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Sample records for gastric juice composition

  1. Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though differences may be due to variability in the data associated with the small masses of materials that dissolved. Nonetheless, ingestion exposure may not contribute appreciably to total body burden given the short residence time of material in the stomach and relatively long dissolution half-times of these materials (t(1/2) = 60 to 380 days). PMID:20096630

  2. The purification procedure for human gastric juice FSA and its chemical composition.

    PubMed Central

    Häkkinen, I P

    1980-01-01

    A purification procedure for a gastric cancer-associated glycoprotein FSA is described. This substance was considered to be sulphated but is now found to derive its charge from carboxylic groups and has been renamed foetal sialoglycoprotein. The chemical composition is similar to blood group substances with differences which may reflect its origin from gastric cancer. The molecular size differs from that of the carcinoembryonic antigen. The calculation of the yield based on dry weight measurements is not possible until a radioimmunoassay technique becomes available and development of such an assay is now in progress in our laboratory. PMID:7460391

  3. Gastric juice acidity in upper gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Jung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hsiao, Michael; Chang, Wei-Chao; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Lin, Kung-Hung; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To search the independent factors determining gastric juice acidity and to investigate the acidity of gastric juices in various benign and malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: Fasting gastric juice acidity of 165 healthy subjects and 346 patients with esophageal ulcer (n = 21), gastric ulcer (n = 136), duodenal ulcer (n = 100) or gastric cancer (n = 89) were measured and compared. Additionally, gastric specimens were taken from the antrum and body for rapid urease test and histological examination. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that bile stain of gastric juice, high acute inflammatory score of the corpus, and atrophy of the corpus were independent risk factors for the development of gastric hypoacidity with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3-7.3), 3.1 (95% CI: 1.2-7.9) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.3-9.2). Esophageal ulcer and duodenal ulcer patients had a lower pH level (1.9 and 2.1 vs 2.9, both P < 0.05) of gastric juices than healthy subjects. In contrast, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients had a higher pH level (3.4 and 6.6 vs 2.9, both P < 0.001) than healthy controls. Hypoacidity existed in 22%, 5%, 29%, 5% and 88% of healthy subjects, esophageal ulcer, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bile reflux, atrophy and dense neutrophil infiltrate of the corpus are three independent factors determining the acidity of gastric juice. PMID:21086570

  4. Comparison of Gastric Microbiota Between Gastric Juice and Mucosa by Next Generation Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori in human health and disease. In this study, we aimed to detect human gastric microbiota in both gastric mucosa and gastric juice by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare the results from mucosa and juice. Methods: Gastric biopsies and stomach juices were collected from 4 subjects who underwent standard endoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota of antral mucosa, corpus mucosa samples, and gastric fluids were analyzed by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis focused on bacteria, such as H. pylori and nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria. Results: Gastric fluid samples showed higher diversity compared to that of gastric mucosa samples. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in gastric fluid than in gastric mucosa. The samples of gastric fluid and gastric mucosa showed different composition of phyla. The composition of H. pylori and Proteobacteria was higher in mucosa samples compared to gastric fluid samples (H. pylori, 66.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.033; Proteobacteria, 75.4% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041), while Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were proportioned relatively less in mucosa samples than gastric fluid. However there was no significant difference. (Actinobacteria, 3.5% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.312; Bacteroidetes, 6.0% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.329; Firmicutes, 12.8% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.246). Conclusions: Even though these samples were small, gastric mucosa could be more effective than gastric fluid in the detection of meaningful gastric microbiota by pyrosequencing. PMID:27051651

  5. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations. PMID:26377936

  6. Lack of agreement between tonometric and gastric juice partial carbon dioxide tension

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Badie, Julio; Fernandez, Sofía; Estenssoro, Elisa; Canales, Héctor; Bordoli, Guillermo; Pálizas, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years there has been growing interest in tonometric estimation of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi). More recently, attention has focused on the gradient between intraluminal and arterial PCO2. pHi appears to be a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool in critically ill patients, and may also be used as a therapeutic guide. However, intraluminal PCO2 is the parameter measured to calculate pHi, and it is assumed as equivalent to the PCO2 of the upper layers of the gastric mucosa. Direct measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice might offer advantages over tonometry. Tonometer costs could be saved, and equilibration time would no longer be necessary. Additionally, preanalytic factors that account for poor reproducibility, such as inadequate volume of saline in the tonometer, errors in the dwell time of the sample or in the technique used to aspirate saline, mixing of the sample with tonometer dead space and delay in analysis, could be prevented. Nevertheless, to our knowledge few experimental or clinical studies have examined PCO2 in gastric juice. Moreover, no comparison with simultaneous tonometric samples has been performed. Our goal was to compare simultaneous measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice and in saline samples from a tonometer. Data from the present study show that gastric juice PCO2 is systematically higher. Furthermore, differences widen at high PCO2 values, and data dispersion becomes even more striking. Therefore, tonometric PCO2 and gastric juice PCO2 are not interchangeable. Patients and methods: The present study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from the next of kin of each patient. We studied 15 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients from a medical/surgical intensive care unit, in whom tonometric monitoring was indicated by attending physicians. All patients were receiving 50 mg intravenous ranitidine every 8 h. Gastric tonometers were filled with saline, which was extracted after 90 min of equilibration time. At the same time, gastric juice was anaerobically extracted from the aspiration port of the tonometer. The initial 20 ml was discarded. PCO2 in both samples was measured using a blood gas analyzer (AVL 945; AVL List GMBH, Gratz, Austria). These measurements were taken at various time points in each patient, and under various haemodynamic and oxygen transport conditions, All measurements were performed with the patient fasted. Correlation between the two measurements was examined using the Bland-Altman technique. We also performed an in vitro study to quantify the precision and bias for the AVL 945. For this purpose, a stable PCO2 in saline solution was achieved by bubbling 5% carbon dioxide calibration gas. Results: We performed 112 pairs of measurements in 15 patients. Table 1 shows clinical data and the first values of arterial, tonometered and gastric juice PCO2 for each patient. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between both methods of measuring PCO2 (r 2 =0.43; gastric juice PCO2 = -28.79 + [2.55 × tonometric PCO2]; P < 0.0001; Fig. 1). However, the bias calculated as the mean difference of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 was 51 mmHg. The 95% limits of agreement were 315 mmHg (Fig. 2). For mean PCO2 values lesser than 100 mmHg, the bias and the 95% limits of agreement were 19 and 102 mmHg, respectively. As mean PCO2 increased, the scattering of differences widened (r 2 =0.71; P < 0.0001). In an effort to prevent the bias related to multiple measurements per patient, we performed Bland-Altman analysis with the first measurement of each patient. After this the results remained similar (bias 55 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement 216 mmHg). The AVL 945 blood gas analyzer showed a negative bias of 0.97 mmHg and a precision of 2.13 mmHg. This bias was considered negligible, so no further correction was made to saline tonometric values. Discussion: The results of the present study show that tonometric PCO2 and gastric juice PCO2 are not interchangeable. Gastric juice PCO2 is systematically higher. At high PCO2 values the differences widen, and data dispersion becomes even more marked. There is no clear cause for these observations. A possible explanation might be that tonometric PCO2 is generated over a time interval, whereas gastric juice PCO2 might reflect rapid changes in mucosal metabolism. Different equilibrium time could also account for data dispersion, but not for the positive bias for gastric juice. Rapid changes should occur in both directions. Another potential confounding factor is the ability of blood gas analyzers to measure PCO2 in gastric juice. Measurement of PCO2 in 0.9% saline is an important source of error in the estimation of pHi. Variation in PCO2 values may occur with different PCO2 equilibration solutions. For example, bias is -66.5% when the Nova Stat Profile 7 blood gas analyzer (Nova Biomedical, Waltham, MA, USA) measures concentration of 1.95% of CO2 equilibrated in normal saline. However, bias changes to +45.4% when 1.95% CO2 is equilibrated in human albumin solution 4.5%. It would not be surprising if gastric juice components such as proteins, mucopolisaccharides and others interfere with CO2 solubility and its subsequent measurement by blood gas analyzers. In this way, intersubject and intrasubject variation in gastric juice composition could also account for data dispersion. Fiddian-Green et al [1] measured PCO2 in gastric contents of anaesthetized dogs. They isolated the stomach from the oesophagus and the duodenum with ligatures, and washed it through a catheter with saline. Then, they instilled 250 ml 0.9% saline and took samples to measure PCO2 and to estimate pHi. Simultaneously, mucosa pH was recorded with a microglass probe. They found a statistically significant correlation between both methods. However, data dispersion in the graph was considerable. We were able to exclude analyzer underestimation of PCO2 in saline as the cause for the present results. In vitro performance of the AVL 945 in blood was good. It showed a negative bias less than 1 mmHg and a precision of about 2 mmHg. We cannot infer from the present data the technique that should be the gold standard for measuring PCO2 in gastric mucosa. However, the studies that have established the normal values for pHi, prognostic changes and its uses as a therapeutic index have been performed with tonometry. Hence, more data are needed for the routine measurement of PCO2 in gastric juice. Figure 1 Correlation between gastric juice and tonometric PCO2. We performed 112 pairs of measurements of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 in 15 critical care patients under different haemodynamic and oxygen transport conditions. The linear regression coefficient is significant. However, the slope value indicates systematic overestimation of gastric juice PCO2 in relation to saline PCO2. Figure 2 Bland-Altman analysis of the differences between gastric juice and tonometric PCO2. The bias calculated as the mean difference of gastric juice and tonometric PCO2 was 51 mmHg. The 95% limits of agreement were 315 mmHg. The bias and the scattering of differences widened as PCO2 increased. Table 1 Clinical characteristics and first value of arterial, tonometer and gastric juice PCO2 PCO2 (mmHg) Age Inotropes Gastric Patient Sex (years) Diagnosis (μg/kg per min) Outcome Arterial Tonometric juice 1 Female 53 Stroke, ARDS Dopamine 32 Survival 30 48 165 2 Female 73 Intestinal obstruction, septic shock Dopamine 40 Death 26 44 92 3 Male 37 Multiple trauma Survival 21 28 41 4 Male 56 Multiple trauma Survival 39 42 49 5 Female 64 Acute pancreatitis, shock, ARDS Dopamine 18 Death 30 34 80 6 Male 17 Multiple trauma Survival 43 60 60 7 Female 18 Fat liver of pregnancy Survival 30 40 44 8 Male 73 Necrotizing celulitis, septic shock, ARDS Epinephrine 1.2 Death 28 33 31 9 Male 64 Multiple trauma, pneumonia, ARDS Death 36 41 57 10 Male 65 Lung cancer postoperatively, ARDS Death 35 51 242 11 Male 65 Lung cancer postoperatively, ARDS Dopamine 20 Death 36 30 125 12 Female 22 Neutropenia, septic shock, ARDS Epinephrine 0.8 Death 50 69 81 13 Male 83 Perioperative shock Dopamine 25 Survival 23 28 34 14 Male 52 Ventilator-associated pneumonia Survival 43 43 126 15 Male 56 Colangitis, septic shock Dopamine 36 Survival 38 44 92 ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11056754

  7. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:8073694

  8. A chemometric optimization of method for determination of nitrosamines in gastric juices by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Akyz, Mehmet; Ata, ?evket; Din, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A chemometrically optimized isolation procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection technique has been proposed for quantitative determination of trace levels of nitrosamines in gastric juice samples of patients with the gastrointestinal tract problems. The extraction conditions of each nitrosamine were optimized using regression modelling based on central composite design. The extraction conditions for all nitrosamines were selected to be 10.7 min for extraction time, 4.2 for pH and 23 for 2-propanol percentage in extraction solution. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 94.0 (NDMA) to 99.3 (NDPheA) %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations was within the range of 0.7 (NDPheA) and 2.6 (NDMA) %. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 0.3 to 1.1 pg/mL. Total nitrosamine concentrations were found at the highest concentration up to 2431.12 pg/mL in cancer patients, whereas they were found at the lowest concentration down to 12.18 pg/mL in gastritis patients. The classification results of the gastric juice samples in different patient groups were very satisfactory, allowing 100% of patients to be correctly grouped. A new mathematical model has been developed allowing for the classification of gastric juices with a 93.1% success rate based on just the ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ. The ratio of MNPIZ to DNPIZ might be considered as a biomarker for the classification of gastric juices of patients and might act as an indicator of increased risk for stomach cancer. PMID:26342445

  9. [Changes in the rat gastric mucosa after intragastric administration of gastric juice from healthy controls and from patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Amirov, N Sh; Belostotskiĭ, N I

    1982-11-01

    It has been shown in rat experiments that gastric juice from duodenal ulcer patients possesses significantly greater aggressiveness as regards the gastric mucosa of rats as compared to gastric juice from normal subjects. Injuries to the gastric mucosa of rats under the experimental conditions were consequent, apart from the injuring action of exogenic proteases of the patients' gastric juice, on activation of the system of mucosal proteases active in a weak-acidic medium (lysosomal), as well as on the decreased resistance of rat gastric mucosa proteins to the destruction by rat gastric mucosa pepsins under acidic pH values. The impairment of the mucosal resistance to the destruction might be promoted by the reduced number of glycosaminoglycan fractions, detected during electrophoresis of the mucosal extracts from the experimental rats. PMID:7150727

  10. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Synthetic Human Gastric Juice and Acidified Porcine Bile

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    The bactericidal activities of synthetic gastric juice and acidified porcine bile on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed using propidium monoazide (PMA)-mediated quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, which allowed rapid relative quantitative analysis of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. PMID:23263951

  11. [The content of gastrin, bombesin and somatostatin in the blood and gastric juice of patients with duodenal and gastric peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Loginov, A S; Arbuzova, V G; Astaf'eva, O V; Amirov, N Sh; Zvenigorodskaia, L A

    1992-01-01

    Ninety patients suffering from peptic ulcer and 25 healthy subjects were examined for the content of gastrin, bombesin and somatostatin in blood and gastric juice. Among patients with duodenal ulcer, 2 groups were distinguished: group I included patients in whom peptic ulcer occurred before 30 years; the majority of the patients manifested blood hypergastrinemia, a decrease of bombesin concentration and normal somatostatin concentration; gastric juice was characterized by a lowering of somatostatin concentration and unchanged gastrin concentration; group II was made up of patients who developed peptic ulcer after 30: in the majority of the patients, gastrin concentration was reduced under basal conditions, after loading it was unchanged; in part of the patients, blood somatostatin concentration was elevated, in 16 in exacerbation and in 19 in remission; in the remainder, it was unchanged. The concentration of bombesin in blood remained unchanged. In gastric juice, gastrin concentration was increased only after histamine administration, somatostatin concentration was unchanged whatever the disease stage. In patients with gastric ulcer, gastrin concentration in blood was elevated only under basal conditions, being unchanged in gastric juice irrespective of the disease stage. Meanwhile, the concentration of bombesin was lowered both under basal conditions and after insulin administration, the concentration of somatostatin was decreased both in blood and gastric juice whatever the disease stage. PMID:1354894

  12. [A rapid radionuclide method for clinical assessment of gastric juice proteolytic activity and acidity].

    PubMed

    Popova, L V; Sergienko, V B; Amirov, N Sh

    1991-01-01

    A new method for radionuclide measurement of gastric juice proteolytic activity (GJPA) is described. GJPA is determined according to the time of dissolution of the protein capsule filled with 99mTc-pertechnetate solution. In vitro experiments made with 342 samples of gastric juice revealed a correlation (p1 less than 0.01) between the time of dissolution of the 99mTc-pertechnetate capsule and proteolytic activity measured according to Metta's method. No correlation was established between GJPA (measured by Metta's method and by radionuclide method) and gastric juice acidity (p greater than 0.05). In 63 patients examined, the time of capsule dissolution was 15 to 18 minutes with GJPA being normal, 8 to 14 minutes (p less than 0.01) with elevated parameters of GJPA, and 19 to 37 minutes (p less than 0.01) with GJPA being reduced. The given method is a physiological one, sufficiently precise and can be recommended for a screening analysis of GJPA. PMID:1646488

  13. Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 μm and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

  14. [Determination of neutralization capacity of antacids in gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Halter, F

    1983-03-01

    Observations made during intragastric titration studies performed with antacids that have an identical neutralizing capacity but differ in their chemical compositions suggested that aluminum hydroxide loses a large portion of its neutralizing capacity when applied postprandially. To further elucidate the mechanism involved in-vitro studies were performed whereby the reactivity of magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, and calcium carbonate was estimated either in aliquots of 10 ml of water or 10 ml of 5% oxo solution. The effectively available neutralizing capacity of the respective antacids was measured for the pH range of 1 to 5. The results revealed that magnesium hydroxide as well as calcium carbonate can fully react with acid whereby their theoretically available neutralizing capacity is fully available for the pH of 1 to 4.5, this in water as well as in 5% oxo solution. In contrast, aluminum hydroxide loses a large proportion of the theoretically available neutralizing capacity already in water but especially in oxo solution in a pH dependent manner. The loss far exceeds that calculated when one takes into account the pKa dependent hydrolysis of aluminum hydroxide. This loss of reactivity increased from 20% at pH 1 in a near linear fashion up to above 80% at pH 3.5. A food induced decrease of aluminum hydroxide solubility as well as stabilisation of the macromolecular aluminum hydroxide complexes through anions and organic acids are likely to be responsible for this loss of reactivity. PMID:6858409

  15. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ's osmolality and acidity. Cardiovascular reflexes resulting from gastric distension are likely responsible for the plasma volume shift and rise in plasma sodium concentration despite nonsignificant changes in plasma sodium content. These data support our theory that PJ does not relieve cramps via a metabolic mechanism. PMID:21062184

  16. An assay for intrinsic factor based on blocking of the R binder of gastric juice by cobinamide.

    PubMed

    Begley, J A; Trachtenberg, A

    1979-04-01

    An in vitro assay for measurement of gastric juice intrinsic factor (IF) was developed based on the ability of the cobinamide (Cbi) [(CN, OH) Cbi] to bind to the gastric juice R-type binders of cobalamin (Cbl) and not to the IF binder. Subsequently added radioactive Cbl, CN-[57Co] Cbl, binds only to the IF binders and allows for direct measurement of this Cbl binding protein. This Cbi blocking assay was found to function as well as the more conventional methods of IF measurement, G-100 column chromatography, and IF blocking antibody assay. The present assay has the advantage of eliminating the need for elaborate forms of protein separation and does not rely on a source of antibody. PMID:426916

  17. Frequency of Detectable HBsAg in Fluid Adherent to the Endoscope, Gastric Juice, and Saliva Collected during Endoscopy in Patients Positive for HBsAg

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ung-Suk; Liu, Bang-Hyun

    1986-01-01

    Gastric juice, saliva, and fluid adherent to the endoscope were collected from 50 patients who were seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during the endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and examined for HBsAg, using the radioimmunoassay. A positive test was obtained from 42.0% of the saliva samples, in 32.0% of the gastric juice specimens, and in 31.3% of the fluid adherent to the scope. These results should be taken as a warning, that calls for a more careful screening of the patients and disinfection of the endoscope. PMID:3154614

  18. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Paul M. Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.

  19. Effect of storage in juice with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate on the subsequent survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Jo, Seong-Chun; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sun-Min; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-04-30

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about 1.4 g/l was added to juices to obtain calcium supplemented juices. Juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and then were stored at 7 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, or 4 days. The acid resistance of cells stored in juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate was determined by incubating in SGF for 90 or 240 min at 37 degrees C. Cells stored in apple juice for 4 days, carrot juice for 2 days, and orange juice for 4 days with pulp only had greater acid resistance, while all cells stored in tomato juice with pulp had greater acid resistance than cells stored in juice without pulp. The D-values of cells stored in supplemented apple and orange juices with calcium lactate declined 1.7-3.5 fold, whereas D-values of cells stored in supplemented tomato juice decreased by about 1.4-fold when compared to cells stored in juice without calcium lactate after exposure in SGF. These results indicate that storing E. coli O157:H7 in juices with pulp had little or no effect on the acid resistance of cells during subsequent exposure in SGF. Calcium lactate supplemented into juices could dramatically decrease the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in SGF, possibly reducing the risk of foodborne illness by juice products. PMID:18328587

  20. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID:26673084

  2. Sugarcane Genotypic Variation in Juice Sugar Composition as Affected by Sampling Date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida lasts more than 180 days from late October through mid April. Sugarcane juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are closely related to sucrose yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to determine dynamics of sugar componen...

  3. The use of election paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in early preformulation experiments: the impact of different experimental formulations on the release of a lipophilic spin probe into gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Isel, H; Mountfield, R J

    2001-03-01

    The lipophilic spin probe TEMPOL-benzoate was dissolved in different experimental formulations, including polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), Miglyol, glycerol monooleate (GMO), and Cremophor RH-40. Samples were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy before and after addition to human gastric juice. The distance between the first and the third peak in the EPR spectrum (2a(N)) was measured to monitor the polarity of the spin probe's microenvironment. Moreover, the ratio between the signal amplitudes of the second and the third peak (a/b ratio) was used to monitor the mobility of the spin probe in a certain formulation. Thus, by calculating 2a(N) and the a/b ratio of the EPR spectra it was possible to determine a potential release of the spin probe from different formulations into gastric juice. It was found that oily and surface-active vehicles (Miglyol, Cremophor RH-40, and GMO) were more suitable to protect a lipophilic compound from being released within a gastric environment than PEG 400. Our results demonstrate that EPR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool in early preformulation experiments to monitor the release of spin probes from formulations of different nature. This kind of experiment can be of value for the optimization of exploratory formulations. PMID:11226824

  4. Disintegration of mercury disc cells in simulated gastric juice: implications for management of disc cell ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Hockey, M S; Rhodes, A; Smith, M E; Hughes, S; Braithwaite, R A

    1990-01-01

    The disintegration of charged alkaline mercury button cells in simulated gastric fluid over a 24 h period has been studied. The integrity of the cells and the amount of mercury that can leak out of them were assessed. The cells raised the pH of the incubating solutions. Disruption was seen in five out of 18 cells tested in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid and one out of nine in 0.9% saline. Five of the six disrupted cells were made by the same manufacturer. Major leakage of mercury only occurred after complete disintegration of the cells. The implications of these findings for the management of patients who have ingested mercury-containing button cells are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2390143

  5. Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Kim T; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena

    2006-06-01

    An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp, 2-Rhap, 2,4-Rhap), arabinan (5-Araf, 3,5-Araf, t-Araf), type I arabinogalactan (4-Galp, 3,4-Galp, t-Araf) and beta-glucosyl Yariv-binding type II arabinogalactan (3,6-Galp, t-Araf). Low levels of xyloglucan (4-Glcp, 4,6-Glcp, t-Xylp, t-Fucp), heteroxylan (4-Xylp) and heteromannan (4-Manp) are also present. PMID:16777156

  6. Protection of bifidobacteria encapsulated in polysaccharide-protein gel beads against gastric juice and bile.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Daniel; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; Subirade, Muriel

    2003-11-01

    Bifidobacterium cells were encapsulated in a mixed gel composed of alginate, pectin, and whey proteins. Two kinds of capsules were obtained: gel beads without membranes and gel beads with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction. In vitro studies were carried out to determine the effects of simulated gastric pH and bile salts on the survival of free and encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum. The protective effects of gel beads without membranes and gel beads coated with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction were evaluated. After 1 h in an acidic solution (pH 2.5), the free-cell counts decreased by 4.75 log units, compared with a <1-log decrease for entrapped cells. The free cells did not survive after 2 h of incubation at pH 2.5, while immobilized-cell counts decreased by about 2 log units. After incubation (1 or 3 h) in 2 and 4% bile salt solutions, the bifidobacterium mortality level for membrane-free gel beads (4 to 7 log units) was higher than that for free cells (2 to 3 log units). However, counts of bifidobacteria immobilized in membrane-coated gel beads decreased by <2 log units. Cell encapsulation in membrane-coated protein-polysaccharide gel beads could be used to increase the survival of healthy probiotic bacteria during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:14627286

  7. Bactericidal activities of the cationic steroid CSA-13 and the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 against Helicobacter pylori in simulated gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains of H. pylori motivates a search for new agents with therapeutic potential against this family of bacteria that colonizes the stomach, and is associated with adenocarcinoma development. This study was designed to assess in vitro the anti-H. pylori potential of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, which is naturally present in gastric juice, its optimized synthetic analog WLBU2, and the non-peptide antibacterial agent ceragenin CSA-13. Results In agreement with previous studies, increased expression of hCAP-18/LL-37 was observed in gastric mucosa obtained from H. pylori infected subjects. MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values determined in nutrient-containing media range from 100-800 μg/ml for LL-37, 17.8-142 μg/ml for WLBU2 and 0.275-8.9 μg/ml for ceragenin CSA-13. These data indicate substantial, but widely differing antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of H. pylori. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (low pH with presence of pepsin) CSA-13, but not LL-37 or WLBU2, retained antibacterial activity. Compared to LL-37 and WLBU2 peptides, CSA-13 activity was also more resistant to inhibition by isolated host gastric mucins. Conclusion These data indicate that cholic acid-based antimicrobial agents such as CSA-13 resist proteolytic degradation and inhibition by mucin and have potential for treatment of H. pylori infections, including those caused by the clarithromycin and/or metronidazole-resistant strains. PMID:19728885

  8. [Nitrogen composition of the fruit juice of the Persian lime in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Nuñez, M; Stenz, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1987 to 1989 the composition was studied of the nitrogen compounds (nitrogen and free amino acids) in the fruit juice of Persian lime during its commercial harvesting period. Adult Persian lime trees grafted on Citrus macrophylla and C. volkameriana were used, planted on a groundwater-affected red ferrilytic soil in the La Habana Province. Determination of the total nitrogen and of the free proline was carried out in May to July of each experimental year. The amino acid spectrum was established from juice samples in May 1987 and in July 1988. With the nitrogen concentrations varying between 14 and 90 mg/100 ml of juice, no consistent behaviour or pattern could be detected either in the total nitrogen content or the proline content in the juice during the 3 experimental years. 14 free amino acids were found, with about 90% of the total content formed from asparagine acid, glutamic acid, alanine, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and arginine, regardless of the experimental year or the grafting basis. PMID:1823779

  9. Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice. PMID:25248994

  10. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

  11. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  12. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  13. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  14. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Bravo, Luis E; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; Wilson, Keith T; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  15. Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  16. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

  17. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen. PMID:26613762

  18. Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohata, Yukiko; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Latiful Bari, Md; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0.6 log CFU/g after 2 h-incubation at 37℃ in artificial gastric juice. Prevention from initial contamination of E. coli O157 on the ingredients of Chinese cabbage products is important to reduce the risk of food poisoning because the reduction of the bacterial counts after processing and consumption are limited. PMID:27009510

  19. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

  20. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    PubMed

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (p<0.05), indicating a higher safety of consumption of potatoes produced in Russia. When studying--the isotopic D/H composition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from Argentina (deltaD = -72% per hundred), while the lowest concentration of deuterium was observed in the juice from the Egyptian potatoes (delta = -358% per hundred). In general, significantly lower deuterium content was determined in fresh juices made from potatoes and cabbage grown in different countries, in comparison with other fresh juices from fruits and vegetables. The smallest range of differences in the isotopic D/H was composed in freshjuices from tomato, pomegranate and oranges of Turkish manufacturers (deuterium concentration ranged in them from -221 to -214% per hundred), that can be used to confirm the geographical origin of fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. The data reflecting the antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in the juices, allow us to recommend the latter as additional criteria when assessing the quality of food products. PMID:26852536

  1. Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

  2. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  3. Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

  4. Comparison of stem damage and carbohydrate composition in the stem juice between sugarcane and sweet sorghum harvested before and after late fall frost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars...

  5. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants. PMID:26579877

  6. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  9. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  12. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  13. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  14. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  15. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  16. The identification of ingested dandelion juice in gastric contents of a deceased person by direct sequencing and GC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-jung; Kim, Sun-cheun; Hwang, In-kwan; Yang, Hee-jin; Kim, Youn-shin; Han, Myun-soo; Yang, Moon-sik; Lee, Yang-han

    2009-05-01

    DNA and chemical analysis of gastric contents of a deceased person were handled in this work. The body of the victim was discovered in his car, submerged in a lake. We were asked to determine whether or not the gastric contents of the victim harbored drugs and dandelion material. It was suspected that the victim had been murdered by poisoning with an excess amount of sleeping medication (doxylamine), which had been homogenized with dandelion. The concentrations of 11.4 and 27.5 mg/kg of doxylamine detected from spleen and liver of the victim were far higher than the assumed therapeutic concentration. Via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and direct sequencing analysis of plant genetic markers such as intergenic transcribed spacer, 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), rbcL and trnLF, it was confirmed that the gastric contents of the victim contained taraxasterol, which is one of the marker compounds for dandelion and contained dandelion species-specific rbcL and trnL-trnF IGS (trnLF) sequences. The initial PCR of the genomic DNA isolated from the gastric contents showed insufficient quantity, and the second PCR, of which the template was a portion of the initial PCR products, exhibited a sufficient quantity for direct sequencing. rbcL and trnLF located in the cpDNA resulted in the successful determination of dandelion DNA in a decedent's stomach contents. GC-MS identifies the actual presence of a taraxasterol at 28.4 min. Raw dandelion was assumed to be used as a masking vehicle for excess sleeping drug (doxylamine). PMID:19432748

  17. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

    2009-06-01

    Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer. PMID:19468836

  18. Formulation and optimization of gastric floating drug delivery system using Central composite design and its biopharmaceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Thing, Lim Kee; Gorajana, Adinarayana; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana-Murthy

    2015-07-01

    The present work investigates the formulation and biopharmaceutical estimation of gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) of propranolol HCl using semi-synthetic polymer carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) and a synthetic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). A central composite design was applied for optimization of polymer quantity (CMEC or PEO) and sodium bicarbonate concentration as independent variables. The dependent variables evaluated were: % of drug release at 1 hr (D1hr), % drug release at 3 hr (D3hr) and time taken for 95% of drug release (t95). Numerical optimization and graphical optimization were conducted to optimize the response variables. All observed responses of statistically optimized formulations were in high treaty with predicted values. Accelerated stability studies were conducted on the optimized formulations at 40 ± 2°C/75% ± 5% RH and confirm that formulations were stable. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vivo buoyancy characterization in human volunteers and were found buoyant in gastric fluid. Gastric residence time was enhanced in the fed but not the fasted state. The optimized formulations and marketed formulation were administered to healthy human volunteers and evaluated for pharmacokinetic parameters. Mean residence time (MRT) was prolonged and AUC levels were increased for both optimized floating tablets when compared with marketed product. High relative bioavailability obtained with optimized gastric floating tablets compared to commercial formulation, indicated the improvement of bioavailability. PMID:26142528

  19. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

  20. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Subjects/Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Results: Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Conclusions: Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations. PMID:25226819

  1. Body Composition and Energy Metabolism Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Robyn A.; Hossain, H. Ayesha; Marks, Pamela A.; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Rathmacher, John A.; Phillips, Sharon E.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Chen, Kong Y.; Abumrad, Naji N.

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has become an accepted treatment for excessive obesity. We conducted a longitudinal study to assess regional body composition, muscle proteolysis, and energy expenditure before RYGB, and 6 and 12 months after RYGB. Whole-body and regional fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and myofibrillar protein degradation was estimated by urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH) in 29 subjects. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were also determined using a whole-room, indirect calorimeter in 12 of these subjects. LM loss constituted 27.8 10.2% of total weight loss achieved 12 months postoperatively, with the majority of LM loss (18 6% of initial LM) occurring in the first 6 months following RYGB. During this period, the trunk region contributed 66% of whole-body LM loss. LM loss occurred in the first 6 months after RYGB despite decreased muscle protein breakdown, as indicated by a decrease in 3-MeH concentrations and muscle fractional breakdown rates. Sleep energy expenditure (SEE) decreased from 2,092 342 kcal/d at baseline to 1,495 190 kcal/day at 6 months after RYGB (P < 0.0001). Changes in both LM and FM had an effect on the reduction in SEE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). These studies suggest that loss of LM after RYGB is significant and strategies to maintain LM after surgery should be explored. PMID:20414197

  2. Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-02-01

    Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

  3. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Thompson, J Will; Dubois, Laura G; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care for chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000-fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 10(6) -fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  4. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro‐esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000‐fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

  5. Gastric emptying and glycemic response after ingestion of mashed bean or potato flakes in composite meals.

    PubMed

    Torsdottir, I; Alpsten, M; Andersson, H; Schweizer, T F; Tölli, J; Würsch, P

    1989-12-01

    Two meals of mashed-bean or potato flakes and meat were served in random order to six healthy male subjects to determine effects on gastric emptying and glycemic reactions. The meals had comparable physical appearance and contained similar amounts of digestible carbohydrate, fat, and protein. No difference in gastric emptying, recorded by gamma camera after mixing 51Cr with the meals, was found between the meals. The bean-flakes meal gave significantly lower blood glucose (p less than 0.01) and serum insulin (p less than 0.05) concentrations than did the potato-flakes meal. The overall blood glucose response, calculated as incremental area under the curves for 2 h, also differed between the meals (p less than 0.05) whereas the overall insulin response did not differ significantly. The low glycemic response after bean flakes could not be explained by the gastric emptying rate, which provides additional evidence for the slow digestion of bean starch in the small intestine. PMID:2688396

  6. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Banding Benefits of Gastric Banding Lifestyle Changes after Gastric Banding Surgery Gastric banding is a weight loss option for ...

  7. A comparison between the gastric and salivary concentration of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide in man

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R. McG.; Alexander, W. D.; Shimmins, J.; Chisholm, D.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of iodide (I−) and pertechnetate (TcO4−) and bromide (Br−) has been measured simultaneously in gastric juice and parotid saliva. The combined gastric and salivary clearance for iodide and pertechnetate is more than twice the clearance of these ions by the thyroid gland. The concentration of the ions was in the order I−>TcO4−>Br− in both gastric juice and saliva. Differences exist between the secretion of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide. Bromide, in contrast to iodide and pertechnetate, was found to be more concentrated in gastric juice than in saliva. The ratio of the iodide to pertechnetate clearance was greater in gastric juice than in saliva. PMID:5358585

  8. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  9. Gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, E G; Sinar, D R; Swanson, M

    1987-06-01

    The success of gastric bypass probably depends on factors other than merely the restrictive size of the gastric pouch and outlet. Postoperative dumping and a mild degree of malabsorption derived from the redirection of intestinal contents contribute to long-term success. Thus, gastric bypass combines some elements of both malabsorptive and gastric restrictive procedures. PMID:3692600

  10. Altered content composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Vynios, Demitrios H; Papageorgakopoulou, Nikoletta; Skandalis, Spyros S; Theocharis, Dimitrios A

    2003-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in proteoglycan (PG) forms or as free GAGs are implicated in the growth and progression of malignant tumors. These macromolecules were investigated in human gastric carcinoma (HGC) and compared with those in human normal gastric mucosa (HNG). We report that HGC contained about 2-fold increased amounts of GAGs in comparison to HNG. Specifically, HGC showed 3- and 2.5-fold net increase in chondroitin sulphate (CS) and hyaluronan (HA) contents, respectively. Dermatan sulphate (DS) was slightly increased, but the amount of heparan sulphate (HS) was decreased. Of particular, interest were the quite different sulphation profiles of CS and DS chains in HGC in which, non-sulphated and 6-sulphated disaccharide units were increased 10 and 4 times, respectively, in comparison to HNG. On PG level, three different populations were identified in both HNG and HGC, being HSPGs, versican (CS/DS chains) and decorin (CS/DS chains). In HGC, the amounts of versican and decorin were significantly increased about 3- and 8-fold, respectively. These PGs were also characterized by marked decrease in hydrodynamic size and GAG content per PG molecule. Analysis of Delta-disaccharide of versican and decorin from HGC showed an increase of 6-sulphated Delta-disaccharides (Delta di-6S) and non-sulphated Delta-disaccharides (Delta di-0S) with a parallel decrease of 4-sulphated Delta-disaccharides (Delta di-4S) as compared to HNG, which closely correlated with the increase of CS content. In addition, the accumulation of core proteins of versican and decorin in HGC was also associated with many post-translational modifications, referring to the number, size, degree and patterns of sulphation and epimerization of CS/DS chains. Studies on the modified metabolism of PGs/GAGs are under progress and will help in deeper understanding of the environment in which tumor cells proliferate and invade. PMID:12531251

  11. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

  12. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  13. Enzyme-assisted extraction and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of patulin in apple juice and method optimization using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tavakoli, Rouya; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Rashedi, Hamid; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Delavar, Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    A simple and highly sensitive analytical methodology for isolation and determination of patulin in apple-juice samples, based on enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was developed and optimized. Enzymes play essential roles in eliminating interference and increasing the extraction efficiency of patulin. Apple-juice samples were treated with pectinase and amylase. A mixture of 80 μL ionic liquid and 600 μL methanol (disperser solvent) was used for the IL-DLLME process. The sedimented phase was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Experimental parameters controlling the performance of DLLME, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.99) for patulin in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 7.5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.15 ng g(-1) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise and reliable sample-pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for investigation trace amount of patulin in apple-juice samples. PMID:24267070

  14. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  15. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  16. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  17. Zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite as coating for solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for trace analysis of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza; Kashkoei, Parvin Khodaei; Kazemipour, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    In the present research, the ZnO-CuO nanoplate composite (ZCNC), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating, was prepared and its extraction capability for certain chlorophenols (CPs) was studied through directly sampling the typical CPs mixed standard solution of 4-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high performance liquid chromatography. ZCNC thickness was in the range of 50-65 nm. The effective variables on ZCNC-SPME extraction efficiency were extraction time, salt percentage, and desorption time. Accordingly, a multivariate strategy was applied based on an experimental design by using central composite design for optimizing the significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 6), that include repeatability and reproducibility as the target analytes, were in the range of 0.5-5 ng ml(-1) and 5.1-14 % of standard solutions at 50 ng ml(-1) concentration of CPs, respectively. The developed technique is believed to be successfully applicable to preconcentration and determination of target analytes in environmental water and tomato juice samples. Graphical Abstract Application of zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite for extraction of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples and optimizing condition by experimental design method. PMID:26995010

  18. Altering sphingolipid composition with aging induces contractile dysfunction of gastric smooth muscle via KC a 1.1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Shinkyu; Kim, Ji Aee; Kim, Tae Hun; Li, Hai-Yan; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon; Oh, Seikwan; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2015-12-01

    KC a 1.1 regulates smooth muscle contractility by modulating membrane potential, and age-associated changes in KC a 1.1 expression may contribute to the development of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important structural components of cellular membranes whose altered composition may affect KC a 1.1 expression. Thus, in this study, we examined whether altered SL composition due to aging may affect the contractility of gastric smooth muscle (GSM). We studied changes in ceramide synthases (CerS) and SL levels in the GSM of mice of varying ages and compared them with those in young CerS2-null mice. The levels of C16- and C18-ceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were increased, and levels of C22, C24:1 and C24 ceramides were decreased in the GSM of both aged wild-type and young CerS2-null mice. The altered SL composition upregulated KC a 1.1 and increased KC a 1.1 currents, while no change was observed in KC a 1.1 channel activity. The upregulation of KC a 1.1 impaired intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain levels, causing GSM contractile dysfunction. Additionally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase Cζ , c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and nuclear factor kappa-B were found to be involved in KC a 1.1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that age-associated changes in SL composition or CerS2 ablation upregulate KC a 1.1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase Cζ /c-Jun N-terminal kinases/nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated pathway and impair Ca(2+) mobilization, which thereby induces the contractile dysfunction of GSM. CerS2-null mice exhibited similar effects to aged wild-type mice; therefore, CerS2-null mouse models may be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of aging-associated motility disorders. PMID:26288989

  19. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  20. Effect of juice extractor settings on juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R G; Baker, R A; Buslig, B S; Grohmann, K

    1999-07-01

    Juice was extracted from Valencia oranges using three different extractor settings. Differential juice cloud stability was observed. Soft-extracted juice was the most stable, and hard-extracted juice was the least stable. The medium-extracted juice had intermediate cloud stability. Yearly (1997 versus 1998) differences were observed, but the relationship among the juices did not change. Addition of protein extracts, obtained from each juice, to pasteurized juice also resulted in differential cloud stability. Using pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity estimated at pH 4.5, the effects of the protein extract mirrored results from raw juice. Estimating PME activity at pH 7.5 produced contradictory results, indicating that predicting consequences of PME activity estimated at pH 7.5 is unreliable. PMID:10552577

  1. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  2. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  3. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  4. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4β,10α-dihydroxy-5β,7β,8βH-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8α-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect. PMID:25567761

  5. Absence of luminal intrinsic factor after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Sinar, D R; Swanson, M S; Silverman, J F; Levine, J S

    1989-08-01

    Abnormally low serum cobalamin levels (less than 180 pg/ml) have been observed in 154 of 429 patients (36%) at an average of 22 months (range 3-64 months) after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Twenty-four patients underwent a Schilling test and retrograde endoscopy of the bypassed gastric segment to determine the presence of intrinsic factor (IF) in gastric aspirates and in mucosal biopsies at 22 +/- 4 months after surgery. Five patients had a normal cobalamin level (405 +/- 44 pg/ml), and gastric juice intrinsic factor was present in three of them (11 +/- 7 ng/ml). Nineteen patients had a low cobalamin level (113 +/- 8 pg/ml), and gastric juice IF was found in only two subjects of this group (10 ng/ml each). Basal gastric juice IF concentration of healthy control subjects was 24 +/- 5 ng/ml. Schilling test results were normal in all five patients of the first group and in only nine patients of the group with cobalamin deficiency after surgery. To assess whether IF was present within the parietal cells of subjects with absent luminal IF, we studied gastric biopsy material of 14 patients using a well-characterized indirect immunoperoxidase method. IF was identified in fundic mucosal biopsy specimens of all 14 patients with absent gastric juice IF. We conclude that cobalamin deficiency occurs in a significant number of patients after gastric bypass and is associated with absence of gastric juice IF. We propose that this abnormality might be caused by inadequate secretion of IF from the bypassed stomach. PMID:2666054

  6. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC. PMID:24569566

  7. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  8. [Detection of fruit juice adulteration in apple and pear juice].

    PubMed

    Wald, B; Galensa, R

    1989-02-01

    A method has been developed to detect the adulteration of pear juice with apples and apple juice with pears. In different varieties of apples and pears and in several commercial juices the flavonoids were examined by HPLC with respect to their quality and quantity. The chalcones phloretin glucoside and phloretin xyloglucoside are typical compounds found in apples (detection limit 7 ng). They are suitable indicators for detecting adulteration of pear juice with apples. Isohamnetin glucoside cannot be detected in apples (detection limit 10 ng), but can be used to detect pears in apple juice. The extract or juice was purified with the aid of a polyamide column. The evaporated eluate of methanol was analysed by HPLC (gradient: acetonitrile/1% acetic acid). An RP-18 column and a UV-detector were used. Additionally, the UV spectra of the compounds indicating an adulteration were recorded by a diode array detector. PMID:2718633

  9. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1972-01-01

    Reassessment of the `gastric bactericidal barrier' to enteric bacteria in man included studies of the bactericidal activity of (1) the normal and achlorhydric stomach in vivo and (2) normal and achlorhydric gastric juice and other media in vitro. Within 30 minutes virtually all bacteria (Serratia marcescens) were eliminated in the normal stomach whereas no reduction occurred in the achlorhydric stomach in one hour. In vitro, identical bactericidal activity was observed at the same pH (from 2·0 to 7·0) in normal gastric juice, achlorhydric gastric juice, aqueous HCl, and nutrient broth. At pH less than 4·0, 99·9% of the bacteria were killed within 30 minutes. The presence of profuse bacterial flora, including coliforms, found in markedly acid-deficient but not in normal stomachs, correlates well with the absence of bactericidal activity. Thus, the `gastric bactericidal barrier' is primarily pH-hydrochloric acid dependent, with other constituents of gastric juice contributing little, if any, detectable effect on the destruction of microorganisms. PMID:4556018

  10. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health. PMID:26809803

  11. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  12. Gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartgrink, Henk H; Jansen, Edwin P M; van Grieken, Nicole C T; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide, although much geographical variation in incidence exists. Prevention and personalised treatment are regarded as the best options to reduce gastric cancer mortality rates. Prevention strategies should be based on specific risk profiles, including Helicobacter pylori genotype, host gene polymorphisms, presence of precursor lesions, and environmental factors. Although adequate surgery remains the cornerstone of gastric cancer treatment, this single modality treatment seems to have reached its maximum achievable effect for local control and survival. Minimally invasive techniques can be used for treatment of early gastric cancers. Achievement of locoregional control for advanced disease remains very difficult. Extended resections that are standard practice in some Asian countries have not been shown to be as effective in other developed countries. We present an update of the incidence, causes, pathology, and treatment of gastric cancer, consisting of surgery, new strategies with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, novel treatment strategies using gene signatures, and the effect of caseload on patient outcomes. PMID:19625077

  13. Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

    2008-11-12

    Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies. PMID:18828595

  14. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  15. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  16. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  17. Effect of trisodium phosphate adaptation on changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin secretion, and acid resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Marshall, Douglas L

    2006-01-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (HEC), E. coli O157:H7 rpoS mutant (HEC-RM), and nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) were step-wise adapted to trisodium phosphate (TSP) by incubation in broths of increasing concentration, from 0% to 0.6%, at 37 degrees C for 24 h. After incubation at each concentration, each population was examined for acid resistance (D value) in simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.5, cell envelope membrane lipid composition, and intracellular and extracellular verotoxin concentrations. The ratio of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1omega7c) to palmitic acid (16:0) increased, indicating increased membrane fluidity with increasing TSP concentration up to 0.4%, but decreased at 0.6%. HEC and HEC-RM adapted at 0.4% TSP had the highest verotoxin concentrations of 1805 and 1879 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, with HEC the ratio of extracellular to intracellular verotoxin concentration decreased at higher TSP concentrations. In contrast, the ratio for HEC-RM increased at 0.4% TSP. HEC adapted to 0.4% TSP had the greatest survival in gastric fluid (58 min D value) among all treatments. For HEC, the increase in membrane fluidity was associated with increased acid resistance and extracellular verotoxin concentration for cells adapted to 0.4% TSP. In contrast, the increase in membrane fluidity was associated with decreased acid resistance of TSP adapted HEC-RM although the extracellular verotoxin concentration increased. Therefore, the deletion of the rpoS gene appeared to affect the changes in verotoxin concentration and acid resistance of TSP adapted E. coli O157:H7. PMID:16213051

  18. Antiulcer and gastric antisecretory effects of Landolphia owariensis extracts in rats.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Samuel B; Owoyele, Victor B; Odukanmi, A O

    2008-01-01

    Water, methanol and chloroform extracts of Landolphia owarensis were investigated for their effects on gastric acid secretion and ulceration in male albino rats. Two models of gastric lesion induced in experimental Wistar rats-HC1/ethanol-induced gastric lesions and Pylorus ligation-induced gastric lesions-were employed. In both models, the antiulcer activity of LA was compared with that of cimetidine (100 mg kg p.o.). In the HCl/Ethanol model, ulcer index and mucus production was determined. In pylorus ligated rat, ulcer index, mucus production, total volume of gastric juice and gastric acidity level were measured. Pre-treatment of animals with the aqueous extracts (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) orally once daily for two weeks significantly reduced formation of ulcers induced by HCl/ethanol mixture, the percentage inhibition being 43.8 % and 55.27 % respectively. The chloroform extract afforded the least protection with 23.07 % and 14.77 % inhibition. This was also accompanied by significant increases in gastric mucus production. In pylorus ligated rats, total volume of gastric juice and gastric acidity was significantly decreased as compared to control group, to levels comparable to that produced by cimetidine. The results indicate that the leaf extracts of LO contains antiulcer principles. PMID:19434209

  19. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  20. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  2. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  3. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  4. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  5. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  6. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  7. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  8. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  9. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  10. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  11. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  12. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds...

  13. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato...

  14. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity....

  15. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and....132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented juice, intended for direct consumption, obtained by mechanical process from sound, mature grapefruit...

  16. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible...

  17. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  18. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  19. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  20. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  1. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible...

  2. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible...

  3. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible...

  4. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-03-30

    The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0-4.2), citric acid (6-40 g/L), and ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L). In total, 17 experimental runs were carried out. The initial cell concentration in the model solutions was approximately 1 × 10(8)CFU/mL; the solutions were stored at 4°C for 6 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the stepwise regression demonstrated that a second order polynomial model fits well the data. The results demonstrated that high pH and citric acid concentration enhanced cell survival; one the other hand, ascorbic acid did not have an effect. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate, cranberry and lemon juice. The model predicted well the cell survival in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple, however it failed to predict cell survival in grapefruit and pomegranate, indicating the influence of additional factors, besides pH and citric acid, on cell survival. Very good cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) was observed after 6 weeks of storage in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple juice, all of which had a pH of about 3.8. Cell survival in cranberry and pomegranate decreased very quickly, whereas in the case of lemon juice, the cell concentration decreased approximately 1.1 logs after 6 weeks of storage, albeit the fact that lemon juice had the lowest pH (pH~2.5) among all the juices tested. Taking into account the results from the compositional analysis of the juices and the model, it was deduced that in certain juices, other compounds seemed to protect the cells during storage; these were likely to be proteins and dietary fibre In contrast, in certain juices, such as pomegranate, cell survival was much lower than expected; this could be due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds. PMID:21411170

  6. Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

    1987-01-01

    Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers. PMID:2447444

  7. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

  8. Gastric duplication cyst causing gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Master, Vahid; Woods, Roger H; Morris, Lloyd L; Freeman, John

    2004-07-01

    We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction in a newborn infant caused by a gastric duplication cyst. Ultrasound provided a non-invasive and conclusive diagnostic technique, which should be used as a baseline investigation for cases of suspected gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:15205841

  9. Concomitant composite adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple gastric stromal tumours and pseudohermaphrodism in a patient with von Recklinghausen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Dean; Ryan, Simon; Lim, Ee Mun; Frost, Felicity; Nguyen, Hieu

    2006-01-01

    Although pheochromocytoma occurs in 1% of patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, composite tumors in this syndrome are much rarer, with isolated case reports in the literature. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are solitary and sporadic. Multiple GISTs however, are associated with clinical syndromes particularly von Recklinghausen's disease. We believe this is the first report of composite adrenal pheochromocytoma and multiple GISTs occurring in an 82 year old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), manifested by clitoral and subcutaneous neurofibromas, epilepsy and Lisch nodules. The extreme clitoromegaly raised concerns of pseudohermaphrodism at presentation. PMID:16640782

  10. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the β-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  11. Effects of Lactofermented Beetroot Juice Alone or with N-nitroso-N-methylurea on Selected Metabolic Parameters, Composition of the Microbiota Adhering to the Gut Epithelium and Antioxidant Status of Rats.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Klewicki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    An objective of this work was to assess the biological activity of beetroot juice (Chrobry variety, Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris), which was lactofermented by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920. The oxidative status of blood serum, kidneys, and liver of rats consuming the fermented beetroot juice were determined. The experimental rats were divided into four groups on diet type: Basal diet, basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice, basal diet and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, and basal diet supplemented with fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment. Mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea, which was added to diet in order to induce aberrant oxidative and biochemical processes and disadvantageous changes in the count and metabolic activity of the gut epithelium microbiota. The nutritional in vivo study showed that supplementing the diet of the rats with the lactofermented beetroot juice reduced the level of ammonia by 17% in the group treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Furthermore, the positive modulation of the gut microflora and its metabolic activity was observed in groups of rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fermented beetroot juice. A concomitant decrease in the b-glucuronidase activity was a consequence of the gut epithelium microbiota modulation. The antioxidant capacity of blood serum aqueous fraction was increased by about 69% in the group of rats treated N-nitroso-N-methylurea mixed with the fermented beetroot juice and N-nitroso-N-methylurea versus to the N-nitroso-N-methylurea treatment, whereas the antioxidant parameters of the blood serum lipid fraction, kidneys, and liver remained unchanged. PMID:26193312

  12. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  13. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-04-28

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  14. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  15. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  16. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.

  17. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph on the JUICE Mission (JUICE-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K.; Eterno, J.; Persyn, S.; Davis, M.; Versteeg, M.; Greathouse, T.; Persson, K.; Dirks, G.; Walther, B.; Araujo, M.; Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Spencer, J.; McGrath, M.; Bagenal, F.; Feldman, P.; Fletcher, L.

    2013-09-01

    The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument for the JUICE mission (JUICE-UVS) has been selected to provide a variety of ultraviolet science observations during the mission's survey of the Jovian system. The goals of our investigation are to explore the atmospheres, plasma interactions, and surfaces of the Galilean satellites; to determine the dynamics, chemistry, and vertical structure of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, from equator to pole, as a template for giant planets everywhere; and to investigate the Jupiter-Io connection by quantifying energy and mass flow in the Io atmosphere, neutral clouds, and torus. In this talk we describe the science objectives for JUICE-UVS, along with an overview of its design and expected performance.

  18. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  19. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  20. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented...

  1. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store varieties aren't strong ... popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a doctor says. Many people drink cranberry juice ...

  2. Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.

    PubMed

    Doherty, William O S

    2011-03-01

    It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

  3. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    PubMed Central

    West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Westendorf, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity. PMID:16773722

  4. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element. PMID:26579582

  5. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  6. Should peri-gastrectomy gastric acidity be our focus among gastric cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Li, Tuan-Jie; Han, Wen-Xiu; Xu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the necessity and correctness of acid suppression pre- and post-gastrectomy among gastric carcinoma (GC) patients. METHODS: From June 2011 to April 2013, 99 patients who were diagnosed with GC or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (type II or III) and needed surgical management were enrolled. They all underwent gastrectomy by the same operators [35 undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) plus Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 34 distal gastrectomy (DG) plus Billroth I reconstruction, and 30 proximal gastrectomy (PG) plus gastroesophagostomy]. We collected and analyzed their gastrointestinal juice and tissues from the pre-operational day to the 5th day post-operation, and 6 mo post-surgery. Gastric pH was detected with a precise acidity meter. Gastric juice contents including potassium, sodium and bicarbonate ions, urea nitrogen, direct and indirect bilirubin, and bile acid were detected using Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. Data regarding tumor size, histological type, tumor penetration and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage were obtained from the pathological records. Reflux symptoms pre- and 6 mo post-gastrectomy were evaluated by reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GERD-Q). SPSS 16.0 was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Before surgery, gastric pH was higher than the threshold of hypoacidity (4.25 ± 1.45 vs 3.5, P = 0.000), and significantly affected by age, tumor size and differentiation grade, and potassium and bicarbonate ions; advanced malignancies were accompanied with higher pH compared with early ones (4.49 ± 1.31 vs 3.66 ± 1.61, P = 0.008). After operation, gastric pH in all groups was of weak-acidity and significantly higher than that pre-gastrectomy; on days 3-5, comparisons of gastric pH were similar between the 3 groups. Six months later, gastric pH was comparable to that on days 3-5; older patients were accompanied with higher total bilirubin level, indicating more serious reflux (r = 0.238, P = 0.018); the TG and PG groups had higher RDQ (TG vs DG: 15.80 ± 5.06 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000; PG vs DG: 15.37 ± 3.49 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000) and GERD-Q scores (TG vs DG: 10.54 ± 3.16 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.039; PG vs DG: 11.00 ± 2.07 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.001) compared with the DG group; all gastric juice contents except potassium ion significantly rose; reflux symptom was significantly associated with patient’s body mass index, direct and indirect bilirubin, and total bile acid, while pH played no role. CONCLUSION: Acidity is not an important factor causing unfitness among GC patients. There is no need to further alkalify gastrointestinal juice both pre- and post-gastrectomy. PMID:24944492

  7. Cashew juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Moreira; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2014-09-01

    The enzyme dextransucrase in a medium containing sucrose and an acceptor as substrate synthesizes prebiotics oligosaccharides. The cashew apple juice works as a source of acceptors because it is rich in glucose and fructose (enzyme acceptors). The use of cashew apple juice becomes interesting because it aims at harnessing the peduncle of the cashew that is wasted during the nut processing, which is the product of greater economic expression. The production of dextransucrase enzyme was done by fermentative process by inoculating the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F into a culture medium containing sucrose as the only carbon source. Thus, the aim of this work was the production of prebiotic oligosaccharides by enzymatic process with addition of the dextransucrase enzyme to the clarified cashew apple juice. Dextran yield was favored by the combination of low concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars. The formation of oligosaccharides was favored by increasing the concentration of reducing sugars and by the combination of high concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars, the highest concentration of oligosaccharides obtained was 104.73 g/L and the qualitative analysis showed that at concentrations of 25 g/L and 75 g/L of sucrose and reducing sugar, respectively, it is possible to obtain oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization up to 12. The juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharide is a potential new functional beverage. PMID:25190866

  8. The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–∞ and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine). PMID:20865058

  9. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice. PMID:25996796

  10. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine. PMID:25345561

  11. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  12. Gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.

    1996-01-01

    We are gaining a clearer insight into the causes and mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, and may be able to reduce the incidence in the future by Helicobacter pylori eradication, perhaps in conjunction with nutritional supplements. The work required to establish this kind of prevention programme still has a long way to go. Surveillance and early detection are a key area, and current hopes rest with an increasingly low threshold for gastroscopy together with improved awareness in both patients and general practitioners. Identification of a high-risk group for surveillance would be a major advance, and may become possible due to advances in molecular biology. In terms of treatment, surgery remains the mainstay, but for useful analysis of its' efficacy, uniform and detailed pathological staging is vital. Pre-operative assessment has improved greatly in recent years, resulting in fewer nontherapeutic laparotomies, thanks to a combination of improved imaging techniques and laparoscopy. Limited endoscopic surgery is now feasible for very early disease. The extent of radical surgery remains controversial: a strong argument can be made for concentrating this kind of surgery in the hands of a limited number of specialist units who will have the numbers and the expertise to answer the outstanding questions. Chemotherapy has yet to prove its value, but there are hopes that the newest regimes may do this. Treatment results in the West remain unsatisfactory, but they have improved in the last two decades, and should be capable of considerable further improvement. Images Figure PMID:8796206

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  15. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  16. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  19. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  2. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  6. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  9. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-05-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. PMID:7541007

  10. Effect of capsaicin and chilli on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J Y; Teng, C H; Wee, A; Chen, F C

    1995-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli, is gastroprotective against experimental gastric injury when given intragastrically. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that chilli ingestion may have a beneficial effect on human peptic ulcer disease. This study showed a gastroprotective effect of intragastric capsaicin, in doses of 2 and 5 mg, on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury using macroscopic, histological, scanning electron microscopic, and biochemical indices. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg of capsaicin had the same gastroprotective effect as intragastric administration. Acute intragastric administration and chronic ingestion of chilli powder in doses comparable with that consumed in humans (up to 200 mg in single doses or 200 mg daily for four weeks) likewise protected the gastric mucosa. Both the mucosa and gastric juice had higher mucus contents when capsaicin or chilli rather than saline or solvent was used before ethanol challenge. In control animals capsaicin also increased gastric juice mucus content although the mucosal content was unaffected. Increased gastric mucus production may therefore be one mechanism by which capsaicin and chilli exert their gastroprotective effect although an alternative explanation is that the reduction in mucosal mucus depletion is secondary to the protective effect of capsaicin and chilli. Images p665-a PMID:7541007

  11. Characterization of statistically produced xylanase for enrichment of fruit juice clarification process.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Mahajan, Ritu

    2011-10-01

    Critical factors for xylanase production of Bacillus stearothermophilus under batch fermentation and for clarification of citrus fruit juice using this xylanase were optimized through central composite design of response surface methodology. Statistical approach resulted in an increase of 1.19-fold in xylanase yield over conventional method. Model equation for juice clarification included independent variables viz. temperature, incubation time and enzyme dose to study the dependent variables such as yield, acidic neutrality and filterability etc. Coefficient of determination, R(2) for enzyme production model and for different juice properties were in accordance with the linearity of the model. On the basis of the contour plots the optimum enzyme dose was 12.5 IU/g of xylanase. Enzymatic treatment has resulted in the improvement of twofold in the release of reducing sugars and 52.97% in juice yield, whereas 35.34% reduction in turbidity was observed. PMID:21093618

  12. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics evaluation of non-thermal processing of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Almeida, Francisca D L; Cavalcante, Rosane S; de Brito, Edy S; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus M; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma and ozone treatments on the key compounds (sugars, amino acids and short chain organic acids) in orange juice by NMR and chemometric analysis. The juice was directly and indirectly exposed to atmospheric cold plasma field at 70kV for different treatment time (15, 30, 45 and 60sec). For ozone processing different loads were evaluated. The Principal Component Analysis shown that the groups of compounds are affected differently depending on the processing. The ozone was the processing that more affected the aromatic compounds and atmospheric cold plasma processing affected more the aliphatic compounds. However, these variations did not result in significant changes in orange juice composition as a whole. Thus, NMR data and chemometrics were suitable to follow quality changes in orange juice processing by atmospheric cold plasma and ozone. PMID:26988481

  13. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  14. Association between Gastric pH and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Heung Keun; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Jun, Jin-Su; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess gastric pH and its relationship with urease-test positivity and histological findings in children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Fasting gastric juices and endoscopic antral biopsy specimens were collected from 562 children and subjected to the urease test and histopathological examination. The subjects were divided into 3 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15 years. The histopathological grade was assessed using the Updated Sydney System, while the gastric juice pH was determined using a pH meter. Results The median gastric juice pH did not differ significantly among the age groups (p=0.655). The proportion of individuals with gastric pH >4.0 was 1.3% in the 0-4 years group, 6.1% in the 5-9 years group, and 8.2% in 10-15 years (p=0.101). The proportions of moderate and severe chronic gastritis, active gastritis, and H. pylori infiltration increased with age (p<0.005). Urease-test positivity was higher in children with hypochlorhydria (77.8%) than in those with normal gastric pH (31.7%) (p<0.001). Chronic and active gastritis were more severe in the former than the latter (p<0.001), but the degree of H. pylori infiltration did not differ (20.9% vs. 38.9%; p=0.186). Conclusion Gastric pH while fasting is normal in most children regardless of age. Urease-test positivity may be related to hypochlorhydria in children, and hypochlorhydria is in turn related to H. pylori infection. PMID:26770899

  15. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-01

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer. PMID:24803806

  16. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  17. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  18. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice...

  19. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  20. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Raji, Y; Oyeyemi, W A; Shittu, S T; Bolarinwa, A F

    2011-06-01

    The gastro-protective and antioxidant effects of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer were investigated in male rats. Thirty two male rats divided into 4 equal groups and were treated as follows: group1 (control), 0.5ml of 5% tween 80 (vehicle for the extract), groups 2 and 3, 100 and 500mg/kg of Ficus asperifolia extract respectively and group 4, cimetidine (100mg/kg). After two weeks of daily oral administration of vehicle, extract or cimetidine, gastric ulcer was induced in all rats with indomethacin (40 mg/kg, p.o). Gastric juice pH, gastric acid concentration, gastric ulcer score, percentage gastric ulcer inhibition, activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondiadehyde (MDA) were determined. Ficus asperifolia extract significantly increased gastric pH (p<0.05) but decreased (p<0.01) gastric acid secretion in dose dependent manner when compared with the control. Inhibition of gastric ulcer in extract and cimetidine treated rats was similar. Activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased (p<0.05) while MDA was significantly decreased (p< 0.05) in extract treated rats when compared with the control. The results suggest that Ficus asperifolia possesses gastro-protective and antioxidant properties against gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin. PMID:22314986

  1. Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; de Lima Filho, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140 rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

  2. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 μM. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 μM). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  3. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 μM. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 μM). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

  4. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

    1995-01-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

  5. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  6. Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

  7. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  8. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  9. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  10. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  11. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  12. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato soluble... inch) or greater in length. (b) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks) greater than...

  13. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

  14. Gastric clearance of serum albumin in normal man and in certain gastroduodenal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brassinne, A.

    1974-01-01

    Serum albumin gastric loss was estimated from the measurement of non-dialysable radioactivity of the gastric juice after intravenous injection of radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA). Immunochemical quantitation of serum albumin was performed in some of the samples. In the control group, the mean gastric clearance of albumin was 1·71 ml per hour with a range of 0·41 to 4·41 ml per hour. This represented a gastric loss of 1·9 gram of albumin per day and 11% of the daily degradation of albumin. There was no significant change in the gastric albumin loss after stimulating the gastric secretion. No significant difference in the gastric albumin leakage was found between normal subjects and patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer. In pernicious anaemia albumin loss into the stomach was greater (mean: 3·72 ml per hour; SD 1·52 ml) than in the normal group and accounted for the greater albumin fractional catabolic rate. This fact had never been proved before. In both patients with giant rugae of the gastric mucosa the gastric clearance of serum albumin was also increased. It is concluded first that albumin is not secreted by the chief and parietal cells of the mucosa and probably passes through the gastric wall between the cells of the mucosa, perhaps during the exfoliation of the surface epithelial cells, and secondly that the stomach is one of the sites of serum albumin breakdown, a fact that supports the view that the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the catabolism of serum albumin. PMID:4210183

  15. Identification of a Cranberry Juice Product that Inhibits Enteric CYP3A-Mediated First-Pass Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Yan, Zhixia; Graf, Tyler N.; Carrizosa, Daniel R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dees, E. Claire; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo study in rats showed a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam and a different cranberry juice product showed no interaction. Because the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A through E, were evaluated on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 μg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77 and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC)0-∞ of midazolam by ∼30% (p = 0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1′-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam AUC0-∞ ratio by ∼40% (p < 0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both showed a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required before initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies. PMID:19114462

  16. Intestinal Metaplasia —The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis—

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

  17. Oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen to evaluate gastric emptying profiles of Shiba goats

    PubMed Central

    ELBADAWY, Mohamed; SASAKI, Kazuaki; MIYAZAKI, Yuji; ABOUBAKR, Mohamed; KHALIL, Waleed Fathy; SHIMODA, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was investigated following oral dosing to Shiba goats in order to evaluate the properties of gastric emptying. Acetaminophen was intravenously and orally administered at 30 mg/kg body weight to goats using a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The stability of acetaminophen in rumen juice was also assessed. Acetaminophen concentrations were measured by HPLC. Since acetaminophen was stable in rumen juice for 24 hr, the extremely low bioavailability (16%) was attributed to its hepatic extensive first-pass effect. The mean absorption time and absorption half-life were unexpectedly short (4.93 and 3.35 hr, respectively), indicating its marked absorption from the forestomach, which may have been due to its smaller molecular weight. Therefore, acetaminophen was considered to be unsuitable for evaluating gastric emptying in Shiba goats. PMID:26018358

  18. Long noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: functions and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajun; Sun, Jingxu; Wang, Jun; Song, Yongxi; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jinxin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, genome-wide studies have revealed that only a small fraction of the human genome encodes proteins; long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) account for 98% of the total genome. These RNA molecules, which are >200 nt in length, play important roles in diverse biological processes, including the immune response, stem cell pluripotency, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying lncRNA function are only partially understood. Recent studies showed that many lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, gastric juice, plasma, and cells, and these alterations are linked to the occurrence, progression, and outcome of GC. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biological functions and clinical aspects of lncRNAs in GC. PMID:26929639

  19. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  1. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  3. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  4. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  5. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  6. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  7. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  8. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  9. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  10. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  11. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  16. Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Bailey, David G; Dresser, George K

    2004-01-01

    Grapefruit juice can alter oral drug pharmacokinetics by different mechanisms. Irreversible inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is produced by commercial grapefruit juice given as a single normal amount (e.g. 200-300 mL) or by whole fresh fruit segments. As a result, presystemic metabolism is reduced and oral drug bioavailability increased. Enhanced oral drug bioavailability can occur 24 hours after juice consumption. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a possible mechanism that increases oral drug bioavailability by reducing intestinal and/or hepatic efflux transport. Recently, inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides by grapefruit juice was observed in vitro; intestinal uptake transport appeared decreased as oral drug bioavailability was reduced. Numerous medications used in the prevention or treatment of coronary artery disease and its complications have been observed or are predicted to interact with grapefruit juice. Such interactions may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis when dyslipidemia is treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin. Potential alternative agents are pravastatin, fluvastatin, or rosuvastatin. Such interactions might also cause excessive vasodilatation when hypertension is managed with the dihydropyridines felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, or nitrendipine. An alternative agent could be amlodipine. In contrast, the therapeutic effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan may be reduced by grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice interacting with the antidiabetic agent repaglinide may cause hypoglycemia, and interaction with the appetite suppressant sibutramine may cause elevated BP and HR. In angina pectoris, administration of grapefruit juice could result in atrioventricular conduction disorders with verapamil or attenuated antiplatelet activity with clopidrogel. Grapefruit juice may enhance drug toxicity for antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone, quinidine, disopyramide, or propafenone, and for the congestive heart failure drug, carvediol. Some drugs for the treatment of peripheral or central vascular disease also have the potential to interact with grapefruit juice. Interaction with sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil for erectile dysfunction, may cause serious systemic vasodilatation especially when combined with a nitrate. Interaction between ergotamine for migraine and grapefruit juice may cause gangrene or stroke. In stroke, interaction with nimodipine may cause systemic hypotension. If a drug has low inherent oral bioavailability from presystemic metabolism by CYP3A4 or efflux transport by P-gp and the potential to produce serious overdose toxicity, avoidance of grapefruit juice entirely during pharmacotherapy appears mandatory. Although altered drug response is variable among individuals, the outcome is difficult to predict and avoiding the combination will guarantee toxicity is prevented. The elderly are at particular risk, as they are often prescribed medications and frequently consume grapefruit juice. PMID:15449971

  17. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Hayakawa, Yoku; Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B; Andersen, Gøran T; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A; Renz, Bernhard W; Sandvik, Arne K; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G; Wang, Timothy C; Chen, Duan

    2014-08-20

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  18. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  19. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice).

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Abellán, Ángel; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-04-20

    In this study we analyzed whether our aronia-citrus juice (ACJ, the composition is based on a mixture of 95% citrus juice with 5% of Aronia melanocarpa juice), rich in polyphenols, and physical exercise had an effect on seven catabolites of DNA identified in plasma and on a urine isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α). Sixteen elite triathletes on a controlled diet for triathlon training (45 days) were used in this clinical trial. Our results show a decrease in the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration due to chronic physical exercise. The ACJ intake and physical exercise maintained the guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plasmatic concentrations and decreased the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanine as well as urinary values of 8-iso-PGF2α. Finally, we observed a significant increase in the 8-nitroguanosine levels in triathletes after ACJ intake, compared to the placebo stage. It is concluded that the combination of the intake of ACJ, rich in polyphenolic compounds, with adequate training was able to influence the plasmatic and urinary values of oxidative stress biomarkers. This suggests a positive effect on the oxidative damage and potential associations with DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27050256

  20. [Treatment of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Lordick, F; Hoffmeister, A

    2014-01-01

    From a global perspective, gastric cancer including adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is the fourth most common malignant tumor and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Due to the lack of specific symptoms of early cancer, most gastric cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages. Staging should include high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis and documented video-endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound. In mucosal gastric cancer, endoscopic resection can replace surgical resection. In more advanced stages, perioperative chemotherapy has been established as a standard of care. In the metastatic setting, treatment goals are palliative. Chemotherapy can prolong survival, improve symptoms, and enhance the quality of life. Combination chemotherapy including a platinum salt plus fluoropyrimidine is the standard of care. About 16 % of gastric cancers exhibit overexpression of the growth factor receptor HER2. Trastuzumab has shown to prolong survival when combined with chemotherapy in HER2-positive gastric cancer. PMID:24154498

  1. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  2. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  3. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

  4. Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

  5. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  6. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  7. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  8. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  9. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  10. The release of histamine during gastric acid secretion in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    el Munshid, H. A.; Lake, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Conscious gastric-cannulated rats were given [3H]histidine and aminoguanidine by dosage procedures intended to build up fast-turnover and slow-turnover pools of tissue [3H]histamine. Acid secretion was stimulated by I.V. infusion of pentagastrin, and the [3H]histamine content of gastric juice and excretion in urine were determined at 30 min intervals. 2. The amount of [3H]histamine in gastric juice derived from either a slow-turnover or fast-turnover pool was very low in unstimulated animals, and was not altered during pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion. 3. From a slow-turnover pool pentagastrin caused increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. This was abolished by gastrectomy, so that the [3H]histamine liberated by pentagastrin from this pool appears to have been derived from the stomach. Evidence was not found for the existence of a slow-turnover histamine pool in the glandular mucosa of the stomach, and the source within the stomach of this pentagastrin-liberated histamine is thus uncertain. 4. From a fast-turnover pool pentagastrin did not cause an increased urinary excretion of [3H]histamine. The amount of [3H]histamine excreted by gastrectomized rats was not different from that produced by gastric-cannulated animals. This suggests that a high proportion of urinary histamine derived from a fast-turnover pool was non-gastric in origin. 5. Differences in the time scale of [3H]histamine release and acid secretion were not found. In some experiments the urinary output of [3H]histamine was prolonged beyond the end of pentagastrin administration and gastric acid secretion. However, the overall data do not suggest that urinary histamine output and gastric acid secretion take different time courses. PMID:4141368

  11. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress. PMID:25238454

  12. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria. PMID:23660747

  13. Modelling of NIM/PEP/JUICE measurements of Callisto's ice-sputtered exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Galli, A.; Mousis, O.; Barabash, S.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission[1], which is currently in implementation by the European Space Agency (ESA), is intended for the detailed investigation of the giant gaseous planet Ju- piter and its three largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. The Particle Environment Package (PEP), part of JUICE's science payload, contains 6 sensors for comprehensive in situ measurements of electrons, ions and neutrals found in the Galilean moons' vicinity [2]. One of the suite's sensors, the Neutral and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM), will measure the neutral and ion composition of the exospheres of the three satellites during flybys and in orbit.

  14. Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:24021428

  15. Banana juice reduces bioavailability of levodopa preparation.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuki; Sunagane, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Takafumi; Uruno, Tsutomu

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of banana juice on levodopa bioavailability in rats. When a levodopa preparation (EC-Doparl tablets) was orally administered with banana juice made by mixing with a fresh banana and water, there were significant decreases in C(max) (17.4+/-2.5 vs. 8.6+/-3.1 microg/ml; alpha=0.05) and AUC (1882.8+/-49.2 vs. 933.5+/-286.6 microg.min/ml; alpha=0.05) for levodopa. On the other hand, administration of the levodopa preparation with a commercial beverage containing 10% banana juice resulted in no significant change in C(max) or AUC. These results indicate that concomitant intake of levodopa preparations with banana juice, but not with a commercial banana beverage, may cause a drug-food interaction reducing levodopa bioavailability, and we should pay attention to such interactions during levodopa therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:16327247

  16. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  17. Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mata, A; Ferreira, J P; Semedo, C; Serra, T; Duarte, C M M; Bronze, M R

    2016-11-01

    Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. PMID:27211682

  18. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.

    PubMed

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-02-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate. PMID:25694697

  19. Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Jos; Vegara, Salud; Mart, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Lus; Hernndez, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-11-01

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values. PMID:24874375

  20. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

  1. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor.

    PubMed

    Olaniyan, A M

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities. PMID:23572610

  2. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    PubMed

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication. PMID:12611197

  3. Efficacy of polymer coating of probiotic beads suspended in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices on the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; George, Trevor; Jirarattanarangsri, Wachira

    2013-11-01

    Alginate-coated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 or Lactobacillus casei 01 was recoated with either 0.1-0.5% (w/v) alginate or 0.05-0.15% (w/v) poly-L-lysine (PLL) plus 0.2% (w/v) alginate or 5-15% (w/v) gelatin, after which they were determined for survivability in gastric or bile longan juices. The morphology of encapsulated probiotic cells illustrated that recoated beads with 0.5% alginate showed a more compact surface and a greater protective effect than other recoating materials. The recoated beads with 0.5% alginate and 0.05-0.15% PLL plus 0.2% alginate of both strains showed the highest viability in gastric longan juice. In bile longan juice, only 0.5% alginate showed the best protection for both recoated beads. When considering the storage stability, encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited a higher viable count than those of the free cells, whereas L. casei 01 showed equivalent viability of both free and double-coated cells. Based on the impact of pressurization or pasteurization, both processed juices gave rise to equivalent survivability of the probiotic cells during storage. PMID:23701113

  4. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  5. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  6. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald H. Buchwald's Atlas of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgical Techniques ...

  7. Structure and preventive effects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer of an expolysaccharide from Lachnum sp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ru-Yue; Ye, Zi-Yang; Ye, Hui-Ran; Ye, Ming

    2016-05-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide of Lachnum sp. (LEP) was purified by DEAE-cellulose 52 column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 3.22×10(4)Da. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, periodate oxidation-smith degradation, infrared spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a (1→3)-,(1→6)-β-D-Glcp, whose branch chain was consist of two d-glucopyranosyl residues linked by β-1,3-glycosidic linkage, which was linked at C6 of the backbone chain by β-1,6-glycosidic linkage. To study the protective effects of LEP-2a on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice, LEP-2a (100, 200 and 400mg/kg/d) was given to mice by gavage for 2 weeks. Results showed that LEP-2a significantly decreased the ulcer bleeding areas, pepsin activity, gastric juice volume, gastric juice total acidity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum. Meanwhile, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly. The above findings suggested that LEP-2a had a significant preventive effect against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. PMID:26774377

  8. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. PMID:26562229

  9. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the

  10. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  11. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  12. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO. PMID:26818981

  14. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-01

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. PMID:24300194

  15. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    PubMed

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

  16. Direct inhibition of gastric secretion and mucosal blood flow by arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Mikoś, E; Pawlik, W; Waluś, K

    1979-01-01

    1. Gastric acid and pepsin secretion stimulated almost maximally by i.v. infusion of histamine, the mucosal blood flow, and the immunoreactive prostaglandin E (PGE) content have been measured following arachidonic acid administration either intra-arterially or topically to the mucosa of the fundic portion of a stomach kept in a Lucite chamber. 2. Arachidonic acid administered directly to the stomach produced a marked and significant inhibition of histamine-induced gastric secretion accompanied by a reduction in mucosal microcirculation and a rise in the immunoreactive PGE content in the gastric juice. 3. These secretory and circulatory changes induced by arachidonic acid were prevented by pretreatment of the gastic mucosa with indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of the prostaglandin synthetase system. 4. Arachidonic acid infused intra-arterially in graded doses resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in gastric acid secretion, mucosal blood flow and cyclic AMP mucosal content. 5. These studies indicate that arachidonic acid applied directly to the stomach causes a marked gastric secretory inhibition, probably due at least in part to the enzymic transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and possibly other active lipids responsible for the changes in the gastric mucosal microcirculation and cyclic AMP mucosal content. PMID:220411

  17. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diluted multiple-juice beverage or blend of single-strength juices and names, other than in the ingredient... product before the addition of the added flavors. (c) If a diluted multiple-juice beverage or blend of... the represented juice is not the only juice present (e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of...

  18. [Gastric fundus necrosis following acute gastric dilatation].

    PubMed

    Deret, C; Leborgne, J; Rochedreux, A; Jonet, D; Heloury, Y; Hepner, Y

    1987-11-01

    Total gastrectomy with immediate re-establishment of digestive continuity successfully treated a patient with gastric fundus necrosis due to acute dilatation of stomach. The very particular circumstances of onset of this major complication are outlined, diagnosis being dependent on radiological and endoscopic findings. In cases with necrosis of the fundus the extensive nature of the ischemic lesions as shown by results of histopathology strongly suggests the need for total gastrectomy in these patients. PMID:3429500

  19. Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely “FVBH” for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

  20. The Submillimetre Wave Instrument on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogh, P.; Barabash, S.; Beaudin, G.; Brner, P.; Bockele-Morvan, D.; Boogaerts, W.; Cavali, T.; Christensen, U. R.; Dannenberg, A.; Eriksson, P.; Frnz, M.; Fouchet, T.; Frisk, U.; Hocke, K.; Janssen, C.; Jarchow, C.; Kasai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.; Krieg, J.-M.; Krupp, N.; Kuroda, T.; Lellouch, E.; Loose, A.; Maestrini, A.; Manabe, T.; Medvedev, A. S.; Mendrok, J.; Miettinen, E. P.; Moreno, R.; Murk, A.; Murtagh, D.; Nishibori, T.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Sagawa, H.; Steinmetz, E.; Thomas, B.; Urban, J.; Wicht, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Submillimetre Wave Instrument (SWI) is part of the JUICE (Jupiter ICy moon Explorer) payload. SWI's primary scientific objectives are the investigation of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter and the atmospheres and exospheres of the Galilean satellites. SWI will contribute to the understanding of the circulation regime in the atmosphere of Jupiter as a function of latitude and altitude, how the various atmospheric regions are dynamically coupled, and how the energy originating in Jupiter's interior vertically propagates to the upper layers to be radiated in space. In this sense SWI complements the Juno mission. Furthermore SWI will determine important isotopic radios, monitor and trace known gases and search for new molecules. SWI will - for the first time - investigate the density, structure and distribution of the water atmospheres of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa from ground up to a few hundred km, determine its isotopic composition and general circulation. Io's volcanic atmosphere will be studied through lines of SO2, SO, NaCl, and perhaps other species.. The secondary scientific objectives concerns the determination of thermophysical properties of the Galilean satellite surfaces by radiometric observations. In the proposed configuration SWI will operate in two submm wave bands around 600 GHz and 1200 GHz. Basline however at the present time are two 600 GHz receivers. Both receivers will be tunable within a bandwidth of approximately 20 % around the centre frequency. The antenna has a diameter of 30 cm and will be movable in two dimensions. Two high resolution Chirp Transform Spectrometers with 1 GHz bandwidth and two 5 GHz wide low resolution autocorrelator spectrometer are used for determining the spectral line shapes and for line surveys. The observations geometry includes limb and nadir sounding. The total mass of the instrument is aimed at below 10 kg and the power consumption below 50 W.

  1. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity. PMID:26091353

  2. Inhibition by prostaglandin E1 of gastric secretion in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Nezamis, James E.; Robert, Andr; Stowe, David F.

    1971-01-01

    1. The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on gastric secretion was studied in dogs equipped with gastric fundic pouches, either innervated (Pavlov) or denervated (Heidenhain). 2. PGE1 inhibited gastric secretion (volume, acid concentration, acid output, pepsin output) when given either by constant intravenous infusion or by single intravenous injection. The degree of inhibition was dose dependent. 3. The antisecretory effect of PGE1 was demonstrated against gastric stimulants which operate through different mechanisms. Thus, PGE1 counteracted the secretogogue effect of: (a) histamine dihydrochloride; the ED50 was 05-10 ?g/kg. min for a submaximal dose, and 10-15 ?g/kg. min for a maximal dose; (b) pentagastrin; the ED50 was around 025 ?g/kg. min; (c) food; the ED50 was 05 to 075 ?g/kg. min; (d) 2-deoxyglucose; the ED50 was less than 01 ?g/kg. min. 4. Although in some experiments, nausea and vomiting were observed during administration of PGE1, the antisecretory property of the substance is not related to a vomiting reflex, since (a) an antiemetic, such as atropine, prevented vomiting without interfering with the effect of PGE1, and (b) profuse vomiting elicited by apomorphine did not reduce gastric secretion stimulated by either histamine or pentagastrin. 5. The mechanism by which PGE1 inhibits gastric secretion is unknown. Studies by others have shown that the compound reduces gastric mucosal blood flow, inhibits acid formation from gastric mucosa when applied in vitro and may change the rate of formation of gastric cyclic AMP. It is likely that PGE1 interferes with biochemical processes, within parietal and chief cells, which lead to elaboration of gastric juice. 6. Unlike most gastric inhibitors, PGE1 appears to act as a protective shield against most, if not all, gastric stimulants. Since prostaglandins of the E series are naturally occurring substances and are normally present in the stomach, they may play a role in the regulation of gastric secretion. PMID:4399409

  3. Formation of N-nitrosamine and N-nitrosamino acids from food products and nitrite under simulated gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Groenen, P J; de Cock-Bethbeder, M W; Bouwman, J; Dhont, J H

    1980-01-01

    Average-sized portions of a variety of food products were reacted with nitrite under realistically simulated gastric conditions. The aqueous incubation medium contained sodium nitrite (10 mg/l) and potassium thiocyanate to mimic the incoming flux of saliva, as well as pepsin, sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid, reflecting the composition of gastric juice. After incubation for 2 hr at 37 degrees C, volatile N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamino acids were determined in the reaction mixtures. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was present in the incubation mixtures of smoked mackerel (8.5 micrograms per portion), canned herring (0.66 micrograms per portion) and beer (0.70 micrograms per 'portion'). Smaller amounts per portion, sometimes of other nitrosamines as well, were observed with canned salmon and anchovy, mustard, yoghurt and coffee brew. Negative results were obtained for canned tuna, soya sauce, ketchup, white bread, 'nasi goreng', tea brew and cocoa milk. Nitrosamino acids were detected in the reaction mixtures of smoked mackerel (58 micrograms per portion), soya sauce (24 micrograms per portion) and canned salmon (6.9 micrograms per portion) and in smaller amounts in those of canned herring, anchovy and cocoa milk. In order to reduce the number of analyses to be performed, most products have been studied only after incubation, so that the nitrosamines and nitrosamino acids found may already have been present -- wholly or partly -- in the original products, before incubation. Such is the case for part of the NDMA in the reaction mixture of smoked mackerel and for all the NDMA in beer. The toxicological implications of these findings remain to be established. PMID:7228254

  4. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  5. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  6. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  7. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv)...

  8. 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily: CDC These beverages linked to greater risk ... drink at least one sugar-laden soda or juice every day, federal health officials report. Sugary drinks ...

  9. Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157954.html Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar Study was conducted in Britain, ... fruit drinks and juices give kids a full day's worth of sugar in a single serving, a ...

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  15. Chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Baek; Park, Won Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Gastric anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the gastric mucosal penetration of the Anisakis larvae ingested with raw fish. Acute gastric anisakiasis is diagnosed by the endoscopic visualization of Anisakis larvae along with mucosal edema, erythema, hemorrhage, and/or an ulcer, whereas chronic anisakiasis is often observed as a localized tumor commonly occurring in the submucosal layer, and is characterized by eosinophilic granuloma with edema and embedded Anisakis larvae on pathological examination of surgical specimens. We report here a case of chronic gastric anisakiasis provoking a bleeding gastric ulcer, which is a rare clinical manifestation of this condition. PMID:24851229

  16. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations. PMID:10716568

  17. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  18. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice... decolorizing material to remove color from juice or wine, the following conditions and limitations will be...

  19. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77...

  20. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77...

  1. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

  2. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles. PMID:26988479

  3. Primary Gastric Burkitt's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarupa; Mehta, Anurag; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Anila; Louis, A Robert; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Saxena, Upasna; Simson, David K; Dewan, Abhinav

    2014-10-27

    The primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, although rare, is among the most common extra-nodal lymphomas, considering that gastric lymphomas are more common than intestinal lymphomas. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is typically endemic in Africa, while non-endemic cases are found in the rest of the world. Primary gastric BL is extremely rare and only around 50 cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present the case of a young HIV-negative male, who was referred to our department with a stage IV gastric BL. He was planned for palliative chemotherapy, but after the first cycle of chemotherapy he succumbed to the progression of the disease. PMID:25568743

  4. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromskiĭ, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  5. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  6. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  7. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing. PMID:26540032

  8. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  9. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    PubMed

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum. PMID:17562219

  10. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance. PMID:25892778

  11. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Fang, Dian-Chun; Li, Qian-Wei; Sun, Nian-Xu; Long, Qing-Lin; Sui, Jian-Feng; Gan, Lu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level. METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into: experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope 99mTc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs. RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35 ± 2.99 min to 79.42 ± 1.91 min (P < 0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64.94 ± 1.75 min (P < 0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCIII (interdigestive myoelectrical complex, IMCIII) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29 ± 9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09 ± 17.22 pg/ml; P < 0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55 ± 11.20 pg/ml; P < 0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing. Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r = 0.867, P < 0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r = -0.733, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying parameters and significantly accelerate gastric emptying and can resume or alter motor function in a canine model of motility disorders. Gastric emptying is correlated well with plasma motilin level before and after pacing, which suggests that motilin can modulate the mechanism of gastric pacing by altering gastric motility. PMID:14760770

  12. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or gastric polyps . Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables. Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly. Being older or male. Smoking cigarettes. Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach ...

  13. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... take a while to get used to your body's new normal. Here are some of the problems you might have in the months after gastric ...

  14. Protective effect of palm vitamin E and α-tocopherol against gastric lesions induced by water immersion restraint stress in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Yusof, Kamisah; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd; Fahami, Nur Azlina Mohd

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress can lead to various changes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of palm vitamin E (PVE) and α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementations on the gastric parameters important in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity in rats exposed to water immersion restraint stress (WRS). These parameters include gastric acidity, plasma gastrin level, gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three equal groups: a control group, which received a normal rat diet (RC), and two treatment groups, receiving oral supplementation of either PVE or α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Each group was further divided into two groups: the nonstress and stress groups. The stress groups were subjected to 3.5 h of WRS once at the end of the treatment period. Blood samples were then taken to measure the gastrin level, after which the rats were killed. Gastric juice was collected for measurement of gastric acidity and gastric tissue was taken for measurement of gastric mucosal lesions and PGE2. Results: Exposure to stress resulted in the production of gastric lesions. PVE and α-TF lowered the lesion indices as compared to the stress control group. Stress reduced gastric acidity but pretreatment with PVE and α-TF prevented this reduction. The gastrin levels in the stress group were lower as compared to that in the nonstress control. However, following treatment with PVE and α-TF, gastrin levels increased and approached the normal level. There was also a significant reduction in the gastric PGE2 content with stress exposure, but this reduction was blocked with treatment with both PVE and α-TF. Conclusion: In conclusion, WRS leads to a reduction in the gastric acidity, gastrin level, and gastric PGE2 level and there is increased formation of gastric lesions. Supplementation with either PVE or α-TF reduces the formation of gastric lesions, possibly by blocking the changes in the gastric acidity, gastrin, and gastric PGE2 induced by stress. No significant difference between PVE and α-TF was observed. PMID:21279170

  15. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. PMID:26896712

  16. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  17. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., obtained by mechanical process from the flesh or parts thereof, with or without core material, of...

  18. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., seeds, and other coarse or hard substances, but contains finely divided insoluble solids from the...

  19. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., seeds, and other coarse or hard substances, but contains finely divided insoluble solids from the...

  20. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., obtained by mechanical process from the flesh or parts thereof, with or without core material, of...

  1. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., obtained by mechanical process from the flesh or parts thereof, with or without core material, of...

  2. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., seeds, and other coarse or hard substances, but contains finely divided insoluble solids from the...

  3. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....0004x2), where x equals the percent anhydrous citric acid in the sample, to the refractometrically... sterlization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a container to be held at ambient... container. (1) The standard of fill of container for grapefruit juice, except when the food is frozen,...

  4. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....0004x2), where x equals the percent anhydrous citric acid in the sample, to the refractometrically... sterlization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a container to be held at ambient... container. (1) The standard of fill of container for grapefruit juice, except when the food is frozen,...

  5. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....0004x2), where x equals the percent anhydrous citric acid in the sample, to the refractometrically... sterlization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a container to be held at ambient... container. (1) The standard of fill of container for grapefruit juice, except when the food is frozen,...

  6. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Archana, B S; Singh, Asha; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 experiments at centre point. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression technique and the quadratic equations (R(2), 98.14-99.89 %) were found to fit well in describing the effect of variables on responses studied. An optimum condition for the coconut water beverage was obtained at 13.5°Brix blended with 2 % lemon juice. The mature coconut water beverage blended with lemon juice showed a shelf-life of 6 months in packed conditions at low (5 °C), ambient (25 ± 2 °C) and high (37 °C) temperatures on the basis of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. PMID:26396331

  7. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. PMID:12913860

  8. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

  9. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  10. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters...

  11. Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide pasteurization on the physical and quality attributes of a red grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ferrentino, G; Plaza, M L; Ramirez-Rodrigues, M; Ferrari, G; Balaban, M O

    2009-08-01

    Red grapefruit juice was treated with continuous dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) equipment to inactivate yeasts and molds and total aerobic microorganisms. A central composite design was used with pressure (13.8, 24.1, and 34.5 MPa) and residence time (5, 7, and 9 min) as variables at constant temperature (40 degrees C), and CO(2) level (5.7%) after experimentally measuring CO(2) solubility in the juice. Five log reduction for yeasts and molds and total aerobic microorganisms occurred at 34.5 MPa and 7 min of treatment. A storage study was performed on the fresh juice DPCD treated at these conditions. degrees Brix, pH, titratable acidity (TA), pectinesterase (PE) inactivation, cloud, color, hue tint and color density, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and ascorbic acid were measured after the treatment and during 6 wk storage at 4 degrees C. During storage, the DPCD-treated juice showed no growth of total aerobic microorganisms and yeasts and molds. Cloud increased (91%) while percent PE inactivation was partial (69.17%). No significant (alpha= 0.05) differences were detected between treated and untreated samples for degrees Brix, pH, and TA. Treated juice had higher lightness and redness and lower yellowness. No significant differences (alpha= 0.05) were detected for the hue tint values while the color density value was higher for the treated samples compared to the untreated. The treatment and the storage did not affect the total phenolic content of the juice. Slight differences were detected for the ascorbic acid content and the antioxidant capacity. The experimental results showed evidence that the treatment can maintain the physical and quality attributes of the juice, extending its shelf life and safety. PMID:19723197

  12. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  13. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy. PMID:25578789

  14. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  15. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  16. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  17. [Influence of honey, royal jelly and propolis on accelerating acetate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats].

    PubMed

    Belostotskiĭ, N I; Kas'ianenko, V I; Dubtsova, E A; Lazebnik, L B

    2009-01-01

    This study examines gastric acetic ulcer healing in the rat after administration of honey, royal jelly and propolis into the stomach. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach on 60 sec. Bee-keeping products were administrated into the stomach from 2nd to 7th day after acetic ulcer induction. On 7th day animals were killed, and ulcer area was measured in mm2. In gastric juice pH and activity of pepsin were measured. The healing of acetic ulcers is accelerated with the administration of honey, royal jelly or propolis during six days. The largest healing effect was demonstrated with propolis and royal jelly, smaller one with the honey. It was revealed decrease of stomach acid secretion in the rats, which have received bee-keeping products versus the rats of control group. PMID:20201286

  18. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  19. Levan-Producing Leuconostoc citreum Strain BD1707 and Its Growth in Tomato Juice Supplemented with Sucrose.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Xu, Xiaofen; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    A levan-producing strain, BD1707, was isolated from Tibetan kefir and identified as Leuconostoc citreum. The effects of carbon sources on the growth of L. citreum BD1707 and levan production in tomato juice were measured. The changes in pH, viable cell count, sugar content, and levan yield in the cultured tomato juice supplemented with 15% (wt/vol) sucrose were also assayed. L. citreum BD1707 could synthesize more than 28 g/liter of levan in the tomato juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 30°C for 96 h. Based on the monosaccharide composition, molecular mass distribution, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the levan synthesized by L. citreum BD1707 was composed of a linear backbone consisting of consecutive β-(2→6) linked d-fructofuranosyl units, with an estimated average molecular mass of 4.3 × 10(6) Da. PMID:26682858

  20. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  1. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  2. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. Aim To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Results The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Conclusions The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach’s health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task. PMID:26137299

  3. Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  4. [Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Melo Pezo, Xavier; Medrano Samamé, Hector; Torres Rosas, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated to CDH1 gene mutation that affects at least 30% of CDH1+ families, with a penetrance of 80% at 80 years, and multifocal signed ring cell in most of the cases. The suggested treatment is a prophylactic total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy, malignancy sing must be imperative a gastrectomy. PMID:25875520

  5. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been characterized by seeing educational possibilities in so many things, created a modified version of the clock, with the atomic numbers of the elements representing the hours in the day (see Fig. 2) in his internationally popular workshops. Due largely to Talesnick's efforts, the orange juice clock is a standard demonstration in many chemistry programs and presentations. Figure 2.Irwin Talesnick represents the hours of the day by the corresponding elements in his clock. The Procedure This can be done as a demonstration or as an activity, although at about 10 per clock, expense does become an issue. There are no unusual safety precautions with this demonstration. We know of no accidents that have occurred with the orange juice clock. The demonstration requires: a single AA-cell battery-operated wall clock with a sweep-second hand a medium-sized beaker (600 mL is fine) enough orange juice or other electrolyte mixture or solution to fill the beaker about 2/3 full (tap water often works fine!) a 20-30-cm magnesium strip, coiled at one end or wrapped around a popsicle stick a 20-30-cm copper strip, coiled at one end alligator clips to connect the strips to the battery terminals on the clock a stand against which to lean the setup The demonstration is put together as shown in Figure 3. Connect the magnesium to the "-" contact of the clock and the copper to the "+" contact. Immerse the other ends of the strips into the solution. The clock will start to tick within a few seconds. If it does not work within a short period of time, check that the strips are well connected to the battery terminals, are hooked to the proper poles, and are not touching each other. The clock should keep reasonably close time (in orange juice) for a couple of days, or until the magnesium is nearly completely oxidized. Figure 3.A schematic of the orange juice clock seup. Video of orange juice clock. In video, the copper electrode is on the left and the magnesium electrode is on the right. Video was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The Chemistry Basics When we ask students or precollege teacher groups about the reduction and oxidation reactions that are occurring, they invariably answer that the magnesium metal is being oxidized and the copper metal is being reduced. This response is important because we use it to impress upon students and workshop participants the importance of looking carefully at the system before giving what might seem like an obvious answer. The copper cannot be reduced because there is no copper ion in solution, and transition metals cannot be reduced to anions. Given what is actually in solution, participants can conclude that hydrogen ion can be reduced to molecular hydrogen (in orange juice) or that hydrogen in the water molecule is being reduced to molecular hydrogen (in hard tap water). In distilled water, the clock does not run because the internal resistance of the solution is too high, thus forcing the current to be very small. The reactions of interest are given as eqs 1-3: oxidation: Mg -> Mg2+ + 2e- Eo = 2.37 vs. SHE (1) reduction 2H+ + 2e- -> H2 Eo = 0.00 vs. SHE (2) (acid solution) reduction (water) 2H2O + 2e- -> H2 + 2OH- Eo = -0.8277 vs. SHE (3) where Eo = the voltage under standard conditions and SHE = standard hydrogen electrode. At standard conditions, under zero load (all activities equal to one and 298 K) the cell voltage should theoretically be 2.37 V in acid (pH = 1) and about 1.54 V in neutral solution, either of which is enough to allow the clock to run. It is important to remember the IUPAC convention for electrochemical cells: that voltage of the cell equals voltage of the cathodic half-cell minus voltage of the anodic half-cell. In this case, Eo = 0.00 V - (-2.37 V) = 2.37 V The standard free energy calculation is straightforward in each case (eq 4), DeltaGo = -nFEo in which n = number of moles of electrons transferred, as dictated by the stoichiometry of the reaction (in all reactions above, n = 2); F = Faraday's constant, 96,498 C per mole of electrons (it is useful to show students that this number is equal to the product of Avogadro's number and electron charge); and Eo = cell voltage under standard conditions (Eo = 2.37 V = 2.37 J/C in acid solution of pH = 1). In acid solution, DeltaG = -457,000 J = -4.57 kJ. The reaction is spontaneous (and there is enough current flow). The clock ticks. This represents an overview of the fundamental chemistry, suitable for a workshop, high school, or non-science first-year college audience. The discussion below considers some more advanced aspects of the demonstration, which make this an excellent demonstration for the first-year science majors' course as well as upper- and graduate-level analytical and electrochemistry courses. For Those Who Want More More advanced students can readily explore the parameters of the clock system beyond merely studying cell voltage at standard conditions. In this system, for example, two sources contribute to the oxidation of the magnesium electrode. One is the reaction with acid as part of the process that runs the clock. Also present is the reaction in acid solution that occurs irrespective of the electron flow used to run the clock, a process of corrosion that dissolves the metal without useful energy being obtained. It is possible to distinguish between the two and to determine, via Faraday's constant, the average current available to the clock in this system. Faraday's Constant and the Average Current Data for a typical determination are given in Table 1. The data were taken using a 0.3317-g magnesium strip that had been cleaned with steel wool. The magnesium and copper strips (the copper was cleaned by dipping in 1 M nitric acid for a few seconds) were placed in 400 mL of a commercial orange juice so that about 15 cm of each strip was above and 15 cm below the liquid line. About 5 cm of the magnesium strip was coiled. The clock was hooked up in the usual fashion. At 1-hour intervals, the mass of the magnesium wire was determined on an analytical balance. A digital multimeter was used to measure the voltage every hour and the current every other hour. The pH of the juice, initially 3.85 at 20 °C, was 3.93 at the end of the experiment, as measured with a portable pH meter. This is a typical result. A comparison system (called "no clock" in Table 1) was set up merely by putting a 0.3317-g strip of magnesium in 400 mL of orange juice. With this system we can exemplify a "corrosion process" where the anode and the cathode are in the same place. There is consumption of magnesium and evolution of molecular hydrogen but no useful current can be obtained. The mass of this magnesium strip was measured at 1-hour intervals. Faraday's constant, which relates coulombs to moles of electrons, can be used to calculate the approximate current available to the clock in this system. The current will not be constant because the H+ concentration (related to pH) is changing and also because the surface area and composition of the magnesium electrode change with time. The change is not necessarily regular, because although the surface is being oxidized, it is not smooth. The actual available surface area will therefore be considerably greater than the geometric surface. The mass of magnesium oxidized in the clock reaction over the 4-hour period is approximately equal to the change in grams of magnesium while running the clock minus the mass of magnesium oxidized in orange juice without the clock. Using the data from Table 1, grams Mg oxidized to run clock = approx. (0.3317 - 0.3089) - (0.3317 - 0.3136) = 0.0047 g Mg The average current can then be calculated via Faraday's constant: This is a rather simplistic way to get the current, but it shows well the use of Faraday's constant. The Value of Computer Interfacing - Exploring the Physics of Current/Voltage Measurements A more instructive measure of voltage vs. time, which opens up the activity to more interesting possibilities, was obtained by interfacing the clock to a Macintosh 8100/80 microcomputer via Vernier Corporation serial box interface hardware and software (see ref 2). This affordable (100-$250 per computer) interfacing package is being used in our first-year chemistry laboratories. The interfacing setup permitted data to be acquired at the much more meaningful rate of up to 50 points per second. It also permitted us to observe voltage variations with time while the strips in orange juice were hooked up to the clock. When data are taken 50 times per second rather than once every hour, the data take on new meaning. Figure 4 shows that there is a substantial drop in voltage each time the clock ticks. Figure 4.The observed voltage drop in the circuit corresponds to the ticking of the clock. The drop is due to the internal resistance of the orange juice solution. Video of orange juice clock connected to chart recorder demostrating voltage drop in the circuit as clock ticks. Video was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This observation can be explained and can be predicted as part of a student activity, if we understand the nature of an open vs. a short circuit. A battery can, in concept, perform between two extreme points: an open circuit, in which the voltage (V) is at a maximum but there is no current (I), and a short circuit, in which the current is at a maximum but there is no voltage. A battery is best used at an intermediate point where the power, I xV, is a maximum. In summary (eqs 5-7): (5) Open Circuit: V = maximum and I = 0 (6) Short Circuit: I = maximum and V = 0 (7) Battery Use: I x V = power = maximum A 1.5-V battery has an open circuit potential of 1.5 volts. When the battery is working, however, the real voltage will be less than 1.5 V. This is due to the internal resistance of the battery. So the real voltage of the battery (Vreal) equals the open circuit voltage (Vopen) minus the voltage drop due to internal resistance in the battery. This drop is equal to the current passing through the circuit (I) multiplied by the internal resistance of the battery (Rint), as shown in eq 8: Vreal = Vopen - I x Rint (8) If the current passing is 0.002 A and the internal resistance of a 1.5-V battery is 50 Ohms, the real voltage is 1.4 V: Vreal = 1.5 V - (0.0020 A x 50 Ohms) = 1.4 V In this activity, in which we make a battery with a magnesium and a copper strip in orange juice, the juice itself provides the internal resistance in the battery. The key then to determining what the voltage drop should be is to find the internal resistance of the orange juice and then to find the current passing through the clock circuit. Students can determine the internal resistance of the orange juice by performing the following measurements. Note that the internal resistance of the orange juice is highly dependent upon how far apart the strips are in solution. The strips should be firmly taped, top and bottom, to the beaker. The data below were typical for 0.35-g Mg and 6.0-g Cu strips that were 4 cm apart in a 600-mL beaker with 400 mL of orange juice. The solution was not stirred. The area of the strips in solution was about 7.5 cm2 for the magnesium and about 15 cm2 for the copper. 1. Measure, using a high-impedance voltmeter, the voltage of the circuit using the voltmeter itself, rather than the clock, to complete the circuit. This will give a good approximation of the open circuit potential (the current is negligible, on the order of microamps if the voltmeter has MOhm resistance). In our setup Vopen = 1.772 V. 2. Attach a 1000-Ohm resistor across the circuit. Measure the voltage in parallel to the resistor. This voltage (1.037 V in our setup) will be equal to the current in the circuit x the resistance of 1000 Ohm. We can now solve for the current in this circuit: I = V/R = 1.037 V/1000 Ohm = 0.001037 A = 1.037 mA 3. The resistance of the orange juice is then calculated via the difference between the open circuit voltage (1.772 V) and the voltage with a known resistance (1.037 V). The difference, 1.772 - 1.037 = 0.735 V, equals the product of the circuit current and the resistance of the orange juice (ROJ), or ROJ = 0.735 V/0.001037 A = 708 Ohm 4. Finally, measure the current that the clock itself requires by hooking up in series an ammeter to the battery and the clock. The reading is not easy to take with an ammeter, which does not sample very often, and integrates across time. The computer interface works better for this. In our clock, a current of 0.49 mA was used. 5. The payoff comes at this point. The predicted voltage drop (I x Rint) can be calculated, voltage drop = I x Rint = 0.00049 A x 708 Ohm = 0.35 V Our observed voltage drops for this system were typically around 0.30 V. As a confirmation of the relationship of internal resistance to voltage drop, we placed the strips 1 mm apart in an orange by digging 2 holes in the orange and placing into the holes the coiled parts of the strips. We expected the voltage drop to be much higher than with the juice, due to the much higher internal resistance of the orange. Even when the strips were nearly touching, the drop was about 1 V. The Water Clock We discussed above the difference in the redox system when water is used rather than orange juice. Distilled water, which has a high internal resistance, will not permit the clock to run. However, hard tap water or distilled water with, for example, 1 g of table salt in 300 mL of water will work fine. As expected, because of the lower hydrogen ion concentration, the initial cell voltage is lower, typically around 1.45 V. The clock also ticks more slowly and more softly in water than in orange juice. In water, a black precipitate forms on the magnesium electrode and becomes more extensive with time. When the strip is removed from distilled water, and allowed to dry the precipitate turns white. Further student exploration on the precipitate might include designing experiments to find out if the precipitate is a carbonate or an oxide (from the hydroxide.) Non-Nernstian Considerations The systems above were always run without stirring because when setting up demonstrations, portability, simplicity, and expense are important, and the main concepts are as clear with a stir bar as without. We do note, however, that when the solution is constantly stirred, the rate of magnesium oxidation both with the clock setup and simply in solution is considerably faster than when the process is diffusion-limited. In fact, whereas the Mg strip will often last for several days in very dilute acid and overnight in orange juice when the solutions are not stirred, it will break off within 4 h when the solutions are stirred. Another important issue relates to our use of the Nernst equation to account for the potential developed in the system. This equation is very useful to assess chemistry at equilibrium conditions, but the orange juice clock is using an electric current and so is not at equilibrium. In our orange juice system, the Nernst equation (eq 9) is, in which E° = E°Mg - E°H2 - h and h = overpotential = difference in H2/H+ couple at a copper electrode minus that at platinum black. The hydrogen overpotential on a copper surface is typically 0.23 V. Another treatment of overpotential is given below. In our experiments, magnesium concentration and hydrogen activity were not measured or controlled; the pH was 3.85-3.93, as described above. The maximum theoretical potential of the electrode system is greater than that which is available to the clock when there is current flow. As described above, the potential drop is calculated as current ¥ internal resistance, equaling the "iR drop." This is why potentials are measured with a voltmeter, with a very high internal resistance, which draws very little current from the system. The measure of how far a system is from equilibrium is called the overpotential (h) h = actual potential minus potential at equilibrium This, along with the anodic and the cathodic components, the energy involved, and the temperature of the system are all dealt with using the Butler-Volmer equation, given as eq 10: I = io(e+Fh/2RT - e-Fh/2RT) (10) in which io is a specific constant for every system "electrode-electrolyte" and is called the "equilibrium exchange current." For this case, we have assumed the symmetry factor to be equal to 1/2. A detailed discussion of this factor is beyond the purpose of this paper, but can be found in ref 3. Questions To Raise with Students/Teacher Workshop Participants This demonstration can be a starting point for many concepts. It is especially powerful in showing how chemistry can be used beyond the chemistry laboratory. The primary question is "how is this system different from that in which redox occurs at one surface (such as a zinc strip placed in a solution of copper sulfate)?" The key with this electrochemical cell is that we are separating the anode from the cathode to take advantage of the electron flow (current) through an external wire and this current will give power to the clock or any other device. This is the essence of a battery. Other questions we often ask are: Is enough current produced to run a small electric motor? Light a light? Would the system work if we put Cu2+ ions into the solution? What would happen if we titrate the acid solution with a strong base while the clock is running? What happens to the voltage if we put Mg2+ into the system? Are the complex ions of Mg2+ with citric acid important to the potential value? What is the relationship between the clock ticking and different juices? Why is this relationship so? What are the reactions in the most popular commercial batteries? What is the chemical basis of rechargeable batteries? Related Activities We do this demonstration while studying electrochemistry during the second semester of the general chemistry sequence. In precollege teacher workshops, it is an important focus of an Operation Chemistry unit dealing with energy needs for living on board the space shuttle (4). A number of fairly safe activities work well as lead-in or follow-up material, as described in Table 2. Copies of these activities are available by writing to PK. Acknowledgments We wish to thank Walt Hancock and Jonathan Skean, along with our wonderful undergraduates Mickey Richards, Cory Emal, Julie Grundman, Jeff Atkins, and Darren Jack, for being there. Literature Cited 1. Alyea, H. N. Tested Demonstrations in General Chemistry, 1955-1956; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1956. 2. Vernier Software, 8565 SW Beaverton Hillsdale Highway, Portland, OR 97225; phone (503) 297-5317. 3. Bockris, J.; Reddy, A. K. N. Modern Electrochemistry; Plenum: New York, 1970; Vol 2. 4. Kelter, P.; Hughes, K.; Murphy, A.; Roskos, P. J. Sci. Teacher Educ. 1995, 6, 57-59. 5. Tested Demonstrations in Chemistry; Gilbert, G., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1994; Vol. 1, #E-13. 6. Katz, D. A.; Willis, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 330-331. 7. Holmquist, D. D.; Volz, D. L. Chemistry with Computers;Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1994.

  6. Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

  7. Haze and cloud in apple juices.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T

    1997-02-01

    Turbidity in apple juice is desirable or undesirable, depending on whether the product fits within consumer expectations. Desirable opalescence is due to soluble pectin and insoluble pectin stabilized particles that show considerable stability. Blanching treatments enhance this stability by reducing particle size and character-solubilizing pectin, and possibly by the destruction of natural enzymes that may destabilize the cloud over time. Undesirable haze and sediments may arise in apple juice by several mechanisms, including starch (dextrin) retrogradation, protein phenol aggregation, phenol oxidation, crystallization of carbohydrate macromolecules extracted from cell walls, or difficulties during manufacture. The mechanisms of formation of each of these forms of haze are discussed and examples given form the literature. Where available, haze-sediment morphology by light and/or electron microscopy is documented and the possible role of recently developed "macerase" enzymes in haze/sediment formation discussed. PMID:9067089

  8. [Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

    2004-12-01

    Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain two compounds with anti-adherence properties, which prevent fimbriated E. coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately a dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials have a number of apparent limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and have employed different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15666710

  9. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

    2004-05-15

    Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain 2 compounds with antiadherence properties that prevent fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately 1 dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials suffer from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, cranberry juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and they have used different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15156480

  10. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2014-12-01

    Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions. PMID:24996350

  11. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago. Answer Cranberry juice has been shown to be effective in preventing adhesion of bacteria such as Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelium. Current evidence supports the use of cranberry juice for prevention of UTI in adult women, but no such evidence exists at this time for the prevention of UTI in children. While cranberry juice is very safe for most children, its acidity reduces palatability among children. The dose of cranberry juice to prevent UTI in children has also yet to be determined. PMID:22499815

  12. Laparoscopic gastric bypass or gastric banding: which operation is best?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Sloan, Johnathan; Nguyen, Xuan-Mai T

    2010-01-01

    Data from the available published literature support that laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are safe and effective bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Compared with gastric bypass, gastric banding is commonly associated with a shorteroperative time and length of hospital stay, and lower perioperative morbidity. However, the medium- and long-term weight losses were consistently and dramatically better after gastric bypass. The 2 preoperative factors predictive of poor weight loss in patients with gastric banding were male gender and patients with a BMI greater than or equal to 50 kg/m2. With this knowledge, the final decision regarding gastric bypass versus gastric banding will rely on an in-depth discussion between patients and surgeons with regard to perioperative and late complication data, long-term weight loss and variability of weight loss between the 2 operations, as well as the data regarding the rate for remission of comorbidities between the 2 operations. At the current time, there is ample evidence for surgeons and patients to make a well-informed decision with regard to which operation is best for the individual patient. PMID:20919513

  13. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Hong, Ji Hyung; Park, Eun Su; Byun, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma are rare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resembles advanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastric metastasis especially when the histology of the primary lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case of gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking Borrmann type IV primary gastric cancer. A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinoma with multiple bone metastases had been experiencing progressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plastica-like lesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positive immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed that the metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patient had been treated with palliative chemotherapy for the lung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additional immunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1 may help in differentiating its origin. PMID:25780510

  14. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach syndrome. In addition, gastric polyps occur in Lynch syndrome and in a few rare conditions that are not primarily gastrointestinal. While some of these syndromes are clearly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, others are not. Interestingly, even in disorders with a well-established risk of gastric cancer, the neoplastic potential and the precursor status of these gastric polyps are not always clear. Although rare, recognition of syndromic gastric polyps is important for individual patient management. These conditions also serve as important models to study gastric homeostasis and gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26721304

  15. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  16. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  18. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  19. [The hormonal characteristics of the pathogenesis of gastric peptic ulcer and duodenal peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Loginov, A S; Arbuzova, V G; Amirov, N Sh; Astaf'eva, O V; Zvenigorodskaia, L A

    1995-01-01

    Blood levels of STH, ACTH, somatostatin, bombesin, gastrin, hydrocortisone, aldosterone, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and gastric juice levels of gastrin and somatostatin were measured in remission and exacerbation of gastric and duodenal ulcer (GU), (DU) using radioimmunoassay. The study included 250 DU, 200 GU and 5O control subjects. As a result, two forms of DU were identified. DU type 1 is characterized by basal and stimulated hypergastrinemia, paradoxical D-cell response to stimulation, high blood concentrations of STH, ACTH, testosterone. Type 2 DU exhibits basal hypogastrinemia, elevated gastrin concentration in response to stimulation, adequate reaction of D-cells, low levels of estradiol and progesterone. In GU there were low concentrations of STH, bombesin, hydrocortisone, estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, somatostatin. D-cell response to loading was adequate. It is concluded that DU and GU pathogeneses are different, that DU is a heterogeneous disease. PMID:8779096

  20. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices. PMID:20503593

  1. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

  2. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  3. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  4. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

  5. Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

  6. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  7. Effect of Vacuum Sealed Drainage on Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function in Gastric Cancer Patients after Radical Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui-ying; Wang, Chun-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the effect of vacuum sealed drainage on the recovery of gastrointestinal function in gastric patients after radical gastrectomy. Methods One hundred and twenty patients who received radical for gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the control group received continuous gastrointestinal decompression to drain the gastric juices after radical gastrectomy, whereas patients in the treatment group received vacuum sealed drainage. The postoperative variables between the two groups were compared, including time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, days of hospitalization, and complications, such as anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, wound infection, pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis. SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Significant differences in the following variables were observed in patients between the two groups: time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, and length of hospitalization of the patients. The value of each of these variables was much smaller in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, and wound infection among patients between the two groups (P>0.05). However, a significant differences were observed in the incidence of pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis among the patients between the two groups (P<0.05), with much lower incidence of the variables in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusions Vacuum sealed drainage used in gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function and reduce postoperative complications. Moreover, it shortens the indwelling time of the gastric tube, thereby making the patients feel comfortable without the disturbance from the gastric tube. PMID:23691488

  8. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  9. Apocynin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by attenuating the upregulation of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2015-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting many people all over the world. Absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Apocynin (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard. Interestingly, apocynin pre-treatment provided 93.5% gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulceration. Biochemically, gastric mucin content was significantly increased with apocynin pre-treatment. This finding was further supported by alcian blue staining of stomach sections obtained from the different treated groups. Also, gastric juice volume and acidity were significantly reduced. Apocynin significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by replenishing reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels as well as reducing elevated malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissues. Besides, ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased by apocynin pre-treatment via reducing elevated levels of pro-inflammatory markers; interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, caspase-3 tissue level was significantly reduced in apocynin pre-treated group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) and NOX-4 up-regulation was shown to be partially involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and was significantly reversed by apocynin pre-treatment. Gastroprotective properties of apocynin were confirmed by histopathological examination. It is worth mentioning that apocynin was superior in all aspects except gastric mucin content parameter where it was significantly increased by 13.5 folds in the omeprazole pre-treated group. This study was the first to show that apocynin is a promising gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, partially via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects as well as down-regulating NOX-1 and NOX-4 expression. PMID:26522475

  10. Characterization of Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum) essential oil and its inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and during mild thermal pasteurization of pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Ngang, Jean J Essia; Nyegue, Maximilienne A; Ndoye, Foe C; Tchuenchieu Kamgain, Alex D; Sado Kamdem, Sylvain L; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto; Etoa, Franois-Xavier

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the essential oil (EO) of Eryngium foetidum (EfEO) and assess its activity toward Listeria monocytogenes in broth and during thermal inactivation of the pathogen in pineapple juice. In this respect, EfEO was chemically characterized, and its antilisteria potential in broth as a function of pH, cell load, and EfEO concentration was assessed through a central composite design. Furthermore, the inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes in the juice were assessed by combining EfEO and low pasteurization temperatures. A total of 81 compounds were identified from EfEO. The reduction of pH and cell load increased EO activity. The use of only 15 ppm of EfEO during pasteurization of pineapple juice at 60C reduced the time required for a 4-log reduction in L. monocytogenes CFU/ml by 74.9% (i.e., from 8.5 to 2.1 min) compared with treatment without EfEO. It could be concluded that EfEO activity toward L. monocytogenes increases with the reduction of pH and that it can be used at sublethal concentrations in combination with low temperatures in pineapple juice pasteurization. This study demonstrates that EO-assisted pasteurization is a promising strategy for the reduction of thermal impact during juice production. EfEO is easily available and compatible with many juices and is thus promising for industrial application. PMID:24674435

  11. Development of a simple model device for in vitro gastric digestion investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianshe; Gaikwad, Vishwajeet; Holmes, Melvin; Murray, Brent; Povey, Malcolm; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Ying

    2011-04-01

    There have been some reports in the literature of model gastric digestion systems to mimic the dynamic physiological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. However, such devices often require the specification of many control parameters making routine digestion tests unfeasible. This paper introduces a simple in vitro digestion device, comprising of a water-jacketed glass vessel into which a spherical Teflon probe of variable diameter can be inserted. The probe is controlled by a texture analyser to simulate the kinetics of a food digestion process. Using this device under well controlled hydrodynamic flow and biochemical conditions key digestion parameters such as pH, food particle size, protein release, lipid release, cloudiness, etc, can be determined. Feasibility tests of the model device have been conducted using roasted and non-roasted peanuts particles. The status of peanut digestion was examined by the changes in particle size distribution and the mean particle size. Significant differences of surface microstructure have also been observed for peanut particles after the digestion. The influence of parameters such as food to gastric juice ratio, the probe speed and pepsin concentration have been examined in this work. Initial results confirm that all these factors influence the kinetic process of gastric digestion considerably and should be well regulated in any in vitro digestion investigations. We propose that the model device has the advantages of easy control and operation and furthermore could be an ideal tool for routine in vitro gastric digestion studies. PMID:21779576

  12. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  13. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and

  14. Enzyme and temperature effect on juice recovery in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making blueberry juice has multiple steps, and to evaluate how these steps influence juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In lab scale trials, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberries were pressed at varying temperatures. Temperatures included fresh, frozen then ...

  15. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions...

  16. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  17. HPLC-ESI-MS ANALYSIS OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice inhibit intestinal and liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and are responsible for the effects in humans caused by grapefruit juice consumption on the metabolism of certain prescription drugs. A number of the (furano)coumarins that occur in the highest concen...

  18. DEAERATION AND PASTEURIZATION EFFECTS ON THE ORANGE JUICE AROMATIC FRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study between the aromatic profile in fresh orange juice versus deaerated and pasteurized juices respectively was conducted in order to understand the evolution of volatile components after deaeration and pasteurization processes. Analysis of the aromatic fraction was carried out using...

  19. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  20. [Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hatogai, Ken; Doi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer has been classified based on the pathological characteristics including microscopic configuration and growth pattern. Although these classifications have been used in studies investigating prognosis and recurrence pattern, they are not considered for decisions regarding the therapeutic strategy. In the ToGA study, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated clinical efficacy for gastric cancer with HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification. Based on these findings of the ToGA study, the definition of HER2-positive gastric cancer was established. Thereafter, several molecular targeted agents, including agents targeting other receptor tyrosine kinases, have been investigated in gastric cancer. However, to date no biomarker, except HER2, has been established. Based on the recent technological development in the field of gene analysis, a comprehensive molecular evaluation of gastric cancer was performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, and a new molecular classification was proposed that divided gastric cancer into the following 4 subtypes: tumors positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite instability tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Each subtype has specific molecular alterations including gene mutation and amplification, DNA methylation, and protein overexpression. Additionally, some subtypes were suggested to be correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics or as targets of some molecular targeted agents that are currently under development. The new molecular classification is expected to be a roadmap for patient stratification and clinical trials on molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer. PMID:27067842

  1. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  2. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  3. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  4. Gastric Emptying in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Chris K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a diminished homeostatic regulation of physiologic functions, including slowing of gastric emptying. Gastric and small intestinal motor and humoral mechanisms in humans are complex and highly variable: ingested food is stored, mixed with digestive enzymes, ground into small particles, and delivered as a liquefied form into the duodenum at a rate allowing efficient digestion and absorption. In healthy aging, motor function is well preserved whereas deficits in sensory function are more apparent. The effects of aging on gastric emptying are relevant to the absorption of oral medications and the regulation of appetite, postprandial glycemia, and blood pressure. PMID:26195094

  5. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  6. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone activates KCa channels in gastric smooth muscle cells via intracellular Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Petkova-Kirova, P S; Lubomirov, L T; Gagov, H S; Kolev, V B; Duridanova, D B

    2001-03-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is released in high concentrations into gastric juice, but its direct effect on gastric smooth muscles has not been studied yet. We undertook studies on TRH effect on gastric smooth muscle using contraction and patch clamp methods. TRH was found to inhibit both acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions of gastric strips. TRH, applied to single cells, inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents and activated the whole-cell K+ currents. The TRH-induced changes in K+ currents and membrane potential were effectively abolished by inhibitors of either intracellular Ca2+ release channels or phospholipase C. Neither activators, nor blockers of protein kinase C could affect the action of TRH on K+ currents. In conclusion, TRH activates K+ channels via inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced release of Ca2+ in the direction to the plasma membrane, which in turn leads to stimulation of the Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance, membrane hyperpolarization and relaxation. The data imply that TRH may act physiologically as a local modulator of gastric smooth muscle tone. PMID:11508821

  7. The Effects of Broccoli Sprout Extract Containing Sulforaphane on Lipid Peroxidation and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Woon; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Jung-Wook; Shim, Jae-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The aims of this study were to investigate whether a broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSES) inhibited the Helicobacter pylori infection density and exerted an antioxidative effect on gastric mucosal damage. Methods The enrolled subjects were randomized in a double-blinded manner into three groups. Finally, 33 H. pylori (+) BSES treatment subjects (group A), 28 H. pylori (+) placebo subjects (group B), and 28 H. pylori (?) BSES treatment subjects (group C) were studied. H. pylori infection density was indirectly quantified by a 13C-urea breath test (UBT), and the ammonia concentration in gastric juice aspirates was measured through gastroscopic examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative damage biomarker, and reduced glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant biomarker, were measured in the gastric mucosa by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results BSES treatment did not significantly affect the UBT values or ammonia concentration in group A (p=0.634 and p=0.505, respectively). BSES treatment did significantly reduce mucosal MDA concentrations in group A (p<0.05) and group C (p<0.001), whereas the gastric mucosal GSH concentrations did not differ before and after treatment in any of the groups. Conclusions BSES did not inhibit the H. pylori infection density. However, BSES prevented lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa and may play a cytoprotective role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. PMID:25287166

  8. Research of enzymatic activities of fresh juice and water infusions from dry herbs.

    PubMed

    Chudnicka, Alina; Matysik, Grazyna

    2005-06-01

    Research was done on the presence of enzymes in juice obtained from fresh plant material from Chamomilla recutita L. (Rauschel)-anthodium, Lamium album L.-flos, Calendula officinalis L.-flos, Plantaginis lanceolata L.-folium and Euphrasiae rostkoviana Hayne-herba, and in the prepared water infusion of these materials; the objective was to determine the activity of enzymes which beside biologically active substances may have an influence of the final therapeutic effect of the applied plant preparations. The research was conducted by means of the API ZYM system (bioMerieux). Higher enzymatic activities were found in fresh juices of the examined plant material than in prepared water infusions from dried plants. In both cases naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase should have highest activity. The second one in terms of activity out of 17 studied enzymes was acidic phosphatase. The highest enzymatic activity of fresh juice was found in Lamii albi flos and Calendulae officinalis flos. Water infusions showed the highest enzymatic activity in Lamii albi flos, Chamomille recutita anthodium and Plantaginis lanceolata folium. Drying the plant material resulted in decreased enzymatic activities but not in the case of naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and acidic phosphatase which showed very low activities. The complex composition of plant materials in terms of content of biologically active substances may imply that the therapeutic effect might be directly related to the quantity and activity of plant enzymes present in preparations applied in therapeutics. PMID:15894139

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  10. Studies on the muscle-paralyzing components of the juice of the banana plant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y N; Inman, W D; Johnson, A; Linnell, E J

    1993-01-01

    The stem juice of the banana plant (Musa species) has been used as an arrow poison by African tribesmen. Lyophilized, partially purified extracts of the juice augment and then block both directly and indirectly evoked contractions of the mouse diaphragm. We have isolated, purified and determined the chemical composition of the active ingredients, and characterized their pharmacological activity. The lyophilized sample was extracted with a methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) (50/50) mixture and vacuum filtered. The filtrate was rotary evaporated and crystallized in a MeOH-H2O mixture to yield potassium nitrate crystals (melting point 332-334 degrees C). The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed over Sephadex LH-20 gel using MeOH-H2O (40/60) as the eluent. The active component was found to be magnesium nitrate crystals (melting point 87-89 degrees C). In the mouse isolated phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the pharmacological profile of the first component was similar to that for authentic potassium nitrate which augments in low concentrations, and in higher concentrations augments, and then blocks both directly evoked muscle contraction the neuromuscular transmission. The second component had a profile of activity similar to that for authentic magnesium nitrate which only blocks neuromuscular transmission. It can be concluded that the two major active principles in the banana stem juice are potassium nitrate and magnesium nitrate. PMID:8297182

  11. Microbial inactivation in cloudy apple juice by multi-frequency Dynashock power ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2012-03-01

    The study determined the efficacy of Dynashock wave power ultrasound as an alternative processing technique for apple juice against a number of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The effects of several implicit, intrinsic and extrinsic properties on the Dynashock wave inactivation of the microorganisms were also investigated. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. but decreased that of Listeria monocytogenes. Spoilage yeast mixed inoculum composed of Debaryomyces hansenii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be more resistant than any of the adapted or non-adapted pathogens. Among the individual, acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7, the MN-28 isolate was found most resistant; while three other individual isolates had greater resistance than the composited E. coli inoculum. Increased in pulp content decreased the efficacy of Dynashock waves, but co-treatment with ultraviolet-C rays significantly enhanced inactivation in the cloudy apple juice. The results demonstrated the potential of Dynashock wave technology, together with other antimicrobial hurdles as alternative juice processing technique/s. PMID:21802974

  12. Clarification of pomegranate juice with chitosan: changes on quality characteristics during storage.

    PubMed

    Tastan, Ozge; Baysal, Taner

    2015-08-01

    In this study, for the first time, the use of chitosan as a clarifying agent in the production of clear pomegranate juice was evaluated and its effects on quality characteristics of juice were investigated. A central composite face centered design was used to establish the optimum conditions for clarification of pomegranate juice (PJ) using response surface methodology. The three factors were concentration of chitosan (10-120 mg/100ml), process temperature (10-20°C), and process time (30-90 min) and their effects on turbidity and a(∗) values were investigated. Using a desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were found to be 68.93 mg/100ml chitosan at a process temperature and time of 10°C and 30 min, respectively. PJ was produced using the optimum conditions and the quality characteristics such as turbidity, colour characteristics (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗)), titratable acidity, total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanin, and protein contents were evaluated during storage at 4 and 20°C for 6 months. PMID:25766820

  13. Microbial modeling of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 growth in orange juice with nisin added.

    PubMed

    Peña, Wilmer Edgard Luera; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez

    2006-08-01

    The adaptation time of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice was determined as a response to pH (3 to 5.8), temperature (20 to 54 degrees C), soluble solids concentration ((o)Brix; 11 to 19 (o)Brix), and nisin concentration (0 to 70 IU/ ml) effects. A four-factor central composite rotational design was used. Viable microorganisms were enumerated by plating on K medium (pH 3.7). Two primary models were used to represent growth and adaptation time. A second-order polynomial model was applied to analyze the effects of factors. Results showed that the Baranyi and Roberts model was better than the modified Gompertz model, considering the determination coefficient (R2) for experimental data description. Inhibition of bacteria can be obtained through several studied combinations for at least 47 days of storage. The shortest period of adaptation was observed between 37 to 45 degrees C, with pHs between 4 and 5, yet the longest periods of adaptation could be obtained around 20 degrees C with pHs close to 3.0. Statistical analysis of the quadratic model showed that the adaptation time increased as temperature or pH decreased, and as nisin concentration or soluble solids increased. The model showed that adaptation time has a minimum value for juice without nisin added, with 13.5% soluble solids, pH 5.0, and incubated at 43.8 degrees C. The statistical parameters that validated this model were an R2 of 0.816, a bias factor of 0.96, and an accuracy factor of 1.14. Manipulation of more than one factor, as well as the use of an antimicrobial agent, can be an alternative to preventing the development of A. acidoterrestris in orange juice, thus contributing to increased orange juice shelf life. PMID:16924916

  14. Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

  15. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of gastric triplication.

    PubMed

    Queizán, A; Hernandez, F; Rivas, S; Herrero, F

    2006-02-01

    Duplications of the intestinal tract are rare malformations, and triplications are even less common; only two cases are found in the literature. The authors describe a case of prenatal diagnosis of a gastric triplication and the surgical treatment. PMID:16544228

  17. Endoscopic therapy for gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Sarin, S K; Mishra, S R

    2010-05-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices (GVs) is generally more severe than bleeding from esophageal varices (EVs), but is thought to occur less frequently. Although several recent developments in the agents and the techniques have improved the outcome of GV bleeds no consensus has been reached on the optimum treatment. Because the blood flow in the GVs is relatively large and the bleeding is rapid and often profuse endoscopic means of treating bleeding GVs are the treatments of choice. Endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate glue is the treatment of choice for the control of active bleeding of gastric avarices and to prevent rebleeding. This article reviews the current endoscopic treatment modalities used in gastric variceal bleeding, and the primary and secondary prophylaxis of gastric variceal bleeding. PMID:20682234

  18. Quality characteristics of freshly squeezed orange juice in comparison to commercial products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted with a fresh-squeeze juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to commercially processed juice for the flavor and nutritional quality. Fresh juice had much higher peel oil content, but lower insoluble solids and pectin contents than in the commercial juic...

  19. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  20. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  1. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  4. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  5. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  6. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  7. Development of flavor lexicon for fresh pressed and processed blueberry juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lexicon with thirty-two aroma/flavor, taste, and mouth feel attributes were developed for blueberry juice. Commercial frozen blueberries were thawed and hand pressed to make three juices (P1, P2 or P3), which were compared to four bottled juices (B1, B2, B3 or B4). Fresh pressed juices had signi...

  8. A comparison of commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice: nutrients and phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied different juicing methods resulting in commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice with or without pasteurization for effect on level of nutrients and phytonutrinets in ‘Valencia’ and ‘Hamlin’ orange juices. Commercial processing included use of a juice extractor, finisher,...

  9. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  10. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  11. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  12. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  13. Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

  14. Familial primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hayoz, D; Extermann, M; Odermatt, B F; Pugin, P; Regamey, C; Knecht, H

    1993-01-01

    Familial lymphoma is uncommon and is usually associated with various forms of hereditary immunodeficiencies. Primary gastric lymphomas that occurred in three adults from the same family, who had no overt immunodeficiency or cancer of non-lymphomatous origin, are reported. Two sisters presented with a low grade lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type. Their father presented with a high grade form of later onset. All lymphomas have been phenotypically characterised as being of B cell origin. Epstein-Bar virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the biopsy specimen of the high grade lymphoma but bcl-2/JH protooncogene rearrangement, t (14:18), was not identified in either the low or high grade lymphoma specimens tested. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8432445

  15. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  16. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  17. Voice as Juice: Some Reservations about Evangelic Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dangers of writing instruction that encourages "voice" (expressiveness of style) by capitalizing on the same kinds of fears that power evangelism. Claims this approach is not appropriate for all students, may cause problems when a piece is to be written by a committee, and may not be essential at all in factual, informative writing.…

  18. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  19. Lemon juice as a natural biocide for disinfecting drinking water.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, M; Teves, S A

    1994-12-01

    The natural biocidal activity of lemon juice was studied in order to explore its possible use as a disinfectant and inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water for areas lacking water treatment plants. From January through July 1993, water samples of varying alkalinity and hardness were prepared artificially, and underground and surface water samples were obtained from a number of different rural and urban areas in Argentina's Buenos Aires Province. After measuring the latter samples' hardness and alkalinity, a range of concentrations of lemon juice and other acidifiers were added to each sample, and the resulting pH as well as the samples' ability to destroy V. cholerae were determined. The results show that lemon juice can actively prevent survival of V. cholerae but that such activity is reduced in markedly alkaline water. For example, treatment of underground drinking water, which is characterized as having the greatest degree of alkalinity in our area, will typically destroy V. cholerae if the alkalinity of the water is the equivalent of that produced by 200 mg CaCO3 per liter, if enough lemon juice is added to bring the lemon juice concentration to 2%, and if the lemon juice is allowed to act for 30 minutes. All this points up the need to determine the alkalinity of water from any local source to be treated in the process of assessing the minimum concentration of lemon juice required. PMID:7858646

  20. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

  1. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  2. Antibacterial peptides derived from caprine whey proteins, by digestion with human gastrointestinal juice.

    PubMed

    Almaas, Hilde; Eriksen, Ellen; Sekse, Camilla; Comi, Irene; Flengsrud, Ragnar; Holm, Halvor; Jensen, Einar; Jacobsen, Morten; Langsrud, Thor; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2011-09-01

    Peptides in caprine whey were identified after in vitro digestion with human gastrointestinal enzymes in order to determine their antibacterial effect. The digestion was performed in two continuing steps using human gastric juice (pH 2·5) and human duodenal juice (pH 8) at 37°C. After digestion the hydrolysate was fractionated and 106 peptides were identified. From these results, twenty-two peptides, located in the protein molecules, were synthesised and antibacterial activity examined. Strong activity of the hydrolysates was detected against Escherichia coli K12, Bacillus cereus RT INF01 and Listeria monocytogenes, less activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25 923 and no effect on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The pure peptides showed less antibacterial effect than the hydrolysates. When comparing the peptide sequences from human gastrointestinal enzymes with previously identified peptides from non-human enzymes, only two peptides, β-lactoglobulin f(92-100) and β-casein f(191-205) matched. No peptides corresponded to the antibacterial caprine lactoferricin f(14-42) or lactoferrampin C f(268-284). Human gastrointestinal enzymes seem to be more complex and have different cleavage points in their protein chains compared with purified non-human enzymes. Multiple sequence alignment of nineteen peptides showed proline-rich sequences, neighbouring leucines, resulting in a consensus sequence LTPVPELK. In such a way proline and leucine may restrict further proteolytic processing. The present study showed that human gastrointestinal enzymes generated different peptides from caprine whey compared with non-human enzymes and a stronger antibacterial effect of the hydrolysates than the pure peptides was shown. Antimicrobial activity against pathogens but not against probiotics indicate a possible host-protective activity of whey. PMID:21554806

  3. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  4. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat evaluation of the same X-ray films. Enhanced diagnostic sensitivity would be most rewarding since management consisting of cessation of oral feedings combined with administration of intravenous fluids and gastric lavage is easy and resolves over 85% of gastric lactobezoars. In conclusion, gastric lactobezoar is a disorder of unknown prevalence and is nowadays very rarely published, possibly because of inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and/or not yet identified but beneficial modifications of patient management. PMID:22216886

  5. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-01-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation. PMID:360989

  6. Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Mikov, Momir; Mitic, Radoslav; Gvozdenovic, Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate possible protective effect of celery juice in doxorubicin treatment. The following biochemical parameters were determined: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity in liver homogenate and blood hemolysate. We examined influence of diluted pure celery leaves and roots juices and their combinations with doxorubicine on analyzed biochemical parameters. Celery roots and leaves juices influenced the examined biochemical parameters and showed protective effects when applied with doxorubicine. PMID:19396021

  7. Anti-reticulin antibody in jejunal juice in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mawhinney, H; Love, A H

    1975-01-01

    Anti-reticulin antibody has been demonstrated in the jejunal juice of eight out of fourteen (57%) untreated coeliac patients, one out of twelve (8%) patients with normal jejunal biopsies and none of ten normal control subjects. The jejunal juice antibody was invariably of the IgA class. It is suggested that the presence of anti-reticulin antibody in the jejunal juice in coeliac disease supports the hypothesis that this antibody is secreted in response to reticulin antigens present in the diet. PMID:1204254

  8. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Sun, Peng; Zhu, Kai; Li, Jian; Sun, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin), SP (substance P), ET (endothelin) levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-12 (interleukin 12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), NO (nitric oxide) and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde) activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase) mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB), and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 10⁸ CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 10⁸ CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use as probiotics for its gastric injury treatment effects. PMID:26978395

  9. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Huayi; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Sun, Peng; Zhu, Kai; Li, Jian; Sun, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin), SP (substance P), ET (endothelin) levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-12 (interleukin 12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), NO (nitric oxide) and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde) activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase) mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB), and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use as probiotics for its gastric injury treatment effects. PMID:26978395

  10. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

  11. Large Gastric Perforation Sealed by Splenic Lysis: Emphasis on Indirect Signs A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Lalit; Jain, Mansi; Taori, Kishor; Patil, Ajinky; Hatgaonkar, Anand; Rathod, Jawhar; Shah, Swenil; Patwa, Darshan; Kasat, Akshat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Gastric perforation is a life-threatening condition, requiring early and reliable discovery. The delay before surgical treatment is a strong determinant of poor outcome, associated complications and hospitalization costs. By using ultrasound and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) we can further evaluate undiagnosed cases of silent gastric perforations presenting with non-specific acute abdomen. Here we bring forth the role of a radiologist in cases of perforation which present with indirect signs involving the organs forming the stomach bed, like the spleen, pancreas and kidney. Case Report A 25-year-old male patient presented with an acute onset of severe upper abdominal pain radiating to the back and vomiting. MDCT of the abdomen was done which revealed atrophic pancreas with organized collection in the sub-capsular location indenting the superior pole of the left kidney. Spleen was not visualized. The most striking imaging finding in that case was destruction of the splenic parenchyma with protrusion of the remaining tissue into the stomach lumen. The hypothesis behind this was a cascade of events which started with gastric perforation, spillage of highly destructive gastric juice over the stomach bed and finally becoming silent with rapid sealing of the defect by the omentum and the spleen. Conclusions Acute abdomen is a diagnostic challenge to a clinician and radiologist with gastric perforation being a great mimicker of other urgent abdominal pathologies. To avoid a delayed diagnosis or a misdiagnosis, familiarity with typical and atypical imaging features is essential as in our case of splenic lysis. It acted as the 2nd policeman and provided a great clue to solve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26634011

  12. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure. PMID:25333880

  13. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Timothy F.; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure. PMID:25333880

  14. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  15. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

  16. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  17. [OPISTHORCHIASIS AS A PROMOTER OF GASTRIC CARCINOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Zuevsky, V P; Bychkov, V G; Tselishcheva, P V; Khadieva, E D

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental model of gastric cancer in the presence of chronic opisthorchiasis, which has been created to study its possible role in gastric carcinogenesis. The performed investigation has supported the hypothesis that opisthorchiasis plays a promoting role in the development of experimental gastric cancer. A larger number of experimental hamsters receiving the carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG) developed earlier gastric tumors in. the presence of chronic opisthorchiasis than the control animals in the experiment. PMID:26827578

  18. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-10-14

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and "disease-tailored" surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

  19. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the indication for conventional subtotal gastrectomy depends on multiple variables. This review aims to clarify and define the actual landmarks of this procedure and the role it plays compared to the whole range of new and old treatment methods. PMID:25320505

  20. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  1. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-01-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  5. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice... color of not less than 0.6 Lovibond in a one-half inch cell or not more than 95 percent...

  6. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice... color of not less than 0.6 Lovibond in a one-half inch cell or not more than 95 percent...

  7. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice... color of not less than 0.6 Lovibond in a one-half inch cell or not more than 95 percent...

  8. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

  11. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-12-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  12. Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-03-01

    Carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of ?-tocopherol > quercetin >?carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both ?-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds. PMID:25578758

  13. Accelerated gastric epithelial proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, M R; Darnton, S J; Hunt, J A; Irlam, R W; Nemeth, J; Wallace, H M

    1995-01-01

    Gastric body mucosal proliferation was quantified and localised under conditions of increased gastrin drive using a variety of techniques. Rats were given omeprazole 400 mumol/kg/day by gavage and after 30 days mean serum gastrin rose 11-fold (p < 0.001). Total mucosal polyamines rose 220% from 15.9 to 50.9 nmol/mg protein (p < 0.001). This was associated with a 238% increase in crypt cell production rate from 0.541 to 1.83 crypt cells/h by vincristine metaphase arrest (p < 0.02). Using computer aided counting of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostained nuclei to assess epithelial proliferation in hypergastrinaemia rat stomach: mucus neck cell PCNA labelling was increased by 41% (p < 0.001) and gland cell PCNA labelling was increased by 222% (p < 0.001). PCNA/AgNOR (argyrophilic nuclear organiser regions) co-stained sections were used to assess proliferative activity in cycling and non-cycling cell populations. Data from these experiments suggest that, in addition to increasing the number of mucosal cells in cycle, cell life and cell cycle duration may be reduced in hypergastrinaemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7737557

  14. [Gastric cancer in Lima].

    PubMed

    Pilco, Paul; Payet, Eduardo; Cceres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be one of the most common malignant neoplasias in the world. Despite the decreasing incidence of this disease in developed countries, Eastern Europe and Latin America show the highest incidences. It accounted for 8.6% of all new cases of cancer in 2002. In Peru it has increased between 1990 and 1997 amounting to 24.3/100000 in men and 17.6/100000 in women, during the last period studied, thus it is considered a high risk area. Mortality: it is still the leading cause of death for both sexes, in men it is 19.3/100000 and in women 14.2/100000. Incidence is directly proportional to the place of origin in Metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 8 million inhabitants, and the districts with the highest incidences are Puente Piedra and Lince followed by Villa El Salvador, El Augustino, Brea and Rimac among others. These are districts with medium-low socioeconomic levels, whereas the lowest incidences are found in districts with high socioeconomic levels, such as San Isidro and Miraflores, among others. PMID:17211488

  15. Evaluation of the anthocyanin release and health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir grape juices after pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir juices (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained at different maceration times after pulsed electric fields (PEF) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and human intestinal Caco-2 cells assays. Juice quality, anthocyanins, total phenolics and vitamin C were also determined. The evaluation of bioprotective capacity of the juice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells was determined using biomarkers for cellular health and integrity: cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compared to untreated grape juice, PEF pre-treatment on grapes enhanced the release of the major anthocyanin found in Pinot Noir, i.e. malvidin-3-O-glucoside (+224%). Increase in the content of total phenolic (+61%) and vitamin C (+19%) as well as improvement in the DPPH scavenging activity (+31%) and bioprotective capacity (+25% for cell viability and +30% for LDH leakage) were observed in grape juices following PEF treatment. Bioprotective capacity determined by the cellular biomarkers had significant linear correlations with malvidin-3-O-glucoside content (0.71⩽r⩽0.73) whereas DPPH scavenging activity was not well correlated with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (r=0.30) and total phenolics (r=0.30). Therefore, evaluation of the bioprotective capacities using Caco-2 cell assay performed in this study makes a novel contribution to the current knowledge that demonstrates the capability of PEF technology to produce plant-based foods with better phytochemical composition and exhibiting the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26593562

  16. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  17. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked preventative effect on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in vivo, as a result of its antioxidative capacity. PMID:26170959

  18. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  19. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  20. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  1. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress. PMID:25724149

  2. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 2. Effect of novel production methods.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Addie A; Dekker, Matthijs; Skrede, Grete; Jongen, Wim M F

    2004-05-19

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is possible to improve flavonoid content in juice and its antioxidant activity by applying an alcoholic extraction either on the pulp or on the pomace. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in enriched juice were between 1.4 (chlorogenic acid) and 9 (quercetin glycosides) times higher than in conventional apple juice. In enriched juice the antioxidant activity was 5 times higher than in conventional apple juice, with 52% of the antioxidant activity of the originating fruits present. The novel processing method had similar effects for three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold). The taste and color of enriched juice were different from those of conventional juice. PMID:15137823

  3. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  4. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver. PMID:22876038

  5. JUICE Planetary Protection Approach for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Erd, Christian; Grasset, Olivier

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa. The baseline mission architecture assumes development, launch and operation by ESA of a single spacecraft in the Jovian system. JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system. The JUICE planetary protection approach for Europa is to ensure that the probability of impact is less than 10-4 during all phases with a credible impact risk. The JUICE science team has published an analysis demonstrating that there is only a remote chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could compromise future investigations on Ganymede. This would qualify JUICE as a planetary protection category II mission with respect to the Ganymede phase without any impact constraints.

  6. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  7. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  8. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested. PMID:27185134

  9. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion. PMID:19009648

  10. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  11. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sikiric P; Seiwerth S; Rucman R; Turkovic B; Rokotov DS; Brcic L; Sever M; Klicek R; Radic B; Drmic D; Ilic S; Kolenc D; Aralica G; Safic H; Suran J; Rak D; Dzidic S; Vrcic H; Sebecic B

    2013-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. Recently, we claim that BPC 157 may be used as an antidote against NSAIDs. We focused on BPC 157 beneficial effects on stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and brain injuries, adjuvant arthritis, pain, hyper/hypothermia, obstructive thrombus formation and thrombolysis, blood vessel function, counteraction of prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia after application of various anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents and wound healing improvement. The arguments for BPC 157 antidote activity (i.e., the role of BPC 157 in cytoprotection, being a novel mediator of Robert's cytoprotection and BPC 157 beneficial effects on NSAIDs mediated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and brain and finally, counteraction of aspirin-induced prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia) obviously have a counteracting effect on several established side-effects of NSAIDs use. The mentioned variety of the beneficial effects portrayed by BPC 157 may well be a foundation for establishing BPC 157 as a NSAIDs antidote since no other single agent has portrayed a similar array of effects. Unlike NSAIDs, a very high safety (no reported toxicity (LD1 could be not achieved)) profile is reported for BPC 157. Also, unlike the different dosage levels of aspirin, as a NSAIDs prototype, which differ by a factor of about ten, all these beneficial and counteracting effects of BPC 157 were obtained using the equipotent dosage (μg, ng/kg) in parenteral or peroral regimens.

  12. Pediatric gastric cancer presenting with massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lai, I-Hsiu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, An-Chyi

    2015-03-21

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is quite rare in children and as a result very little experience has been reported on with regards to clinical presentation, treatment and outcome. We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with abdominal fullness and poor appetite for 7 d. Sonography showed massive ascites and computed tomography imaging revealed the presence of gastric mucosa thickness with omentum caking. The diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was biopsy-proven endoscopically. Despite gastric adenocarcinoma being quite rare in the pediatric patient population, we should not overlook the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma when a child presents with distended abdomen and massive ascites. PMID:25805952

  13. [Noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying rates and gastric motility].

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Jiang, D Z

    2001-07-01

    A non-invasive measuring system is developed for the assessment of gastric evacuation and motility by means of epigastric impedance measurement. FIR digital filters realized on personal computer were used for signal filtering and cancellation of respiratory interference. Electrodes of concentric type placed anterior and posterior were proved to be more effective for epigastric impedance measurement. PMID:12583219

  14. Choroidal and cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shoichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Yoshito; Ezaki, Hisao; Yamada, Takuya; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Nakai, Kei; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Nishida, Kohji; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Choroidal or cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer is rare. Gastrointestinal cancer was found in only 4% in patients with uveal metastasis. Choroidal metastasis from gastric cancer was reported in two cases in earlier literature. The frequency of gastric cancer as a primary lesion was 6% in cutaneous metastasis of men, and cutaneous metastasis occurs in 0.8% of all gastric cancers. We report a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in his left eye and skin pain on his head as his initial symptoms. These symptoms were diagnosed to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Two cycles of chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 and intravenous cisplatin (SPIRITS regimen); this was markedly effective to reduce the primary gastric lesion and almost all the metastatic lesions. PMID:23538460

  15. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of acebutolol

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Jari J; Raaska, Kari; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2005-01-01

    Aims We aimed to investigate effects of grapefruit juice on acebutolol pharmacokinetics. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 10 healthy subjects ingested 200 mL grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 3 days and twice on day 4. On day 3, each subject ingested 400 mg acebutolol with grapefruit juice or water. The concentrations of acebutolol and its metabolite diacetolol were measured in plasma and urine up to 33 h. Results Grapefruit juice decreased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of acebutolol by 19% from 872 ± 207 ng mL−1 to 706 ± 140 ng mL−1 (95% CI on the difference −306, −26.4; P < 0.05), and the area under the concentration time curve (AUC0−33 h) by 7%, from 4498 ± 939 ng mL−1 h to 4182 ± 915 ng mL−1 h (95% CI −609, −23.0; P < 0.05). The half-life (t1/2) of acebutolol prolonged from 4.0 to 5.1 h (P < 0.05). The time to peak concentration and the amount of acebutolol excreted into urine (Ae) were unchanged. The Cmax, AUC0−33 h, and Ae of diacetolol were decreased by 24% (P < 0.05), 18% (P < 0.05), and 20% (P < 0.01), respectively, by grapefruit juice. Conclusion Grapefruit juice caused a small decrease in the plasma concentrations of acebutolol and diacetolol by interfering with gastrointestinal absorption. The interaction between the grapefruit juice and acebutolol is unlikely to be of clinical significance in most of the patients. PMID:16305592

  16. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations. PMID:19610336

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or gastric polyps . Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables. Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly. Being older or male. Smoking cigarettes. Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach ...

  18. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or gastric polyps . Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables. Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly. Being older or male. Smoking cigarettes. Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach ...

  19. Stem cells in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

  20. The mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of early gastric cancers are comparable to those of advanced gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Min; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Baek, In-Pyo; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Sung Hak; Lee, Han Hong; Kim, Sung Soo; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2014-11-01

    Early gastric cancers (EGCs) precede advanced gastric cancers (AGCs), with a favourable prognosis compared to AGC. To understand the progression mechanism of EGC to AGC, it is required to disclose EGC and AGC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of nine microsatellite (MS)-unstable (MSI-H) (five EGCs and four AGCs) and eight MS-stable (MSS) gastric cancers (four EGCs and four AGCs). In the cancers, we observed well-known driver mutations (TP53, APC, PIK3CA, ARID1A, and KRAS) that were enriched in cancer-related pathways, including chromatin remodelling and tyrosine kinase activity. The MSI-H genomes harboured ten times more mutations, but were largely depleted of copy number alterations (CNAs) compared to the MSS cancers. Interestingly, EGC genomes showed a comparable level of mutations to AGC in terms of the number, sequence composition, and functional consequences (potential driver mutations and affected pathways) of mutations. Furthermore, the CNAs between EGC and AGC genomes were not significantly different in either MSI-H and MSS. Evolutionary analyses using somatic mutations and MSI as molecular clocks further identified that EGC genomes were as old as AGC genomes in both MSS and MSI-H cancers. Our results suggest that the genetic makeup for gastric cancer may already be achieved in EGC genomes and that the time required for transition to AGC may be relatively short. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful in the clinical settings for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25042771

  1. [Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments. PMID:17992984

  2. Advances in gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  3. Advances in gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-09-10

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  4. Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Ryan T.

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

  5. Rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, might provoke functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Zai, Hiroaki; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kuribayashi, Shikou; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-04-01

    It has been suggested that there could be three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction in patients with FD: (i) delayed gastric emptying, (ii) impaired gastric accommodation of food intake, and (iii) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Postprandial fullness seems to be the most severe symptom in patients who report aggravation of their symptoms after meals. Therefore, it has been assumed that delayed gastric emptying and consequent prolonged antral distension could reduce hunger, increase satiety, and even cause gastric discomfort, all of which would pose a significant barrier to adequate nutrition. We previously reported that postprandial water intake inhibits gastric antral motility along with an increase of cholecystokinin (CCK) in normal subjects. We assumed that the rapid increase of CCK after water intake was initiated by a feedback mechanism related to the inflow of fatty chyme into the duodenum that inhibits gastric antral activity. This duodeno-gastric interaction is known as the "duodenal break." We also reported that total gastric emptying was more rapid after the intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal than after a low-viscosity meal, because the low-viscosity liquid meal inhibits gastric emptying after rapid initial inflow into the duodenum. Considering these results, we hypothesized that rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, could be a cause of FD. In some patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), we have found a significant correspondence between PDS-related dyspepsia and accelerated gastric emptying in the early postprandial period. It is worth emphasizing that the duodenum and the duodeno-gastric interaction (duodenal break) could have an important role in the pathophysiology of FD. We consider that rapid gastric emptying might be a more important factor than delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD. PMID:21443715

  6. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  7. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  8. Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.

    PubMed

    Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80 g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine. PMID:25766825

  9. Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2006-08-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were monitored. L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum grew well on cabbage juice and reached nearly 10x10(8) CFU/mL after 48 h of fermentation at 30 degrees C. L. casei, however, produced a smaller amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid than L. delbrueckii or L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C, the viable cell counts of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii were still 4.1x10(7) and 4.5x10(5) mL(-1), respectively. L. casei did not survive the low pH and high acidity conditions in fermented cabbage juice and lost cell viability completely after 2 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Fermented cabbage juice could serve as a healthy beverage for vegetarians and lactose-allergic consumers. PMID:16125381

  10. Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

  11. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing, cold pressing, pasteurization, and filling-packing. Two major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), two phenolic acids (3- and caffeoylquinic acid) and 3 flavonols (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside) were identified using LC-QTOF-MS and were quantified using HPLC. Approximately, 60-70% of the fruit anthocyanins were retained in the final juice, which also contained high levels of caffeoylquinic acids, relative to the fruit. Mashing and pressing were the steps which were effective for the recovery of fruit polyphenolics into the juice fraction. Moreover, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, applied to determine the effect of processing on the bioavailability of mulberry antioxidants, indicated a higher anthocyanin bioavailability for the fruit matrix than for the juice matrix. PMID:25976822

  12. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked. PMID:25537500

  13. Probiotication of tomato juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2004-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of tomato juice as a raw material for production of probiotic juice by four lactic acid bacteria (Latobacillus acidophilus LA39, Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Tomato juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were measured. The lactic acid cultures reduced the pH to 4.1 or below and increased the acidity to 0.65% or higher, and the viable cell counts (CFU) reached nearly 1.0 to 9.0 x 10(9)/ml after 72 h fermentation. The viable cell counts of the four lactic acid bacteria in the fermented tomato juice ranged from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml after 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Probiotic tomato juice could serve as a health beverage for vegetarians or consumers who are allergic to dairy products. PMID:15650688

  14. Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed. PMID:21219779

  15. Molecular classification and prediction in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongzhong; Song, Won-min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a highly heterogeneous disease, is the second leading cause of cancer death and the fourth most common cancer globally, with East Asia accounting for more than half of cases annually. Alongside TNM staging, gastric cancer clinic has two well-recognized classification systems, the Lauren classification that subdivides gastric adenocarcinoma into intestinal and diffuse types and the alternative World Health Organization system that divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas. Both classification systems enable a better understanding of the histogenesis and the biology of gastric cancer yet have a limited clinical utility in guiding patient therapy due to the molecular heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Unprecedented whole-genome-scale data have been catalyzing and advancing the molecular subtyping approach. Here we cataloged and compared those published gene expression profiling signatures in gastric cancer. We summarized recent integrated genomic characterization of gastric cancer based on additional data of somatic mutation, chromosomal instability, EBV virus infection, and DNA methylation. We identified the consensus patterns across these signatures and identified the underlying molecular pathways and biological functions. The identification of molecular subtyping of gastric adenocarcinoma and the development of integrated genomics approaches for clinical applications such as prediction of clinical intervening emerge as an essential phase toward personalized medicine in treating gastric cancer. PMID:26380657

  16. Fruit juices as perpetrators of drug interactions: the role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Dolton, M J; Roufogalis, B D; McLachlan, A J

    2012-11-01

    Grapefruit juice is widely recognized to cause important drug interactions via inhibition of CYP3A4, and a wider variety of fruit juices have been shown to inhibit influx transporters in enterocytes known as organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). Fruit juice coadministration significantly reduces the oral bioavailability of numerous important medicines relying on this anion transporter pathway for absorption. This article reviews the current literature on interactions between clinically used OATP substrates and fruit juice consumption. PMID:23033114

  17. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  19. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  20. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration. PMID:26807674

  1. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ..., 77 FR 45589 (August 1, 2012) and [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice from... Lemon Juice from Argentina, 78 FR 46610 (August 1, 2013). Therefore, pursuant to section 351.218(f)(4... Antidumping Duty Investigation: Lemon Juice From Argentina, 72 FR 53991 (September 21, 2007). Pursuant...

  2. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  3. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  4. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  5. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  6. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  7. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  8. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

  9. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have...

  10. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have...

  11. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have...

  12. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have...

  13. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  14. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice: a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Nicemol; Sukumaran, R K; Prema, P

    2008-12-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30-45 degrees C), enzyme concentration (0.5-1.5 U), and treatment time (30-90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. Significant regression models describing the changes of viscosity and clarity with respect to the independent variables were obtained, with the coefficient of determination, R (2) , greater than 0.8. Based on response surfaces and contour plots, the optimum conditions for clarifying sapodilla juice were enzyme concentration 1.15 U, incubation temperature 34 degrees C, and incubation time 70 min. PMID:18670739

  15. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  16. Interaction of grapefruit juice and calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2006-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions are commonly recognized occurrences in the hypertensive population. Drug-nutrient interactions, however, are less well appreciated. The grapefruit juice-calcium channel blocker interaction is one that has been known since 1989. The basis for this interaction has been diligently explored and appears to relate to both flavanoid and nonflavanoid components of grapefruit juice interfering with enterocyte CYP3A4 activity. In the process, presystemic clearance of susceptible drugs decreases and bioavailability increases. A number of calcium channel blockers are prone to this interaction, with the most prominent interaction occurring with felodipine. The calcium channel blocker and grapefruit juice interaction should be incorporated into the knowledge base of rational therapeutics for the prescribing physician. PMID:16814135

  17. Patulin in apple juices from the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine patulin levels in apple-based juices from the Romanian market and to establish a health risk assessment. For this purpose, 50 samples of apple-based juices have been purchased from the Romanian market. Aliquots were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, analysed and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The patulin level in the apple juices from Romania ranged between <0.7 μg/l and 101.9 μg/l. In 6% of the 50 samples analysed, the maximum limit for patulin as set by the European Union (50 μg/l) was exceeded. PMID:24914601

  18. Risk Factors for Metachronous Gastric Neoplasms in Patients Who Underwent Endoscopic Resection of a Gastric Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To identify the risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasms in patients who underwent an endoscopic resection of a gastric neoplasm. Methods We prospectively collected clinicopathologic data and measured the methylation levels of HAND1, THBD, APC, and MOS in the gastric mucosa by methylation-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms. Results A total of 257 patients with gastric neoplasms (113 low-grade dysplasias, 25 high-grade dysplasias, and 119 early gastric cancers) were enrolled. Metachronous gastric neoplasm developed in 7.4% of patients during a mean follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of metachronous gastric neoplasm was 4.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm development; the hazard ratios were 4.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 13.87; p=0.022) and 3.52 (95% CI, 1.09 to 11.40; p=0.036), respectively. The methylation level of MOS was significantly elevated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms compared age- and sex-matched patients without metachronous gastric neoplasms (p=0.020). Conclusions In patients who underwent endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasms, moderate/severe corpus intestinal metaplasia and a family history of gastric cancer were independent risk factors for metachronous gastric neoplasm, and MOS was significantly hypermethylated in patients with metachronous gastric neoplasms. PMID:26087797

  19. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

  20. Gastric Pseudotumoral Lesion Caused by a Fish Bone Mimicking a Gastric Submucosal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2014-01-01

    Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766