnight). The mean values and extremes for gastric fluid volume and pH were similar in the four groups. We conclude that healthy patients should be allowed to ingest fluid until 3 hours before elective ambulatory surgery.

Scarr, M; Maltby, J R; Jani, K; Sutherland, L R

1989-01-01

249

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

250

[A technique for pancreatic juice collection in the rat].  

PubMed

Monitoring of exocrine graft function and pancreatic juice cytology have proved to be a reliable method of detection of pancreas allograft rejection. In order to confirm these clinical findings and to define further parameters, experimental work is still needed. The rat was chosen for these experiments and a technique of pancreatic juice procurement developed. In five animals a fully implantable closed reservoir-catheter system was used. For the prevention of bacterial contamination it was necessary to install a mixture of antibiotics and culture medium into the reservoir. Pancreatic juice was procured daily under general anaesthesia. During the observation time of 14 days no further complications were encountered with the exception of one catheter dislocation. The mean amount of juice of 1 cc per day has proved to be sufficient for various enzyme estimations as well as for juice cytology. PMID:2278161

Königsrainer, A; Habringer, C; Krausler, R; Klima, G; Margreiter, R

1990-01-01

251

Healthy controls have as much bile reflux as gastric ulcer patients.  

PubMed Central

Data on duodenogastric reflux of bile in gastric ulcer are conflicting. We therefore measured intragastric bile acid concentration and its composition from individual bile acids, duodenogastric bile acid reflux rate, gastric emptying rate, and secretion rates of volume and acid in 30 patients with gastric ulcer and in 66 healthy controls, both in the fasting state and after feeding a liquid meal. Patients had higher gastric bile acid concentrations (p less than 0.05) than controls in the fasting state, but the overlap between the groups was considerable. In fasting patients with corpus ulcer, gastric secretion rates were significantly decreased when compared with controls. There was no difference between patients and controls with respect to gastric emptying rate, bile acid reflux rate, intragastric amount of bile acids, and bile acid composition in the fasting state. Postprandially, all parameters tested were similar in patients and controls. Controls showed high reflux rates with similar frequency as did ulcer patients. We conclude that increased gastric bile acid concentrations in the fasting stomach of patients with gastric ulcer are the result of gastric hyposecretion and not of increased reflux. They probably are pathogenetically irrelevant.

Schindlbeck, N E; Heinrich, C; Stellaard, F; Paumgartner, G; Muller-Lissner, S A

1987-01-01

252

Managing Gastric Linitis Plastica  

PubMed Central

Gastric linitis plastica is a diffuse type of cancer which is characterised by a thickening and rigidity of the stomach wall. It is notorious for its failure to cause early symptoms, and patients with symptoms generally have a more advanced form of the disease. We report our 18-month-long experience of managing gastric linitis plastica at Barnsley District General Hospital, UK. In our series of 8 patients, only one patient was offered surgery; the rest were offered palliative or supportive treatment. The findings in our series were consistent with the available evidence that curative treatment is not an option for the majority of cases with linitis plastica.

Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Shiwani, Hanif; Rustum, Quatullah

2013-01-01

253

Effects of Gastric Irrigation on Bacterial Counts before Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Randomized Case Control Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The antiseptic effect of gastric irrigation before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has not yet been reported. The aim of the randomized prospective study is to evaluate the antiseptic effects of gastric irrigation of saline solution before ESD by evaluating bacterial count. Methods This prospective randomized controlled trial included 50 patients diagnosed with early gastric cancer who were randomly divided into 2 groups (25 patients in each group) by using the opaque envelope method: the clean group (irrigation with 2 L saline solution before ESD) and the regular group (no irrigation). The gastric juice was collected and cultured before ESD. The entire stomach was irrigated using a water jet attached to an endoscope. After ESD with resection and removal of the tumor specimen, a postoperative culture of the gastric juice was obtained using the same method as the preoperative culture. Results The mean log bacterial count of the post-gastric irrigation gastric juice was 5.08±0.75 in the regular group and 1.86±0.86 in the clean group. The difference in the bacterial counts was significant between the groups (P?=?0.0004). The difference in the white blood cells (WBC) count on POD 1 was significant (P?=?0.044). WBC count on POD 2 did not significantly differ between the groups (P?=?0.3). The difference in the body temperature (BT) on POD 1 was significant (P?=?0.017), On POD 2 the BT was not significant between the groups (P?=?0.5). On POD 1, 88% of the patients in the regular group and 16% of the patients in the clean group had mild to moderate spontaneous pain (P?=?0.0026). On POD 2 the proportion with mild to moderate spontaneous pain was 36% and 24% in the regular group and the clean group, respectively (P?=?0.1). Conclusion Pre-ESD gastric irrigation with saline solution is effective and feasible for suppressing infection during the ESD procedure with favorable clinical outcomes. Trial registration information The university hospital medical information network (UMIN) #000008691.

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Rafiq, Kazi; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Oryu, Makoto; Masaki, Tsutomu

2013-01-01

254

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutierrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

255

Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

González-Mas, M Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

256

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.  

PubMed

We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2014-01-01

257

Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field.

Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

2014-01-01

258

[Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].  

PubMed

This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group. PMID:20201286

Belostotski?, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

2009-01-01

259

Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of pantoprazole and aprepitant in gastric esophageal reflux disease in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2014-01-01

260

Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3?mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3?mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg) or aprepitant (10?mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal.

Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2014-01-01

261

Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruit juices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest

William Mullen; Serena C. Marks; Alan Crozier

2007-01-01

262

Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

2012-12-01

263

Gastric cancer: overview.  

PubMed

This review provides a state of the art description of gastric cancer etiology, the infectious agent, host factors, the precancerous cascade, clinical aspects, and prevention strategies. The biology of Helicobacter pylori, the primary causative agent, is discussed as well as the environmental factors that may modulate its effects. PMID:23639637

Correa, Pelayo

2013-06-01

264

Gastric Motility: The Electrogastrogram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for recording gastric motility, the EGG, in the intact organism. The method is based upon detection of the substantial potentials generated by the stomach through electrodes placed on the skin of the abdomen. Methods for analyzing th...

R. W. Russell R. M. Stern

1967-01-01

265

Local immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected cats and identification of H. pylori in saliva, gastric fluid and faeces.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori-infected cats were screened by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of H. pylori in salivary secretions, gastric juice, gastric tissue and faeces. H. pylori was cultured from salivary secretions in six of 12 (50%) cats and from gastric fluid samples in 11 of 12 (91%) cats. A 298 base pair polymerase chain reactions (PCR) product specific for an H. pylori 26000 MW surface protein was amplified from dental plaque samples from five of 12 (42%) cats and from the faeces of four of five (80%) cats studied. Analyses of serum and mucosal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, and elevated IgA anti-H. pylori antibody levels in salivary and local gastric secretions. Immunohistochemical analyses of gastric tissue revealed the presence of IgM+ B cells assembled into multiple lymphoid follicles surrounded by clusters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The lamina propria also contained single cells or aggregates of IgA+ and IgM+ B cells. These observations show that H. pylori can be identified in feline mucosal secretions, and that a localized IgA immune response develops in gastric tissue of H. pylori-infected cats. The findings suggest a zoonotic risk from exposure to personnel handling H. pylori-infected cats in vivaria. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Fox, J G; Perkins, S; Yan, L; Shen, Z; Attardo, L; Pappo, J

1996-01-01

266

Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: report of two cases.  

PubMed

NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses. No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice. A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acute hepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. PMID:16094725

Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Fickert, Peter; Lackner, Carolin; Schmerlaib, Jutta; Krisper, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Stauber, Rudolf E

2005-08-14

267

Capsaicin and gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion. PMID:16621751

Satyanarayana, M N

2006-01-01

268

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion  

PubMed Central

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

2013-01-01

269

Grapefruit juice can increase the plasma concentrations of oral methylprednisolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether the pharmacokinetics of orally administered methylprednisolone and plasma cortisol concentrations\\u000a are affected by administration of grapefruit juice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: In a randomised, two-phase, cross-over study, ten healthy subjects received either 200?ml double-strength grapefruit juice\\u000a or water three times a day for 2?days. On day?3, 16?mg methylprednisolone was given orally with 200?ml grapefruit juice or\\u000a water. Additionally, 200?ml

T. Varis; K. T. Kivistö; P. J. Neuvonen

2000-01-01

270

Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.  

PubMed Central

Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

1978-01-01

271

Optimization of enzymatic process parameters for increased juice yield from carrot ( Daucus carota L.) using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of enzyme concentration (50–650 mg\\/kg grated carrot), pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme ratio (3:7–7:3), incubation time (30–150 min) and temperature (25–65 °C) on juice recovery and viscosity from grated carrot were studied. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in designing the treatment combinations of four variables at five levels. The process involved in treating the blanched grated carrot with mixture

A. K. Sharma; B. C. Sarkar; H. K. Sharma

2005-01-01

272

Gastric cancer risk after vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

The risk of gastric cancer after vagotomy for benign gastric and duodenal disease was examined in a population based cohort of 7198 patients operated on during 1971-79 and followed up until 1988. After exclusion of the first year of follow up there were 34 cases of gastric cancer compared with 25.6 expected (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.33; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.92 to 1.86). Separate analyses by duration of follow up, sex, age at operation, underlying diagnosis, and operative procedures did not show any significant increased or decreased risk of gastric cancer in any of the subgroups. In conclusion, decreased gastric acid secretion after vagotomy does not increase the risk of gastric cancer in the first 10 years after operation or in the subgroup followed up for 10-18 years. A longer follow-up is needed before an excess risk can be excluded.

Lundegardh, G; Ekbom, A; McLaughlin, J K; Nyren, O

1994-01-01

273

Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (inventors)

1981-01-01

274

6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: Effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin to the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine disposition

David J. Edwards; Michael E. Fitzsimmons; Erin G. Schuetz; Kazuto Yasuda; Murray P. Ducharme; Lawrence H. Warbasse; Patrick M. Woster; John D. Schuetz; Paul Watkins

1999-01-01

275

A gastric acid secretion model.  

PubMed Central

A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1

de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

1993-01-01

276

Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice.  

PubMed

Fresh apple juice treated with ultrasound (for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min, at 20 °C, 25 kHz frequency) was evaluated for different physico-chemical, Hunter color values, cloud value, antioxidant capacity, scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and microbial characteristics. No significant effect of sonication was observed on pH, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity of apple juice. Sonication significantly improved ascorbic acid, cloud value, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and differences in Hunter color values. Moreover, significant reduction in microbial population was observed. Findings of the present study suggested that sonication treatment could improve the quality of apple juice. It may successfully be employed for the processing of apple juice with improved quality and safety from consumer's health point of view. PMID:23522904

Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2013-09-01

277

LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

278

Antibacterial screening of anthocyanic and proanthocyanic fractions from cranberry juice.  

PubMed

The effect of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich fractions isolated from cranberry juice was studied for their antibacterial activity against nine bacterial strains. Activity was assessed by the agar diffusion assay. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was the only strain to exhibit some susceptibility to four out of 10 anthocyanin-rich fractions tested. A variable susceptibility of S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 10541, and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 to proanthocyanidin- rich fractions was also observed. Streptococcus mutans strains as well as Escherichia coli ATCC 10538 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were not susceptible to any of the cranberry juice samples or fractions at the tested concentrations. There was no clear correlation between Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacterial susceptibility to cranberry juice. In this work, the role of cranberry juice anthocyanic and proanthocyanic fractions upon bacterial viability is discussed. PMID:15857207

Leitão, Denise P S; Polizello, Ana Cristina M; Ito, Izabel Y; Spadaro, Augusto César C

2005-01-01

279

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata...extract of the excess pulp so removed may be added. Orange oil, orange pulp, orange essence (obtained from orange...

2009-04-01

280

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata...extract of the excess pulp so removed may be added. Orange oil, orange pulp, orange essence (obtained from orange...

2010-04-01

281

Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?18O = ?4.2‰ and ?D??46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?13C = ?28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value.

Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

2012-01-01

282

Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.  

PubMed Central

Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days.

Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

1977-01-01

283

Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7200s over a temperature range of 80-145°C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

2014-11-01

284

Focus on ulcerative colitis: stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419) may be the new drug stable in human gastric juice, effective both in the upper and lower GI tract, and free of side effects. BPC 157, in addition to an antiulcer effect efficient in therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (PL 14736) so far only tested in clinical phase II, has a very safe profile, and exhibited a particular wound healing effect. It also has shown to interact with the NO-system, providing endothelium protection and angiogenic effect, even in severely impaired conditions (i.e., it stimulated expression of early growth response 1 gene responsible for cytokine and growth factor generation and early extracellular matrix (collagen) formation (but also its repressor nerve growth factor 1-A binding protein-2)), important to counteract severe complications of advanced and poorly controlled IBD. Hopefully, the lessons from animal studies, particularly advanced intestinal anastomosis healing, reversed short bowel syndrome and fistula healing indicate BPC 157's high significance in further IBD therapy. Also, this supportive evidence (i.e., no toxic effect, limit test negative, LD1 not achieved, no side effect in trials) may counteract the problems commonly exercised in the use of peptidergic agents, particularly those used on a long-term basis. PMID:22300085

Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Turkovic, B; Rokotov, D S; Brcic, L; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Drmic, D; Ilic, S; Kolenc, D; Stambolija, V; Zoricic, Z; Vrcic, H; Sebecic, B

2012-01-01

285

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We introduced open adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution\\u000a in 1991. It was done in a prospective study comparing ASGB with vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) with regard to weight loss.\\u000a After 200 cases of open ASGB and 210 VBG procedures and the encouraging weight loss results, we started laparoscopic placement\\u000a of the

Mitiku Belachew; Marc Legrand; Vernon Vincent; Michel Lismonde; Nicole Le Docte; Veronique Deschamps

1998-01-01

286

Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 2. Effect of novel production methods.  

PubMed

There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is possible to improve flavonoid content in juice and its antioxidant activity by applying an alcoholic extraction either on the pulp or on the pomace. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in enriched juice were between 1.4 (chlorogenic acid) and 9 (quercetin glycosides) times higher than in conventional apple juice. In enriched juice the antioxidant activity was 5 times higher than in conventional apple juice, with 52% of the antioxidant activity of the originating fruits present. The novel processing method had similar effects for three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold). The taste and color of enriched juice were different from those of conventional juice. PMID:15137823

van der Sluis, Addie A; Dekker, Matthijs; Skrede, Grete; Jongen, Wim M F

2004-05-19

287

Effect of juice processing on cranberry antibacterial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the industrial juice process on the ability of neutralized cranberry samples and extracts (polar, apolar and anthocyanins) to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, E. coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 were investigated. The juice process

J. Côté; S. Caillet; D. Dussault; J.-F. Sylvain; M. Lacroix

2011-01-01

288

Effect of grapefruit juice on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Grapefruit juice is responsible for drug interactions mediated by intestinal cytochrome P4503A4 inhibition and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibition in enterocytes. Our main objective was to determine whether grapefruit juice alters the bioavailability of digoxin, a P-glycoprotein substrate. The secondary objective was to determine whether the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction was influenced by P-glycoprotein genetic polymorphism.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers participated

Laurent Becquemont; Céline Verstuyft; Reinhold Kerb; Ulrich Brinkmann; Martine Lebot; Patrice Jaillon; Christian Funck-Brentano

2001-01-01

289

Piperacillin-Tazobactam Penetration into Human Pancreatic Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piperacillin-tazobactam was administered as a single dose (4.5 g intravenous) to five patients with stabilized external pancreatic fistula. The penetration into pancreatic juice was prompt, and inhibitory concentrations were achieved and maintained for different periods (0.5 to 6 h) according to bacterial susceptibility and patients' characteristics. Piperacillin and tazobactam showed superimposable pharmacokinetics in both serum and pancreatic juice. Piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TZ),

Elisa Bertazzoni Minelli; Anna Benini; Luigina Franco; Claudio Bassi; Paolo Pederzoli

2008-01-01

290

Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ) was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118

Mian-Ying Wang; M Nawal Lutfiyya; Vicki Weidenbacher-Hoper; Gary Anderson; Chen X Su; Brett J West

2009-01-01

291

Noni juice ( Morinda citrifolia ): Hidden potential for hyperkalemia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a man with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine product known as noni juice (Morinda citrifolia ). The patient presented to the clinic with hyperkalemia despite claiming adherence to a low-potassium diet. The potassium concentration in noni juice samples was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq\\/L, similar to that in orange

Bruce A. Mueller; Meri K. Scott; Kevin M. Sowinski; Kathleen A. Prag

2000-01-01

292

Chemotherapy for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease. Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase II and III studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed. Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase III trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116 study, postoperative chemoradiation has been accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase II studies are showing promising results. Phase III trials are needed.

Sastre, Javier; Garcia-Saenz, Jose Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo

2006-01-01

293

Impacts of variations in elemental nutrient concentration of Chardonnay musts on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation kinetics and wine composition.  

PubMed

Chardonnay, being the predominant white wine-grape cultivar in the Australian wine sector, is subject to widely varying winemaking processes with the aim of producing a variety of wine styles. Therefore, juice composition might not always be ideal for optimal fermentation outcomes. Our aim was to better understand the composition of Chardonnay juice and how compositional parameters impact on fermentation outcomes. This was achieved through a survey of 96 commercially prepared Chardonnay juices during the 2009 vintage. Common juice variables were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy, and elemental composition was determined using radial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The influence of elemental composition on fermentation outcomes was assessed by fermentation of a defined medium formulated to reflect the composition and range of concentrations as determined by the juice survey. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain effects were also assessed. Key parameters influencing fermentation outcomes were verified by laboratory scale fermentation of Chardonnay juice. This exploration of Chardonnay juice identified interactions between juice pH and potassium concentration as key factors impacting on fermentation performance and wine quality. Outcomes differed depending on yeast strain. PMID:21476141

Schmidt, Simon A; Dillon, Simon; Kolouchova, Radka; Henschke, Paul A; Chambers, Paul J

2011-07-01

294

Human Embryonic Gastric Xenografts in Nude Mice: a New Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

In vitro or animal models have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, extrapolation to humans of results obtained with these heterologous models remains difficult. We have developed a new model for the study of H. pylori infection that uses human entire embryonic stomachs engrafted in nude mice. At 80 days after implantation, 22 of these xenografts, which exhibited a mature gastric epithelium, were inoculated with 107 to 108 CFU of either H. pylori LB1, a freshly isolated H. pylori strain (n = 12), or H. pylori ATCC 49503 (n = 10). After 12-week examination, H. pylori LB1 persistently colonized the antrum of all inoculated grafts, as assessed by culture (mucus and mucosa), immunohistochemistry (mucosa), and a rapid urease test (mucus). H. pylori ATCC 49503, either before or after in vivo passage, permitted only a transient 2-week colonization in one of the five inoculated grafts in both groups. Colonization was always associated with an increase of gastric juice pH. A mild neutrophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa was noted solely in infected grafts. Transmission electron microscopy showed adherence of H. pylori organisms to epithelial cell surface. In six animals, intracytoplasmic location of this bacterium was observed in the antrum or the fundus. These results allow us to propose this model as a new ex vivo model for the study of specific H. pylori-gastric cell interactions.

Lozniewski, Alain; Muhale, Filipe; Hatier, Renee; Marais, Armelle; Conroy, Marie-Christine; Edert, Danielle; le Faou, Alain; Weber, Michele; Duprez, Adrien

1999-01-01

295

Dietary iron-initiated lipid oxidation and its inhibition by polyphenols in gastric conditions.  

PubMed

The gastric tract may be the first site where food is exposed to postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidant activity by plant micronutrients. After food intake, dietary iron, dioxygen, and emulsified lipids come into close contact and lipid oxidation may take place. This study investigated lipid oxidation and its inhibition by dietary polyphenols in gastric-like conditions. Lipid oxidation induced by heme and nonheme iron was studied in acidic sunflower oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsifier type (bovine serum albumin, phospholipids), pH, and iron form were found to be factors governing the oxidation rates. Quercetin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid highly inhibited the metmyoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation in both emulsified systems at pH 5.8. Additionally, quercetin inhibited nonheme iron-initiated processes, while it was inefficient with hematin as an initiator. The presence of human gastric juice did not influence lipid oxidation, although it diminished the antioxidant activity of phenolics. Model emulsions may thus be valuable tools to study the gastric stability of polyunsaturated lipids. PMID:22860567

Lorrain, Bénédicte; Dangles, Olivier; Loonis, Michèle; Armand, Martine; Dufour, Claire

2012-09-12

296

Gastric cancer after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: case report  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery is rare. The authors present a case of stomach cancer in a patient 6 years after adjustable silicone gastric band placement. The tumour was located below the band, not in its direct vicinity. Aetiological and risk factors of stomach cancer incidence in obese patients are discussed in this case study.

Janczak, Przemyslaw; Modzelewski, Bogdan

2012-01-01

297

77 FR 72384 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of...Investigations on Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: International...investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely...obtained by accessing its internet server...

2012-12-05

298

Failure of juice or juice extract from the noni plant (Morinda citrifolia) to protect rats against oxygen toxicity.  

PubMed

Noni juice possesses antioxidant activity and prevents superoxide-mediated tissue injury in laboratory animals. A polysaccharide-rich precipitate of noni juice (noni-ppt) also stimulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) in mice. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) stimulates TNF and IL-1 in rats and protects against superoxide-mediated oxygen toxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that noni juice, or noni-ppt, would protect rats against pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Rats were divided into four groups; one received noni-ppt to test for cytokine-induced protection; another received noni juice to test for antioxidant activity; a third received saline as hyperoxia control; a fourth received no treatment in air. Rats were then exposed to either hyperoxia (> 97% oxygen at sea level for 52 or 60 hours) or air and lung injury assessed. Rats receiving saline, noni-ppt or noni juice exhibited typical signs of oxygen toxicity with hemorrhagic lungs, large pleural effusions and increases in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. They also developed heavy lungs with increases in wet/dry weight ratios, hematocrit values and ratios of effusion protein to plasma protein concentration. These results show that Noni juice and Noni-ppt do not prevent oxygen toxicity in rats when administered according to the protocols used in this study. PMID:17393917

Berg, John T; Furusawa, Eiichi

2007-02-01

299

Gastric duplication cyst: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a gastric duplication cyst in an undernourished 5-month-old child suffering from anorexia, vomiting, and melena. Clinical presentation was consistent with a Meckel's diverticulum, which, however, was not found at laparotomy. Scintigraphy and ultrasound, performed 4 months later, suggested gastric duplication, which was confirmed by surgery.

L. Cruz; M. Gonçalo; J. Leão; J. Reis; I. Lourenço; A. Machado

1994-01-01

300

[Phytobezoar of the gastric stump].  

PubMed

The Authors present a case who occurred to their observation concerning a patient undergoing subtotal gastrectomy for cancer four years ago which have developed a phytobezoar in the gastric stump, treated with enzymatic dissolution with acetylcysteine associated with metoclopramide . According to the Literature, the Authors point out the etiology, pathogenesis and therapy of this non rate consequence of the gastric surgery. PMID:3168086

Guzzetti, A; Bellotti, R; Grecchi, F

1988-04-01

301

Gastric strongyloidiasis as multiple small gastric nodules  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Strongyloidiasis, a common intestinal parasitic infection, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and occurs sporadically in temperate areas. It is endemic in Guilan province, Iran, and especially affects the rural population. Case Report: We report the case of a 43-year-old woman living in Anzali (in the north of Iran), with dyspepsia and epigastric pain for 2 years, unresponsive to H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done and showed multiple small nodules at the stomach. The pathologist reported Strongyloides. Treatment with Ivermectin and antibiotic triple therapy was done. She responded well to treatment and 6 months later an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed no significant lesions and all nodules had disappeared. Strongyloidiasis is usually not severe and frequently is nonspecific. For this reason, the infection is easily ignored by both the patients and physicians. Conclusions: Although gastric involvement shows nonspecific symptoms, the possibility should be carefully considered by clinicians who practice in endemic areas.

Shafaghi, Afshin; Askari, Kurosh; Hajizadeh, Hadi; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz

2012-01-01

302

Contactless conductivity detection of sodium monofluoroacetate in fruit juices on a CE microchip.  

PubMed

Rapid and quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in diluted fruit juices (dilution 1:9 v/v in deionized water) and tap water was performed by microchip CE, using contactless conductivity detection. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the monofluoroacetate (MFA) anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. The analyte was very well separated from interfering anionic species present in juices and tap water. LODs in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 microg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. Taking into account the dilution factor, the LODs for juice samples range from 1 to 2 mg/L, which is adequate for monitoring the toxicity of MFA in these juice beverages and tap water. The calibration curves for MFA in diluted fruit juices were linear over the range of 500 microg/L to 80 mg/L. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis. PMID:17768724

Lu, Qin; Wu, Peter; Collins, Greg E

2007-10-01

303

Management of gastric varices.  

PubMed

According to their location, gastric varices (GV) are classified as gastroesophageal varices and isolated gastric varices. This review will mainly focus on those GV located in the fundus of the stomach (isolated gastric varices 1 and gastroesophageal varices 2). The 1-year risk of GV bleeding has been reported to be around 10%-16%. Size of GV, presence of red signs, and the degree of liver dysfunction are independent predictors of bleeding. Limited data suggest that tissue adhesives, mainly cyanoacrylate (CA), may be effective and better than propranolol in preventing bleeding from GV. General management of acute GV bleeding must be similar to that of esophageal variceal bleeding, including prophylactic antibiotics, a careful replacement of volemia, and early administration of vasoactive drugs. Small sample-sized randomized controlled trials have shown that tissue adhesives are the therapy of choice for acute GV bleeding. In treatment failures, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is considered the treatment of choice. After initial hemostasis, repeated sessions with CA injections along with nonselective beta-blockers are recommended as secondary prophylaxis; whether CA is superior to TIPS in this scenario is not completely clear. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been introduced as a new method to treat GV. BRTO is also effective and has the potential benefit of increasing portal hepatic blood flow and therefore may be an alternative for patients who may not tolerate TIPS. However, BRTO obliterates spontaneous portosystemic shunts, potentially aggravating portal hypertension and its related complications. The role of BRTO in the management of acute GV bleeding is promising but merits further evaluation. PMID:23899955

Garcia-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Barrufet, Marta; Cardenas, Andres; Escorsell, Angels

2014-06-01

304

Gastric and ectopic varices.  

PubMed

Although often considered together, gastric and ectopic varices represent complications of a heterogeneous group of underlying diseases. Commonly, these are known to arise in patients with cirrhosis secondary to portal hypertension; however, they also arise in patients with noncirrhotic portal hypertension, most often secondary to venous thrombosis of the portal venous system. One of the key initial assessments is to define the underlying condition leading to the formation of these portal-collateral pathways to guide management. In the authors' experience, these patients can be grouped into distinct although sometimes overlapping conditions, which can provide a helpful conceptual basis of management. PMID:24679501

Henry, Zachary; Uppal, Dushant; Saad, Wael; Caldwell, Stephen

2014-05-01

305

The gastric precancerous cascade  

PubMed Central

Invasive gastric carcinoma is preceded by a cascade of precancerous lesions. The first recognized histologic change is active chronic inflammation, which may persist as such: non-atrophic chronic gastritis (no gland loss), or advance to multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG), the first real step in the precancerous cascade. The following steps are: intestinal metaplasia (first “complete” and then “incomplete”); dysplasia, first low grade and then high grade (equivalent to “carcinoma in situ”). The following step is invasive carcinoma, which is thought to be associated with degradation of the intercellular matrix.

CORREA, Pelayo; PIAZUELO, M Blanca

2012-01-01

306

The gastric precancerous cascade.  

PubMed

Invasive gastric carcinoma is preceded by a cascade of precancerous lesions. The first recognized histologic change is active chronic inflammation, which may persist as such: non-atrophic chronic gastritis (no gland loss), or advance to multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG), the first real step in the precancerous cascade. The following steps are: intestinal metaplasia (first "complete" and then "incomplete"); dysplasia, first low grade and then high grade (equivalent to "carcinoma in situ"). The following step is invasive carcinoma, which is thought to be associated with degradation of the intercellular matrix. PMID:22188910

Correa, Pelayo; Piazuelo, M Blanca

2012-01-01

307

MRI for the evaluation of gastric physiology  

PubMed Central

Background: Evaluation of gastric physiology (gastric emptying and motility) is important for the diagnosis of disturbances such as functional dyspepsia. MRI is a non-invasive technique that allows simultaneous registration of gastric emptying and motility. Aim: To provide an overview of the literature of studies that used MRI as a tool for evaluation of gastric function in both research and clinical settings. Materials and methods: A MEDLINE search was performed (1990–2008) directed at the radiology and gastroenterology literature on gastric physiology. Key words that were used included: functional tests, gastric emptying, gastric motility, gastric physiology and MRI. Twenty-five articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Results and conclusion: Over the last decade, MRI has developed as a reliable, non-invasive method for detailed evaluation of gastric emptying and motility without the disadvantages of ionizing radiation and without the use of intragastric catheters that influence gastric physiology.

de Roos, Albert

2010-01-01

308

Crude Protein Recovery from the Potato Juice (Odzyskiwanie Bialka Surowego z Soku Ziemniaczanego).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of crude protein from the potato juice and waste protein water of starchworks was investigated. The experiments included the concentrating and drying of the potato juice and the filtrate obtained upon separation of the coagulated protein by filtr...

A. oczynski

1973-01-01

309

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange...expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams...

2010-04-01

310

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange...expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams...

2009-04-01

311

Demethylchlortetracycline-binding proteins in uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric carcinoma and gastric ulcer patients. Demonstration of a difference between the uninvolved mucosa of ulcer and cancer patients.  

PubMed

The uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma patients has been compared in in vitro studies as regards their capacity to bind demethylchlortetracycline (DMCT). Dialysis experiments demonstrated excessive binding of DMCT in gastric cancer. Several electrophoretic fractions were observed that bound DMCT; it was demonstrated that these fractions differed in the uninvolved mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients. PMID:820587

Lo, E; Thronton, H; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

1976-01-01

312

Quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid during enzymatic browning of potato juice.  

PubMed

The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO(3) (S control). To study the composition of phenolic compounds in potato in their native states, also a potato extract was made with 50% (v/v) methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid (MeOH control). Water-soluble low molecular weight fractions (LMWFs) and high molecular weight fractions (HMWFs) from S and OX extracts were obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis, respectively. Pellets obtained after the OX treatment and the S and MeOH controls were also analyzed for ChA content. Whereas in the S-LMWF all ChA was converted to sulfonic acid adducts, no free ChA was found in the OX-LMWF, indicating its high reactivity upon enzymatic browning. Analysis of protein in the HMWFs showed a higher content of "reacted" ChA in OX (49.8 ± 7.1 mg ChA/100 g potato DW) than in S (14.4 ± 1.5 mg ChA/100 g potato DW), as evidenced by quinic acid release upon alkaline hydrolysis. The presence of quinic acid in S-HMWF was unexpected, but a mass balance incorporating the ChA content of LMWF, HMWF, and pellet for the three extractions suggested that ChA might have been attached to polymeric material, soluble in the aqueous environment of S but not in that of MeOH. Size exclusion chromatography, combined with proteolysis, revealed that ChA reacted with patatin and protease inhibitors to produce brown soluble complexes. PMID:23360289

Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

2013-02-20

313

[Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].  

PubMed

Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments. PMID:17992984

Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

2007-06-01

314

Characteristics of juice from palmyrah palm (Borassus) fruit.  

PubMed

The ancestral palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) produces in the V-Baoulé region of Côte d'Ivoire, sweet and fragrant fruits in large numbers. Most of these spoil in the bush when ripe. The present work was to develop an efficient process for the extraction of juice from these fruits using a pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg), temperatures (25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 45 degrees C), and for different times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Some physico-chemical characteristics of the juice were determined in order to evaluate the quality of the product. Treatment at 45 degrees C for 120 min at an enzyme concentration of 0.6 mg/kg was selected for highest juice yield (73.14%). The colour parameters L; a; b) fluctuated in intensity between batches of rehydrated material. Juice consistency was found to be stable at 45 degrees C at the enzyme concentrations used. There was a slight variation in pH among the different treatments. In general, the yield and quality of the juice obtained were affected by treatment temperature, enzyme concentration and maceration time. PMID:1546055

Agbo N'zi, G; Simard, R E

1992-01-01

315

[Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation. PMID:16761580

Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

2006-01-01

316

Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed. PMID:21219779

Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

2011-01-01

317

Pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.  

PubMed

The ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. Lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (Ac), water (W) and a non-infusion control (C) treatment. Infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. The infused treatment carcasses of Ac and W had lower (P<0.05) pH values than C carcasses during the initial 12h post-mortem. The LD muscles from Ac carcasses were more tender with significantly lower shear force (P<0.001) compared with C and W carcasses during the six days following infusion with the kiwifruit juice. The enhanced proteolytic activity (P=0.002) resulting from the infused kiwifruit juice in Ac carcasses was associated with significant degradation of the myofibrillar proteins, appearance of new peptides and activation of m-calpain during post-mortem ageing. Thus, kiwifruit juice is powerful and easily prepared meat tenderizer, which could contribute efficiently and effectively to the meat tenderization process. PMID:20416722

Han, J; Morton, J D; Bekhit, A E D; Sedcole, J R

2009-07-01

318

Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice is an increasingly popular health food with many reported benefits, such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Traditionally, noni fruit was used by Polynesians to combat fatigue. Also, clinical studies have revealed that noni juice consumption improves quality of life scores related to physical functioning and energy levels. To further evaluate the ergogenic (antifatigue and endurance promoting) potential of noni juice, aged mice were pretreated orally with increasing doses (10, 20 and 40 mL/kg body weight) of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and then compared with young and aged controls in the forced swim test and rotarod test. The average times of all TNJ dose groups were significantly longer than the aged controls in both the swim test (36% to 45%) and the rotarod test (59% to 128%), and were similar to those of the young controls. This demonstrates not only an improvement in endurance but also in balance and flexibility. These results confirm the reported use of noni juice to combat fatigue, improve endurance and increase overall physical performance. PMID:17604369

Ma, De-lu; West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Gao, Jian-hua; Liu, Tin-zhong; Liu, Yu-Wen

2007-11-01

319

Micrometastasis in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a crucial contributor and indicator for cancer metastasis. The presence of CTCs and other two forms of occult disease including circulating tumor microembolus (CTMs) as well as disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) as a sign for micrometastasis has been associated with adverse survival of both localized and metastatic cancers. However, their assignments in micrometastasis are still not well understood. This mini-review is aimed to provide an overview of the biological features and the clinical impact of CTCs, DTCs and CTM in gastric cancer (GC), and to summarize the technical limitations of detection methods in addition to the significance of distinct migration modes in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and gastric micrometastasis. Although there are controversies over current CTC identification strategies, both single and collective migration modes as indispensable parts of micrometastasis are influential participants in GC progression, diagnosis and prognosis. CTCs, CTM and DTCs are not separated forms of the occult disease; however available techniques fail to detect all subsets of them. Therefore, micrometastatic detection should be combined with conventional pathological examinations in order to make more accurate predictions of tumor outcomes. Novel markers further defining the features of CTC subsets are warranted. PMID:23624301

Zhang, Zhen-yu; Ge, Hai-yan

2013-08-01

320

Isolated gastric Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract characterized by segmental and transmural involvement of gastrointestinal tract. Ileocolonic and colonic/anorectal is a most common and account for 40% of cases and involvement of small intestine in about 30%. The stomach is rarely the sole or predominant site of CD. To date there are only a few documented case reports of adults with isolated gastric CD and no reports in the pediatric population. Isolated stomach involvement is very unusual presentation accounting for less than 0.07% of all gastrointestinal CD. The diagnosis is difficult to establish in cases of atypical presentation as in isolated gastroduodenal disease. In the absence of any other source of disease and in the presence of nonspecific upper GI endoscopy and histological findings, serological testing can play a vital role in the diagnosis of atypical CD. Recent studies have suggested that perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-Saccharomycescervisia antibody may be used as additional diagnostic tools. The effectiveness of infliximab in isolated gastric CD is limited to only a few case reports of adult patients and the long-term outcome is unknown.

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge, Chitra R; Dakhure, Sarita; Bhosale, Smita S

2013-01-01

321

Influence of feeding regimen and postnatal developmental stages on antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice in the pig (n = 8) was investigated during early postnatal development and in cattle (n = 6) receiving a different feeding regimen. For pancreatic juice collection, a catheter was surgically implanted in the pancreatic\\u000a duct. Reintroduction of pancreatic juice was achieved through a T-shaped cannula in the duodenum. Pancreatic juice was collected\\u000a for 30

Stefan Pierzynowski; Peeyush Sharma; Jerzy Sobczyk; Stanislaw Garwacki; Wieslaw Baref

1992-01-01

322

Gastric Precancerous Lesions and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Relatives of Gastric Cancer Patients from Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to gastric cancer. First-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer have an increased risk of developing the disease. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gastric precancerous gastric lesions and H. pylori infection in first-degree relatives of non-cardia gastric cancer patients. Methods: Gastric cancer relatives (n = 104) from a region with high prevalence of H.

Cícero Roberio A. Motta; Maria P. S. S. Cunha; Dulciene Maria M. Queiroz; Francisco Will S. Cruz; Eder Janes C. Guerra; Rosa Maria S. Mota; Lucia L. B. C. Braga

2008-01-01

323

Action of intravenous ethanol and atropine on the secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and bile acids and the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract in nonalcoholic humans.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of the cholinergic nerves on the action of i.v. ethanol on interdigestive gastric acid, pancreatic enzyme, and bile acid output, seven healthy volunteers were studied. On each of 4 different days, they swallowed a multilumen intestinal tube system that allowed the measurement of intraluminal pressures and the collection of gastric and duodenal juice. The subjects received an i.v. infusion of either ethanol (600 mg/kg for 30 min followed by 3 mg/kg/min), atropine (5 mu/kg/h), a combination of both drugs, or NaCl. Whereas ethanol did not significantly influence motility, atropine induced motoric quiescence. Ethanol significantly (p less than 0.05) stimulated gastric acid output, by 55%, whereas atropine inhibited it by 91%. When ethanol and atropine were given together, gastric acid output was significantly higher than during atropine use alone. Both ethanol and atropine inhibited pancreatic amylase output--by 47% and by 82%, respectively. The degree of inhibition was 80% when ethanol and atropine were given simultaneously. Atropine but not ethanol significantly reduced bile acid output. The finding that atropine did not completely reverse the stimulating effect of i.v. ethanol on gastric acid secretion suggests that ethanol stimulates gastric acid secretion not only by a cholinergic but also by a noncholinergic mechanism. The observation that atropine did not reverse the inhibiting effect of ethanol suggests, but does not prove, that the effect of ethanol on the pancreas is predominantly mediated by cholinergic nerves. PMID:2437566

Kölbel, C B; Singer, M V; Möhle, T; Heinzel, C; Eysselein, V; Goebell, H

1986-01-01

324

Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based heteroduplex assay for detecting the adulteration of processed orange juice with mandarin juice.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based heteroduplex assay was evaluated for the detection of mandarin juice in processed orange juice. PCR amplification of a fragment of the chloroplast trnT-trnL intergenic spacer derived from mixtures of DNA extracted from orange and mandarin juice resulted in heteroduplex formation. The heteroduplex resulted from the co-amplification of a fragment containing an 8 base-pair indel that distinguished mixtures of orange and mandarin juice from orange juice and mandarin juice alone. The heteroduplex assay was evaluated against authentic juices obtained from different citrus species and confirmed that the marker was homogeneous within Citrus. The data obtained demonstrated maternal inheritance of chloroplast type in Citrus sp. and allowed the identification and confirmation of the maternal parentage of unknown and known citrus hybrids. Analysis of the quantitative potential of the PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis demonstrated good repeatability with a coefficient of variation of 7.5%. Greatest sources of variance in experimental results were attributable to species and varietal differences in the levels of the PCR target. Mandarin juice contained approximately 18% (w/v) less PCR target sequence than did orange juice. The assay was tested in a blind trial using processed juices and correctly identified 20/22 samples with no false-positive results. PMID:16915845

Mooney, Rachel; Chappell, Louise; Knight, Angus I

2006-01-01

325

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...flavoring (e.g., âRaspcranberryâ; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink...percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage,...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...flavoring (e.g., âRaspcranberryâ; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink...percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage,...

2009-04-01

327

75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...revocation of the order on certain orange juice pursuant to 19 CFR 351...for all shipments of certain orange juice from Brazil entered...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183...Cutrale 8. Cutrale's Cost of Oranges from Affiliated Parties...

2010-08-18

328

77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April...Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343...

2012-04-20

329

76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review...on certain OJ from Brazil. See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Preliminary...

2011-08-12

330

77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period...Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

2012-05-23

331

Pulsed electric field treatment of apple tissue during compression for juice extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) simultaneous to pressure treatment on juice expression from fine-cut apple raw material has been investigated. Dependencies of specific conductivity ?, juice yield Y, instantaneous flow rate v and qualitative juice characteristics at different modes of PEF treatment are discussed. Three main compression phases were observed in a case of mechanical expression. A unified

M. I Bazhal; N. I Lebovka; E Vorobiev

2001-01-01

332

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

333

Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato juice and characterization of its antioxidation activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to extract lycopene from tomato juice using supercritical CO2 as solvent and without the need to dry the raw material is presented. To conduct the extraction, the tomato juice was subjected to cycles of centrifugation followed by rinsing with absolute ethanol to partially remove the water present in the solid part of the juice. The influence of

Juliana A. Egydio; Ângela M. Moraes; Paulo T. V. Rosa

2010-01-01

334

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food...that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21...

2013-04-01

335

In vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juices.  

PubMed

Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage, 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1, water; group 2, cashew apple juice; group 3, cajuina juice; group 4, cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5, cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001), with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency, with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo, which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks. PMID:21612456

Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho; Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura; Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; e Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; da Silva, Juliana

2011-01-01

336

Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.  

PubMed

Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

2013-09-01

337

75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently...of the U.S. Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet...

2010-08-24

338

Role of bittergourd fruit juice in stz-induced diabetic state in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous juice of bittergourd fruit (BF) (Momordica charantia L.) of the family Cucurbitaceae has been shown to possess hypoglycemic activity. However, the mechanism of its action is not known. Hence in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to study the role of BF juice on the diabetic status. The activity of BF juice was tested on STZ

Sandhya L Sitasawad; Yogita Shewade; Ramesh Bhonde

2000-01-01

339

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

...process to remove sulfur dioxide from juice must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications...common to the wine or juice being treated, and inorganic acids, salts and/or bases provided the conditioned or regenerated...

2014-04-01

340

27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...process to remove sulfur dioxide from juice must not alter the basic character of the juice so treated Ion exchange Various applications...common to the wine or juice being treated, and inorganic acids, salts and/or bases provided the conditioned or regenerated...

2012-04-01

341

Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle distribution and hot workability of an in situ Al-TiCp composite were investigated. The composite was fabricated by an in situ casting method using the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of an Al-Ti-C system. Hot-compression tests were carried out, and power dissipation maps were constructed using a dynamic material model. Small globular TiC particles were not themselves fractured, but the clustering and grain boundary segregation of the particles contributed to the cracking of the matrix by causing the debonding of matrix/particle interfaces and providing a crack propagation path. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with increasing temperature and strain rate, and the maximum efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 723 K (450 °C) and a strain rate of 1/s. The microstructural mechanism occurring in the maximum efficiency domain was dynamic recrystallization. The role of particles in the plastic flow and the microstructure evolution were discussed.

Kim, Su-Hyeon; Cho, Young-Hee; Lee, Jung-Moo

2014-06-01

342

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca3Co4O9 is one of the most promising p-type thermoelectric materials because of its high dimensionless figure of merit ZT. However, polycrystalline Ca3Co4O9 ceramics shows lower ZT value than that for single crystal Ca3 Co4O9 due to its higher electrical resistivity ?. Mikami et al. have reported that the addition of Ag to Ca3Co4O9 ceramics could successfully reduce ? and enhance the power factor. On the other hand, Ohtaki et al. reported that a composite structure could be highly effective to reduce ? for ZnO dually doped with Al and Ga. In this work, we tried to enhance the power factor and reduce ? by forming Ca3Co4O9/[Ca2(Co0.65Cu0.35)2O4]0.624CoO2 composite structure. As a result, the ZT value for Ca3Co4O9/[Ca2(Co0.65Cu0.35)2O4]0.624CoO2 composites reached 0.164 at 700 °C, which was 40 % higher than the value for Ca3Co4O9.

Obata, Kohei; Chonan, Yasunori; Komiyama, Takao; Abe, Kazunori; Aoyama, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Shigeaki

2014-06-01

343

Patulin in apple juices from the Romanian market.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine patulin levels in apple-based juices from the Romanian market and to establish a health risk assessment. For this purpose, 50 samples of apple-based juices have been purchased from the Romanian market. Aliquots were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, analysed and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The patulin level in the apple juices from Romania ranged between <0.7 ?g/l and 101.9 ?g/l. In 6% of the 50 samples analysed, the maximum limit for patulin as set by the European Union (50 ?g/l) was exceeded. PMID:24914601

Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

2014-06-01

344

Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.  

PubMed

Four norisoprenoids, alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, beta-cyclocitral, and beta-damascenone, along with their putative carotenoid precursors, were identified in Valencia orange juice using time-intensity GC-O, GC-MS, and photodiode array HPLC. alpha-Ionone and beta-cyclocitral are reported in orange juice for the first time. GC-O aroma peaks were categorized into seven groups with similar sensory qualities: citrus/minty, metallic/mushroom/geranium, roasted/cooked/meaty/spice, fatty/soapy/green, sulfury/solventy/medicine, floral, and sweet fruity. The four norisoprenoids contributed approximately 8% of the total aroma intensity and 78% of the total floral aroma category. The putative carotenoid norisoprenoid precursors, alpha- and beta-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and neoxanthin, were identified in the same orange juice using photodiode array HPLC retention times and spectral characteristics. PMID:15656678

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell; Valim, M Filomena; Naim, Michael

2005-01-26

345

JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

2014-05-01

346

Gastroprotective effect of standardized leaf extract from Careya arborea on experimental gastric ulcers in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The leaf of Careya arborea Roxb. (Lecthidaceae) has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various disorders, including ulcers, healing of wounds and several skin diseases. Objective: The 70% ethanol (EtOH) extract of C. arborea leaves (CALE) was investigated for its gastroprotective effect in different gastric ulcer models. Materials and methods: CALE (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5?d, for preventing aspirin (ASP)-, EtOH-, pylorus ligation (PL)-, and cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced ulcer in rats. The status of the antioxidant enzymes in CRS-induced ulcers, H(+)K(+)ATPase activity, gastric wall mucous in EtOH-induced ulcer, and gastric secretion parameters were estimated in the PL-induced ulcer model. Results: CALE exhibited significant (p?gastric juice, and acid output. Simultaneously, the level of gastric wall mucus was increased significantly (p?

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Rao, Chandana V

2014-08-01

347

Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.  

PubMed

In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. PMID:22796769

de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

2013-01-01

348

MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

2014-05-01

349

Heat resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius in water, various buffers, and orange juice.  

PubMed

The effect of the pH or the composition of the heating medium and of the sporulation temperature on the heat resistance of spores of a thermoacidophilic spore-forming microorganism isolated from a dairy beverage containing orange fruit concentrate was investigated. The species was identified as Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. The spores showed the same heat resistance in citrate-phosphate buffers of pH 4 and 7, in distilled water, and in orange juice at any of the temperatures tested (D120 degrees C = 0.1 min and z = 7 degrees C). A raise in 20 degrees C in the sporulation temperature (from 45 to 65 degrees C) increased the heat resistance eightfold (from D110 degrees C = 0.48 min when sporulated at 45 degrees C to 3.9 min when sporulated at 65 degrees C). The z-values remained constant for all sporulation temperatures. The spores of this strain of A. acidocaldarius were very heat resistant and could easily survive any heat treatment currently applied to pasteurize fruit juices. PMID:11041137

Palop, A; Alvarez, I; Raso, J; Condón, S

2000-10-01

350

Enzyme synthesis of oligosaccharides using cashew apple juice as substrate.  

PubMed

The use of agriculture substrates in industrial biotechnological processes has been increasing because of their low cost. In this work, the use of clarified cashew apple juice was investigated as substrate for enzyme synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharide. The results showed that cashew apple juice is a good source of reducing sugars and can be used as substrate for the production of dextransucrase by Leuconostoc citreum B-742 for the synthesis of oligosaccharides using the crude enzyme. Optimal oligosaccharide yield (approximately 80%) was obtained for sucrose concentrations lower than 60 g/L and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 100 g/L. PMID:19608414

Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fontes, Claudia P M L; Rodrigues, Sueli

2009-12-01

351

Interaction between Grapefruit Juice and Praziquantel in Humans  

PubMed Central

After a single oral dose of praziquantel with 250 ml of grapefruit juice, the area under the concentration-time curve and the maximum concentration in plasma of praziquantel (Cmax) were significantly increased (Cmax for water treatment, 637.71 ± 128.5 ng/ml; and Cmax for grapefruit juice treatment, 1,037.65 ± 305.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in the time to maximum concentration of drug in plasma or elimination half-life.

Castro, Nelly; Jung, Helgi; Medina, Roberto; Gonzalez-Esquivel, Dinora; Lopez, Mario; Sotelo, Julio

2002-01-01

352

Gastric emptying following Colles' fracture.  

PubMed Central

There are few complications associated with intravenous regional anaesthesia but convulsions with loss of consciousness induced by local anaesthetic toxicity may result in pulmonary aspiration. In many hospitals, patients are fasted prior to the procedure although such a delay would be of little value if gastric emptying was inhibited following painful injury. Utilizing the kinetics of paracetamol absorption, we investigated the rate of gastric emptying in patients sustaining a Colles' fracture within the previous 4 h. Post-manipulation control values were obtained at their first out-patient attendance. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of gastric emptying. Since gastric emptying is not delayed by a recent Colles' fracture, the simple precaution of fasting patients prior to intravenous regional anaesthesia should reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration.

Steedman, D J; Payne, M R; McClure, J H; Prescott, L F

1991-01-01

353

Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for gastroparesis has been in use for more than a decade. Multiple publications, consisting almost entirely of open label single center studies, reported a beneficial effect on symptoms, quality of life and nutritional status. Some predictors of better response to GES have been lately identified, primarily diabetic etiology and nausea and vomiting as the predominant symptoms. However, individual response to GES remains difficult to predict. The mechanism of action of GES remains poorly understood. Stimulation parameters approved in clinical practice do not regulate gastric slow wave activity and have inconsistent effect on gastric emptying. Despite such limitations, gastric electrical stimulation remains a helpful intervention in some patients with severe gastroparesis who fail to respond to medical therapy.

2012-01-01

354

Multimodal treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide. Although complete surgical resection remains the only curative modality for early stage gastric cancer, surgery alone only provides long-term survival in 20% of patients with advanced-stage disease. To improve current results, it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Recent clinical trials have shown survival benefit of combining different neoadjuvant or adjuvant protocols compared with surgery with curative intent. Furthermore, the implementation of chemotherapy with novel targeted agents could play an important role in the multimodal management of advanced gastric cancer. In this paper, we focus on a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of gastric cancer and discuss future strategies to improve the outcome for these patients.

Proserpio, Ilaria; Rausei, Stefano; Barzaghi, Sabrina; Frattini, Francesco; Galli, Federica; Iovino, Domenico; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Pinotti, Graziella

2014-01-01

355

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture  

MedlinePLUS

... lining of the stomach becomes inflamed or swollen H. pylori infection, which causes most ulcers in the stomach ... the lining of the stomach, or signs of Helicobacter pylori infection . A gastric tissue culture may be considered ...

356

Gastric glomus tumor  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumors (GTs) are benign tumors originating from the glomus body which are usually solitary and small lesions. The vast majority are found in the distal extremities, particularly in the hand, wrist, foot and under the fingernails rarely involving visceral organs. Here we report a rare case of gastric GT presented to us with exsanguinating hematemesis and severe anemia. All the initial diagnostic tests were inconclusive. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a soft tissue density lesion within the first part of duodenum. Diagnostic laparotomy was planned and a mass of 3 × 2.5 × 2 cm was found at pylorus along greater curvature, without any evidence of lymphadenopathy or metastasis. Distal gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a GT. Immunohistochemistry of tumor cells demonstrated smooth muscle actin and CD34 (very focal).

Jain, Sumita A.; Agarwal, Lakshman; Goyal, Ashish; Kumar, Ranjan; Nadkarni, Shravan; Ameta, Atul; Rao YS, Arjun

2014-01-01

357

Gastric perforation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

PubMed

Gastric rupture is a rare complication after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In most cases, incorrect management of airways during CPR is the main cause. Therefore, a medical emergency becomes a surgical emergency also. We present a case of gastric perforation in a middle-aged patient after CPR performed by his family. He eventually presented with bloody vomitus and a tympanic abdomen. When faced with a patient with abdominal signs post-CPR, surgical complications of CPR should be considered. PMID:22867822

Jalali, Sayed Mahdi; Emami-Razavi, Hassan; Mansouri, Asieh

2012-11-01

358

Molecular biology of gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical\\u000a resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic\\u000a disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways\\u000a implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is

A. Cervantes; E. Rodríguez Braun; A. Pérez Fidalgo; I. Chirivella González

2007-01-01

359

Gastric c?ncer: Overview  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

Correa, Pelayo

2013-01-01

360

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

2010-04-01

361

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable p...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

362

Process for Preserving Raw Fruits and Vegetables Using Ascorbic Acid Esters and Compositions Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit...

G. M. Sapers K. B. Hicks P. A. Seib

1987-01-01

363

Genotoxic effects of crude juices from Brassica vegetables and juices and extracts from phytopharmaceutical preparations and spices of cruciferous plants origin in bacterial and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude juices of eight Brassica vegetables as well as juices and extracts of spices and phytopharmaceutical preparations from cruciferous vegetables were tested for induction of point mutations in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, repairable DNA damage in E.coli K-12 cells and clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. In bacterial assays, all juices caused genotoxic effects in the absence of metabolic activation, the

Fekadu Kassie; Wolfram Parzefall; Stephen Musk; Ian Johnson; Günther Lamprecht; Gerhard Sontag; Siegfried Knasmüller

1996-01-01

364

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

365

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices.  

PubMed

Survival of a five-strain mixture of stationary phase (nonadapted) and acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices was evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C). The juices were reconstituted from concentrates that contained no preservatives and intrinsic pH values of 2.5 to 2.6 and titratable acidities of 4.51 to 4.53% (wt/vol, citric acid). A greater than 5-log reduction of stationary-phase cells was achieved in both lemon and lime juices after 72 h of incubation. Similar log reductions were obtained when the reconstituted juices were adjusted to pH 2.7, which is above the highest value normally observed in juice processing plants during the reconstitution of single-strength lemon or lime juice from concentrates. Lemon juice had a significantly higher inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on E. coli O157:H7 than did lime juice. Validation tests with commercially produced shelf-stable lemon and lime juices confirmed that storage of the juices at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days may be an alternative to heat treatment to ensure the 5-log reduction of vegetative pathogens of concern required for the products under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration juice hazard analysis and critical control point regulations. PMID:19350967

Enache, Elena; Chen, Yuhuan; Elliott, Philip H

2009-02-01

366

Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice  

PubMed Central

Background As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens in mice. Results Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N) and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g/kg, i.p., (1.5, 6.16) and 6.98 g/kg, i.p., (5.69, 8.56), respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o.) was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. Conclusions The results suggest that A. graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice.

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Karimi, Gholam_Reza; Ameri, Maryam

2002-01-01

367

A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. PMID:23692760

Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

2013-10-15

368

A Modified Grapefruit Juice Eliminates Two Compound Classes as Major Mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo 'Connect'  

PubMed Central

The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p?0.008 and p?0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction.

Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.

2014-01-01

369

FT-IR study of the polysaccharides isolated from the skin juice, gel juice, and flower of Aloe vera tissues affected by fertilizer treatment  

PubMed Central

Background This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different amounts of fertilizers on the polysaccharides of Aloe vera plant. There were four different treatments, viz. T1?=?150%?N, T2?=?150% P, T3?=?150%?K, and T4?=?150% NPK (50%?N?+?50% P?+?50%?K) soil. Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the gel juice, skin juice, and flowers of A. vera planted in these soils. Results Result indicates that skin juice contained 2.4 times the level of polysaccharides in gel juice from one plant, suggesting the potential industrial application of A. vera skin rather than discarding it. After anion-exchange chromatography, neutral polysaccharides accounted for 58.1% and 78.5% of the total recovered neutral and acidic polysaccharide preparations from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively, whereas the crude flower polysaccharides were largely composed of weakly acidic polysaccharides (84.2%). Sugar analysis of the polysaccharides after gel permeation chromatography revealed that glucose and galactose were the most abundant monosaccharide in the neutral polysaccharides from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively. The acidic polysaccharides from the two juices consisted of glucuronic acid, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose with variable proportions. Conclusions Except glucuronic acid (15.4%) in flower acidic polysaccharide, the flower neutral and acidic polysaccharides contained galactose, glucose, and mannose as the main sugar components. Glucuronic acid was the major uronic acid in all acidic polysaccharides from different tissues.

2012-01-01

370

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

371

Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?  

PubMed Central

Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat evaluation of the same X-ray films. Enhanced diagnostic sensitivity would be most rewarding since management consisting of cessation of oral feedings combined with administration of intravenous fluids and gastric lavage is easy and resolves over 85% of gastric lactobezoars. In conclusion, gastric lactobezoar is a disorder of unknown prevalence and is nowadays very rarely published, possibly because of inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and/or not yet identified but beneficial modifications of patient management.

2012-01-01

372

Gastric and intestinal claudin expression at the invasive front of gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

Like gastric and intestinal mucins, the tight junction proteins called claudins can be used to determine the differentiation of gastric mucosa. We investigated the expression of claudins in gastric cancer and proposed a new claudin-based gastric cancer classification system. The expression of gastric (claudin-18) and intestinal (claudin-3 and claudin-4) claudins in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa (with intestinal metatplasia [IM], 78 cases; without IM, 88 cases) and 94 gastric cancers was analyzed immunohistochemically, as was the expression of gastric (MUC5A and MUC6) and intestinal (CD10 and MUC2) mucins. Heterogeneous expression of claudin-3, claudin-4 and claudin-18 was detected in advanced gastric cancer; however, there was no significant association between the claudins and the clinicopathological parameters. These gastric cancer tissues were also subclassified into claudin-based phenotypes: gastric claudin (G-CLDN), 28 cases (30%); intestinal claudin (I-CLDN), 41 cases (44%); and unclassified claudin (U-CLDN), 25 cases (26%). Interestingly, the U-CLDN gastric cancers had worse malignancy grades, not only in size and invasiveness but also in potential metastatic ability and patient outcome. Although the mucin-based gastric cancer classification was also assessed, no significant correlation was found between mucin production and clinicopathological parameters. These observations suggest that loss of claudin expression may enhance the grade of malignancy of gastric cancer in vivo. Classification of gastric cancers using gastric and intestinal claudins is a good biomarker for assessing the risk of poor prognosis. PMID:17459057

Matsuda, Yoshiko; Semba, Shuho; Ueda, Junya; Fuku, Takeichi; Hasuo, Tadateru; Chiba, Hideki; Sawada, Norimasa; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

2007-07-01

373

Membrane Processing of Fruit Juices and Beverages: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane technology for the processing of fruit juices and beverages has been applied mainly for clarification using ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and for concentration using reverse osmosis. The effects of product preparation, membrane selection, and operating parameters are important factors influencing filtration rate and product quality. Technological advances related to the development of new membranes, improvement in process engineering, and better

B. Girard; L. R. Fukumoto

2000-01-01

374

Ethanol production from cane juice by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis Z 7 fermented 100 to 200 g.l- 1 sucrose in cane juice to ethanol without addition of cofactors or mineral salts in 1 ltr laboratory and 100 ltr pilot plant fermenters. Ethanol yields (Eyield) were from 60 to 88% with fermentation times of 20 to 29 h at 35 °C.

E. Lyness; H. W. Doelle

1981-01-01

375

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

376

Process for Preparing Tomato Juice of Increased Consistency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent describes a process for preparing tomato juice of high consistency which has the feature that consistency is not developed until a late stage in the total process, whereby to obtain savings in power consumption and other advantages. Example: R...

J. R. Wagner J. C. Miers R. Becker

1975-01-01

377

Oxalate nephropathy due to 'juicing': case report and review.  

PubMed

A patient presented with oxalate-induced acute renal failure that was attributable to consumption of oxalate-rich fruit and vegetable juices obtained from juicing. We describe the case and also review the clinical presentation of 65 patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1985 through 2010 with renal failure and biopsy-proven renal calcium oxalate crystals. The cause of renal oxalosis was identified for all patients: a single cause for 36 patients and at least 2 causes for 29 patients. Three patients, including our index patient, had presumed diet-induced oxalate nephropathy in the context of chronic kidney disease. Identification of calcium oxalate crystals in a kidney biopsy should prompt an evaluation for causes of renal oxalosis, including a detailed dietary history. Clinicians should be aware that an oxalate-rich diet may potentially precipitate acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Juicing followed by heavy consumption of oxalate-rich juices appears to be a potential cause of oxalate nephropathy and acute renal failure. PMID:23830537

Getting, Jane E; Gregoire, James R; Phul, Ashley; Kasten, Mary J

2013-09-01

378

Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice  

PubMed Central

Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support.

George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

2014-01-01

379

Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and

Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner

2006-01-01

380

Stabilization of olive oil – lemon juice emulsion with polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An olive oil – lemon juice Greek salad dressing was developed employing xanthan gum as stabilizer and gum arabic or propylene glycol alginate as emulsifier in various combinations. In general, samples containing xanthan gum arabic were more stable against oil droplet coalescence and less stable against creaming. The use of propylene glycol alginate in the place of gum arabic, on

Adamantini Paraskevopoulou; Dimitrios Boskou; Vassilis Kiosseoglou

2005-01-01

381

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quantity reasonably necessary to raise the Brix or the Brix-acid ratio to any point within the normal range usually...the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to...

2013-04-01

382

1997 Economic Census - Frozen Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 39-page report from the Census Bureau gives the economic status of frozen fruit, juice, and vegetable manufacturing in the United States. Seven tables include Produce Statistics 1997 and 1992, Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997, and Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997.

383

Carnobacterium divergens - a dominating bacterium of pork meat juice.  

PubMed

Nonspoiled food that nevertheless contains bacterial pathogens constitutes a much more serious health problem than spoiled food, as the consumer is not warned beforehand. However, data on the diversity of bacterial species in meat juice are rare. To study the bacterial load of fresh pork from ten different distributors, we applied a combination of the conventional culture-based and molecular methods for detecting and quantifying the microbial spectrum of fresh pork meat juice samples. Altogether, we identified 23 bacterial species of ten different families analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of isolates were belonging to the typical spoilage bacterial population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterococcaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. Several additional isolates were identified as Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. originating from human and animal skin and other environmental niches including plants, soil, and water. Carnobacterium divergens, a LAB contributing to the spoilage of raw meat even at refrigeration temperature, was the most frequently isolated species in our study (5/10) with a bacterial load of 10(3) - 10(7) CFU mL(-1). In several of the analyzed pork meat juice samples, two bacterial faecal indicators, Serratia grimesii and Serratia proteamaculans, were identified together with another opportunistic food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus equorum. Our data reveal a high bacterial load of fresh pork meat supporting the potential health risk of meat juice for the end consumer even under refrigerated conditions. PMID:22537055

Rieder, Gabriele; Krisch, Linda; Fischer, Harald; Kaufmann, Maria; Maringer, Adolf; Wessler, Silja

2012-07-01

384

Grapefruit juice inhibits 7-hydroxylation of coumarin in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of grapefruit juice on the urinary excretion of 7-hydroxycoumarin after oral administration of 10 mg coumarin, as an index of cytochrome P450 dependent coumarin metabolism, has been investigated in an open, randomised cross over study in 13 healthy volunteers (7 female, 6 male).

U. Merkel; H. Sigusch; A. Hoffmann

1994-01-01

385

Electric properties of apple purée and pulpy apple juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of research, the aim of which has been to determine the selected physicochemical qualities, including electric quantities, of apple purées and pulpy juices obtained from them. The characteristics of the electric properties have covered the measurements of impedance (Z) and effective resistance (R), admittance (Y) and conductance (G), as well as equivalent parallel capacitance (Cp) and equivalent

Gra?yna Pierzynowska-Korniak; Ryszard ?ywica; Joanna Wójcik

2003-01-01

386

Concentration of noni juice by means of osmotic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic distillation (OD) or osmotic evaporation (OE) is a promising membrane process generally applied to concentrate solutions under isothermal conditions. In this work, this process was applied to concentrate commercial noni juice (Morinda citrifolia). Several nutraceutical properties have been reported for noni-derived products, mainly associated to the phenolic content of the fruit.The analyzed system is an osmotic distillation system where

H. Valdés; J. Romero; A. Saavedra; A. Plaza; V. Bubnovich

2009-01-01

387

Survey of the presence of patulin in fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The occurrence of patulin in fruit juices marketed in Italy in 2008 and purchased from supermarkets and retail shops has been measured. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of patulin in order to evaluate the potential risk for the consumer and, at

E. Bonerba; E. Ceci; R. Conte; G. Tantillo

2010-01-01

388

Evaluation of Spanish Pomegranate Juices: Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanin contents, and other quality parameters, including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and colour, were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernández

2012-01-01

389

EVALUATION OF SPANISH POMEGRANATE JUICES: ORGANIC ACIDS, SUGARS AND ANTHOCYANINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, anthocyanin contents and other quality parameters including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and colour were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice from

P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernandez

2011-01-01

390

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

391

Erythropoietin -induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model. METHODS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochermistry. Growth stimulation effects of erythropoietin on cultured gastric mucosal cells were determined by ELISA using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). RESULTS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected on cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Erythropoietin receptor was also detected histochemically at the base of gastric mucosal epithelium. BrdU assay demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in growth potential of cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells by administration of erythropoietin, as well as these effects were inhibited by administration of anti- erythropoietin antibody (P?gastric mucosal epithelium via erythropoietin receptor.

Itoh, Kazuro; Sawasaki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Kato, Shingo; Imai, Nobuhiro; Kato, Yoichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Makio; Moriguchi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Masato; Ishihata, Fumio; Sudoh, Yushi; Miura, Soichiro

2006-01-01

392

Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. Recently, we claim that BPC 157 may be used as an antidote against NSAIDs. We focused on BPC 157 beneficial effects on stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and brain injuries, adjuvant arthritis, pain, hyper/hypothermia, obstructive thrombus formation and thrombolysis, blood vessel function, counteraction of prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia after application of various anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents and wound healing improvement. The arguments for BPC 157 antidote activity (i.e., the role of BPC 157 in cytoprotection, being a novel mediator of Robert's cytoprotection and BPC 157 beneficial effects on NSAIDs mediated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and brain and finally, counteraction of aspirin-induced prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia) obviously have a counteracting effect on several established side-effects of NSAIDs use. The mentioned variety of the beneficial effects portrayed by BPC 157 may well be a foundation for establishing BPC 157 as a NSAIDs antidote since no other single agent has portrayed a similar array of effects. Unlike NSAIDs, a very high safety (no reported toxicity (LD1 could be not achieved)) profile is reported for BPC 157. Also, unlike the different dosage levels of aspirin, as a NSAIDs prototype, which differ by a factor of about ten, all these beneficial and counteracting effects of BPC 157 were obtained using the equipotent dosage (?g, ng/kg) in parenteral or peroral regimens. PMID:22950504

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Safic, Hana; Suran, Jelena; Rak, Davor; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2013-01-01

393

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

2011-01-01

394

The gastric fluid proteome as a potential source of gastric cancer biomarkers.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a significant cause of death in many parts of the world. Although timely intervention is associated with better clinical outcome, early gastric cancer detection is frequently not possible given its asymptomatic nature. As such, sensitive and specific gastric cancer biomarkers are highly sought after as diagnostic surrogates that may replace invasive endoscopic and histological examinations. Unlike gastric cancer tissue and serum which are heterogeneous and overloaded with abundant proteins, the gastric fluid contains a concentrated molecular biopsy of the stomach that accurately reflects gastric oncology. This review attempts to (i) summarise the state of proteomics-based gastric cancer biomarker discovery from patient gastric fluids, (ii) outline key considerations in working with the body fluid, and (ii) discuss how the challenges in gastric cancer diagnosis may be overcome with new perspectives in gastric cancer screening. PMID:23665003

Wu, Wei; Chung, Maxey C M

2013-09-01

395

Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.  

PubMed

The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice. PMID:22980006

Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

2012-07-01

396

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus.  

PubMed

Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known. Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric volvulus have been described depending on the rotation axis: organoaxial, mesentericoaxial and combination of both types. Operative treatment includes reduction, correction of underlying cause and gastropexy. PMID:23133000

Jain, Prashant; Sanghavi, Beejal; Sanghani, Hemanshi; Parelkar, S V; Borwankar, S S

2007-12-01

397

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known.\\u000a Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their\\u000a management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric\\u000a volvulus have been described depending on

Prashant Jain; Beejal Sanghavi; Hemanshi Sanghani; S. V. Parelkar; S. S. Borwankar

2007-01-01

398

Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan)] [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)] [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan)] [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

2009-04-17

399

Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit.

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L

2011-01-01

400

Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate.  

PubMed

A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

Lewis, Susan

2003-05-01

401

Molecular pathobiology of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process, during which numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations accumulate: there are abnormalities of growth factors/receptors, angiogenic factors, cell cycle regulators, DNA mismatch repair genes etc. These abnormalities define, at the same time, the biological character of the cancer cell and may thus serve as therapeutic targets. Genetic instability may cause accumulation of genetic abnormalities. The most important epigenetic alterations are DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling. Some of these changes are common in gastric cancer, regardless of subtype, and some differ by histological type or (gastric or intestinal) mucin phenotype. Genetic polymorphism is a crucial endogenous cause and fundamental aspect of cancer risk. Importantly, genetic polymorphisms are also associated with the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. Genomic science and technology such as Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) allows the identification of novel genes and molecules specifically up-regulated or down-regulated in gastric cancer, e.g., RegIV and claudin-18 can be identified. Advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular bases lead to improved diagnosis, personalised medicine and prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:17249269

Yasui, W; Sentani, K; Motoshita, J; Nakayama, H

2006-01-01

402

Viability and beta-galactosidase activity of dairy propionibacteria subjected to digestion by artificial gastric and intestinal fluids.  

PubMed

An important criterion to consider in the selection of strains for dietary adjuncts is the ability of the microorganisms to survive the severe conditions of acidity and bile concentrations usually found in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present work, we report the effects of digestions by artificial gastric and intestinal fluids on beta-galactosidase activity and survival of four strains of dairy propionibacteria previously selected by their bile tolerance and beta-galactosidase activity. The strains were exposed to artificial gastric juice at pH values between 2 and 7 and then subjected to artificial intestinal digestion. Both viability and beta-galactosidase activity were seriously affected at pH 2. Skim milk and Emmental cheese juice exerted a protective effect on the parameters tested. The trypsin present in the intestinal fluid inactivated the enzyme beta-galactosidase in strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii but not in Propionibacterium acidipropionici. Moreover, the presence of bile salts enhanced the beta-galactosidase activity of these strains by permeabilization of the cells during the first hour of exposure. The intestinal transit rate confirmed the permanence of the bacteria in the intestine for long enough to be permeabilized. These results suggest that P. acidipropionici would be a good source of beta-galactosidase activity in the intestine. We also propose a practical and effective in vitro method as a tool of screening and selection of potential probiotic bacteria. PMID:10983795

Zárate, G; Chaia, A P; González, S; Oliver, G

2000-09-01

403

Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes.

Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

2009-01-01

404

Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.  

PubMed

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction, decreases macrophage oxidative state under normal and under diabetic conditions. These antioxidant/antiatherogenic effects could be due to the presence of unique complex sugars and/or phenolic sugars in PJ. PMID:16332370

Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

2006-09-01

405

Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and ?-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

2013-11-01

406

Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.  

PubMed

Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing. PMID:23859722

Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

2013-01-01

407

Transient inhibition of cyp3a in rats by star fruit juice.  

PubMed

Star fruit juice is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A; however, few reports are available on the inhibition of CYP3A activities by star fruit juice in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the CYP3A-mediated star fruit-drug interaction in vivo. The effect of star fruit juice on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics was examined in rats. In comparison with water, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of carbamazepine was approximately 1.3-fold greater when star fruit juice (2 ml) was orally administered 1 h before the oral administration of carbamazepine (50 mg/kg). In contrast, the elimination half-life of carbamazepine and the AUC ratio of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide to carbamazepine were not altered by the administration of star fruit juice. These results suggest that star fruit juice impairs the function of enteric CYP3A, but not of hepatic CYP3A. In addition, we evaluated the time course of recovery of CYP3A activity that was reduced after the treatment with star fruit juice. The inhibition by star fruit juice was recovered within approximately 24 h. These data suggest that the effect of star fruit juice is mainly reversible and transient. Thus, we discovered that star fruit juice alters the carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. PMID:16326816

Hidaka, Muneaki; Okumura, Manabu; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Kai, Hirofumi; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Keishi; Setoguchi, Nao; Matsunaga, Naoya; Arimori, Kazuhiko

2006-03-01

408

Raspberry juice consumption, oxidative stress and reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors in hypercholesterolemic golden Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

The effects of raspberries on early atherosclerosis in Syrian hamsters were investigated using three juices prepared from var. Cardinal, Glen Ample and Tulameen berries. The hamsters received an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks and at the same time a juice at a daily dose corresponding to the consumption of 275 ml by a 70 kg human. A control group received the same diet with water instead juice. The principal polyphenolic compounds in the juices were anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which were present at concentrations of 218-305 ?g mL(-1) and 45-72 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The three juices had similar but not identical effects. They all inhibited cardiac and aortic production of superoxide anion and increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity although only Tulameen juice brought about a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity. Glen Ample was the only juice to significantly increase plasma paraoxonase activity. All the juices lowered plasma triglyceride level while consumption of Tulameen and Cardinal, but not Glen Ample, significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Cardinal was the sole juice to significantly increase HDL-cholesterol and likewise it also significantly reduced body weight. These findings suggest that moderate consumption of raspberry juices can help to prevent the development of early atherosclerosis, with the underlying mechanisms related to improved antioxidant status and serum lipid profiles. PMID:21894327

Suh, Jin-Hyang; Romain, Cindy; González-Barrio, Rocío; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Crozier, Alan; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2011-07-01

409

Preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice on neuronal damage induced by focal ischemia.  

PubMed

It is known that the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia, Noni, Rubiaceae) has various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities, which may help the inhibition of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined the effect of the fruit juice of M. citrifolia (Noni juice) on the brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 l/4 kg of fruit; 100% Okinawa Noni juice (ONJ). Male ddY mice were supplied with 3% or 10% juice in the drinking water for 7 d, and compared to the control group. On the 7th day, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Interestingly, the intake of juice reduced the infarct volume as analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on the 3rd day of MCAO when compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the neurological deficit scores (NDS) were decreased after the reperfusion in the juice-supplied mice. On the other hand, the intake of juice did not affect the expression levels of antioxidant such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The present study suggests that Noni juice may have a preventive effect against cerebral ischemic stress, while further studies are needed to explain the detailed mechanism. PMID:19252286

Harada, Shinichi; Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Satake, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tokuyama, Shogo

2009-03-01

410

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction.  

PubMed

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume-effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2?h but less than 4?h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

Bailey, David G

2010-11-01

411

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction  

PubMed Central

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice.

Bailey, David G

2010-01-01

412

Neoadjuvant Treatment for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery is still considered to be the mainstay for the treatment of localized gastric cancer with negative margins (R0-resection) and an adequate lymph-node-dissection (D2-lymphadenectomy). Unfortunately, most cases of gastric cancer are only diagnosed at an advanced stage due to frequent recurrences after primary resection in curative intent. In order to improve prognosis after curative resection, in the recent past, patients with locally advanced tumors were subjected to a pre-, peri-, or postoperative treatment. Interestingly, postoperative chemotherapy has significantly improved survival after gastric resection in Asia, adjuvant radiochemotherapy is favored in North America and perioperative chemotherapy is considered as a treatment of choice in Europe indicating region specific approach towards the treatment. Recently there has also been growing evidence of positive outcomes of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on patient survival. In the present article, we discuss the concepts of neoadjuvant treatment approach and provide recommendations to surgeons based on current evidence.

Reim, Daniel; Novotny, Alexander

2013-01-01

413

Gastric Syphilis Mimicking Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Syphilis is an unexpected diagnosis in the stomach, and the reduced incidence of syphilis has made its clinical presentation less widely appreciated. We report a 43-yr-old man suffering from epigastric tenderness with an initial diagnosis of gastric carcinoma; gastric syphilis was confirmed by demonstrating spirochetes in a gastric biopsy specimen by silver impregnation. Excessive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with diffuse thickening of gastric rugae should raise suspicion of gastric syphilis, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse erosive gastritis and infiltrative lesions of the stomach.

Choi, Yoon-La; Han, Jae Joon; Lee, Da Keun; Cho, Min Ho; Kwon, Ghee Young; Park, Cheol Keun; Ahn, Geunghwan

2006-01-01

414

Robot-assisted gastric surgery.  

PubMed

In conclusion, robot-assisted gastric surgery is now considered to be feasible in patients with Stage IA (T1N0) and Stage IB (T1N1, T2N0) early gastric cancer. The optimal treatment modalities have yet to be identified, however, and therefore clinical trials are called for. The authors believe that this new technology will markedly increase the survival rate of such patients all over the world in the near future, while also helping to significantly decrease the complication rates and hospital stay of the patients, which will thus result in a major beneficial socioeconomic impact. PMID:14712877

Hashizume, Makoto; Sugimachi, Keizo

2003-12-01

415

Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

Mayfield, Ryan T.

416

Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

2014-01-01

417

Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.  

PubMed

Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80°C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice. PMID:24799201

Wu, Shengjun

2014-10-01

418

Growth from Spores of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in Heat-Treated Vegetable Juice  

PubMed Central

Unheated spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were able to lead to growth in sterile deoxygenated turnip, spring green, helda bean, broccoli, or potato juice, although the probability of growth was low and the time to growth was longer than the time to growth in culture media. With all five vegetable juices tested, the probability of growth increased when spores were inoculated into the juice and then heated for 2 min in a water bath at 80°C. The probability of growth was greater in bean or broccoli juice than in culture media following 10 min of heat treatment in these media. Growth was prevented by heat treatment of spores in vegetable juices or culture media at 80°C for 100 min. We show for the first time that adding heat-treated vegetable juice to culture media can increase the number of heat-damaged spores of C. botulinum that can lead to colony formation.

Stringer, Sandra C.; Haque, Nuzrul; Peck, Michael W.

1999-01-01

419

Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  

PubMed

The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

2014-04-01

420

Preparation and controlled release of mesoporous MCM-41/propranolol hydrochloride composite drug.  

PubMed

This article used MCM-41 as a carrier for the assembly of propranolol hydrochloride by the impregnation method. By means of chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and low-temperature N(2) adsorption-desorption at 77?K, the characterization was made for the prepared materials. The propranolol hydrochloride guest assembly capacity was 316.20?±?0.31?mg/g (drug/MCM-41). Powder XRD test results indicated that during the process of incorporation, the frameworks of the MCM-41 were not destroyed and the crystalline degrees of the host-guest nanocomposite materials prepared still remained highly ordered. Characterization by SEM and TEM showed that the composite material presented spherical particle and the average particle size of composite material was 186?nm. FT-IR spectra showed that the MCM-41 framework existed well in the (MCM-41)-propranolol hydrochloride composite. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption results at 77?K showed that the guest partially occupied the channels of the molecular sieves. Results of the release of the prepared composite drug in simulated body fluid indicated that the drug can release up to 32?h and its maximum released amount was 99.20?±?0.11%. In the simulated gastric juice release pattern of drug, the maximum time for the drug release was discovered to be 6?h and the maximum cumulative released amount of propranolol hydrochloride was 45.13?±?0.23%. The drug sustained-release time was 10?h in simulated intestinal fluid and the maximum cumulative released amount was 62.05?±?0.13%. The prepared MCM-41 is a well-controlled drug delivery carrier. PMID:22894165

Zhai, Qing-Zhou

2013-01-01

421

[Cranberry juice and its role in urinary infections].  

PubMed

The urinary tract infection is a worldwide health problem, with a ratio of 9 to 1 in women compared with men. In 80% of the cases, the causing bacteria is Escherichia coli. During reproductive life this infection represents a great amount of work disabilities, hence the need to insist on its prophylaxis. The red cranberry juice is an option to prevent urinary tract infection, a quality demonstrated in several recent publications which emphasize that its mechanism of action lies in the effect exerted by proantocyanidines, especially those of type A, in the urothelium that prevent Escherichia coli from adhering to this and exerts its antibacterial action, which is achieved with the ingestion of at least 300 mL of juice every day. PMID:20085135

Ruz, Eduardo Neri; González, Cuauhtémoc Celis; Jaen, Siviardo de León; Escoto, Pablo Gutiérrez; Urquiza, Eréndira Kunhardt; Rosenfield, L Ovadía; Ortiz, Carlos Salazar López C; Castellanos, P Velázquez

2009-11-01

422

Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Fruit and Vegetable Juices 1  

PubMed Central

18O/16O ratios from the juices of a number of fruits and vegetables were measured and found to be isotopically more enriched than the water in which they grew. Fast-growing high-water-content vegetables exhibited less enrichment than slower growing fruits such as apples, pears, and plums. 18O/16O measurements were also made on the water from various sections of several plants, and the enrichment was found to occur in the following order: leaves > fruit > stem ? ground water. D/H and 18O/16O measurements were made on a series of grape juice samples and, when plotted against each other, gave a slope of 3.9, indicating that the physical process causing this enrichment was probably evaporation, i.e. evapotranspiration.

Dunbar, John; Wilson, A. T.

1983-01-01

423

The Effects of Unripe Grape Juice on Lipid Profile Improvement  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Consumption of unripe grape juice (verjuice) has been portrayed by the traditional belief, as a means of combating dyslipidemia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of unripe grape juice consumption on lipid profile in healthy human volunteers. Methods. We asked 42 enrolled volunteers to drink 10?cc of verjuice within 30 minutes to 2 hours after lunch and 10?cc of it after dinner. After taking 120 doses of verjuice, another fasting lipid profile was obtained from each participant. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 13 software. Results. After analysis of the data, the mean ± standard deviation for all the variables was obtained. Among those improvement of HDL-C was significant after the trial (P?value < 0.001). TG, TC, and LDL improvement were not significant. Conclusion. Our study declared that verjuice has a dramatic effect on improving HDL-C level of serum but no any other lipid improvement effect was obtained.

ZibaeeNezhad, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadi, Esmael; Babaie Beigi, Mohammad Ali; Mirzamohammadi, Fatemeh; Salehi, Oveis

2012-01-01

424

Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate.  

PubMed

The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate from the seed and the skin fraction, pasteurization, clarification, filtration, evaporation, and filling-packing at 27°C with a Brix of 45°. Samples from each of the processing steps were analyzed by a number of spectrophotometric analyses. A series of anthocyanin compounds was identified using HPLC-MS, and the fate of anthocyanins, quercetin rutinoside and procyanidins was followed using HPLC. The results indicate that the removal of seed and fruit skin removes most of the procyanidins and anthocyanins, while subsequent clarification and filtration treatments further reduce the anthocyanin content. PMID:23561140

Capanoglu, Esra; de Vos, Ric C H; Hall, Robert D; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules

2013-08-15

425

Ultra high pressure treatment of orange juice: a kinetic study on inactivation of pectin methyl esterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra high pressure treatments ranging from 0 to 720 min were applied to freshly squeezed, non-pasteurized orange juice and reconstituted frozen orange juice at pressures in the range 100 to 400 MPa to investigate the pressure inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity. Freshly squeezed orange juice was adjusted to pH 3.7 or 3.2 (12.6 ° Brix) while the

S. Basak; H. S. Ramaswamy

1996-01-01

426

Effect of Ultrafiltration on Anthocyanin and Flavonol Content of Black Currant Juice ( Ribes nigrum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the efficiency of ultrafiltration and the effects of processing on the total anthocyanin and flavonol\\u000a contents of black currant juice at chosen operational conditions. Ultrafiltration of black currant juices was carried out\\u000a using Biomax 100 kDa polyethersulfone membrane. Ultrafiltration was used to process the juice prior concentration by reverse\\u000a osmosis; with the aim to enhance the efficiency of

Nora Pap; Mika Mahosenaho; Eva Pongrácz; Helmi Mikkonen; Mari Jaakkola; Vesa Virtanen; Liisa Myllykoski; Zsuzsanna Horváth-Hovorka; Cecília Hodúr; Gyula Vatai; Riitta L. Keiski

427

Effect of ascorbic acid on the odours of cloudy apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is used in apple juice as an antibrowning agent. This study investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (0.0–0.2% w\\/v) on the odours of cloudy apple juice using sensory evaluation and gas chromatography (GC). The increase in ascorbic acid concentration in the apple juice resulted in increases in green and unnatural odours and decreases in fresh, fruity and apple-like

Pongsuriya Komthong; Noriyuki Igura; Mitsuya Shimoda

2007-01-01

428

The growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in fruit juices and its survival following elevated temperature treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in orange juice over a temperature range from 4 to 40°C and its ability to multiply in tomato, grapefruit, apple, pineapple and cranberry juices at 30 and 35°C. Survival after 10min exposure to 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95°C in culture medium and in orange juice was also assessed.In orange

Michelle Walker; Carol A. Phillips

2007-01-01

429

Assessment of glycemic potential of Musa paradisiaca stem juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reveals the effect of Musa paradisiaca stem juice on blood glucose level (BGL) of normal & diabetic rats.\\u000a The dose of 500 mg\\/kg bodyweight produces a significant rise of 28.3% in blood glucose level after 6h of oral administration\\u000a in normal rats. Whereas, in sub diabetic rats the same dose produces a rise of 16.4% in blood

Santosh Kumar Singh; Achyut Narayan Kesari; Prashant Kumar Rai; Geeta Watal

2007-01-01