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1

Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin.  

PubMed

Chitin digestion by humans has generally been questioned or denied. Only recently chitinases have been found in several human tissues and their role has been associated with defense against parasite infections and to some allergic conditions. In this pilot study we tested the gastric juices of 25 Italian subjects on the artificial substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',diacetylchitobiose or/and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chitin to demonstrate the presence of a chitinase activity. Since this chitinase activity was demonstrated at acidic pH, it is currently referred to acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). AMCase activity was present in gastric juices of twenty of 25 Italian patients in a range of activity from 0.21 to 36.27 nmol/ml/h and from 8,881 to 1,254,782 fluorescence emission (CPS), according to the used methods. In the remaining five of 25 gastric juices, AMCase activity was almost absent in both assay methods. An allosamidine inhibition test and the measurement at different pH values confirmed that this activity was characteristic of AMCase. The absence of activity in 20% of the gastric juices may be a consequence of virtual absence of chitinous food in the Western diet. PMID:17587796

Paoletti, Maurizio G; Norberto, Lorenzo; Damini, Roberta; Musumeci, Salvatore

2007-01-01

2

Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Hypochlorhydria is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We have studied the effect of pharmacologically induced hypochlorhydria on the gastric juice ascorbate\\/nitrite ratio, which regulates the synthesis of potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Methods: Saliva, gastric juice, and serum from 20 healthy volunteers (9 positive for Helicobacter pylori), with a mean age of 30 years (range,

Craig Mowat; Andrew Carswell; Angela Wirz; Kenneth E. L. McColl

1999-01-01

3

Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple

U. E. Inyang; U. J. Abah

1997-01-01

4

Agar gel electrophoresis of proteolytic enzymes in gastric juice of patients with chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar gel electrophoresis with proteolytic digestion of albumin substrate and subsequent Chromoscan analysis of the agar slide, were used to study the proteolytic enzymes of gastric juice in 28 patients with atrophic gastritis with or without intestinal metaplasia, 7 patients with chronic superficial gastritis and 6 with a normal gastric mucosa. Five proteolytic enzyme spots, designated I through V in

Mona Agunod; George B. Jerzy Glass

1972-01-01

5

Effects of Juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Gastric Emptying in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml\\/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the

Hsiao-Fung Pu; Wei-Ju Huang; Wen-Min Tseng; Shyi-Wu Wang; Yu-Wen Liu; Ming-Long Doong; Paulus S. Wang

2004-01-01

6

Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 ?m and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

2012-12-01

7

Encapsulation in alginate and alginate coated-chitosan improved the survival of newly probiotic in oxgall and gastric juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to develop an optimum composition model for the microencapsulation of a newly probiotic on sodium alginate using response surface methodology. The individual and interactive effects of three independent variables, namely sodium alginate concentration, biomass concentration, and hardening time, were investigated using Box-Behnken design experiments. A second ordered polynomial model was fitted and optimum conditions were estimated. The optimal conditions identified were 2% for sodium alginate, 10(10)UFC/ml for biomass, and 30 min for hardening time. The experimental value obtained for immobilized cells under these conditions was about 80.98%, which was in close agreement with the predicted value of 82.6%. Viability of microspheres (96%) was enhanced with chitosan as coating materials. The survival rates of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 during exposure to artificial gastrointestinal conditions were compared. The results revealed that the encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistances to artificial intestinal juice (AIJ) and artificial gastric juice (AGJ). Microencapsulation was also noted to effectively protect the strain from heating at 65 °C and refrigerating at 4 °C. Taken together, the findings indicated that microencapsulation conferred important protective effects to L. plantarum against the gastrointestinal conditions encountered during the transit of food. PMID:23817092

Trabelsi, Imen; Bejar, Wacim; Ayadi, Dorra; Chouayekh, Hichem; Kammoun, Radhouane; Bejar, Samir; Ben Salah, Riadh

2013-10-01

8

Detection of Helicobacter pylori carriers by discriminant analysis of urea and pH levels in gastric juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative approach to the problems inherent in current methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori carriers--that of being generally time-consuming, expensive, and not sufficiently sensitive--was devised by using the urea concentration and pH levels of gastric juices. A linear discriminant analysis of these variables, measured in 54 patients submitted to digestive endoscopy for gastritis, provided a mathematical formula for assigning the

F Ameglio; M R Abbolito; D Giannarelli; F Citarda; A Grassi; G M Gandolfo; V Casale

1991-01-01

9

Black carrot ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus) juice: Processing effects on antioxidant composition and color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carrot, a potential source of anthocyanin pigment, has high antioxidant activity. The effect of pre-press maceration treatment with different doses of cell wall degrading enzyme pectinase (Aspergillus niger Teigh) on antioxidant composition of black carrot juice was investigated. Enzyme-assisted processing significantly (p<0.05) improved the antioxidant composition of black carrot juice. There was an overall increase of 33% in juice

Vishwanath Khandare; Shweta Walia; Meenakshi Singh; Charanjit Kaur

2011-01-01

10

Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration  

PubMed Central

Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

2015-01-01

11

Evaluation of Two String Tests for Obtaining Gastric Juice for Culture, Nested-PCR Detection, and Combined Single and Double-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism Discrimination of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared two gastric string tests forobtaining gastric juice for culture of Helicobacterpylori and for nested-PCR detection and PCR-basedcombined single- and double-stranded conformationalpolymorphism (SDSCP) discrimination of infecting strains.String test specimens were obtained from oneseropositive volunteer for 13 consecutive weeks. Thedistal 10 cm of each string was suspended in 1 ml salineand quantitatively cultured. An additional ninevolunteers with histories of

Donald A. Ferguson; Chauncang Jiang; David S. Chi; John J. Laffan; Chaunfu Li; Eapen Thomas

1999-01-01

12

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

1991-01-01

13

Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402

Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

2013-08-01

14

A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices.  

PubMed

Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. PMID:25151221

Schlosser, Paul M; Sasso, Alan F

2014-10-15

15

Assessment of the validity of maturity metrics for predicting the volatile composition of Concord grape juice.  

PubMed

Total soluble solids (TSS) are typically used as the sole metric for maturity of Concord grapes. However, the reliability of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of finished juice for grapes sourced from multiple sites has not been investigated. This study sought to determine the validity of TSS in predicting the aroma composition of the juice while also investigating other potentially useful indicators, including pH, titratable acidity (TA), and TSS:TA ratio. Grapes were harvested from 9 sites in the Lake Erie Concord Grape Belt and stratified from north to south and east to west. The key aroma compounds methyl anthranilate ("grapey") and trans-2-hexenal ("herbaceous") were quantified along with several other odorants. It was observed that while TSS was a robust predictor of monomeric anthocyanin content across sites, it was a poor predictor of aroma compounds in the finished juice. Conversely, pH, TA, and TSS:TA ratio were all significantly correlated with methyl anthranilate and trans-2-hexenal concentrations (P < 0.05) in samples equal to or exceeding 15 Brix, the industry minimum for grape maturity. These results indicate that parameters related to acidity are better predictors of aroma composition than TSS, which may aid in efforts to minimize herbaceous off-aromas and optimize the aroma composition of the finished juice. PMID:22384957

Iyer, Meera M; Sacks, Gavin L; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2012-03-01

16

Sugarcane Genotypic Variation in Juice Sugar Composition as Affected by Sampling Date  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida lasts more than 180 days from late October through mid April. Sugarcane juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are closely related to sucrose yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to determine dynamics of sugar componen...

17

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,

Anh Kim T. Bui; Antony Bacic; Filomena Pettolino

2006-01-01

18

Body composition changes following laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports of outcome following obesity surgery report weight and co-morbidity changes only. We studied body composition changes in 17 adult patients (15 F, 2 M, age 43±2 years, range 28–58 years), with morbid obesity (initial BMI 40.4±4.9 kg\\/m 2, range 34.7–48.8) who were managed surgically by laparoscopically inserting an adjustable gastric band. Body composition was studied before and after

B. J. G. Strauss; S. J. Marks; J. P. Growcott; D. B. Stroud; C. S. Lo; J. B. Dixon; P. E. O’Brien

2003-01-01

19

Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.  

PubMed

Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2015-01-01

20

[The effect of preoperative oral fluid intake on the volume and pH of gastric contents in elective surgical patients--a comparison of tea with apple juice].  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of 150 ml of either tea or apple juice on the volume and pH of gastric contents in 40 elective surgical patients, ranging in age from 18 to 70 years. They were given diazepam 5 approximately 10 mg and roxatidine 75 mg orally 2 hours before the start of isoflurane anesthesia or modified neuroleptic anesthesia. Immediately following the induction of anesthesia with thiopental and vecuronium, a nasogastric tube was placed to aspirate the gastric content to measure its volume and pH. The volume and pH of gastric contents were 6.4 +/- 8.5 ml, 6.0 +/- 2.2 in tea group and 17.1 +/- 18.4 ml, 4.4 +/- 2.6 in apple juice group, respectively. There was a significant difference in the gastric volume between the two groups (P < 0.05), while no significant difference in gastric pH was observed. This result suggests that apple juice is not appropriate as preoperative drink because apple juice increases gastric contents, and may cause aspiration pneumonia. PMID:8818093

Tanabe, T; Hashimoto, Y; Sugihara, K; Miyata, A; Maeda, A; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A

1996-08-01

21

Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status. METHODS: Fifty

Vasileios A Pagkalos; Joanna Moschandreas; Michael Kiriakakis; Maria Roussomoustakaki; Anthony Kafatos; Elias Kouroumalis

2009-01-01

22

Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice. PMID:25248994

de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

2015-01-01

23

Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.  

PubMed

In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. PMID:25038655

Malinauskyt?, Ernesta; Ramanauskait?, Jovita; Leskauskait?, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

2014-12-15

24

Effects of Orange Juice Formulation on Prebiotic Functionality Using an In Vitro Colonic Model System  

PubMed Central

A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417

Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.

2015-01-01

25

Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.  

PubMed

Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2015-09-01

26

Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip. PMID:22835229

Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina

2012-08-17

27

The Significance of Gastric Juice Analysis for a Positive Challenge by a Standard Oral Challenge Test in Typical Cow's Milk Protein-Induced Enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the significance of gastric juice analysis (GJA) as a diagnostic criterion of a positive challenge in a standard oral cow's milk challenge (OCC) to confirm typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis (CMPIE). Data from 16 CMPIE patients (aged 14 to 44 days) were analyzed. A standard OCC was openly executed using 0.15 g/kg of protein. Three symptoms (vomiting, lethargy, and bloody or pus-like stool), and four laboratory findings (GJA [3 hr], changes in peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count [ANC] [6 hr], C-reactive protein [6 hr], and stool smear test for occult blood or leukocytes) were observed after OCC. Before OCC, baseline studies were conducted; a stool smear test, blood sampling, and GJA. Positive OCC results were; vomiting (87.5%) (observed 1-3 hr after OCC), lethargy (62.5%) (1-3 hr), bloody or pus-like stool (43.8%) (6-10 hr), abnormal GJA (93.8%), an ANC rise >3,500 cells/µL (93.8%), and an abnormal stool smear test (75.0%). A single GJA test after a standard OCC is a sensitive diagnostic criterion of a positive challenge, and may provide an early confirmatory diagnosis of CMPIE. An investigation of positive OCC outcomes helps to find out a diagnostic algorithm of criteria of a positive challenge in CMPIE. PMID:18437008

Song, Jeong-Yoon; Kang, Yu Na; Kim, Sang Pyo; Suh, Seong-Il; Kam, Sin; Choi, Won Joung

2008-01-01

28

Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 Chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis.  

PubMed

Various pomegranate cultivars are grown in several regions of China, but comparative study of their juice polyphenols, antioxidant potentials, and health benefits are few. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions, and antioxidant potentials of pomegranate aril juices from 10 cultivars in 4 Chinese regions were investigated. The results showed that the soluble solid content, reducing sugar content, titratable acid content of them were 13.97-16.30°Brix, 62.82-110.70 g/L, 2.657-36.62 g/L, respectively. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were 3.15-7.43 mg GaE/mL, 0.045-0.335 mg QuE/mL, 0.540-2.531 mg TaE/mL, and 0.004-0.160 mg CyE/mL, respectively. Sugar acid ratio, titratable acid content, total flavonoid concentration, and DPPH scavenging capacity were affected mainly by sweet and sour cultivar type, while soluble solid content and total anthocyanin concentration were affected by environment. Temperature in maturity period and latitude of growing region significantly effected on polyphenol and antioxidant potential levels of pomegranate juice. PMID:25577122

Li, Xuan; Wasila, Humaira; Liu, Linwei; Yuan, Tian; Gao, Zhongmei; Zhao, Beita; Ahmad, Imran

2015-05-15

29

Effect of maturity, processing and storage on the furanocoumarin composition of grapefruit and grapefruit juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the early 1990's, grapefruit juice has been implicated in drug interaction. There are indications that furanocoumarins induce the catabolism of cytochrome P450, CYP3A4 enzyme in the intestine enterocytes. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing variable proportions of several drugs taken o...

30

Compositional and Structural Characterization of Pectic Material from Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-( 1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority ...

31

Effects of the food additive sulfite on nitrite-dependent nitric oxide production under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.  

PubMed

The food additive sulfite is mixed with saliva, which contains nitrite, in the oral cavity, and the mixture is mixed with gastric juice in the stomach. In the stomach, salivary nitrite can be transformed to nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the effects of sulfite on nitrite-dependent NO production were investigated using acidified saliva (pH 2.6) and acidic buffer solutions (pH 2.0). Sulfite enhanced NO production in acidified saliva and acidic buffer solutions, and the enhancement increased with the increase in sulfite concentration from 0 to 0.1 mM, whereas suppressed NO production and the suppression increased as the concentration was increased over 0.2 mM. The enhancement was due to the increase in reaction rate between nitrous acid and nitrososulfonate (ONSO(3)(-)) that was formed by the reaction of nitrous acid with hydrogen sulfite, and the suppression was due to the increase in hydrogen sulfite-dependent consumption rate of ONSO(3)(-). A salivary component SCN(-) (1 mM) enhanced and suppressed NO production induced by 1 mM nitrite when sulfite concentrations were lower and higher than 1 mM, respectively. ONSO(3)(-) formed from hydrogen sulfite and nitrosyl thiocyanate (ONSCN), which was produced by the reaction of nitrous acid with SCN(-), seemed to contribute to the enhancement and suppression. NO production induced by nitrite/ascorbic acid systems was suppressed by sulfite, and the suppressive effects were decreased by SCN(-), whereas sulfite-induced suppression of NO production in nitrite/rutin systems was increased by SCN(-). During reactions of nitrite with sulfite in the presence and absence of SCN(-), oxygen was taken up. The oxygen uptake is discussed to be due to autoxidation of NO and radical chain reactions initiated by hydrogen sulfite radicals. The results of the present study suggest that sulfite can enhance and suppress nitrite-dependent NO production. It is discussed that radicals including hydrogen sulfite radicals can be formed through the reactions of nitrite and sulfite in the stomach. PMID:22224438

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

2012-02-01

32

Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC)/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component. PMID:22482081

Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Kitazawa, Masato; Mochizuka, Akiyoshi; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

2012-01-01

33

Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.  

PubMed

After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement. PMID:10798720

Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

2000-06-01

34

Library Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Library Juice is a current awareness newsletter for librarians and other information professionals, published weekly by editor-librarian Rory Litwin. Each issue of Library Juice compiles recent news, articles, and announcements gleaned from a wide range of mailing lists related to librarianship, information science, intellectual freedom, and social responsibility. The Website posts the current issue of the newsletter and maintains an archive of all past issues.

35

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

36

Protective role of nitric oxide in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration by a mechanism independent of gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric ulceration was induced in rats by i.p. injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin (IND) (30 mg kg?1). Pyloric ligation was carried out in each animal before injection to enable collection of the gastric juice. Three hours later, the animals were killed and their stomachs were removed. In the gastric juice, the amounts of mucin, pepsin and HCl

Mahmoud M. Khattab; Mohamed Z. Gad; Dalaal Abdallah

2001-01-01

37

Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.  

PubMed

Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer. PMID:19468836

Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

2009-06-01

38

Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-? associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. PMID:25471339

Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

2014-12-01

39

Determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of blood orange juices obtained from cvs. Moro and Sanguinello ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) grown in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of orange juices obtained from cvs. Moro and Sanguinello (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were determined. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds of the orange juices. A total of 18 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in Moro and Sanguinello orange juices, including hydroxybenzoic

Hasim Kelebek; Ahmet Canbas; Serkan Selli

2008-01-01

40

Enhancement of iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide by thiocyanate and accumulation of iron(II)/thiocyanate/nitric oxide complex under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.  

PubMed

Iron(III) ingested as a food component or supplement for iron deficiencies can react with salivary SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+) and can be reduced to iron(II) by ascorbic acid in the stomach. Iron(II) generated in the stomach can react with salivary nitrite and SCN(-) to produce nitric oxide (NO) and FeSCN(+), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to make clear the reactions among nitrite, SCN(-), iron ions, and ascorbic acid under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice. Iron(II)-dependent reduction of nitrite to NO was enhanced by SCN(-) in acidic buffer solutions, and the oxidation product of iron(II) reacted with SCN(-) to produce Fe(SCN)(2+). Almost all of the NO produced was autoxidized to N(2)O(3) under aerobic conditions. Iron(II)-dependent production of NO was also observed in acidified saliva. Under anaerobic conditions, NO transformed Fe(SCN)(2+) and FeSCN(+) to Fe(SCN)NO(+) in acidic buffer solutions. Fe(SCN)NO(+) was also formed under aerobic conditions when excess ascorbic acid was added to iron(II)/nitrite/SCN(-) systems in acidic buffer solutions and acidified saliva. The Fe(SCN)NO(+) formed was transformed to Fe(SCN)(2+) and iron(III) at pH 2.0 and pH 7.4, respectively, by O(2). Salivary glycoproteins could complex with iron(III) in the stomach preventing the formation of Fe(SCN)(2+). Ascorbic acid reduced iron(III) to iron(II) to react with nitrite and SCN(-) as described above. The above results suggest (i) that iron(II) can have toxic effects on the stomach through the formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species from NO when supplemented without ascorbic acid and through the formation of both reactive nitrogen oxide species and Fe(SCN)NO(+) when supplemented with ascorbic acid, and (ii) that the toxic effects of iron(III) seemed to be smaller than and similar to those of iron(II) when supplemented without and with ascorbic acid, respectively. Possible mechanisms that cause oxidative stress on the stomach through Fe(SCN)NO(+) are discussed. PMID:22145785

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

2012-01-13

41

Effect of processing on physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) tropical juice.  

PubMed

Yellow mombin (Spondias mombin, L.) is a tropical fruit that presents exotic taste and aroma, being source of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. It presents a good potential for processing, despite some restriction related with the presence of high amounts of peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) which can cause sensory changes in the product. This work addresses the evaluation of changes in POD and PME enzyme activity during the traditional industrial processing used to produce tropical juices in Brazil. The enzyme activity was determined after the main steps of the processing: fruit pulping, homogenization and pasteurization. Although both enzymes presented significant activity loss during processing, the final product showed residual activity for PME (25 %) and POD (2.5 %). PME showed to be more thermal resistant than POD in yellow mombin juice. Considering the compounds with antioxidant activity, yellow mombin presented high amounts of carotenoids and phenolics when compared to other tropical fruits such as passion fruit and pineapple. Although the processing of the fruit resulted in significative phenolic loss, the carotenoids content was not affected significantly by the processing. PMID:25694737

de Carvalho, Joelia Marques; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; da Fonseca, Ana Valquíria V; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique M; Rodrigues, Sueli

2015-02-01

42

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

43

Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit), liquid (grapefruit juice) and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9) were randomly assigned to (127 g) grapefruit (GF), grapefruit juice (GFJ) or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams) of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm). However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2%) and GFJ (+8.2%) preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%). Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF and GFJ preload groups experienced significantly greater benefits in lipid profiles. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00581074 PMID:21288350

2011-01-01

44

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

2014-08-27

45

An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage  

PubMed Central

Abstract The standard of care for chronic gastro?esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000?fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 106 –fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M.; Davis, R. Duane; Lin, Shu S.

2015-01-01

46

Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.  

PubMed

Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism. PMID:23631498

Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

2013-05-01

47

An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.  

PubMed

The standard of care for chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000-fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 10(6) -fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. PMID:25626870

Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Thompson, J Will; Dubois, Laura G; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

2015-01-01

48

Bile reflux and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine associations between enterogastric bile reflux and gastric mucosal pathology. METHOD: A retrospective study using fasting gastric juice bile acid measurements and antral or prestomal biopsy specimens from 350 patients, 66 of whom had previously undergone surgery that either bypassed or disrupted the pyloric sphincter. RESULTS: Bile reflux was positively associated with reactive gastritis and negatively with Helicobacter

G M Sobala; H J OConnor; E P Dewar; R F King; A T Axon; M F Dixon

1993-01-01

49

Chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fruit juice by precipitation with ethanol or ferric chloride.  

PubMed

Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation. PMID:19739640

Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan

2009-10-14

50

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2010-04-01

51

[The influence of corvitin on secretory processes and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa].  

PubMed

We studied parameters of gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rat and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa under the influence of drug corvitin used intragastrically in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg. Biochemical analysis of gastric juice was based on the determination of pH, total hydrochloric acid production and total protein, hexosamine and cysteine concentration. Gastric juice analysis in control rats found the presence of hexosamines-- a gastric mucus indicators and cysteine--free amino acid whith properties of a strong antioxidant. Concentration of these compounds in the gastric juice increased as a consequence of corvitin action. However, corvitin did not affect at these parameters of gastric secretion as the volume of gastric juice, pH, hydrochloric acid output rate, protein concentration. Additionally it was shown that corvitin in dose-dependent manner increased blood flow in the gastric mucosa. This results give reason to believe that corvitin can be considered as a tool that amplifies gastric mucosal defense mechanisms without affecting the secretion of gastric hydrochloric acid and total protein. PMID:23713349

Vovkun, T V; Ianchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Ia; Vesel'sky?, S P; Baranovs'ky?, V A

2013-01-01

52

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section. (b ) “Lemon juice from concentrate” or “reconstituted lemon juice” (1 ) if the food is prepared from concentrated...juice; or (2 ) if the food is prepared from lemon juice from concentrate and lemon juice. The...

2010-04-01

53

Changes in Juice Sugar Components during Sugarcane Ripening  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is usually harvested from late October through early April in Florida. Although juice sucrose content and extractable sugar composition are directly associated with sucrose yield and quality, little is known about changes in juice sugar components (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) during ri...

54

An Experimental Investigation of Lime Juice Drying in a Pilot Plant Spray Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in spray drying of fruit juices such as lime juice is stickiness and thermoplasticity of their compositions. Lime juice consists of invert sugars and citric acid, which have low glass transition temperatures. Due to this characteristic, the particles stick on the dryer wall upon their collision with it. As a result, drying of these materials

O. R. Roustapour; M. Hosseinalipour; B. Ghobadian

2006-01-01

55

Grapefruit juice and orange juice effects on the bioavailability of nifedipine in the rat.  

PubMed

Previous studies with rats indicate that nifedipine undergoes both hepatic and extrahepatic presystemic metabolism after peroral (po) administration, and that its bioavailability is increased and absorption delayed by concomitant administration of grapefruit juice concentrate (GJC). Hence, the effects of GJC could be to delay stomach emptying and inhibit nifedipine metabolism in the small-intestinal wall and liver or, alternatively, to impede nifedipine absorption until reaching the large intestine where gut wall presystemic metabolism is not a factor. The mechanism(s) of action of GJC might be partially resolved by comparison with orange juice concentrate (OJC), which has a similar consistency but lacks inhibitory effects on nifedipine presystemic metabolism, and also by giving regular-strength solutions of the two juices, both on which should not significantly affect stomach emptying. This study compared the po bioavailability of nifedipine (6 mg kg-1) in male Sprague-Dawley rats coadministered GJC, OJC, grapefruit juice regular strength (GJRS), orange juice regular strength (OJRS), or (tap) water. Nifedipine plasma concentration-time profiles in the GJRS, OJRS, and (tap) water groups displayed a single peak. Both GJC and OJC groups have double-peak profiles (indicating delayed gastric emptying); however, the majority of the nifedipine dose in both cases was absorbed during the interval of the second peak, which occurred several hours postdosing. GJC significantly increased nifedipine bioavailability (relative bioavailability 2.02, compared with (tap) water), indicating that GJC may affect both extrahepatic and hepatic first-pass metabolism, although a reduction in systemic nifedipine clearance cannot be ruled out. Surprisingly, GJRS had no significant effect on nifedipine bioavailability. OJC did not increase nifedipine bioavailability, further suggesting that the delay in nifedipine absorption by GJC or OJC results from delayed gastric emptying. PMID:9570001

Grundy, J S; Eliot, L A; Kulmatycki, K M; Foster, R T

1998-04-01

56

Gastric conditions control both the evolution of the organization of protein-stabilized emulsions and the kinetic of lipolysis during in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

During digestion, lipids undergo modifications of their colloidal and molecular structures, which depend on the digestive conditions and the composition of the digestive juices. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether gastric pH and pepsin modulate the colloidal evolution and the bioacessibility of fatty acids of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by a protein during in vitro digestion. The fate of BSA-stabilized rapeseed oil-in-water emulsion during gastric phase at pH 2.5 or 4.0 with or without pepsin and its consequences on intestinal lipolysis was measured in the simulated gastric and duodenal conditions. The pH had limited impact but pepsin favoured flocculation and coalescence of the droplets, modulating the early stage of lipolysis but not its final extent. PMID:22918290

Kenmogne-Domguia, Hernan Brice; Meynier, Anne; Viau, Michèle; Llamas, Geneviève; Genot, Claude

2012-12-01

57

Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion new test to detect protein-losing gastropathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We

Ch. Florent; N. Vidon; B. Flourié; A. Carmantrand; A. Zerbani; M. Maurel; J. J. Bernier

1986-01-01

58

Rapid authentication of concord juice concentration in a grape juice blend using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Concord grape juice is associated with many health benefits, and so it can be sold at a premium price. However, there is currently no method to verify the percent composition of Concord grape juice in grape juice blends. In order to guard against potential adulteration, a rapid method for authentication is required. Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to develop a model which predicts the percent composition of Concord grape juice. The model was based on a training set of 64 samples with Concord concentrations ranging from 50% to 100%. Data was collected on an external validation set with a standard error of prediction of 5.6% using 7 factors. The results suggest the feasibility of using FT-IR coupled with chemometrics as a production-scale tool for authentication claims of Concord in grape juice blends, protecting consumers and businesses against deceptive labelling. PMID:24206721

Snyder, Abigail B; Sweeney, Christian F; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E; Giusti, M Monica

2014-03-15

59

Gastric emptying in young pigs  

PubMed Central

1. Gastric emptying in young pigs has been studied by using a serial test meal procedure. 2. Phenol red was used as a reference substance. In acute experiments the recovery of phenol red from the stomach with the pylorus occluded was 94·8 ± 2·2 (S.E.)% of that introduced. 3. Gastric emptying was examined in seven fasted conscious pigs provided with a chronic gastric cannula. After emptying the stomach 500 ml. of a liquid meal containing 20 g citrus pectin, 35·0 g sucrose and 100 mg phenol red made up to 1 l. was introduced. After 5-60 min the meal was withdrawn, the volume of meal that had left the stomach was assessed from the recovery of phenol red and the secretion of gastric juice was calculated from the dilution of phenol red and the rate of emptying. After an initial very rapid outflow, the rate of emptying fell with time, as did the rate of secretion. 4. In three pigs 200, 400, 600 or 800 ml. meal was introduced into the stomach and the stomach was emptied 20 min later. The rate of gastric emptying varied directly with the volume of meal introduced. 5. Atropine sulphate, 0·5 mg/kg body weight, injected I.M. 30 min before the test, greatly inhibited gastric emptying and secretion. PMID:4754870

Ochia, B. A.

1973-01-01

60

5.NF Drinking Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had $\\frac{1}{2}$ a liter of juice in a bottle. She drank $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the juice that was in the bottle. How many liters of juice did she dri...

61

Gastric emptying and glycemic response after ingestion of mashed bean or potato flakes in composite meals13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two meals ofmashed-bean or potato flakes and meat were served in random order to six healthy male subjects to determine effects on gastric emptying and glycemic reac- tions. The meals had comparable physical appearance and contained similar amounts of di- gestible carbohydrate, fat, and protein. No difference in gastric emptying, recorded by gamma camera after mixing 51Cr with the meals,

Inga Torsdottir; Magne Alpsten; Henrik Andersson; Thomas F Schweizer

62

Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935

Wojdy?o, Aneta; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Oszmia?ski, Jan

2014-01-01

63

Applications of microencapsulated bifidobacterium longum with eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

2015-01-01

64

The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

1980-01-01

65

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...water. The name of the food is “Pineapple juice from concentrate” if the finished juice...the words “Pineapple juice” or “Pineapple juice from concentrate.” (3) Label declaration...ingredients used in the food shall be declared...

2010-04-01

66

Unpasteurized juice may pose danger.  

PubMed

People with HIV or immune system deficiencies should avoid drinking unpasteurized fruit juices and cider that may contain harmful bacteria that can make them sick. These products, however, may not be labeled with a statement warning that they have not been pasteurized. Frozen concentrates, shelf-stable juice in hermetically-sealed containers, and canned juices are safe to drink. PMID:11364868

1998-01-01

67

Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.  

PubMed

Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis. PMID:23899880

Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; W?drychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zaj?c, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

2013-08-01

68

Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice  

PubMed Central

Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

1968-01-01

69

Optimization of hot water extraction for sapodilla juice using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction conditions of sapodilla juice using hot water extraction. The independent variables were juice extraction time (30–120min) and temperature (30–90°C). The combined effect of these variables on juice yield, odour, taste and astringency were investigated. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the

H. N. Sin; S. Yusof; N. Sheikh Abdul Hamid; R. Abd. Rahman

2006-01-01

70

A review on gastric leptin: the exocrine secretion of a gastric hormone  

PubMed Central

A major advance in the understanding of the regulation of food intake has been the discovery of the adipokine leptin a hormone secreted by the adipose tissue. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, leptin reaches its main site of action at the level of the hypothalamic cells where it plays fundamental roles in the control of appetite and in the regulation of energy expenditure. At first considered as a hormone specific to the white adipose tissue, it was rapidly found to be expressed by other tissues. Among these, the gastric mucosa has been demonstrated to secrete large amounts of leptin. Secretion of leptin by the gastric chief cells was found to be an exocrine secretion. Leptin is secreted towards the gastric lumen into the gastric juice. We found that while secretion of leptin by the white adipose tissue is constitutive, secretion by the gastric cells is a regulated one responding very rapidly to secretory stimuli such as food intake. Exocrine-secreted leptin survives the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice by forming a complex with its soluble receptor. This soluble receptor is synthesized by the gastric cells and the leptin-leptin receptor complex gets formed at the level of the gastric chief cell secretory granules before being released into the gastric lumen. The leptin-leptin receptor upon resisting the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice is channelled, to the duodenum. Transmembrane leptin receptors expressed at the luminal membrane of the duodenal enterocytes interact with the luminal leptin. Leptin is actively transcytosed by the duodenal enterocytes. From the apical membrane it is transferred to the Golgi apparatus where it binds again its soluble receptor. The newly formed leptin-leptin receptor complex is then secreted baso-laterally into the intestinal mucosa to reach the blood capillaries and circulation thus reaching the hypothalamus where its action regulates food intake. Exocrine-secreted gastric leptin participates in the short term regulation of food intake independently from that secreted by the adipose tissue. Adipose tissue leptin on the other hand, regulates in the long term energy storage. Both tissues work in tandem to ensure management of food intake and energy expenditure. PMID:22536547

Cammisotto, Philippe

2012-01-01

71

A review on gastric leptin: the exocrine secretion of a gastric hormone.  

PubMed

A major advance in the understanding of the regulation of food intake has been the discovery of the adipokine leptin a hormone secreted by the adipose tissue. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, leptin reaches its main site of action at the level of the hypothalamic cells where it plays fundamental roles in the control of appetite and in the regulation of energy expenditure. At first considered as a hormone specific to the white adipose tissue, it was rapidly found to be expressed by other tissues. Among these, the gastric mucosa has been demonstrated to secrete large amounts of leptin. Secretion of leptin by the gastric chief cells was found to be an exocrine secretion. Leptin is secreted towards the gastric lumen into the gastric juice. We found that while secretion of leptin by the white adipose tissue is constitutive, secretion by the gastric cells is a regulated one responding very rapidly to secretory stimuli such as food intake. Exocrine-secreted leptin survives the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice by forming a complex with its soluble receptor. This soluble receptor is synthesized by the gastric cells and the leptin-leptin receptor complex gets formed at the level of the gastric chief cell secretory granules before being released into the gastric lumen. The leptin-leptin receptor upon resisting the hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice is channelled, to the duodenum. Transmembrane leptin receptors expressed at the luminal membrane of the duodenal enterocytes interact with the luminal leptin. Leptin is actively transcytosed by the duodenal enterocytes. From the apical membrane it is transferred to the Golgi apparatus where it binds again its soluble receptor. The newly formed leptin-leptin receptor complex is then secreted baso-laterally into the intestinal mucosa to reach the blood capillaries and circulation thus reaching the hypothalamus where its action regulates food intake. Exocrine-secreted gastric leptin participates in the short term regulation of food intake independently from that secreted by the adipose tissue. Adipose tissue leptin on the other hand, regulates in the long term energy storage. Both tissues work in tandem to ensure management of food intake and energy expenditure. PMID:22536547

Cammisotto, Philippe; Bendayan, Moise

2012-03-01

72

Gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths. The incidence, diagnostic studies, and therapeutic options have undergone important changes in the last decades, but the prognosis for gastric cancer patients remains poor, especially in more advanced stages. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of this disease, even if it

Vincenzo Catalano; Roberto Labianca; Giordano D. Beretta; Gemma Gatta; Filippo de Braud; Eric Van Cutsem

2005-01-01

73

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from...

2010-04-01

74

Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from skin juice, gel juice and flower of Aloe vera Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from gel juice, skin juice and flowers of Aloe vera. Results indicate that skin juice contained similar amount of polysaccharides to gel juice, suggesting the potential industrial application of A. vera skin rather than discarded. After anion-exchange chromatography, neutral polysaccharides account for more than 95% of the crude polysaccharides from skin juice and gel juice,

X. L. Chang; B. Y. Chen; Y. M. Feng

2011-01-01

75

Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice.  

PubMed

Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. In limited studies in human and murine models, pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Pomegranate juice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion areas in immune-deficient mice and intima media thickness in cardiac patients on medications. It also decreased lipid peroxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes, and systolic blood pressure and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in hypertensive patients. Thus, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation, and evidence to date suggests it may be prudent to include this fruit juice in a heart-healthy diet. PMID:19146506

Basu, Arpita; Penugonda, Kavitha

2009-01-01

76

Leptin secretion by white adipose tissue and gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Leptin is a hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Originally discovered in mature white adipocytes, it was subsequently isolated from the gastric mucosa. This tissue contains a large number of epithelial endocrine and exocrine cells secreting leptin in the blood stream and in the gastric lumen, respectively. Light and electron microscopy have shown that adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells contain leptin along their rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-granules secretory pathway. Both tissues synthesize a soluble form of the leptin receptor that is secreted bound to leptin in the blood and into the gastric juice. This soluble receptor protect leptin and enhances its half-life. Despite the similarities in the mechanisms of leptin secretion by adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells, they are in fact radically different. In gastric cells leptin follows a rapid regulated secretion pathway whereas adipocytes secrete leptin in a constitutive slow fashion. These differences can be explained by the specific roles play by leptin originating from these two different tissues. Gastric leptin is involved in the short-term regulation of digestion, including delay of gastric emptying, absorption of nutrients by the intestinal wall and secretion of gastric, intestinal and pancreatic hormones. On the other hand, leptin secreted by white adipocytes acts primarily on the hypothalamus for the long-term regulation of food intake. Therefore, the coordination of adipose and gastric leptins ensures the proper management of food processing and energy storage. PMID:17149693

Cammisotto, P G; Bendayan, M

2007-02-01

77

Gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection, as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there are still 700?000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis. None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates: at present, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%. Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation, injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia. It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating, sustaining and advancing tumor growth. It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic. Additional mutations can be acquired, and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype. Intestinalization of gastric units, which is called “intestinal metaplasia”; phenotypic antralization of fundic units, which is called “spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia”; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis. Also, an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma. However, the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial. Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation, and our paper attempts to highlight recent progress in this field of cancer research. PMID:23066309

Gomceli, Ismail; Demiriz, Baris; Tez, Mesut

2012-01-01

78

76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to...

2011-02-02

79

Chef Michele 100% Juice Served  

E-print Network

%White Toddlers: 5oz Whole White Juice Choices: 4oz 100% Apple 4oz 100% Orange EARLY DISMISSAL Toddlers Milk (Toddlers) Fig Newton Bar 4oz Orange Juice 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) 1 2 3 4 MAY 2012 Fig Newton Bar 4oz Orange Juice 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) More Info... ELRA PRE

Delgado, Mauricio

80

Proteomics of Human Pancreatic Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic juice has recently been characterized in detail using proteomic methods. The cataloging of proteins from healthy\\u000a individuals and those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer has revealed the presence of a number of proteins in pancreatic juice\\u000a that could serve as potential biomarkers for cancer. Because obtaining pancreatic juice is not trivial, it is possible that\\u000a these biomarkers can be detected

Mads Grønborg; Anirban Maitra; Akhilesh Pandey

81

Effects of Ougan juice on P450 activities using a cocktail method.  

PubMed

Ougan (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka) is an important domesticated fruit which is used medicinally in China. To date, a number of methods for its identification and chemical analysis have been studied. However, the effects of Ougan juice on CYP isozymes have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the potential effects of Ougan juice on the CYP isozymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in rats using a cocktail approach involving the probe drugs phenacetin, tolbutamide, omeprazole and dextromethorphan. These four probe drugs were simultaneously administered to rats after single and multiple dosing of Ougan juice by gastric irrigation. The pharmacokinetics of the probes in the plasma were simultaneously determined by HPLC-MS. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the four probe drugs were not significantly different in rats after single dose of Ougan juice. The t1/2 and AUC(0-infinity) of phenacetin and omeprazole increased significantly and their CL(z) decreased markedly after multiple dosing of Ougan juice. However, the t1/2 of tolbutamide decreased notably, while the t1/2 of dextromethorphan was not changed. The findings of this study suggest that a single administration of Ougan juice had little effect on P450 activities while multiple administration of Ougan juice tended to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 and induce CYP2C9, but did not influence CYP2D6. PMID:22530306

Lin, Guan-Yang; Ma, Jian-She; Xu, Ren-Ai; Hu, Lu-Feng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xian-Qin

2012-03-01

82

[Poly-protein. II--Precipitation of proteins from alfalfa juice by cationic polyacrylamide (author's transl)].  

PubMed

This note reports some experimental results on the preparation of leaf protein concentrates (LPC) from alphalpha juice by means of polyelectrolites, according to Poly-Protein Process. The pilot plant is described with its working conditions, and the yield and the chemical composition of the products (pressed alphalpha, juice, green LPC and brown juice) are reported. In particular 50 liters of juice, obtained by pressing 100 kg of fresh alphalpha, gave 1.6 kg of green LPC (on a dry weight basis). The product so obtained has a high protein content (56.2%) and represents a particularly valuable product for its several prospective uses in the feed industry. PMID:1037420

Massignan, L; Fiorentini, R; Anelli, G; Galoppini, C

1976-01-01

83

Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology is a statistical procedure frequently used for optimization studies. It uses quantitative data from an appropriate experimental design to determine and simultaneously solve multivariate problems. In this study, a two-factor central composite design was used to establish the optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Sapodilla juice was treated with pectinase enzyme at different incubation times

H. N. Sin; S. Yusof; N. Sheikh Abdul Hamid; R. Abd. Rahman

2006-01-01

84

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your health care ...

85

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

86

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

The Science House

2014-01-28

87

Juice Challenge Part 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center asks students to figure out the number of individual containers, boxes and pallets of orange juice that will be loaded onto a train car. This activity is the third in a series of three (which may also be found on FL-ATE's site) which ask students to redesign a product's packaging. The lesson asks students to use math, science and engineering to come up with the correct answer. This is the third part of a three-part activity, begun here.

2011-02-22

88

Mechanisms of inhibition of triacylglycerol hydrolysis by human gastric lipase.  

PubMed

In the human stomach, gastric lipase hydrolyzes only 10 to 30% of ingested triacylglycerols because of an inhibition process induced by the long chain free fatty acids generated, which are mostly protonated at gastric pH. The aim of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which free fatty acids inhibit further hydrolysis. In vitro experiments examined gastric lipolysis of differently sized phospholipid-triolein emulsions by human gastric juice or purified human gastric lipase, under close to physiological conditions. The lipolysis process was further investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and gastric lipase and free fatty acid movement during lipolysis were followed by fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrate that: 1) free fatty acids generated during lipolysis partition between the surface and core of lipid droplets with a molar phase distribution coefficient of 7.4 at pH 5.40; 2) the long chain free fatty acids have an inhibitory effect only when generated during lipolysis; 3) inhibition of gastric lipolysis can be delayed by the use of lipid emulsions composed of small-size lipid droplets; 4) the release of free fatty acids during lipolysis induces a marked increase in droplet surface area, leading to the formation of novel particles at the lipid droplet surface; and 5) the gastric lipase is trapped in these free fatty acid-rich particles during their formation. In conclusion, we propose a model in which the sequential physicochemical events occurring during gastric lipolysis lead to the inhibition of further triacylglycerol lipolysis. PMID:11940604

Pafumi, Yan; Lairon, Denis; de la Porte, Paulette Lechene; Juhel, Christine; Storch, Judith; Hamosh, Margit; Armand, Martine

2002-08-01

89

Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

2014-01-01

90

Density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles motion in human gastric emptying studied using computer simulation.  

PubMed

Density-dependent gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been used to prolong the gastric retention time of drugs since the 1960s. The design of density-dependent gastroretentive dosage forms, however, usually focuses on specific parameters rather than combines with the fluid dynamics of dosage form in the gastric emptying. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a 2-D model of multiple-phase flows for the simulation of gastric emptying and gastroretentive microparticles motion, and the influence of microparticle density, microparticle viscosity, and gastric juice viscosity on the gastric retention were studied. The recirculating flows, formed in the gastric emptying, could mix the conventional-density microparticles and transport them to the pylorus. However, the low-density microparticles remained floating on the surface of gastric juice, while the high-density microparticles could sink and deposit in the bottom of the stomach. The remaining integral area of microparticles was higher than 90% after 18.33min of simulation when the density of microparticles was lower than 550kg/m(3) or higher than 2500kg/m(3), which was higher compared to conventional-density microparticles (67.05%). These results are in good agreement with experimental data previously reported. In addition, the viscosity of microparticle and gastric juice also influenced the remaining integral area of gastroretentive microparticles. This study shows that the multiple-phase computational fluid dynamics models could provide detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles in gastric emptying, which offers a powerful tool to further understand the mechanism of gastric retention for gastroretentive dosage forms and study the influence of different parameters on their ability for gastric retention. PMID:25640913

Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou

2015-04-01

91

Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of digestion kinetics of solid foods in human stomach, as affected by food processing methods, is critical in establishing processing conditions at the manufacturing stage to achieve desirable release of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate how roasting affected disintegration and solid release properties of almond in simulated gastric environment. In vitro trials were performed for raw and roasted almonds by using static soaking method and a model stomach system. The changes in sample weight, dry mass, and moisture during the trials were determined. Both compression and penetration tests were used to investigate the texture of almonds with a focus on the influence of absorption of gastric juice. Light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the change in microstructure of the raw and roasted almonds after simulated digestion. The results suggested that the slow disintegration rate and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. Roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and increased loss of solids during simulated digestion, which is well correlated with the decrease in the rigidity of almond samples after absorbing gastric juice. Microstructure of digested almonds showed breakage and breach of cell walls due to acid hydrolysis. Intercellular and intracellular channels formed in almonds during roasting are important for penetration of gastric juice that may facilitate an effective digestion.

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

92

Grapefruit juice–drug interactions  

PubMed Central

The novel finding that grapefruit juice can markedly augment oral drug bioavailability was based on an unexpected observation from an interaction study between the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, felodipine, and ethanol in which grapefruit juice was used to mask the taste of the ethanol. Subsequent investigations showed that grapefruit juice acted by reducing presystemic felodipine metabolism through selective post-translational down regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression in the intestinal wall. Since the duration of effect of grapefruit juice can last 24 h, repeated juice consumption can result in a cumulative increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax. The high variability of the magnitude of effect among individuals appeared dependent upon inherent differences in enteric CYP3A4 protein expression such that individuals with highest baseline CYP3A4 had the highest proportional increase. At least 20 other drugs have been assessed for an interaction with grapefruit juice. Medications with innately low oral bioavailability because of substantial presystemic metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 appear affected by grapefruit juice. Clinically relevant interactions seem likely for most dihydropyridines, terfenadine, saquinavir, cyclosporin, midazolam, triazolam and verapamil and may also occur with lovastatin, cisapride and astemizole. The importance of the interaction appears to be influenced by individual patient susceptibility, type and amount of grapefruit juice and administration-related factors. Although in vitro findings support the flavonoid, naringin, or the furanocoumarin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, as being active ingredients, a recent investigation indicated that neither of these substances made a major contribution to grapefruit juice-drug interactions in humans. PMID:9723817

Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J

1998-01-01

93

Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfed.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on

Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

94

FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reported interactions between grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice and various prescription medications led investigators to suspect a variety of compounds present in grapefruit as responsible for these effects. These investigations amassed evidence that furanocoumarins (also known as psoralens...

95

Rheology of clarified cherry juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological behaviour of cherry juices with different soluble solids content (22–74 ° Brix) was studied at a wide range of temperatures (5–70 °C) using a concentric cylinder viscometer. The results indicated that these juices behave as Newtonian fluids. The effect of temperature on their viscosity can be described by means of an Arrhenius-type equation. Depending on soluble solids, the

J. Giner; A. Ibarz; S. Garza; S. Xhian-Quan

1996-01-01

96

The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.  

PubMed

A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Rembia?kowska, Ewa

2013-06-01

97

Effects of Reduced Juice Allowances in Food Packages for the Women, Infants, and Children Program  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. METHODS: Scanner data from a New England supermarket chain were used to assess juice and other beverage purchases among 2137 WIC-participating households during a 2-year period (N = 36?051 household-months). Purchased beverage amounts were compared before (January–September 2009) and after (January–September 2010) implementation of the revised WIC packages. Generalized estimating equation models were used. RESULTS: Before the revisions, WIC juice accounted for two-thirds of purchased juice volume among WIC households. After implementation of the revisions, WIC juice purchases were reduced on par with allowance changes (43.5% of juice volume, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.9%–45.1%). This reduction was only partly compensated for by an increase of 13.6% (8.4%–19.0%) in juice purchases using personal and other non-WIC funds. In total, juice purchases declined by 23.5% (21.4%–25.4%) from an adjusted monthly total of 238 oz to 182 oz per household. WIC households increased purchases of fruit drinks by 20.9% (14.9%–27.3%) and other noncarbonated beverages by 21.3% (12.1%–31.2%) but purchased 12.1% (8.1%–15.0%) less soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: After the WIC revisions, total purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by about a quarter, with little compensation occurring from non-WIC funds for juice and other beverages. The public health impact of the shift in beverage purchase patterns could be significant. PMID:23629613

Luedicke, Joerg; Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.

2013-01-01

98

Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion.  

PubMed

The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick's second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75?×?10(-11) and 8.72?×?10(-11) m(2)/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid. PMID:21423328

Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

2011-03-01

99

21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food...

2010-04-01

100

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

101

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food...Juices and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented...

2010-04-01

102

21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

2010-04-01

103

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

104

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-04-28

105

Quality Attributes of Cupuaçu Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586  

PubMed Central

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Durán, Nelson; de Lima Filho, José Luiz

2011-01-01

106

Gastric Carcinoids  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

2005-01-01

107

Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.  

PubMed

Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:15383234

Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

2004-01-01

108

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

109

How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

2011-01-01

110

Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... may also be less effective if taken with orange or apple juice, so the drug label states “ ... sure they don’t contain grapefruit juice. Seville oranges (often used to make orange marmalade) and tangelos ( ...

111

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

2012-04-01

112

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

2011-04-01

114

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called “Ambersweet” (1/2 Citrus sinensis X 3/8 Citrus reticulata X 1/8 Citrus paradisi...

2013-04-01

115

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing...

2010-04-01

116

Spray Drying of Raisin Juice Concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raisin juice concentrate is a natural sweetener in syrup or paste form and it is produced from second-grade dry raisins by leaching them with water. Dried raisin juice, although is easier to handle and has more potential applications than the syrup, is not available in the market. In the present study, raisin juice powder was produced with a lab-scale spray

Spyridon E. Papadakis; Chryssavgi Gardeli; Constantina Tzia

2006-01-01

117

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...than 1.35 grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. ...total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180...section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice,...

2014-04-01

118

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than 1.35 grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. ...total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180...section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice,...

2013-04-01

119

Gastric lavage.  

PubMed

Gastric lavage has been used to manage toxic ingestions since the early 1800s. The entire realm of gastrointestinal decontamination has been extensively studied for the past 30 years. Recommendations are still evolving and remain controversial. The current indications for lavage are obtundation, unprotected airway, seizures, the need for urgent removal, and the tendency to form concretions. Hydrocarbon management depends on specific toxicity and viscosity. Contraindications for this procedure are insignificant ingestions, prolonged time since ingestion, and caustic poisoning. Proper technique minimizes complications and maximizes toxin removal. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are given after lavage. Complications include nasal trauma, esophageal perforation, tracheal intubation, aspiration, electrolyte imbalance, and hypothermia. PMID:3734388

Lanphear, W F

1986-01-01

120

Variation in Gene Expression Patterns in Human Gastric Cancers  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the world's second most common cause of cancer death. We analyzed gene expression patterns in 90 primary gastric cancers, 14 metastatic gastric cancers, and 22 nonneoplastic gastric tissues, using cDNA microarrays representing ?30,300 genes. Gastric cancers were distinguished from nonneoplastic gastric tissues by characteristic differences in their gene expression patterns. We found a diversity of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer, reflecting variation in intrinsic properties of tumor and normal cells and variation in the cellular composition of these complex tissues. We identified several genes whose expression levels were significantly correlated with patient survival. The variations in gene expression patterns among cancers in different patients suggest differences in pathogenetic pathways and potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:12925757

Chen, Xin; Leung, Suet Y.; Yuen, Siu T.; Chu, Kent-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Li, Rui; Chan, Annie S.Y.; Law, Simon; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Wong, John; So, Samuel; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

2003-01-01

121

Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.  

PubMed

To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine. PMID:25345561

Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

2014-12-01

122

Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice  

E-print Network

(Toddlers) 28 29 30 SCHOOL CLOSED MEMORIAL DAY Goldfish Crackers Orange Wedges 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) Goldfish Crackers 4oz Apple Juice 8oz Milk (Pre-K) 5oz Milk (Toddlers) 4oz

Delgado, Mauricio

123

Should peri-gastrectomy gastric acidity be our focus among gastric cancer patients?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the necessity and correctness of acid suppression pre- and post-gastrectomy among gastric carcinoma (GC) patients. METHODS: From June 2011 to April 2013, 99 patients who were diagnosed with GC or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (type II or III) and needed surgical management were enrolled. They all underwent gastrectomy by the same operators [35 undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) plus Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 34 distal gastrectomy (DG) plus Billroth I reconstruction, and 30 proximal gastrectomy (PG) plus gastroesophagostomy]. We collected and analyzed their gastrointestinal juice and tissues from the pre-operational day to the 5th day post-operation, and 6 mo post-surgery. Gastric pH was detected with a precise acidity meter. Gastric juice contents including potassium, sodium and bicarbonate ions, urea nitrogen, direct and indirect bilirubin, and bile acid were detected using Automatic Biochemical Analyzer. Data regarding tumor size, histological type, tumor penetration and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage were obtained from the pathological records. Reflux symptoms pre- and 6 mo post-gastrectomy were evaluated by reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GERD-Q). SPSS 16.0 was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Before surgery, gastric pH was higher than the threshold of hypoacidity (4.25 ± 1.45 vs 3.5, P = 0.000), and significantly affected by age, tumor size and differentiation grade, and potassium and bicarbonate ions; advanced malignancies were accompanied with higher pH compared with early ones (4.49 ± 1.31 vs 3.66 ± 1.61, P = 0.008). After operation, gastric pH in all groups was of weak-acidity and significantly higher than that pre-gastrectomy; on days 3-5, comparisons of gastric pH were similar between the 3 groups. Six months later, gastric pH was comparable to that on days 3-5; older patients were accompanied with higher total bilirubin level, indicating more serious reflux (r = 0.238, P = 0.018); the TG and PG groups had higher RDQ (TG vs DG: 15.80 ± 5.06 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000; PG vs DG: 15.37 ± 3.49 vs 12.26 ± 2.14, P = 0.000) and GERD-Q scores (TG vs DG: 10.54 ± 3.16 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.039; PG vs DG: 11.00 ± 2.07 vs 9.15 ± 2.27, P = 0.001) compared with the DG group; all gastric juice contents except potassium ion significantly rose; reflux symptom was significantly associated with patient’s body mass index, direct and indirect bilirubin, and total bile acid, while pH played no role. CONCLUSION: Acidity is not an important factor causing unfitness among GC patients. There is no need to further alkalify gastrointestinal juice both pre- and post-gastrectomy. PMID:24944492

Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Li, Tuan-Jie; Han, Wen-Xiu; Xu, Jing

2014-01-01

124

Transcytosis of gastric leptin through the rat duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

Leptin is secreted into the gastric juice by epithelial Chief cells and reaches the duodenum in a biologically intact active form. We assessed the possibility that this gastric leptin crosses the intestinal mucosa by transcytosis through enterocytes to reach blood circulation. Endogenous gastric leptin secretion was triggered by cholinergic stimulation. In another set of experiments, recombinant leptin was inserted in vivo into the duodenal lumen. Plasma levels of leptin were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot, and duodenal tissue was processed for immunocytochemistry. We first observed that leptin was found inside duodenal enterocytes from fed rats but not inside those from fasted ones. Stimulation of gastric secretion by a cholinergic agent led to rapid increases in plasma leptin levels (202 +/- 39%) except when the pylorus was clamped. Insertion of recombinant leptin into the duodenal lumen raised plasma leptin concentrations (558 +/- 34%) quite rapidly, whereas carrier solution without leptin had no effect. The use of FITC-tagged leptin reinforced these results. Light and electron microscopy revealed the cellular compartments involved in its transcytosis, namely, the enterocyte microvilli, the endocytotic vesicles, the Golgi complex, and the basolateral interdigitations. Leptin was also present in the lamina propria, in capillary endothelial cell plasmalemmal vesicles, and in capillary lumina. These results demonstrate that gastric exocrine leptin is internalized by duodenal enterocytes and delivered to the lamina propria and blood circulation. It may thus be able to play important paracrine and endocrine functions for the control of gastric emptying and nutrient absorption. PMID:17673543

Cammisotto, Philippe G; Gingras, Diane; Bendayan, Moïse

2007-10-01

125

21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

2010-04-01

126

Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

127

Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and ?-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for ?-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than ?-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

2015-04-22

128

Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6?h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600?mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

2012-01-01

129

Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.  

PubMed

The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6?h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600?mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

2012-11-01

130

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of chokeberry juice phenolics during in vitro simulated digestion in the presence of food matrix.  

PubMed

Chokeberry juice was subjected to in vitro gastric digestion in the presence of food matrix in order to determine the changes in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Addition of food matrix immediately decreased the total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, DPPH scavenging activity as well as total reducing power by 36%, 90%, 45% and 44%, respectively. After in vitro digestion, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and reducing power are slightly elevated, but they are still lower than in initial non-digested juice. The effect of digested juice on Caco-2 cells proliferation was also studied, and the reduction of proliferative rate by approximately 25% was determined. Our results suggested that although a large proportion of chokeberry phenolics undergo transformation during digestion they are still potent as antioxidant and antiproliferative agents. PMID:25577114

Stanisavljevi?, Nemanja; Samardži?, Jelena; Jankovi?, Teodora; Šavikin, Katarina; Mojsin, Marija; Topalovi?, Vladanka; Stevanovi?, Milena

2015-05-15

131

Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.  

PubMed

In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

2015-04-15

132

Effects of preoperative medications on gastric pH, volume, and flora.  

PubMed Central

Aspiration of acid gastric juice poses a potential threat during operations. Many anesthesiologists use a variety of agents aimed at decreasing gastric volume and/or acidity. The effect of three agents on gastric volume, pH, and flora, and the effect of cefazolin on gastric flora in morbidly obese patients were studied. Cefazolin did not sterilize the gastric lumen. Almost one-half of patients not treated with an H2 blocker had a pH below 2.5 and a gastric volume of 20 ml or more. Five had both a low pH and significant volume and, thus, the potential for lethal aspiration. Two doses of cimetidine, 300 mgm orally, or of ranitidine, 150 orally, the evening before and the morning of operation decreased gastric volume and raised pH reliably to a level that should be protective from fatal aspiration. However, gastric cultures after these drugs were positive 86% of the time with a larger variety of organisms than in the untreated stomachs. Metoclopramide failed to decrease gastric volume or raise pH. Transoperative cefazolin was used in all patients. Clinical infection was not a problem. PMID:3521506

Laws, H L; Bryant, J W; Palmer, M D; Boudreaux, A M; Donald, J M; Wheeler, A S

1986-01-01

133

Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: Comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to determine whether Seville orange juice produces a grapefruit juice–like interaction with felodipine and whether bergamottin, 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin, or other furocoumarins are involved.Methods: In a randomized three-way crossover design, 10 volunteers received a felodipine 10-mg extended-release tablet with 240 mL of Seville orange juice, dilute grapefruit juice (that contained equivalent total molar concentrations of bergamottin plus 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin),

Shefali Malhotra; David G. Bailey; Mary F. Paine; Paul B. Watkins

2001-01-01

134

Solar Still Part II: Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members repeat an experiment designed to separate fresh water from a liquid solution, this time using colored sugar water in one solar still and orange juice in another. The basic still design they employ traps water vapor that is created when the Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. As the vapor cools, it condenses and trickles down to a collection container. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

135

Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of ?-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

2013-01-01

136

78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to continuation...suspended investigation on lemon juice from...

2013-08-01

137

78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to continuation...suspended investigation on lemon juice from...

2013-08-02

138

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food...Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing...

2010-04-01

139

21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food...Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

2010-04-01

140

77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely...4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation...

2012-04-13

141

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section...and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with...

2010-04-01

142

21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section...and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

2010-04-01

143

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2011-04-01

144

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2014-04-01

145

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2010-04-01

146

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2013-04-01

147

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2012-04-01

148

Influence of grapefruit juice on cisapride pharmacokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of several drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. This study investigated the influence of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of oral cisapride, a substrate of CYP3A4.Methods: Fourteen healthy volunteers received in random order 10 mg cisapride (Prepulsid) with 250 mL water or grapefruit juice after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken for

Annette S. Gross; Yan D. Goh; Russell S. Addison; Gillian M. Shenfield

1999-01-01

149

Can grapefruit juice influence ethinylestradiol bioavailability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grapefruit juice on the bioavailability of 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) after a single oral administration of 50 ?g EE2 have been investigated. The pharmacokinetics of EE2 were studied in an open, randomized, cross-over study in which 13 healthy volunteers were administered the drug with herbal tea or grapefruit juice (naringin, 887 mg\\/ml).In contrast to herbal tea, grapefruit juice increased

A. Weber; R. Jäger; A. Börner; G. Klinger; R. Vollanth; K. Matthey; A. Balogh

1996-01-01

150

Freeze concentration of fruit juices.  

PubMed

Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

1984-01-01

151

Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. PMID:23790875

Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

2013-11-15

152

Characterization of conventional, biodynamic, and organic purple grape juices by chemical markers, antioxidant capacity, and instrumental taste profile.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and try to classify the samples from the 3 different crop systems. Results were subjected to ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). No statistical significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed among juices from the 3 crop systems. Using PCA and HCA, no clear separation among crop systems was observed, corroborating the ANOVA data. However, PCA showed that the producing region highly affects the chemical composition, electronic tongue parameters, and bioactivity of grape juices. In this sense, when organic and biodynamic were grouped as "nonconventional" juices, SIMCA model was able to discriminate 12 out of 13 organic/biodynamic juices and 17 out of 18 conventional juices, presenting an efficiency of 93.5%, while 11 out of 13 non-conventional and 100% conventional grape juices were correctly classified using PLSDA. The use of electronic tongue and the determination of antioxidant properties and major phenolic compounds have shown to be a quick and accurate analytical approach to assess the quality of grape juices. PMID:25529503

Granato, Daniel; Margraf, Tiago; Brotzakis, Ioannis; Capuano, Edoardo; van Ruth, Saskia M

2015-01-01

153

Deacidification of clarified tropical fruit juices by electrodialysis. Part II. Characteristics of the deacidified juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodialysis (ED) process was investigated to reduce the acidity of four tropical fruit juices, passion fruit, castilla mulberry, najanrilla and araza. In this part of the study, the results of physico-chemical and sensory analyses of juices treated were collected and compared to fresh juices. Low differences (

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Georges Piombo; Jenny Ruales

2007-01-01

154

Viscoelastic Properties and Dynamics of Porcine Gastric Mucin Jonathan Celli,, Brian Gregor,, Bradley Turner, Nezam H. Afdhal, Rama Bansil,*, and  

E-print Network

that aggregation/gelation of the mucus layer plays a critical role in the famous auto-digestion paradox:1 the ability of the stomach to not be digested by the digestive gastric juice it secretes. Mucus, in general has been widely studied as a model system due to the anatomy and physiology similarities between pig

155

Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer. PMID:24803806

Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

2014-01-01

156

Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer. PMID:24803806

Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

2014-05-01

157

Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

158

A “FURANOCOUMARIN-FREE” GRAPEFRUIT JUICE ESTABLISHES FURANOCOUMARINS AS THE MEDIATORS OF THE GRAPEFRUIT JUICE-FELODIPINE JUICE INTERACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Grapefruit juice (GFJ) enhances the systemic exposure of numerous CYP3A4 drug substrates, including felodipine, by inhibiting intestinal (but not hepatic) first-pass metabolism. Furanocoumarins have been identified as the major CYP3A4 inhibitors contained in the juice, but their contri...

159

Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy  

SciTech Connect

Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

1986-01-01

160

JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

2013-09-01

161

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...peel, blemishes, and seeds. Divide the 500-milliliter...d). (4) If the quality of the tomato juice...substandard quality when the quality of the tomato juice falls...Below Standard in Quality ___”, the blank... (c ) “Excessive seeds” or “excessive...

2010-04-01

162

JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.  

PubMed Central

1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

1995-01-01

163

Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 ?M. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H+/K+-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 ?M). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer. PMID:25593644

Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

2015-01-01

164

Indometh acin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin was developed. Usable antagonists are metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J. (inventors)

1980-01-01

165

Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus: a sign of gastric hypersecretion  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus on the double-contrast radiograph was investigated in 60 patients. Radiographic findings were correlated with endoscopic features and biochemical analysis of gastric juice as well as with the clinical and endoscopic features of 98 controls with a regular mucosal pattern. The patients with the coarse pattern had more gastric secretion than the control group. Ulcers were seen in 65% of patients, particularly in the duodenum (48%); they were more commonly associated with a coarse pattern and closely related to gastric hyperacidity. Coarse areae gastricae in the proximal body and fundus may be a useful radiographic sign in assessment of gastric secretion.

Watanabe, H. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan); Magota, S.; Shiiba, S.; Ebata, K.; Yoshiya, K.

1983-02-01

166

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended  

E-print Network

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended skim milk powder Ramachandra H by incorporation of orange juice. Blends with different levels of orange juice and skim milk were spray dried, viz. As the propor- tion of juice increased, the acidity and viscosity of the blends increased due to the high citric

Boyer, Edmond

167

Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. PMID:24287419

Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

2014-04-15

168

Update on gastric varices  

PubMed Central

Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence. PMID:24891929

Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

2014-01-01

169

Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... are different types of treatment for patients with gastric cancer. Different types of treatments are available for patients with gastric cancer . Some treatments are standard (the currently used ...

170

Authentication of geographical origin and crop system of grape juices by phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using chemometrics.  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was to propose an authentication model based on the phenolic composition and antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of purple grape juices produced in Brazil and Europe in order to assess their typicality. For this purpose, organic, conventional, and biodynamic grape juices produced in Brazil (n = 65) and in Europe (n = 31) were analyzed and different multivariate class-modeling and classification statistical techniques were employed to differentiate juices based on the geographical origin and crop system. Overall, Brazilian juices, regardless of the crop system adopted, presented higher contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3,5-glucoside. No differences were observed for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside between countries and among crop systems. A total of 91% of Brazilian and 97% of European juices were adroitly classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis when the producing region was considered (92% efficiency), in which the free-radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, content of total phenolic compounds, gallic acid, and malvidin-3-glucoside were the variables responsible for the classification. Intraregional models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy were able to differentiate organic from conventional Brazilian juices as well as conventional and organic/biodynamic European juices. PMID:25675840

Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Schnitzler, Egon; van Ruth, Saskia M

2015-03-01

171

Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.  

PubMed

Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. PMID:25399992

Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

2014-12-01

172

Intestinal Metaplasia —The Effect of Acid on the Gastric Mucosa and Gastric Carcinogenesis—  

PubMed Central

This review concerns stem cells and their relation to intestinal metaplasia. When gastric regions of mice, Mongolian gerbils or several strains of rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy of X-rays given in two fractions, intestinal metaplasia was only induced in rats. In addition, it was greatly influenced by rat strain and sex. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive metaplastic foci were increased by administration of ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist), crude stomach antigens or subtotal resection of the fundus and decreased by cysteamine (gastric acid secretion stimulator), histamine or removal of the submandibular glands. Recent studies have shown that Cdx2 transgenic mice with gastric achlorhydria develop intestinal metaplasia and that in men and animals, Helicobacter pylori (H. pyrlori) infection can cause intestinal metaplasias that are reversible on eradication. Our results combined with findings for H. pylori infection or eradication and transgenic mice suggest that an elevation in the pH of the gastric juice due to disappearance of parietal cells is one of the principal factors for development of reversible intestinal metaplasia. When different organs were transplanted into the stomach or duodenum, they were found to transdifferentiate into gastric or duodenal mucosae, respectively. Organ-specific stem cells in normal non-liver tissues (heart, kidney, brain and skin) also differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into an injured liver. Therefore, stem cells have a multipotential ability, transdifferentiating into different organs when transplanted into different environments. Finally, intestinal metaplasia has been found to possibly increase sensitivity to the induction of tumors by colon carcinogens of the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), azoxymethane (AOM) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4.5-b]pyridine (PhIP) type. This carcinogenic process, however, may be relatively minor compared with the main gastric carcinogenesis process induced by N-methy1-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MMNG) or N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), which is not affected by the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The protocol used in these experiments may provide a new approach to help distinguish between developmental events associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric tumors. PMID:22272022

2010-01-01

173

6.NS Drinking Juice, Variation 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had some juice in a bottle. Then she drank $\\frac38$ liters of juice. If this was $\\frac34$ of the juice that was originally in the bottle, how m...

2012-05-01

174

6.NS Drinking Juice, Variation 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alisa had $\\frac12$ liter of juice in a bottle. She drank $\\frac38$ liters of juice. What fraction of the juice in the bottle did Alisa drink?...

2012-05-01

175

Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

2014-01-01

176

Determination of amino acids in pomegranate juices and fingerprint for adulteration with apple juices.  

PubMed

A new chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (MEKC-LIF) method was developed using sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) as surfactant for the determination of chiral amino acids in pomegranate juices. The use of SDBS as the micellar medium enhanced the fluorescence intensities of amino acids derivatised with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The amino acid profile of pomegranate juices was compared to apple amino acids and l-Asn was proposed as a marker for the adulteration of pomegranate juices with apple juices. PMID:23790902

Tezcan, Filiz; Uza?ç?, Sesil; Uyar, Güler; Oztekin, Nevin; Erim, F Bedia

2013-11-15

177

Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.  

PubMed

In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast. PMID:17120082

Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

2007-02-01

178

No relationship between IL-1B gene polymorphism and gastric acid secretion in younger healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of IL-1B-511 gene polymorphism on IL-1B mRNA expression and gastric acid output in individual with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. METHODS: IL-1B mRNA expression and gastric acid secretion in 117 health volunteers were assayed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and gastric juice assay, respectively. Pepsinogen (PG) I and II of 255 subjects (including 117 health volunteers) were also examined. RESULTS: T/T genotype individuals with H pylori infection had a more decreased PG I/II ratio. In gastric antrum mucosa, the individuals with H pylori infection had higher IL-1B expression than those without H pylori infection, but there was no obvious difference among each genotype. In gastric corpus, the individuals with H pylori infection had a significantly higher IL-1B expression than those without H pylori infection. IL-1B-511T/T genotype was markedly higher as compared with the other two genotypes. Both maximal acid output and basic acid output were similar among each genotype in IL-1B-511 gene locus, regardless of H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: IL-1B-511 T allele does not decrease gastric acid output, although it has a stimulated influence on IL-1B expression. Consequently, the pathway, through which IL-1B plays a central role in gastric cancer development, might not depend on low acid, but on the other regulation mechanisms. PMID:16425433

Hu, Sheng; Song, Qi-Bing; Yao, Ping-Fang; Hu, Qing-Long; Hu, Ping-Jin; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Pang, Rui-Ping

2005-01-01

179

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

180

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2010-04-01

181

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

182

Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

2014-01-01

183

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe and suitable dry nutritive carbohydrate sweetener. However, if the pineapple juice is prepared from concentrate, such sweeteners, in liquid form,...

2012-04-01

184

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe and suitable dry nutritive carbohydrate sweetener. However, if the pineapple juice is prepared from concentrate, such sweeteners, in liquid form,...

2011-04-01

185

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.  

PubMed

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

186

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit  

PubMed Central

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

187

Application of polyelectrolytes to fractionation of alfalfa juice protein (short communication).  

PubMed

The quantities of protein which can be extracted from green plants depend on a number of factors such as the botanical composition of the plant, its growth stage, topdressing and system of extraction. Leaf protein concentrates have been incorporated into food for human consumption, but their green color has limited its application. Thermal precipitation of chloroplastic material is not specific, causes denaturation and requires high energy input. A selective recovery of the green fraction is possible by centrifugation at high centrifugal forces or by the combination of this method with an addition of calcium salt to a green juice. Application of high molecular polyelectrolytes in green juice precipitation allows the separation of pigmented material at room temperature. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of cationic and anionic flocculants on fractionation of alfalfa green juice into two fractions: chloroplastic (green LPC) and cytoplasmatic (white LPC). PMID:3614339

Baraniak, B; Baraniak, A

1987-01-01

188

Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.  

PubMed

Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate. PMID:25694697

Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

2015-02-01

189

Treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

190

Seasonal changes in gastric mucosal factors associated with peptic ulcer bleeding  

PubMed Central

A close association has been established between climate and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The incidence of PUB in cold climates is significantly higher than that in hot climates. In this study, gastric mucosal damage and its barrier function (through associated barrier factors) in extreme climate conditions were examined to investigate the pathogenesis of PUB in extreme cold climates. Gastric juice and biopsy specimens were collected from 176 patients with peptic ulcer. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to exclude malignant ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected by modified Giemsa staining. pH values of the gastric juice samples were obtained on-site by precise pH dipstick readings. The protein expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, occludin, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were identified between the high and low bleeding risk groups in the rates of H. pylori infection and the pH values of the gastric juices in the extreme hot or cold climates. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were identified in the protein expression levels of occludin, NOS, EGF and EGFR between the high and low bleeding risk groups. In the extreme cold climate, the expression of HSP70 and the mucus thickness of the gastric antrum in the high bleeding risk group were significantly lower than those in the low bleeding risk group. The protein expression levels of occludin, HSP70, NOS and EGFR in the extreme cold climate were significantly lower than those in the extreme hot climate, whereas the gastric acid secretion was significantly higher in the extreme cold climate than that in the extreme hot climate. In conclusion, low expression of HSP70 in the gastric mucosa and reduced gastric mucus thickness may play key roles in the mechanism of PUB in extreme cold climates. The significant decrease in barrier factors and increase in damage in extreme cold climates may be associated with the seasonal pattern of peptic ulcers. PMID:25452787

YUAN, XIAO-GANG; XIE, CHUAN; CHEN, JIANG; XIE, YONG; ZHANG, KUN-HE; LU, NONG-HUA

2015-01-01

191

Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

2013-01-01

192

Reappraisal of the Immunophenotype of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)—Gastric Pyloric and Small Intestinal Immunophenotype Expression in Gastric and Intestinal Type IPMNs—  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing neoplasms of the main and/or branch pancreatic ducts. To assess differences between various IPMN subtypes, immunohistochemical markers of gastric surface mucous cells (MUC5AC), gastric gland mucous cells (MUC6 and GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R), gastric pyloric and duodenal epithelial cells (PDX1), intestinal cells (MUC2 and CDX2), small intestinal cells (CPS1) and large intestinal cells (SATB2) were evaluated in 33 surgically treated IPMNs. MUC2 expression classified IPMNs into gastric (n=17), intestinal (n=8) and mixed gastric and intestinal type (collision=7, composite=1). No differences in age or sex were observed among these types. MUC5AC and PDX1 were expressed in all IPMNs. MUC6 expression was higher in gastric and mixed types than in intestinal type. GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R was detected in gastric and mixed type, but not in intestinal type. MUC2 and CDX2 expression were higher in intestinal type than gastric and mixed type. CPS1 expression was higher in intestinal type than gastric type. SATB2 was not observed in any IPMNs. Frequent abrupt transition between the two IPMN types in mixed-type IPMNs was observed. Gastric pyloric and small intestinal differentiation are characteristic of gastric and intestinal type IPMN, respectively, and these two IPMN types may have distinct pathogenesis. PMID:25221363

Kobayashi, Mikiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ota, Hiroyoshi

2014-01-01

193

The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

2014-07-01

194

Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.  

PubMed

In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

2014-01-01

195

Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress. PMID:25238454

2014-01-01

196

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146...Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice...

2011-04-01

197

Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.  

PubMed

The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels. PMID:18237473

Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

2008-02-01

198

JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

199

Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

2011-01-01

200

Gastric conduit perforation.  

PubMed

As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2014-08-16

201

Gastric conduit perforation  

PubMed Central

As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized. PMID:25133156

Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

2014-01-01

202

The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.  

PubMed

The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

1987-05-01

203

Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA  

PubMed Central

The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20?mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60?mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA. PMID:23970937

Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

2013-01-01

204

Deacidification of passion fruit juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane after different pretreatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of acidity of passion fruit juice was investigated by electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes (BM) at the laboratory and pre-industrial scale. Four states of juice were tested: initial pulpy juice, juice clarified by tangential microfiltration, twice-concentrated clarified juice, centrifuged juice. The ED performances were compared in terms of deacidification rate, current efficiency, and energy consumption. The deacidification was

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2009-01-01

205

Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely “FVBH” for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

2014-01-01

206

Management of experimental hypochlorhydria with iron deficiency by the composite extract of Fumaria vaillantii L. and Benincasa hispida T. in rat.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to search the effective ratio of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel (Fumaria vaillantii L.) and fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb. (Benincasa hispida T.) in composite form, namely "FVBH" for the management of hypochlorhydria along with iron deficiency in male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria refers to suppression of hydrochloric acid secretion by the stomach. Hypochlorhydria was induced by ranitidine in this study. We used four composite extracts of the mentioned plant and fruit with different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 3:2) for searching the most effective composite extract for the correction of hypochlorhydria. Gastric acidity is an important factor for iron absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria causes iron deficiency in rat and it was prevented significantly by the extract treatment at the ratio of 1:1 of the said plant and fruit. The correction of iron deficiency by the composite extract was compared with iron supplementation to hypochlorhydric rat. It was found that preadministration followed by coadministration of FVBH-1 (1:1) able to prevent the ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency. The composite extract, FVBH-1 (1:1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the pepsin concentration, chloride level in gastric juice, iron levels in serum and liver along with blood hemoglobin level than other ratios used here. Hence, it can be concluded that FVBH-1 (1:1) is an effective herbal formulation for the management of hypochlorhydria and related iron deficiency. PMID:25097423

Mandal, Upanandan; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Chatterjee, Kausik; De, Debasis; Biswas, Anjan; Ghosh, Debidas

2014-07-01

207

Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ... available from the NCI Web site . Stage II Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage II gastric cancer may ...

208

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

209

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2014-01-01

210

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

2013-04-01

211

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2011-01-01

212

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

2011-04-01

213

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

2014-04-01

214

21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...135, to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice...

2012-04-01

215

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2013-01-01

216

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2012-01-01

217

Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.  

PubMed

The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-?B in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:24300194

Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

2014-02-01

218

Capsaicin and Gastric Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation.The

M. N. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

219

Gastric cáncer: Overview.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:24892619

Piazuelo, M Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

2013-07-01

220

Gastric cáncer: Overview  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:24892619

Correa, Pelayo

2013-01-01

221

Effect of grapefruit juice on blood cyclosporin concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapefruit juice increases blood concentrations of some dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, which are metabolised by the P450 enzymes that also metabolise cyclosporin. We evaluated, in a randomised cross-over study, the effect of grapefruit juice on blood cyclosporin concentrations in 14 healthy adults. Each subject was given oral cyclosporin 300 mg with 250 mL grapefruit juice, orange juice, or water. Area-under-the-curve (AUC)

G. C. Yee; D. L. Stanley; L. J. Pessa; T. D. Costa; S. E. Beltz; J. Ruiz; D. T. Lowenthal

1995-01-01

222

Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography.  

PubMed

While intake of clear fluids 2-3 h before surgery is considered safe as it does not influence gastric content, it is not known if the same applies to a light breakfast meal. We therefore studied gastric emptying of a light breakfast in healthy, female volunteers without evidence of gastrointestinal motility disorders. The test meal consisted of one slice of buttered toast with jam, one cup of coffee without milk or sugar and one glass of pulp-free orange juice taken together with a paracetamol mixture. Using gastric ultrasonography, the stomach was identified without problems in all subjects, and gastric emptying curves using changes in gastric antral area and serum-paracetamol were obtained. Emptying of the fluid phase started immediately after intake of the meal. All subjects had solid particles in the stomach 120 min after the meal, 3 patients were considered empty after 180 min, 6 after 210 min and all after 240 min. The gastric antral area returned to fasting value significantly faster than the disappearance of solid particles; median 150 min versus 210 min; P = 0.01. Our results show that in healthy subjects the stomach cannot be considered empty for solid particles the first 4 h after a light breakfast meal. To secure some safety limits, we suggest a 6-h mandatory preoperative fast after a light breakfast. PMID:8792883

Søreide, E; Hausken, T; Søreide, J A; Steen, P A

1996-05-01

223

[Gas chromatographic determination of diethylene glycol in wine, grape juice and grape-juice concentrates].  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of diethylene glycol in wine, red and white grape juice, and red and white grape juice concentrates is described. The method includes continuous extraction of the diethylene glycol with ethyl acetate by the aid of a rotation perforator. Using the new generation of chemically bonded stationary phases on fused silica together with an appropriate modern cold on-column injection system coupled with an autoanalyzer and a retention gap, the GLC analysis is shown to provide adequate information for quality control purposes. Linearity, precision and recovery with the described procedure were investigated. The precision of the method was studied using a sample containing approximately 65 mg/l diethylene glycol. Twelve separate determinations were performed by the described method; the coefficient of variation was 3.9%. The detection limit of our method is 5 mg/l diethylene glycol both for wine, grape juice and grape juice concentrates. Recovery data are based on wine, grape juice and grape juice concentrates fortified with diethylene glycol at different levels. The ranges of concentration used in this study were 10 mg/l to 10 g/l for wine and 10 mg/l to 100 mg/l for grape juice and grape juice concentrate. The average recovery of diethylene glycol for wine at all concentrations tested was 98.8%; coefficients of variation were between 1.6 and 8.0%. Recoveries of diethylene glycol added to grape juice at the level of 10 mg/l to 100 mg/l were 96% to 109%. PMID:3716613

Werkhoff, P; Bretschneider, W

1986-04-01

224

77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1105-1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year...suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International...suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

2012-08-01

225

Production of concentrated kiwifruit juice by integrated membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fruit juices is industrially performed in order to reduce storage, packaging, handling and shipping costs. This paper describes the research efforts to develop and optimise an integrated membrane process, on laboratory scale, for the production of concentrated kiwifruit juice as alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation. Fresh depectinated kiwifruit juice was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process.

A. Cassano; B. Jiao; E. Drioli

2004-01-01

226

Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.  

PubMed

Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

Zeiner, Michaela; Juranovi? Cindri?, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

2010-03-24

227

GASTRIC REFLUX IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED GASTRIC FED ICU PATIENTS  

E-print Network

Background: Reflux of gastric contents in gastric fed patients is a contributor to pulmonary aspiration. Aspiration events are reported in approximately 50-75% of patients with endotracheal tubes. Aspiration of oral and ...

Schallom, Marilyn

2013-08-31

228

Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

2013-01-01

229

Gastric Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity. Background Gastroparesis - Epidemiology Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women. The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously. Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes. The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest. GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP. The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. Treatment for Gastroparesis To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients. Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP. For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying. Few small studies

2006-01-01

230

PreClinical Study: Antioxidant Levels and Immunomodulatory Effects of Wolfberry Juice and Other Juice Mixtures in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wolfberry juice, derived from the fruit of Lycium barbarum, has been purported by Chinese researchers to augment immune response, there is a paucity of information in scientific literature about its effects. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of wolfberry juice, individually and in mixtures with other juices, using a mouse model. The antioxidant activity of wolfberry

Sue Chao; Marc Schreuder; Gary Young; Karen Nakaoka; Lynn Moyes; Craig Oberg

231

Gastric emphysema secondary to laparoscopic gastric band erosion  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gastric band erosion is a known complication of adjustable gastric band surgery. There are no previous reports of gastric band erosion associated with gastric emphysema (GE) or emphysematous gastritis (EG), a rare condition with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the first known case of GE found in a 58-year-old lady presenting with acute onset epigastric abdominal pain and haematemesis in the setting of a chronically eroded gastric band. GE was visualised in the anterior gastric wall of the stomach without evidence of EG. Endoscopic and surgical examination of the stomach was undertaken along with band removal followed by defect repair. DISCUSSION GE can result from obstructive, traumatic and pulmonary causes. EG is a rare and often lethal form of GE resulting from bacterial invasion of the gastric wall through a mucosal defect leading to sepsis and gastric necrosis. Early reports documented early definitive operative debridement of necrotic gastric wall of patients with EG while recent reports have demonstrated a feasible non-operative approach among highly selected patients with no evidence of gastric necrosis. There are no previous reports on the treatment of patients with gastric band erosion and suspected EG. CONCLUSION Patients presenting acutely with symptomatic gastric band erosion, radiological evidence of GE with evidence of leucocytosis, peritonism or sepsis may develop EG. A high index of suspicion, low threshold for operative exploration and optimal management with antimicrobial therapy and close supportive care are necessary to ensure the best survival outcomes for these patients. PMID:25216194

Su, Michael Z.; Munro, William S.

2014-01-01

232

QTL detection on porcine chromosome 12 for fatty-acid composition and association analyses of the fatty acid synthase, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha genes.  

PubMed

Refinement of previous QTL on porcine chromosome 12 for fatty-acid composition and a candidate gene association analysis were conducted using an Iberian x Landrace cross. The concentrations of ten fatty acids were assayed in backfat tissue from which four metabolic ratios were calculated for 403 F2 animals. Linkage analysis identified two significant QTL. The first QTL was associated with the average chain length ratio and the percentages of myristic, palmitic and gadoleic acids. The second QTL was associated with percentages of palmitoleic, stearic and vaccenic acids. Based upon its position on SSC12, fatty acid synthase was tested as a candidate gene for the first QTL and no significant effects were found. Similarly, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA) were tested as candidate genes for the second QTL using three SNPs in GIP and 15 synonymous SNPs in ACACA cDNA sequences. Two missense SNPs in GIP showed significant effects with palmitoleic and stearic fatty-acid concentration. Highly significant associations were found for two SNPs in ACACA with stearic, palmitoleic and vaccenic fatty-acid concentrations. These associations could be due to linkage disequilibrium with the causal mutations. PMID:18052940

Muñoz, G; Alves, E; Fernández, A; Ovilo, C; Barragán, C; Estellé, J; Quintanilla, R; Folch, J M; Silió, L; Rodríguez, M C; Fernández, A I

2007-12-01

233

In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.  

PubMed

Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization. PMID:2095316

Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

1990-12-01

234

Do We Need Gastric Acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

2008-01-01

235

Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss

In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

2005-01-01

236

Gastric cancer: basic aspects.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3?, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy. PMID:21896084

Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

2011-09-01

237

Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: In vitro and clinical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Recent anecdotal, unvalidated case reports have suggested potentiation of warfarin-induced anticoagulation by cranberry juice, possibly through inhibition of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, the enzyme responsible for the clearance of the active S-enantiomer of warfarin. To address this question, the effect of cranberry juice and other beverages on CYP2C9 activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The effects

David J. Greenblatt; Lisa L. von Moltke; Elke Störmer Perloff; Yan Luo; Jerold S. Harmatz; Miguel A. Zinny

2006-01-01

238

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insoluble solids from the flesh of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized...125 inch) or greater in length. (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks) greater than 1.6...

2011-04-01

239

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insoluble solids from the flesh of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized...125 inch) or greater in length. (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks) greater than 1.6...

2012-04-01

240

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insoluble solids from the flesh of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized...125 inch) or greater in length. (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks) greater than 1.6...

2013-04-01

241

21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...insoluble solids from the flesh of the tomato in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Such juice may be homogenized...125 inch) or greater in length. (b ) Blemishes such as dark brown or black particles (specks) greater than 1.6...

2014-04-01

242

Gastric digestion of ?-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.  

PubMed

In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of ?-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of ?-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of ?-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between ?-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

2014-08-28

243

Effects of heat treatments on the stabilities of polysaccharides substances and barbaloin in gel juice from Aloe vera Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted on the gel juice from Aloe vera, a traditional medicinal plant, to investigate the effects of heat treatment on bioactive substances including polysaccharide and barbaloin. The effect of methanol solvent on compositional variations of barbaloin was also taken into consideration. Results show that the polysaccharide from Aloe vera exhibited a maximal stability at 70°C decreasing either at

Xiu Lian Chang; Changhai Wang; Yongmei Feng; Zhaopu Liu

2006-01-01

244

Aronia-enriched lemon juice: a new highly antioxidant beverage.  

PubMed

Lemon juice (LJ) was enriched with aronia concentrate (AC) in two different proportions (2.5 and 5%, v/v) to design new beverages rich in bioactive ingredients. The phytochemical composition (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids) and stability of the beverages were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), as well as color alterations and in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH(*) assay). Results showed that, although anthocyanin degradation was higher than 90% after 60 days of storage, the new beverages retained an attractive red color. Also, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the new mixtures was 2-fold higher when 5% AC was added compared to pure LJ. Thus, an addition of only 5% AC could effectively increase the antioxidant properties of LJ, as well as improving certain organoleptic characteristics, rendering an interesting beverage in the growing market of food for health. PMID:19007164

González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2008-12-10

245

Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

2014-01-01

246

Nutritional Value and Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruit Juices sold through Retail Outlets in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of ten fresh fruit juices purchased from retail outlets in Doha, Qatar was calculated on the basis that approximately 100 g of fruit is used to make one glass of juice (250 ml). Avocado juice was the best source of energy and potassium followed by banana juice, while guava juice was an outstanding source of vitamin C

2002-01-01

247

Physico-chemical characteristics of nanovesicle-carbohydrate complexes in grape juice concentrate.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that polyphenols, such as anthocyanins in fruit juice, exist in a free soluble state and are readily available for absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction of polyphenols with soluble carbohydrate polymers, such as pectin and lipid nanovesicles, that are generated during homogenization of the fruit tissue during juice extraction. A commercially available grape juice concentrate contained nearly 25% of polyphenol fraction bound to macromolecules that were nondialyzable. Treatment of dialyzed juice with cellulase, pectinase, and beta-galactosidase did not cause the release of bound polyphenols; however, treatment with triton X-100 caused an increased release of bound polyphenols. The dialyzate contained relatively more -3-O glucosides and -3-O-acetoyl glucosides in comparison to the bound fraction which was enriched in -3-O-coumaroyl glucosides, suggesting qualitative differences in the bound and the free anthocyanin composition. Electron microscopic analysis of the juice fractions revealed the presence of electron-dense nanovesicle-fiber complexes ranging from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. Such complexes were absent in the dialyzate fraction. Cellulase treatment did not change the morphology of the complexes; however, treatment with pectinase and beta-galactosidase disrupted the complexes, releasing vesicular structures, suggestive of the pectin nature of the fibrous matrix. The dialyzed and the dialyzate fractions also showed differences in their 1H NMR and fluorescence spectral characteristics. The dialyzed fraction containing polyphenol-pectin complexes showed no superoxide scavenging capacity, reduced hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, indicating potential changes in functionality because of the complex formation. PMID:18247532

Jacob, Jissy K; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

2008-02-27

248

Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30) or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30). General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092) respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5). This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol. PMID:25558191

Ullah, Khan Mueen; Aqil, Mansoor; Hussain, Altaf; Al Zahrani, Tariq; Hillis, Marwan

2015-01-01

249

Etiological research on gastric cancer and its precursor lesions in Shandong, China.  

PubMed

Research over the past several years in an area of Shandong, China, with one of the world's highest rates of gastric cancer, has yielded clues to the environmental determinants of this tumour. Interviews with 564 gastric cancer patients and 1131 population-based controls revealed increased risks associated with consumption of sour pancakes, a fermented staple unique to the area, in samples of which volatile N-nitrosamines have been detected. Lower risks were found among people who had a higher intake of fresh vegetables, including garlic and other Allium vegetables which contain constituents that can inhibit carcinogenesis by N-nitrosamines and other substances in experimental animals. A pilot study involving assays of urine and gastric juice from 60 individuals in a screening programme showed higher levels of N-nitrosoproline and of cis- and trans-N-nitroso-2-methylthiazolidine 4-carboxylic acid among persons with gastric dysplasia than in either normal controls or those with chronic atrophic gastritis. We are trying to characterize the transition and progression of precursor lesions to gastric cancer and to evaluate the role of dietary variables, nutrients, N-nitroso compounds and other factors in particular stages of the carcinogenic process. PMID:1855874

You, W C; Chang, Y S; Yang, Z T; Zhang, L; Xu, G W; Blot, W J; Kneller, R; Keefer, L K; Fraumeni, J F

1991-01-01

250

[Changes in gastric function in rats after intragastric introduction of corvitin at high doses].  

PubMed

Intragastric administration of corvitin at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg dose-dependently increased the volume of gastric juice and the total production of hydrochloric acid (HA). Amplification of hexosamines and cysteine production was observed only when the study drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg. When corvitin was used at 20 and 40 mg/kg, these parameters were at the level of control values. Protein production increased in response to 10 and 20 mg/kg corvitin, but fell below the control values after administration of 40 mg/kg of the drug. The level of blood flow in the gastric mucosa increased following administration of 10 mg/kg corvitin, was not different from the baseline after 20 mg/kg of the drug and significantly decreased in response to 40 mg/kg of flavonoid. Our results indicate that a single intragastric application of corvitin at dose of 10 mg/kg activates gastric defense mechanisms. At 20 and 40 mg/kg, corvitin does not affect them but gradually reduces blood flow in gastric mucosa, causes a disturbance of protein synthesis and hypersecretion of HA into the cavity of the stomach, which can lead to disruption of the digestive process and the integrity of gastric mucosa. PMID:25095670

Vovkun, T V; Ianchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Ia; Vesel'sky?, S P; Baranovs'ky?, V A

2014-01-01

251

In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE) may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA), as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653931

Ertay, Türkan; Do?an, Amet Semih; Ülker, Özden; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

252

Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia. PMID:23442660

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2012-10-15

253

of Gastric Submucosal Tumor  

E-print Network

Purpose: Laparoscopic wedge resection of gastric submucosal tumor may be difficult in case of the endophytic mass or the mass located unreachable area such as cardia, and intragastric approach can be useful. We would present the experiences of the intragastric wedge resection. Materials and Methods: There were 7 patients diagnosed as gastric submucosal tumor and underwent the intragastric wedge resection at Surgery, Chungnam National University Hospital. We reviewed medical record. Results: There were 3 male and 4 female. Mean age was 65 years-old (57~73). Mean body mass index was 26.28 kg/m 2 (21.28~35.30). Location of lesions was 4 cardia, 2 fundus and 1 midbody, respectively. Mean operation time was 83.6 minutes (70~105). All patients were healed without any complication. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.4 days (4~6). Mean size was 2.7 cm (2.3~3.8). Pathologic finding was 5 gastrointestinal stromal tumor and 2 leiomyoma. Conclusions: The single incision intragastric wedge resection of gastric submucosal tumor is feasible and acceptable, especially in mass of gastric upper part. Key Words: Laparoscopy; Surgical procedures, minimally invasive; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms

254

Primary gastric Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Primary Hodgkin's disease of the stomach is an extremely rare entity. Nearly all cases of primary gastric lymphoma are of the non-Hodgkin's variety. Diagnoses in such cases are difficult due to considerable histological similarities between the 2 disease entities. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 77 year old lady with a 1 year history of weight loss

Fahad S Hossain; Yashwant Koak; Farrukh H Khan

2007-01-01

255

Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how composites work by creating and testing their own composite for an imaginary company. This activity shows learners that composites are simply materials that are made up of two or more visibly distinct substances. Use this activity to talk about how composites are everywhere in our lives.

Cornell Center for Materials Research

2003-01-01

256

Multiple simultaneous gastric carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

A total of 1664 patients with gastric cancer were examined to evaluate the rate of multiple synchronous primary tumours. In cases of multiple synchronous cancer (MSC), the tumours were analysed immunohistochemically for their expression pattern of p53, c-erbB2, ras, E-cadherin and proliferative activity. Multiple synchronous gastric carcinomas (MSCs) were observed in 61 out of 1664 patients (3.7%), with a total of 134 carcinomas. In our series, early carcinoma was observed more frequently in MSC than in solitary cancers. The comparison of tumour stage in MSC and solitary tumours revealed that multiple early gastric cancers were significantly more often of type I (protruded type) and IIa (superficial elevated type) than solitary early cancer. Multiple advanced carcinomas were more often of a lower pT category than solitary advanced gastric cancer. Performing immunohistochemistry for p53, c-erbB2 and ras in 134 tumours with MSCs, we observed positivity rates of 33%, 59% and 87% respectively. In 43 patients, the multiple tumours in each individual patient demonstrated an identical status of p53 and c-erbB2, and in 42 patients a similar pattern of E-cadherin expression was observed. The proliferative index, determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabelling, did not differ significantly between the MSC in each patient. Ras immunostaining was detected in 53 out of 61 patients, but also in metaplasia and regenerative hyperplasia in the specimens. In survival analysis, no difference was observed between patients with solitary or multiple early or advanced carcinomas. Our results suggest that in at least a high proportion of patients with gastric cancer multiple primary tumours arise from precancerous conditions leading to similar genetic alterations. PMID:9413949

Wittekind, C.; Klimpfinger, M.; Hermanek, P.; Tannapfel, A.

1997-01-01

257

Diagnosis of Pancreatic Neoplasms Using a Novel Method of DNA Methylation Analysis of Mucin Expression in Pancreatic Juice  

PubMed Central

Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel ‘methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)’ method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:24714692

Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitamoto, Sho; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Yuko; Hara, Taro; Ikebe, Dai; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Niihara, Toru; Nishimata, Hiroto; Tanaka, Sadao; Takaori, Kyoichi; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

258

Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.  

PubMed

A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l?¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l?¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l?¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l?¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg?¹ body weight day?¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children. PMID:23697372

Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

2013-01-01

259

[Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma].  

PubMed

The gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The only treatment modality showing improved survival for gastric cancer is curative surgical resection, which comprises the resection of stomach, proper lymphadenectomy, and reconstruction. However, specific surgical procedures should be decided according to the location of the cancer, advancement of the tumor, and patients condition. Surgical treatment for gastric cancer has been developed toward two directions that are minimal invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and multi-disciplinary approach for advanced gastric cancer. Laparoscopic surgery for early gastric cancer has been accepted for minimally invasive surgery. Moreover, the advancement of diagnostic tools to assess biological aggressiveness of the tumor enables physicians to perform endoscopic resection or minimized resection for early gastric cancer. Recently, surgeons try to extend the application of laparoscopic gastric resection and D2 lymphadenectomy to advanced gastric cancer. However, technical and oncological evidences based on clinical trials should be filed up before adopting it as a standard therapy. In case of advanced gastric cancer, in addition to radical surgery, various treatment modalities including chemotherapy, radiation, and molecular target therapy also have been applied in many clinical trials. However, it should be stressed that a prerequisite for precise evaluation of the efficacy of these combined treatment modalities would be the standardization of surgical procedure. PMID:19696536

Hur, Hoon; Park, Cho Hyun

2009-08-01

260

Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.  

PubMed

Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline. PMID:22468945

Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

2012-06-13

261

Dextransucrase Stability in Cashew Apple Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agriculture waste as substrate for biotechnological process became an interesting alternative to reduce production\\u000a costs and the negative impact of agricultural wastes disposal in the environment. In Brazil, cashew tree cultivation is done\\u000a aiming the cashew nut production, and tons of cashew apples are wasted in the field after the nut removal. Thus, cashew apple\\u000a juice can

Talita L. Honorato; Sueli Rodrigues

2010-01-01

262

Klebsiella pneumoniae in orange juice concentrate.  

PubMed

Fecal coliform-positive, capsule-forming Klebsiella pneumoniae cells were observed in high densities (10(4) to 10(8) CFU/100 ml) in two commercial batches of frozen orange juice concentrate at a cannery in Puerto Rico. Contamination of both lots was gross and included off colors and odors. Isolates of K. pneumoniae from these concentrates revealed growth at 4, 25, and 34 degrees C with generation times from 0.39 to 1.84 h. PMID:3893321

Fuentes, F A; Hazen, T C; López-Torres, A J; Rechani, P

1985-06-01

263

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week of gestation. Acid output was determined by titration of the gastric perfusate. Basal secretion was collected for 45 min before a

T.-S. Chen; G.-H. Yeh; H.-F. Pu; M.-L. Doong; C.-C. Lu; S.-R. Liu; T.-K. Young; L.-T. Ho; F.-Y. Chang; P. S. Wanga

1995-01-01

264

Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3?mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3?mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg) or aprepitant (10?mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2014-01-01

265

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151...151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and...

2012-04-01

266

78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping...suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or...duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

2013-08-07

267

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2010-04-01

268

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2010-04-01

269

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

2010-04-01

270

76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil with respect...Register an antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping...

2011-04-07

271

77 FR 21724 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil with respect...See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 12183...

2012-04-11

272

78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period...1\\ See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results...

2013-03-04

273

77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review...1\\ See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Preliminary...

2012-10-16

274

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

275

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

276

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

277

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

278

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

279

78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to...Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Lemon Juice from Mexico (the...

2013-08-07

280

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

281

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

282

Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

2014-01-01

283

Thorough investigation of the oxygen heterocyclic fraction of lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) juice.  

PubMed

Reversed-phase-HPLC analysis by means of superficially porous silica particle columns (fused-core) was applied to the investigation of flavonoids, coumarins, and psoralens in lime juice samples. Hesperidin (367.0 ± 16.0 ppm) and eriocitrin (148.0 ± 7.9 ppm) were the most abundant flavonoids. Fifteen coumarins and furocoumarins were determined, including bergamottin (29.6 ± 1.1 ppm), 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (16.5 ± 0.6 ppm), and oxypeucedanin hydrate (9.9 ± 0.5 ppm) as predominant compounds. These molecules are today well known for their beneficial effects on human health. As a consequence, the present study, beyond investigating for the first time the chemical composition of lime juice, highlights also its health-promoting qualities, due to its content of flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:24478239

Costa, Rosaria; Russo, Marina; De Grazia, Selenia; Grasso, Elisa; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2014-04-01

284

Peptidomics study of anthocyanin-rich juice of elderberry.  

PubMed

Biologically active peptides play a role in plant signaling and defense. Elderberry juice is known to contain a variety of anthocyanin compounds, a sub-set of polyphenols, which are responsible for the deep purple color of the juice. In this paper, we describe a method utilizing solid phase extraction (SPE) to remove anthocyanins from peptides. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the peptides. The results showed that the use of SPE was an effective method to separate peptides from anthocyanins and other background compounds including high polyphenol content in the juice samples. More than 1000 peptides present in elderberry juice were successfully identified. PMID:25281152

Wu, Hanzhi; Johnson, Mitch C; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L; Thomas, Andrew L; Lai, Yongquan; Cai, Zongwei; Greenlief, C Michael

2015-01-01

285

Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol  

PubMed Central

AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several ?-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

2013-01-01

286

The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

2011-01-01

287

Indomethacin-antihistamine combination for gastric ulceration control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anti-inflammatory and analgesic composition containing indomethacin and an H sub 1 or an H sub 2 histamine receptor antagonist in an amount sufficient to reduce gastric distress caused by the indomethacin is described. Usable antagonists include pyrilamine, promethazine, metiamide and cimetidine.

Brown, P. A.; Danellis, J. V. (inventors)

1981-01-01

288

Bergamottin, lime juice, and red wine as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity: Comparison with grapefruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our objective was to assess the importance of bergamottin in drug interactions through comparisons between grapefruit juice and lime juice and the potential for drug interactions with red wine.Methods: Bergamottin content and in vitro reversible\\/irreversible inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 monooxygenase activities were determined for grapefruit and lime juices. The oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its primary metabolite

David G. Bailey; George K. Dresser; John R. Bend

2003-01-01

289

Gastric bezoars: treatment and prevention.  

PubMed

Gastric bezoars may occur in the normal stomach as a result of ingestion of various objects which do not pass through the pylorus. Most gastric bezoars occur as a complication of previous gastric surgery in which there is a loss of normal pyloric function, hypoperistalsis, and low gastric acidity. They may also occur as a complication of cimetidine therapy. Symptoms include epigastric fullness, regurgitation, nausea and vomiting, and epigastric pain. A simple treatment utilizing an ordinary Teledyne Water Pik jet stream through a gastroscope is described to break up a large phytobezoar. This method is probably the treatment of choice and should be used more widely. PMID:6720657

Rider, J A; Foresti-Lorente, R F; Garrido, J; Puletti, E J; Rider, D L; King, A H; Bradley, S P

1984-05-01

290

Lifestyle and gastric function.  

PubMed

The stomach has a range of functions, including chemical digestion and mechanical breakdown of food, temporary storage of bulk intake, and regulation of the passage of nutrients into the duodenum. Further gastric functions are the nonspecific defense against microbes entering the gastrointestinal tract, preparation of ions as well as liberation of protein-bound cobalamin and production of intrinsic factor for uptake further along the tract, and finally limited absorption of water, alcohol, and some fat-soluble food components including some drugs. These functions are influenced by various lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake with interference by Helicobacter pylori colonization. This paper focuses on the interaction between lifestyle and gastric function. PMID:24732183

Kuipers, Ernst J

2014-01-01

291

Gastric cancer review  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

Carcas, Lauren Peirce

2014-01-01

292

Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice–triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of several drugs during first pass. In this study, the effect of grapefruit\\u000a juice dose on the extent of grapefruit juice–triazolam interaction was investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: In a randomised, four-phase, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received 0.25?mg triazolam with water, with 200?ml normal-strength\\u000a or double-strength grapefruit juice or, on the third day of multiple-dose [three

J. J. Lilja; K. T. Kivistö; J. T. Backman; P. J. Neuvonen

2000-01-01

293

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We introduced open adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution\\u000a in 1991. It was done in a prospective study comparing ASGB with vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) with regard to weight loss.\\u000a After 200 cases of open ASGB and 210 VBG procedures and the encouraging weight loss results, we started laparoscopic placement\\u000a of the

Mitiku Belachew; Marc Legrand; Vernon Vincent; Michel Lismonde; Nicole Le Docte; Veronique Deschamps

1998-01-01

294

Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation  

PubMed Central

A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar) is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment. PMID:22379468

Santos Valenciano, Juliana; Nonose, Ronaldo; Bragattini Cruz, Rodrigo; Tiemi Sato, Daniela; Monteiro Fernandes, FelipeCappellette; Fabrício Nascimento, Enzo; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto

2012-01-01

295

Characterization of Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum) essential oil and its inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and during mild thermal pasteurization of pineapple juice.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the essential oil (EO) of Eryngium foetidum (EfEO) and assess its activity toward Listeria monocytogenes in broth and during thermal inactivation of the pathogen in pineapple juice. In this respect, EfEO was chemically characterized, and its antilisteria potential in broth as a function of pH, cell load, and EfEO concentration was assessed through a central composite design. Furthermore, the inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes in the juice were assessed by combining EfEO and low pasteurization temperatures. A total of 81 compounds were identified from EfEO. The reduction of pH and cell load increased EO activity. The use of only 15 ppm of EfEO during pasteurization of pineapple juice at 60°C reduced the time required for a 4-log reduction in L. monocytogenes CFU/ml by 74.9% (i.e., from 8.5 to 2.1 min) compared with treatment without EfEO. It could be concluded that EfEO activity toward L. monocytogenes increases with the reduction of pH and that it can be used at sublethal concentrations in combination with low temperatures in pineapple juice pasteurization. This study demonstrates that EO-assisted pasteurization is a promising strategy for the reduction of thermal impact during juice production. EfEO is easily available and compatible with many juices and is thus promising for industrial application. PMID:24674435

Ngang, Jean J Essia; Nyegue, Maximilienne A; Ndoye, Foe C; Tchuenchieu Kamgain, Alex D; Sado Kamdem, Sylvain L; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto; Etoa, François-Xavier

2014-03-01

296

One year of pomegranate juice intake decreases oxidative stress, inflammation, and incidence of infections in hemodialysis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are well established as nontraditional key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are also involved in the innate immunity dysregulation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study aim was to investigate the effect of 1-year intake of pomegranate juice, an antioxidant source, on oxidative stress, inflammation, and long-term clinical outcomes. A randomized placebo controlled double-blind trial was designed, enrolling 101 chronic HD patients to receive during each dialysis 100 cc of pomegranate juice, or matching placebo, three times a week for 1 year. The primary endpoints were levels of oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. Secondary endpoints were hospitalization due to infections and the progression of atherosclerotic process based on a composite of variables of the carotid arteries: intima media thickness (IMT), number, and structure of plaques. Pomegranate juice intake yielded a significant time response reduction in polymorphonuclear leukocyte priming, protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and inflammation biomarkers levels. These beneficial effects were abolished 3 months postintervention. Pomegranate juice intake resulted in a significantly lower incidence rate of the second hospitalization due to infections. Furthermore, 25% of the patients in the pomegranate juice group had improvement and only 5% progression in the atherosclerotic process, while more than 50% of patients in the placebo group showed progression and none showed any improvement. Prolonged pomegranate juice intake improves nontraditional CV risk factors, attenuates the progression of the atherosclerotic process, strengthens the innate immunity, and thus reduces morbidity among HD patients. PMID:22609423

Shema-Didi, Lilach; Sela, Shifra; Ore, Liora; Shapiro, Galina; Geron, Ronit; Moshe, Goldfeld; Kristal, Batya

2012-07-15

297

Dynamic light-scattering study of gelatin and aggregation of gastric mucin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic light scattering studies show that concentration and pH play important roles in determining pig gastric mucin's (PGM) ability to aggregate and gel. At low concentrations, PGM macromolecules exist in solution predominantly in the form of monomers. At high concentrations, PGM macromolecules aggregate to form supra-macromolecular clusters. When the pH of the high concentration PGM solution is changed from 7.0 to 2.0, the system undergoes a sol-gel transition: from a solution of polydisperse aggregates to a gel. This pH and concentration dependent sol-gel transition of PGM solution may provide a mechanism for the mammalian stomach to protect itself against being digested by the gastric juice.

Bansil, Rama; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; LaMont, Jeffrey T.

1997-05-01

298

Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma are rare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resembles advanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastric metastasis especially when the histology of the primary lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case of gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking Borrmann type IV primary gastric cancer. A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinoma with multiple bone metastases had been experiencing progressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plastica-like lesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positive immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed that the metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patient had been treated with palliative chemotherapy for the lung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additional immunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1 may help in differentiating its origin. PMID:25780510

Kim, Min Ji; Hong, Ji Hyung; Park, Eun Su; Byun, Jae Ho

2015-01-01

299

Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma are rare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resembles advanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastric metastasis especially when the histology of the primary lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case of gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma mimicking Borrmann type IV primary gastric cancer. A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinoma with multiple bone metastases had been experiencing progressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plastica-like lesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positive immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed that the metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patient had been treated with palliative chemotherapy for the lung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additional immunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1 may help in differentiating its origin. PMID:25780510

Kim, Min Ji; Hong, Ji Hyung; Park, Eun Su; Byun, Jae Ho

2015-03-15

300

Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

301

Ultrafiltration of kiwifruit juice: Operating parameters, juice quality and membrane fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh depectinised kiwifruit juice has been clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process on laboratory scale. In experimental tests performed according to the total recycle mode the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP), axial flow-rate and temperature on permeation flux has been studied. The results showed that flux increased with temperatures from 20 to 30°C and with axial feed flow rate from 300

A. Cassano; L. Donato; E. Drioli

2007-01-01

302

Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices  

E-print Network

Bottle Juices $3 Bottled Water $3 Granola Bars, Power Bars and Nutrigrain Bars $2 Assorted Organic#12;Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Teas The American Breakfast Buffet $16 (Minimum of 15 guests) Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

303

Interaction between grapefruit juice and midazolam in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of midazolam.Methods: Eight healthy male subjects participated in this open crossover study. Intravenous (5 mg) or oral (15 mg) midazolam was administered after pretreatment with water or grapefruit juice. We measured the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (reaction time, Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], general impression judged by the

Hugo H. T. Kupferschmidt; Huy Riem Ha; Walter H. Ziegler; Peter J. Meier; Stephan Krähenbühl

1995-01-01

304

The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

1996-01-01

305

Fermentation of roselle juice by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted to determine the suitability of roselle calyces as a raw material for the production of probiotic roselle juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei). The juice was fermented for 72 h at 30°C and 37°C separately and then analyzed for pH, acidity, sugar content and viable cell counts. Both lactic cultures were found

Sukon Tantipaibulvut

306

SENSORY PROFILE OF PINEAPPLE JUICE PROCESSED BY HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat leads to quality changes in sensory and nutritional characteristics of foods. High hydrostatic pressure is being investigated, as a processing that may destroy undesired microorganisms, while preserving sensory and nutritional characteristics. One of the most promising segments in Brazil is fruit juice, and evaluating its sensory profile is a valuable tool to improve the juice quality. The objective of

Aline M. de Barros; Rosires Deliza; Lúcia H. E. S. Laboissière; Amauri Rosenthal; Helena M. A. Bolini

307

HPLC-ESI-MS ANALYSIS OF FURANOCOUMARINS IN GRAPEFRUIT JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice inhibit intestinal and liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and are responsible for the effects in humans caused by grapefruit juice consumption on the metabolism of certain prescription drugs. A number of the (furano)coumarins that occur in the highest concen...

308

Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

309

Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

2013-01-01

310

Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Host specific T-cell response is critical for the outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. In genetically susceptible individuals, H. pylori can activate gastric CD4+ Th1 cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes shared by H. pylori proteins and self H+, K+-ATPase, leading to gastric autoimmunity via molecular mimicry. PMID:15596126

D'Elios, Mario Milco; Bergman, Mathijs P; Amedei, Amedeo; Appelmelk, Ben J; Del Prete, Gianfranco

2004-12-01

311

Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host specific T-cell response is critical for the outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. In genetically susceptible individuals, H. pylori can activate gastric CD4+ Th1 cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes shared by H. pylori proteins and self H+, K+-ATPase, leading to gastric autoimmunity via molecular mimicry.

Mario Milco D’Elios; Mathijs P. Bergman; Amedeo Amedei; Ben J. Appelmelk; Gianfranco Del Prete

2004-01-01

312

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

313

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M.

2007-04-01

314

Cross-talk between adipose and gastric leptins for the control of food intake and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

The understanding of the regulation of food intake has become increasingly complex. More than 20 hormones, both orexigenic and anorexigenic, have been identified. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, they reach their main site of action located in several hypothalamic areas and interact to balance satiety and hunger. One of the most significant advances in this matter has been the discovery of leptin. This hormone plays fundamental roles in the control of appetite and in regulating energy expenditure. In accordance with the lipostatic theory stated by Kennedy in 1953, leptin was originally discovered in white adipose tissue. Its expression by other tissues was later established. Among them, the gastric mucosa has been shown to secrete large amounts of leptin. Both the adipose and the gastric tissues share similar characteristics in the synthesis and storage of leptin in granules, in the formation of a complex with the soluble receptor and a secretion modulated by hormones and energy substrates. However while adipose tissue secretes leptin in a slow constitutive endocrine way, the gastric mucosa releases leptin in a rapid regulated exocrine fashion into the gastric juice. Exocrine-secreted leptin survives the extreme hydrolytic conditions of the gastric juice and reach the duodenal lumen in an intact active form. Scrutiny into transport mechanisms revealed that a significant amount of the exocrine leptin crosses the intestinal wall by active transcytosis. Leptin receptors, expressed on the luminal and basal membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, are involved in the control of nutrient absorption by enterocytes, mucus secretion by goblet cells and motility, among other processes, and this control is indeed different depending upon luminal or basal stimulus. Gastric leptin after transcytosis reaches the central nervous system, to control food intake. Studies using the Caco-2, the human intestinal cell line, in vitro allowed analysis of the mechanisms of leptin actions on the intestinal mucosa, identification of the mechanisms of leptin transcytosis and understanding the modulation of leptin receptors by nutrients and hormones. Exocrine-secreted gastric leptin thus participates in a physiological axis independent in terms of time and regulation from that of adipose tissue to rapidly control food intake and nutrient absorption. Adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells are two cell types the metabolism of which is closely linked to food intake and energy storage. The coordinated secretion of adipose and gastric leptins ensures proper management of food processing and energy storage. PMID:20621336

Cammisotto, Philippe G; Levy, Emile; Bukowiecki, Ludwik J; Bendayan, Moise

2010-09-01

315

Effect of Vacuum Sealed Drainage on Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function in Gastric Cancer Patients after Radical Gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to explore the effect of vacuum sealed drainage on the recovery of gastrointestinal function in gastric patients after radical gastrectomy. Methods One hundred and twenty patients who received radical for gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the control group received continuous gastrointestinal decompression to drain the gastric juices after radical gastrectomy, whereas patients in the treatment group received vacuum sealed drainage. The postoperative variables between the two groups were compared, including time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, days of hospitalization, and complications, such as anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, wound infection, pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis. SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Significant differences in the following variables were observed in patients between the two groups: time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, and length of hospitalization of the patients. The value of each of these variables was much smaller in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, and wound infection among patients between the two groups (P>0.05). However, a significant differences were observed in the incidence of pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis among the patients between the two groups (P<0.05), with much lower incidence of the variables in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusions Vacuum sealed drainage used in gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function and reduce postoperative complications. Moreover, it shortens the indwelling time of the gastric tube, thereby making the patients feel comfortable without the disturbance from the gastric tube. PMID:23691488

Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui-ying; Wang, Chun-mei

2012-01-01

316

Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future. PMID:22690664

Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

2012-06-01

317

Clarification of pomegranate juice with chitosan: Changes on quality characteristics during storage.  

PubMed

In this study, for the first time, the use of chitosan as a clarifying agent in the production of clear pomegranate juice was evaluated and its effects on quality characteristics of juice were investigated. A central composite face centered design was used to establish the optimum conditions for clarification of pomegranate juice (PJ) using response surface methodology. The three factors were concentration of chitosan (10-120mg/100ml), process temperature (10-20°C), and process time (30-90min) and their effects on turbidity and a(?) values were investigated. Using a desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were found to be 68.93mg/100ml chitosan at a process temperature and time of 10°C and 30min, respectively. PJ was produced using the optimum conditions and the quality characteristics such as turbidity, colour characteristics (L(?), a(?), b(?), C(?)), titratable acidity, total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanin, and protein contents were evaluated during storage at 4 and 20°C for 6months. PMID:25766820

Tastan, Ozge; Baysal, Taner

2015-08-01

318

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

319

Heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effect of cider composition on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The average D52 value in a model Empire apple juice was 18 min with a z value of 4.8 degrees C. Increasing the Brix from 11.8 to 16.5 degrees had no effect on thermal resistance, while increasing L-malic acid from 0.2 to 0.8%, or reducing the pH from 4.4 to 3.6 sensitized the cells to heat. The greatest effect on heat resistance was afforded by the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids: D50 values in ciders containing 1,000 mg/l were 5.2 min in the presence of sorbic acid and only 0.64 min in the presence of benzoic acid. Commercial apple juice concentrates yielded lower numbers of survivors than single-strength juices even though their higher sugar concentrations of about 46 degrees Brix increased heat resistance. PMID:10463437

Splittstoesser, D F; McLellan, M R; Churey, J J

1996-03-01

320

Color of orange juice treated by High Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields during refrigerated storage and comparison with pasteurized juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Intensity Pulsed Electric Field (HIPEF) is one of the nonthermal minimal processing technologies interesting for scientists and food industry as a new, alternative (preservation) process for liquid food. We have evaluated the effect on color, browning and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) of a pasteurized orange juice and the same orange juice treated by HIPEF, during 7 weeks stored in refrigeration at

Clara Cortés; María J. Esteve; Ana Frígola

2008-01-01

321

Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; D?browski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

2012-06-01

322

Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials  

PubMed Central

Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

2014-01-01

323

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastric acid secretion in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

The effects of pregnancy on the basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats were studied on pentobarbital-anaesthetized non-pregnant rats and rats in the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd week of gestation. Acid output was determined by titration of the gastric perfusate. Basal secretion was collected for 45 min before a 30 min infusion of pentagastrin (8 micrograms/ml/300 g body weight). Concentration of plasma GIP was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The immunoreactivity of GIP-like substance in the extract of the rat placenta collected from the rat at day 21 of gestation was examined by RIA. The biological activity of GIP-like substance in the rat placenta extract was tested by the reduction of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in male rats. The basal level of gastric secretion was higher in late pregnancy as compared with the non-pregnant rats. Pentagastrin induced a greater increase of gastric acid secretion in early but not late pregnant rats as compared with the non-pregnant animals. The basal and post-pentagastrin level of plasma GIP was higher in rats in late pregnancy. Both immunoreactivity and biological activity of GIP exist in the rat placenta extract. These results suggest that the normalization of gastric acid secretion in late pregnant rats is at least in part due to the production of GIP-like substance from placenta. PMID:7716131

Chen, T S; Yeh, G H; Pu, H F; Doong, M L; Lu, C C; Liu, S R; Young, T K; Ho, L T; Chang, F Y; Wang, P S

1995-01-01

324

Pediatric Gastric Teratoma  

PubMed Central

Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

2010-01-01

325

Production of baker's yeast using date juice.  

PubMed

Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min. PMID:17822056

Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

2007-07-01

326

Naringin and naringenin are not the primary CYP3A inhibitors in grapefruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various citrus juices and solutions of naringin on CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes was compared by measuring the formation of 6?- hydroxytestosterone from testosterone. Control enzyme activity was reduced by more than 70% by grapefruit juice. Freshly-squeezed sour (Seville) orange juice containing 20% as much naringin was comparable to grapefruit juice in its ability to inhibit

David J. Edwards; Suzanne M. Bernier

1996-01-01

327

A comparison of commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice: nutrients and phytonutrients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research studied different juicing methods resulting in commercially processed and fresh squeezed juice with or without pasteurization for effect on level of nutrients and phytonutrinets in ‘Valencia’ and ‘Hamlin’ orange juices. Commercial processing included use of a juice extractor, finisher,...

328

Development of flavor lexicon for fresh pressed and processed blueberry juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A lexicon with thirty-two aroma/flavor, taste, and mouth feel attributes were developed for blueberry juice. Commercial frozen blueberries were thawed and hand pressed to make three juices (P1, P2 or P3), which were compared to four bottled juices (B1, B2, B3 or B4). Fresh pressed juices had signi...

329

PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF JUICE FLOW AND LEVELS USING MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent difficulties in diffuser and milling operations, coupled with variable cane quality and preparation, often result in unsteady draft and mixed juice supply to the juice preparation section. It is thus not uncommon for juice surges to cause erratic plant control that results in the sub-optimal operation of juice heating and clarification equipment being detrimental to the quality of

L J MELROSE; Mount Edgecombe

2003-01-01

330

Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

331

Quality characteristics of freshly squeezed orange juice in comparison to commercial products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted with a fresh-squeeze juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to commercially processed juice for the flavor and nutritional quality. Fresh juice had much higher peel oil content, but lower insoluble solids and pectin contents than in the commercial juic...

332

Solubilization of carotenoids from carrot juice and spinach in lipid phases: I. Modeling the gastric lumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the factors determining the bioavailability of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is poor. The apolar\\u000a nature of carotenoids precludes their simple diffusion from the food structure to the absorption site at the enterocyte. Therefore,\\u000a there is interest in the potential pathways for solubilization in the gut before absorption. We have studied the transfer\\u000a of carotenoids from carrot

Gillian T. Rich; Angela L. Bailey; Richard M. Faulks; Mary L. Parker; Martin S. J. Wickham; Annette Fillery-Travis

2003-01-01

333

[5-hydroxymethylfurfural as indicator of quality of juices for child nutrition].  

PubMed

132 samples of domestic and imported juices and juice concentrates for child nutrition were analyzed on content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfurol (5-HMF), which is considered as an indicator of violation of juice manufacturing technology. The concentrations of 5-HMF in 15.9% of domestic juice samples and 10.3% of imported juice and concentrate samples were found higher than 20 mg/L--maximum level established by AIJN for some juices and nectars. The results confirmed the expediency of including of HMF maximum concentration in hygienic characterization of fruit juices and concentrates as an indicator of violation of their manufacturing and storage procedures. PMID:11517690

Eller, K I; Pimenova, V V; Kon', I Ia

2001-01-01

334

Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

1996-01-01

335

Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.  

PubMed

The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²?/Mn²? and PO?³?/K?, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and ?-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while ?-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

2014-02-01

336

Micrometastasis in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a crucial contributor and indicator for cancer metastasis. The presence of CTCs and other two forms of occult disease including circulating tumor microembolus (CTMs) as well as disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) as a sign for micrometastasis has been associated with adverse survival of both localized and metastatic cancers. However, their assignments in micrometastasis are still not well understood. This mini-review is aimed to provide an overview of the biological features and the clinical impact of CTCs, DTCs and CTM in gastric cancer (GC), and to summarize the technical limitations of detection methods in addition to the significance of distinct migration modes in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and gastric micrometastasis. Although there are controversies over current CTC identification strategies, both single and collective migration modes as indispensable parts of micrometastasis are influential participants in GC progression, diagnosis and prognosis. CTCs, CTM and DTCs are not separated forms of the occult disease; however available techniques fail to detect all subsets of them. Therefore, micrometastatic detection should be combined with conventional pathological examinations in order to make more accurate predictions of tumor outcomes. Novel markers further defining the features of CTC subsets are warranted. PMID:23624301

Zhang, Zhen-yu; Ge, Hai-yan

2013-08-01

337

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

338

Delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

With pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) the goal is to reduce long-term morbidities such as gastric dumping, marginal ulceration or bile-reflux gastritis. Compared with te classical Whipple procedure, PPPD is affected by an equal postoperative morbidity but is known to induce delayed gastric emptying (DGE). It is difficult to evaluate the true incidence of DGE after PPPD (from 5 to 50% according to the literature). Early and low doses of erythromycin in the postoperative period could prevent the onset of DGE and the administration of cisapride 15 mg/day improves gastric emptying up to 6 months after PPPD. PMID:12914377

Closset, J; Gelin, M

2003-06-01

339

Analysis of gastric emptying data  

SciTech Connect

How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

1982-12-01

340

Diffuse type gastric carcinoma presenting as giant gastric folds: lessons learned from six miss diagnosed cases.  

PubMed

Hyperplastic gastropathy is a rare condition characterized by giant gastric folds. There are numerous causes of giant gastric folds included benign diseases (Menetrier's disease, pseudolymphoma and lymphocytic gastritis) and malignant diseases (gastric carcinoma, lymphoma and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). Six gastric carcinoma presenting as giant gastric folds were described. Lessons learned from six miss diagnosed cases and how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis were elucidated. Moreover, we propose a hypothesis that in diffuse type gastric carcinoma gastric cancer, which manifested with thickness of gastric folds, there must be some media which is released by cancer cells to stimulate superficial mucosa layer benign cells proliferation, instead of malignant cells infiltrating directly. PMID:22651965

Mei, Mei; Jingmei, Ni; Zongming, Chen; Mei, Jin; Leimin, Sun

2012-10-01

341

Neuroimaging of Gastric Distension and Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derived from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. A gastric balloon was inserted in obese and lean subjects, and filled through a tube that led behind the subject with water to 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mL, on different days prior to ingestion of a liquid meal. As gastric volume increased, intake decreased by about 40%. Stomach capacity was then investigated using a gastric balloon, by assessing subjective (maximal tolerance) and objective measures (gastric compliance). Obese individuals had a much larger stomach capacity than lean by both measures. Next, in a 2-month study, an indwelling gastric balloon was inflated to 400 mL for 1 month and deflated for 1 month in counterbalanced order. Body weight was reduced during the month when the balloon was inflated within the 2nd and 3rd week. The subsequent study involved fMRI in response to gastric distension of 0, 250, and 500 mL while the subject was in a scanner. Ratings of fullness, but not discomfort, increased at 500 mL. Amygdala and insula activation were associated with gastric distension. The amygdala, as part of the limbic system, is involved in emotion and reward, and the insula in interoception. The right amygdala activation was inversely related to BMI, consistent with greater gastric capacity ata higher BMI. The next fMRI study in obese and lean subjects used visual and auditory stimuli of high energy dense (ED) and low ED foods. Increased activation was observed in the midbrain, putamen, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus in the obese vs. lean group in response to high vs. low ED food cues. Several of these areas lie within the mesolimbic reward pathway, and greater activation to high ED foods in the obese, suggests they have increased reward-driven eating behavior. Lastly, an fMRI study using the same stimuli was conducted pre and post gastric bypass surgery. There were postsurgical reductions in neural activity in mesolimbic areas including the prefrontal cortex, to a greater degree for high ED than low ED cues, reflecting more normalized responses. Through the use of various methodologies, the stomach’s influence on food intake, sensations of fullness, and brain activation is described with suggestions for future research. PMID:23932915

Geliebter, Allan

2013-01-01

342

Detection of adulteration in blackberry juice concentrates and wines.  

PubMed

Adulteration of blackberry juice concentrates and wines with juice of sorbitol-containing fruits was detected by determining carbohydrates by high performance liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. Sorbitol is not fermented by yeast and can be detected in wines made from blackberry juice concentrates that contain sorbitol. High levels of sorbitol and quinic and malic acids suggest that an imported blackberry concentrate may have been adulterated with plum. Degradation of anthocyanin pigments during processing and storage limits the utility of pigment analyses in detecting adulteration. PMID:7174584

Wrolstad, R E; Culbertson, J D; Cornwell, C J; Mattick, L R

1982-11-01

343

Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

344

Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

2012-01-01

345

Changes in vitamin C, phenolic, and carotenoid profiles throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of a blended fruit juice.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bioaccessibility of vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity in a blended fruit juice (BFJ) containing orange, pineapple, and kiwi. Vitamin C and most of the analyzed phenolic compounds were quite stable under gastric conditions (recovery > 75%), whereas carotenoids diminished significantly (to 64%). The concentration of all the evaluated compounds decreased during small intestinal digestion. The bioaccessibility of hydrophilic constituents was higher than that of lipophilic constituents. Flavonoids, vitamin C, and phenolic acids showed bioaccessibilities of 20.1, 15.0, and 12.7%, respectively. However, carotenes and xanthophylls were around 7.6 and 17.4% available for absorption. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that BFJ is an important source of bioaccessible constituents. PMID:23374081

Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

2013-02-27

346

Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

Ilame, Susmit A; V Singh, Satyavir

2015-06-01

347

Gastric emptying following Colles' fracture.  

PubMed Central

There are few complications associated with intravenous regional anaesthesia but convulsions with loss of consciousness induced by local anaesthetic toxicity may result in pulmonary aspiration. In many hospitals, patients are fasted prior to the procedure although such a delay would be of little value if gastric emptying was inhibited following painful injury. Utilizing the kinetics of paracetamol absorption, we investigated the rate of gastric emptying in patients sustaining a Colles' fracture within the previous 4 h. Post-manipulation control values were obtained at their first out-patient attendance. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of gastric emptying. Since gastric emptying is not delayed by a recent Colles' fracture, the simple precaution of fasting patients prior to intravenous regional anaesthesia should reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. PMID:1930499

Steedman, D J; Payne, M R; McClure, J H; Prescott, L F

1991-01-01

348

Gastric tissue biopsy and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal results may be due to: Gastric cancer Gastritis, when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2010:chap 40. Lee EL, Feldman M. Gastritis and gastropathies. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

349

General Information about Gastric Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy used in the treatment of gastric cancer. Monoclonal antibody therapy uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a ...

350

[Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure. PMID:20554090

Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

2010-10-01

351

Gastric perforation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

PubMed

Gastric rupture is a rare complication after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In most cases, incorrect management of airways during CPR is the main cause. Therefore, a medical emergency becomes a surgical emergency also. We present a case of gastric perforation in a middle-aged patient after CPR performed by his family. He eventually presented with bloody vomitus and a tympanic abdomen. When faced with a patient with abdominal signs post-CPR, surgical complications of CPR should be considered. PMID:22867822

Jalali, Sayed Mahdi; Emami-Razavi, Hassan; Mansouri, Asieh

2012-11-01

352

6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: Effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin to the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine disposition

David J. Edwards; Michael E. Fitzsimmons; Erin G. Schuetz; Kazuto Yasuda; Murray P. Ducharme; Lawrence H. Warbasse; Patrick M. Woster; John D. Schuetz; Paul Watkins

1999-01-01

353

Acid secretion and gastric surgery.  

PubMed

It was long believed that there were major differences in the pathophysiology between the three major categories of peptic ulcers. The unifying feature was that all peptic ulcers occurred in a mucosal compartment exposed to acid-pepsin secretions. All ulcers tended to heal more rapidly when acid secretion was more readily neutralized or inhibited. Decreased local resistance was considered to be present in primarily acute and chronic gastric ulcer. Surgery for peptic ulcer intended to reduce acid secretion, which also resulted in a diminished pepsin enzyme activity. The corresponding reduction could be accomplished either by gastric resection, different vagotomies or a combination of resections and vagotomies. Most of the procedures were basically abandoned at the time of introduction of modern medical therapeutic strategies. For duodenal ulcer and prepyloric ulcer diseases, various vagotomies were generally recommended or combined with antrectomy. Partial gastrectomy or antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy was the standard procedure for treatment of type 1 gastric ulcer. The great caveat associated with surgical procedures for elective treatment of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease is confined to operative mortality, postoperative morbidity, and late postoperative metabolic sequelae. The only remaining indication today of remedial gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease is when there is a defined risk for gastric cancer in an unhealed gastric ulcer and very seldom in a case with recurrent or therapy-resistant peripyloric ulcer. PMID:22095015

Lundell, Lars

2011-01-01

354

Gene methylation in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

2013-09-23

355

LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

356

Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

2014-11-01

357

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction....

2010-01-01

358

Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.  

PubMed

The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

2015-01-01

359

Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.  

PubMed

Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ? potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ? potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

2014-11-26

360

Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?18O = ?4.2‰ and ?D??46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?13C = ?28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value. PMID:22666164

Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

2012-01-01

361

Effects of consumption of pomegranate juice on carotid intima-media thickness in men and women at moderate risk for coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

This randomized, double-blind, parallel trial assessed the influence of pomegranate juice consumption on anterior and posterior carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression rates in subjects at moderate risk for coronary heart disease. Subjects were men (45 to 74 years old) and women (55 to 74 years old) with > or =1 major coronary heart disease risk factor and baseline posterior wall CIMT 0.7 to 2.0 mm, without significant stenosis. Participants consumed 240 ml/day of pomegranate juice (n = 146) or a control beverage (n = 143) for up to 18 months. No significant difference in overall CIMT progression rate was observed between pomegranate juice and control treatments. In exploratory analyses, in subjects in the most adverse tertiles for baseline serum lipid peroxides, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, TGs/HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B100, those in the pomegranate juice group had significantly less anterior wall and/or composite CIMT progression versus control subjects. In conclusion, these results suggest that in subjects at moderate coronary heart disease risk, pomegranate juice consumption had no significant effect on overall CIMT progression rate but may have slowed CIMT progression in subjects with increased oxidative stress and disturbances in the TG-rich lipoprotein/HDL axis. PMID:19766760

Davidson, Michael H; Maki, Kevin C; Dicklin, Mary R; Feinstein, Steven B; Witchger, Marysue; Bell, Marjorie; McGuire, Darren K; Provost, Jean-Claude; Liker, Harley; Aviram, Michael

2009-10-01

362

"Meat juice" is not a homogeneous serological matrix.  

PubMed

Meat juice samples are used in serological assays to monitor infectious diseases within the food chain. However, evidence of inferior sensitivity, presumably due to low levels of antibodies in the meat juice compared to serum, has been presented, and it has been suggested that adjusting the dilution factor of meat juice in proportion to its blood content could improve sensitivity. In the present study, the agreement between Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in meat juice and serum was evaluated, and whether the level of immunoglobulins in meat juice was dependent on its blood content. Serum and meat juice from diaphragm, heart, tongue, Musculus triceps brachii and M. semitendinosus were collected from 20 pigs experimentally infected with T. gondii. Analysis of total IgG, heme-containing proteins (hematin), and hemoglobin (Hb) revealed significant differences between samples from different muscles, with the highest levels in samples from heart and tongue, and the lowest in samples from leg muscles. Comparison of T. gondii-specific antibody titers in meat juice and serum revealed a strong positive correlation for meat juice from heart (rs=0.87; p<0.001), while it was lower for M. semitendinosus (rs=0.71; p<0.001) and diaphragm (rs=0.54; p=0.02). Meanwhile, the correlation between total IgG and T. gondii titer ratio (meat juice/serum) was highest in diaphragm (rs=0.77; p<0.001) followed by M. semitendinosus (rs=0.64; p=0.005) and heart (rs=0.50; p=0.051). The correlation between Hb and T. gondii titer ratio was only significant for diaphragm (rs=0.65; p=0.008), and for hematin no significant correlation was recorded. In conclusion, the specific IgG titers in meat juice appeared to depend on the total IgG level, but the correlation to blood (Hb or hematin) was poor. Importantly, large significant differences in total IgG levels as well as in specific antibody titers were recorded, depending on the muscle the meat juice had been extracted from. PMID:25562377

Wallander, Camilla; Frössling, Jenny; Vågsholm, Ivar; Burrells, Alison; Lundén, Anna

2015-04-01

363

Self-forming dynamic membrane for ultrafiltration of pineapple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of self-forming dynamic membrane on a porous ceramic support was studied. Pineapple juice of 12° Brix concentration was used in the experiments which were carried out at 25°C by circulating the pineapple juice at the applied pressure of 100, 200, and 300 kPa and at cross-flow velocities of 1.30–2.95 m s?1 through the ceramic membrane module for 1

R. Jiraratananon; D. Uttapap; C. Tangamornsuksun

1997-01-01

364

Solidphase fermentation and juice expression systems for sweet sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systems to recover fermented juice from variety M 81E sweet sorghum stalks that contained about 11% fermentable sugar were compared. (a) Stalks with leaves and tops removed were chopped and inoculated with 0.2% yeast in a forage harvester, stored under anaerobic conditions for 75 hours in insulated fermentors and pressed in a screw press to recover fermented juice (5-6%

W. L. Bryan; G. E. Monroe; P. M. Caussariel

1985-01-01

365

Grapefruit juice substantially increases plasma concentrations of buspirone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Buspirone has a low oral bioavailability because of extensive first-pass metabolism. The effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered buspirone is not known.Methods: In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took either 200 mL double-strength grapefruit juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On day 3, each subject ingested

Jari J. Lilja; Kari T. Kivistö; Janne T. Backman; Tommi S. Lamberg; Pertti J. Neuvonen

1998-01-01

366

Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice.  

PubMed

Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

2015-03-01

367

Ochratoxin A in wine and grape juice sold in Canada.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) was determined in 251 samples of wines and grape juice collected over 3 years in Canada. In total, 25/84 samples of red wine, 22/96 samples of white wine, 3/46 red grape juices and 1/25 white grape juices contained OTA levels above the limit of quantitation (LOQ). Canadian wines, when compared with imported products, showed both a lower OTA occurrence, noted as positive (19 versus 48% above the limit of detection (LOD) for wines), and a lower level of OTA contamination (upper bound mean of 17.5 versus 163pg ml(-1) for wines). Wines from the USA contained no quantifiable levels of ochratoxin A. OTA was found in Canadian and US grape juice samples, with 12.9% above the LOD and an upper bound mean of 13.3pg ml(-1). It was extracted from a wine or grape juice sample by passing it through an immunoaffinity column. The sample matrix was washed off the column with water. OTA was eluted from the column with methanol and quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The presence of OTA was confirmed by esterification with boron trifluoride-methanol. The LOQ of OTA was estimated as 20 pg ml(-1) in white wine (S/N 10:1) and 40 pg ml(-1) in red wine, white grape juice and red grape juice (S/N 20.1). The LOD was estimated as 4pgml(-1) for white wine and 8pgml(-1) for red wine and white and red grape juices (S/N 3:1). PMID:15712522

Ng, W; Mankotia, M; Pantazopoulos, P; Neil, R J; Scott, P M

2004-10-01

368

Grapefruit juice–felodipine interaction in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Grapefruit juice can increase the oral bioavailability of a broad range of medications. This interaction has not been assessed in the elderly.Methods: Twelve healthy elderly people (70 to 83 years of age) were administered 5 mg felodipine extended release with 250 mL grapefruit juice or water in a single-dose study. Subsequently, 6 of these people received 2.5 mg felodipine

George K. Dresser; David G. Bailey; S. George Carruthers

2000-01-01

369

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

370

Noni juice ( Morinda citrifolia ): Hidden potential for hyperkalemia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a man with chronic renal insufficiency who self-medicated with an alternative medicine product known as noni juice (Morinda citrifolia ). The patient presented to the clinic with hyperkalemia despite claiming adherence to a low-potassium diet. The potassium concentration in noni juice samples was determined and found to be 56.3 mEq\\/L, similar to that in orange

Bruce A. Mueller; Meri K. Scott; Kevin M. Sowinski; Kathleen A. Prag

2000-01-01

371

Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, participate in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice constituents potently inactivate intestinal CYP3A4 and have been shown to inhibit CYP2C19 as well. In a randomized crossover study, 14 healthy volunteers ingested 200?ml of grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 600-mg dose of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice reduced the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of the active metabolite of clopidogrel to 13% of the control (range 11-17%, P < 0.001) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 3?h to 14% (range 12-17%, P < 0.001) of the control, but it had no significant effect on the parent clopidogrel. Moreover, grapefruit juice markedly decreased the platelet-inhibitory effect of clopidogrel, as assessed with the VerifyNow P2Y12 test in two of the participants. In conclusion, concomitant use of grapefruit juice may impair the efficacy of clopidogrel. Therefore, the use of grapefruit juice is best avoided during clopidogrel therapy. PMID:24067745

Holmberg, M T; Tornio, A; Neuvonen, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T; Niemi, M

2014-03-01

372

Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-? and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver. PMID:22876038

Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

2012-01-01

373

JUICE Planetary Protection Approach for Europa and Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa. The baseline mission architecture assumes development, launch and operation by ESA of a single spacecraft in the Jovian system. JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system. The JUICE planetary protection approach for Europa is to ensure that the probability of impact is less than 10-4 during all phases with a credible impact risk. The JUICE science team has published an analysis demonstrating that there is only a remote chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could compromise future investigations on Ganymede. This would qualify JUICE as a planetary protection category II mission with respect to the Ganymede phase without any impact constraints.

Titov, Dmitrij; Erd, Christian; Grasset, Olivier

374

Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

Taylor, John G.

375

Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations. PMID:25105162

Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

2014-01-01

376

Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange ( Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood orange juice samples with two different levels of ascorbic acid content were placed in HDPE plastic bottles, pasteurized, and stored at 4.5 °C. The influence of ascorbic acid retention on color stability of blood orange juice was investigated using CIE L*a*b*, hue, chroma, polymeric color, and browning index during the storage period. Changes in monomeric anthocyanin pigments, total carotenoid contents,

M. H Choi; G. H Kim; H. S Lee

2002-01-01

377

Effect of carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol on lipid and protein oxidation in an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model.  

PubMed

Carnosic acid, quercetin and ?-tocopherol are well-known antioxidants in many biological systems. However, their antioxidative effect during food digestion against lipid and protein oxidation is not well known. Therefore, in this study, an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model was used to investigate their stability during gastrointestinal conditions and their antioxidative properties during low pH digestion. In general, the stability of the antioxidants in the different steps of digestion was in the order of ?-tocopherol?>?quercetin?>?carnosic acid. Salivary components, as well as the acidity of the gastric juice, were responsible for the reduction in antioxidants. Both ?-tocopherol and quercetin were able to lower lipid oxidation during digestion, while the effect on protein oxidation was not clear. In contrast, carnosic acid did not have any effect on lipid oxidation and tended to stimulate protein oxidation. This study clearly demonstrated that the environmental conditions are of major importance to the properties of antioxidant compounds. PMID:25578758

Raes, Katleen; Doolaege, Evelyne H A; Deman, Steven; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan

2015-03-01

378

Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... NCI Publications Español Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Key Points for ... by the screening test itself. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

379

78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

2013-07-15

380

78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2012-D-0322] Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

2013-09-13

381

75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of...the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of...

2010-02-04

382

77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico. On September 19, 2012...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico, pursuant to...

2012-12-26

383

78 FR 38944 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico. The Department finds...suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico, pursuant to...

2013-06-28

384

Suppressive effects of fruit-juice concentrate of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot, Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-induced glandular stomach lesions in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important factor in human gastric disorders, including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Since epidemiologic studies overwhelmingly agree on a protective influence of fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of gastric neoplasia and processed foods made from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot or "Ume" in Japanese) are traditionally known for their miscellaneous medical effects, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (CJA) in the glandular stomach of Hp-infected Mongolian gerbils. Hp-inoculated gerbils were given CJA in their drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 3% for 10 weeks. The microscopic scores for gastritis and mucosal hyperplasia in the CJA groups were significantly lower than in the Hp-inoculated control group, with dose-dependence. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitate Hp by demonstrating urease A gene amount using gerbils glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. Average relative urease A gene dosage in the glandular stomach in the 1 and 3% CJA and Hp-inoculated control groups was 26.6 +/- 11.6% (average +/- SE), 30.3 +/- 10.5%, 100 +/- 40.9%, respectively, the fruit-juice concentrate causing significant lowering (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, with 1 and 3%). These findings suggest that suppressive effects on gastric cancer development might also be expected as a result of decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA. PMID:16235996

Otsuka, Takafumi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Harunari; Inada, Kenichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kumagai, Toshiko; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Miki, Kazumasa; Tatematsu, Masae

2005-01-01

385

Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients  

SciTech Connect

Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies.

Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

1985-05-01

386

Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with isolated granulomatous gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Granulomatous gastritis is a rarely observed pathological diagnosis. This condition often mimics gastric adenocarcinoma clinically, resulting in gastric resection. However, granulomatous gastritis has long been viewed as a benign process not observed in association with adenocarcinoma of the stomach. This article describes a patient with granulomatous gastritis occurring in close proximity to an area of superficially invading gastric adenocarcinoma.

Christopher Newton; Lucien Nochomovitz; Jonathan M. Sackier

1998-01-01

387

Gastric dysrhythmias and nausea of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric dysrhythmias have been recorded from patients with a variety of nausea syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectric activity in women with and without nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 32 pregnant women gastric myoelectric activity was recorded for 30–45 min with cutaneous electrodes that yielded electrogastrograms (EGGs). Frequencies of the EGG waves

K. L. Koch; R. M. Stern; M. Vasey; J. J. Botti; G. W. Creasy; A. Dwyer

1990-01-01

388

Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.  

PubMed

Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations. PMID:19610336

Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

2009-06-01

389

A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

Savrikar, Shriram S; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B; Shukla, Vinay J

2010-04-01

390

Pediatric gastric cancer presenting with massive ascites  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenocarcinoma is quite rare in children and as a result very little experience has been reported on with regards to clinical presentation, treatment and outcome. We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with abdominal fullness and poor appetite for 7 d. Sonography showed massive ascites and computed tomography imaging revealed the presence of gastric mucosa thickness with omentum caking. The diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was biopsy-proven endoscopically. Despite gastric adenocarcinoma being quite rare in the pediatric patient population, we should not overlook the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma when a child presents with distended abdomen and massive ascites. PMID:25805952

Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lai, I-Hsiu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, An-Chyi

2015-01-01

391

Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

392

7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) ...U.S. Grade A Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets...

2010-01-01

393

7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) ...AA Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets...

2010-01-01

394

Inhibitory properties of pepsin digested lactoferrin in apple and carrot juice  

E-print Network

.0 and lyophilized to determine the activity of the digests in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, apple juice, and carrot juice using E. coli (ATCC 35343) as the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of lactoferrin and apolactoferrin in peptone...

Chantayasakorn, Panita

1999-01-01

395

Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.  

PubMed

Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked. PMID:25537500

Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

2015-01-21

396

Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.  

PubMed

This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine. PMID:25766825

Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

2015-08-01

397

Preparation of a resveratrol-enriched grape juice based on ultraviolet C-treated berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapes are rich in bioactive phenolics. However, most of them remain in the by-product after juice processing, and only a minor part pass to the juice. Our aim was to obtain a resveratrol-enriched white grape juice based on UVC-treated berries in combination with different conditions during juice production. Postharvest UVC treatment of berries enabled the further selective stilbenes enrichment of

R. González-Barrio; M. L. Vidal-Guevara; F. A. Tomás-Barberán; J. C. Espín

2009-01-01

398

Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice’s valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the\\u000a effect of frozen storage at ?25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate\\u000a juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components,\\u000a measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu

Hossein Mirsaeedghazi; Zahra Emam-Djomeh; Reza Ahmadkhaniha

399

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice lowers mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA102  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) is a medicinal plant native to Brazil and also yields a nutritious fruit juice. Its large pulpy pseudo-fruit, referred to as the cashew apple, contains high concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. Natural and processed cashew apple juice (CAJ\\/cajuina) are amongst the most popular juices in Brazil, especially in the north-east. Both juices have

Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante; Gabriel Rübensam; Bernardo Erdtmann; Martin Brendel; João A. P. Henriques

2005-01-01

400

Limonene, linalool, ?-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol as quality control parameters in mandarin juice processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers demand commercial citrus juices resembling fresh juices; however, citrus juice elaboration is quite delicate due\\u000a to the formation of off-flavors during heat treatment and storage. Four volatile compounds, d-limonene, linalool, ?-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were extracted using the dynamic headspace technique and were identified\\u000a and quantified by GC-MS in mandarin juices from two Spanish varieties, Fortuna and Clemenules. Our results

Antonio J. Pérez-López; Domingo Saura; José Lorente; Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

2006-01-01

401

Effect of UV-C light on anthocyanin content and other quality parameters of pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice (PJ) was subjected to UV-C irradiation as a non-thermal technology and changes in major quality characteristics of juice such as anthocyanins, polymeric colour, antioxidant activity and total phenol content were determined. The results were compared with control (untreated) and heat treated (at 90°C, 2min) juice samples. UV-C treatment preserved the major quality characteristics of pomegranate juice better than

Çi?dem Uysal Pala; Ay?egül K?rca Toklucu

2011-01-01

402

The mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of early gastric cancers are comparable to those of advanced gastric cancers.  

PubMed

Early gastric cancers (EGCs) precede advanced gastric cancers (AGCs), with a favourable prognosis compared to AGC. To understand the progression mechanism of EGC to AGC, it is required to disclose EGC and AGC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of nine microsatellite (MS)-unstable (MSI-H) (five EGCs and four AGCs) and eight MS-stable (MSS) gastric cancers (four EGCs and four AGCs). In the cancers, we observed well-known driver mutations (TP53, APC, PIK3CA, ARID1A, and KRAS) that were enriched in cancer-related pathways, including chromatin remodelling and tyrosine kinase activity. The MSI-H genomes harboured ten times more mutations, but were largely depleted of copy number alterations (CNAs) compared to the MSS cancers. Interestingly, EGC genomes showed a comparable level of mutations to AGC in terms of the number, sequence composition, and functional consequences (potential driver mutations and affected pathways) of mutations. Furthermore, the CNAs between EGC and AGC genomes were not significantly different in either MSI-H and MSS. Evolutionary analyses using somatic mutations and MSI as molecular clocks further identified that EGC genomes were as old as AGC genomes in both MSS and MSI-H cancers. Our results suggest that the genetic makeup for gastric cancer may already be achieved in EGC genomes and that the time required for transition to AGC may be relatively short. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful in the clinical settings for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25042771

Kim, Tae-Min; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Baek, In-Pyo; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Sung Hak; Lee, Han Hong; Kim, Sung Soo; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

2014-11-01

403

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

404

Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and ?-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-11-01

405

Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.  

PubMed

Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

2013-09-01

406

Effects of Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate juice contains antioxidants such as soluble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins and may have antiatherosclerotic properties. However, no study has investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether daily consumption of pomegranate juice for 3 months would affect myocardial perfusion in 45 patients who had CHD and myocardial ischemia in

Michael D. Sumner; Melanie Elliott-Eller; Gerdi Weidner; Jennifer J. Daubenmier; Mailine H. Chew; Ruth Marlin; Caren J. Raisin; Dean Ornish

407

75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently...of the U.S. Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet...

2010-08-24

408

Biocorrosion of stainless steel grade 304L (SS304L) in sugar cane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research study is to assess the behaviour of stainless steel AISI 304L in contact with sugar cane juice. Stainless steel grade 304L is largely used in the sugar cane industry but the acidic nature of sugar cane juice pose a serious challenge in maintaining the life span of vital components.Sugar cane juice is acid having

S. Durmoo; C. Richard; G. Beranger; Y. Moutia

2008-01-01

409

77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period...Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

2012-05-23

410

77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April...Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343...

2012-04-20

411

76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil. This review...on certain OJ from Brazil. See Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Preliminary...

2011-08-12

412

75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. This review covers...antidumping duty order with respect to certain orange juice from Brazil produced and...

2010-08-18

413

75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results...the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil of those two...Register an antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping...

2010-04-13

414

75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Second Review)] Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China...duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China would be likely to...

2010-10-01

415

Colour and label evaluation of commercial pasteurised red juices and related drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing demand by consumers for healthy beverages, artificial colours are still widely used. Levels of anthocyanins and artificial colours were determined by HPLC with UV-Vis detection in red orange juices and other red beverages (nectar, juice-based, health, carbonated and sports drinks). The contribution of pigments to the visible colour of the beverage was calculated. Red orange juice samples contained

B. Fallico; E. Arena; E. Chiappara; G. Ballistreri

2010-01-01

416

Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice: a statistical perspective.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice. Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30-45 degrees C), enzyme concentration (0.5-1.5 U), and treatment time (30-90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. Significant regression models describing the changes of viscosity and clarity with respect to the independent variables were obtained, with the coefficient of determination, R (2) , greater than 0.8. Based on response surfaces and contour plots, the optimum conditions for clarifying sapodilla juice were enzyme concentration 1.15 U, incubation temperature 34 degrees C, and incubation time 70 min. PMID:18670739

Jacob, Nicemol; Sukumaran, R K; Prema, P

2008-12-01

417

JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

2014-05-01

418

MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

2014-05-01

419

Gastric stimulation for weight loss  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

2012-01-01

420

Stem cells in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were first identified in acute myeloid leukemia and subsequently in a large array of solid tumors, play important roles in cancer initiation, dissemination and recurrence. CSCs are often transformed tissue-specific stem cells or de-differentiated transit amplifying progenitor cells. Several populations of multipotent gastric stem cells (GSCs) that reside in the stomach have been determined to regulate physiological tissue renewal and injury repair. These populations include the Villin+ and Lgr5+ GSCs in the antrum, the Troy+ chief cells in the corpus, and the Sox2+ GSCs that are found in both the antrum and the corpus. The disruption of tumor suppressors in Villin+ or Lgr5+ GSCs leads to GC in mouse models. In addition to residing GSCs, bone marrow-derived cells can initiate GC in a mouse model of chronic Helicobacter infection. Furthermore, expression of the cell surface markers CD133 or CD44 defines gastric CSCs in mouse models and in human primary GC tissues and cell lines. Targeted elimination of CSCs effectively reduces tumor size and grade in mouse models. In summary, the recent identification of normal GSCs and gastric CSCs has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular etiology of GC and will aid in the development of effective therapies to treat patients. PMID:25574084

Zhao, Yue; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Ning

2015-01-01

421

Gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are increasing in frequency and have a varied spectrum with regard to histology, clinicopathologic background, stage, and prognosis. They are usually discovered incidentally, are for the most part benign and are associated with hypergastrinaemia (secondary either to chronic atrophic gastritis or rarely Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; types 1 and 2, respectively) or more rarely sporadic type 3. Applications of recent staging and grading systems - namely using Ki-67 proliferative indices - (from ENETS and WHO 2010) can be particularly helpful in further categorising these tumours. The natural history of Type 1 gastric carcinoids is generally (>95%) favourable and simple surveillance is usually recommended for small (<1 cm) T1 tumours, with local (endoscopic or surgical) resection for larger lesions. Other potential therapies such as somatostatin analogues and gastrin receptor antagonists may offer newer therapeutic possibilities. Rarely, gastric NENs have a malignant course and this is usually confined to Type 2 and especially Type 3 tumours; the latter mimic the biological course of gastric adenocarcinoma and require radical oncological therapies. Most duodenal NENs, apart from gastrinomas (that are not dealt with here) are sporadic and non functional. They are also increasing in frequency probably due to incidental discovery at endoscopy or imaging for other reasons and this may account for their overall good prognosis. Peri-ampullary and ampullary NENs may have a more aggressive outcome and should be carefully appraised and treated (often with surgical resection). PMID:23582915

O'Toole, Dermot; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Jensen, Robert T

2012-12-01

422

Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

Mayfield, Ryan T.

423

[Two cases of toxic hepatitis caused by arrowroot juice].  

PubMed

Herbal remedies and health foods are widely used, and their side effects have been reported. We describe two cases of symptomatic toxic hepatitis that developed in middle-aged women after ingesting arrowroot juice. The clinical manifestations were nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis of toxic hepatitis was made using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method score on the basis of the patient's history and laboratory data. After supportive care, the patients showed rapid improvements of clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and liver stiffness. Clinicians should be aware that the consumption of arrowroot juice can cause toxic hepatitis. PMID:20037269

Kim, Seung Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Ahn, Jae Hong; Kim, Jeong Han; Kim, Jin Nam; Yoon, Ik; Kim, Dong Il; Lee, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun

2009-12-01

424

Optimization of Enzymatic Clarification of Sapodilla Juice: A Statistical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish optimum conditions for enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice.\\u000a Polygalacturonase obtained from Streptomyces lydicus had been purified to homogeneity and was used for the treatment. The independent variables were temperature (30–45 °C), enzyme\\u000a concentration (0.5–1.5 U), and treatment time (30–90 min), whose effects on viscosity and clarity of the juice were evaluated\\u000a using a Box–Behnken design.

Nicemol Jacob; R. K. Sukumaran; P. Prema

2008-01-01

425

Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

2013-10-01

426

Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

2013-11-01

427

Incidence of patulin in apple juice concentrates produced in Turkey.  

PubMed

A total of 215 apple juice concentrate samples from three different producers in Turkey were analyzed for patulin using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of patulin in single strength apple juice at a sugar content of 11.2 degrees Brix was lower than 5 micrograms/l. Patulin was detected in all of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 7 to 375 micrograms/l. Of the samples, 43.5% were found to exceed a patulin contamination level of 50 microgram/l. PMID:9718711

Gökmen, V; Acar, J

1998-07-31

428

64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

2015-01-09

429

Variations of gastric corpus microbiota are associated with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia.  

PubMed

Observational studies revealed a relationship between changes in gastric mucosa and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which suggested a possible role for gastric microbiota in ESCC carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to compare pattern of gastric corpus microbiota in ESCC with normal esophagus. Cases were included subjects with early ESCC (stage I-II) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) as the cancer precursor. Control groups included age and sex-matched subjects with mid-esophagus esophagitis (diseased-control), and histologically normal esophagus (healthy-control). DNA was extracted from snap-frozen gastric corpus tissues and 16S rRNA was sequenced on GS-FLX Titanium. After noise removal, an average of 3004 reads per sample was obtained from 93 subjects. We applied principal coordinate analysis to ordinate distances from beta diversity data. Pattern of gastric microbiota using Unifrac (p = 0.004) and weighted Unifrac distances (p = 0.018) statistically varied between cases and healthy controls. Sequences were aligned to SILVA database and Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichales orders were more abundant among cases after controling for multiple testing (p = 0.011). No such difference was observed between mid-esophagitis and healthy controls. This study is the first to show that composition of gastric corpus mucosal microbiota differs in early ESCC and ESD from healthy esophagus. PMID:25743945

Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ploner, Alexander; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Fahimi, Saman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Kamangar, Farin; Abnet, Christian C; Winckler, Björn; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M; Ye, Weimin

2015-01-01

430

Variations of gastric corpus microbiota are associated with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Observational studies revealed a relationship between changes in gastric mucosa and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which suggested a possible role for gastric microbiota in ESCC carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to compare pattern of gastric corpus microbiota in ESCC with normal esophagus. Cases were included subjects with early ESCC (stage I–II) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) as the cancer precursor. Control groups included age and sex-matched subjects with mid-esophagus esophagitis (diseased-control), and histologically normal esophagus (healthy-control). DNA was extracted from snap-frozen gastric corpus tissues and 16S rRNA was sequenced on GS-FLX Titanium. After noise removal, an average of 3004 reads per sample was obtained from 93 subjects. We applied principal coordinate analysis to ordinate distances from beta diversity data. Pattern of gastric microbiota using Unifrac (p = 0.004) and weighted Unifrac distances (p = 0.018) statistically varied between cases and healthy controls. Sequences were aligned to SILVA database and Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichales orders were more abundant among cases after controling for multiple testing (p = 0.011). No such difference was observed between mid-esophagitis and healthy controls. This study is the first to show that composition of gastric corpus mucosal microbiota differs in early ESCC and ESD from healthy esophagus. PMID:25743945

Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ploner, Alexander; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Fahimi, Saman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Kamangar, Farin; Abnet, Christian C.; Winckler, Björn; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Ye, Weimin

2015-01-01

431

Gastroprotective effect of crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the gastroprotective effect of crocin in ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Rats were allocated into a normal group, an ulcer group, a crocin-treated group, an ulcer group pretreated with crocin, and an ulcer group pretreated with omeprazole as a reference anti-ulcer drug. Rats were sacrificed 3h after ethanol administration. Prophylactic administration of crocin (50mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 3 consecutive days before the administration of 70% ethanol (10ml/kg, orally) resulted in significant gastroprotection compared to ethanol-ulcerated rats as manifested by significant reduction in the gastric ulcer index. Crocin pretreatment increased ethanol-lowered levels of gastric juice mucin and mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, crocin significantly decreased ethanol-elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level, myeloperoxidase activity and heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein levels. It also restored ethanol-altered mucosal levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, crocin-pretreatment alleviated ethanol-induced mucosal apoptosis as revealed by significant down-regulation of cytochrome c and caspase-3 mRNA expression, significant decrease in caspase-3 activity and mitigated DNA fragmentation as indicated by significant decrements in comet parameters. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by histological assessment. No significant difference was observed between crocin and omeprazole (20mg/kg orally 1h before ethanol administration) regarding their mucin-secretagogue and antioxidant effects, as well as their effects on TNF-?, IL-6 and cytochrome c. On the other hand, omeprazole was superior in enhancing PGE2 level and in alleviating neutrophil infiltration, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusively, crocin protects rat gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and mucin-secretagogue mechanisms that are probably mediated by enhanced PGE2 release. PMID:25637687

El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M; Shahin, Nancy N

2015-03-01

432

Pioglitazone induced gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

PPARgamma agonists, such as pioglitazone, are widely used in the treatment of diabetes and several further disorders. They enhance transcription of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, which could in turn enhance gastric acid secretion by stimulating KCNQ1 K+ channels. The present study explored whether pioglitazone upregulates SGK1 protein expression in gastric glands and thus modifies gastric acid secretion. Food containing the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone (approximately 25 mg/kg bw/day) was administered to gene-targeted mice lacking SGK1 (sgk1-/-, n=11) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1+/+, n=11). Western blotting was employed to analyze SGK1 expression, BCECF-fluorescence to determine acid secretion in isolated gastric glands and immunohistochemistry to elucidate KCNQ1 and H+/K+-ATPase protein abundance in the parietal cell membrane. Pioglitazone significantly increased SGK1 expression. Cytosolic pH and cellular buffer capacity were not significantly different between sgk1+/+ and sgk1-/- mice and not significantly modified in either genotype by pioglitazone. Without pioglitazone treatment, Na+-independent pH-recovery following an ammonium pulse (DeltapH/min) reflecting H+/K+-ATPase activity was again similar in sgk1+/+ and sgk1-/- mice. Pioglitazone significantly increased DeltapH/min (approximately 3 fold) in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. H+/K+-ATPase inhibitor omeprazole (100 microM) abolished DeltapH/min in both genotypes irrespective of pioglitazone treatment. Increase in local K+ concentrations to 35 mM (replacing Na+/NMDG) significantly increased DeltapH/min and abrogated the differences between genotypes. KCNQ1 and H+/K+-ATPase protein abundance in the parietal cell membrane was enhanced by pioglitazone treatment in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. In conclusion, pioglitazone increases gastric acid secretion, an effect at least partially due to stimulation of SGK1 expression and SGK1-dependent upregulation of KCNQ1. PMID:19710534

Rotte, Anand; Mack, Andreas F; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Kempe, Daniela S; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Dicks, Edith; Pötzsch, Sven; Kuhl, Dietmar; Lang, Florian

2009-01-01

433

Decreased expression of gastrokine 1 in gastric mucosa of gastric cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the expression of gastrokine 1 (GKN1) in normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer tissues, and to analyse its correlations with tumour site and pathological pattern. METHODS: Thirty gastric cancer patients (12 cases of diffuse type and 18 cases of intestinal type), 13 atrophic gastritis patients and 15 healthy volunteers with almost normal gastric mucosa (superficial gastritis) were enrolled in this study. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was examined in all subjects. All gastric mucosa biopsy specimens were obtained. Cancer-adjacent specimens were taken from corresponding gastric cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed to determine the expressions of the GKN1 protein and mRNA, respectively. RESULTS: H. pylori infection had no significant association with age, gender, tumour site or pathological pattern in all subjects. Compared with the superficial gastritis and atrophic gastritis groups, the expression of GKN1 protein (P = 0.011) and mRNA (P < 0.001) in gastric cancer was significantly decreased. The GKN1 mRNA level in diffuse type gastric cancer was significantly lower than in intestinal type gastric cancer (0.296 ± 0.076 vs 0.525 ± 0.164, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with almost normal gastric mucosa, GKN1 expression in the gastric mucosa of gastric cancer patients is decreased; this is associated with progression and prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:25469040

Guo, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Lei; Qin, Bin; Jiang, Jiong; Shi, A-Meng

2014-01-01

434

Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

2013-06-05

435

Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%. PMID:25172702

Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

2015-02-01

436

Improving Blended Carrot-Orange Juice Quality by the Addition of Cyclodextrins During Enzymatic Clarification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclodextrins (CDs) on carotene content and quality of blended carrot-orange\\u000a juice after enzymatic clarification. The blended carrot-orange juice was treated with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD)\\u000a and gamma cyclodextrin (?-CD) in different concentrations (1–5 g\\/100 mL of juice) prior to enzymatic clarification. The results\\u000a showed that in non-homogenized juice added with HP-?-CD, juice acidity

Eric Karangwa; Khizar Hayat; Ling Rao; Dominique Savio Nshimiyimana; Mohamed B. K. Foh; Li Li; Janvier Ntwali; Linda Virginie Raymond; Shuqin Xia; Xiaoming Zhang

437

Impact of Features and Display Ads on the Demand for Orange Juice: An Extension of the Rotterdam Demand Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida’s citrus industry has a long history of using generic advertising as a primary instrument for shifting demand for various forms of citrus juices. Consumption behavior and consumer responses to these advertising are expected to substantially differ with each type of citrus juice These juices are classified into several groups defined as: frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ); refrigerated ready to-

Hyeyoung Kim; Ronald W. Ward; Jonq-Ying Lee

2008-01-01

438

Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

439

Alpha-fetoprotein-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma in a child presenting with spontaneous gastric perforation.  

PubMed

Gastric adenocarcinoma is a rare entity in the pediatric population. Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is seen extremely rarely in children. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with complaint of abdominal pain. X-ray revealed free air density below the diaphragm. Emergent laparotomy showed perforated stomach. Four weeks after the operation, he was readmitted with severe gastrointestinal obstruction symptoms. He underwent an explorative laparotomy, which revealed intestinal edema and diffuse small solid nodules covering the peritoneum. Serum AFP level was mildly elevated. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed, and a gastric mass was detected. All pathological findings were compatible with gastric carcinoma showing hepatoid differentiation. We report an unusual case of AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of AFP- producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation in a child. PMID:24827954

Emir, Suna; Karakurt, Neslihan; Karaku?, Esra; ?enel, Emrah; K?rsaçl?o?lu, Ceyda; Demir, Hac? Ahmet; Orhan, Diclehan

2014-01-01

440

Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Early Gastric Cancer in the West: A Changing Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains the fifth leading cancer diagnosis worldwide, and it is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The incidence of gastric cancer within the United States, however, has remained substantially lower than elsewhere, which has led to a lack of screening and surveillance in clinical practice. Patients with known premalignant lesions, such as gastric intestinal metaplasia, which can increase the risk of gastric cancer by as much as 6-fold, might benefit from surveillance guidelines to detect gastric cancer at an earlier, potentially curative stage. Chro-moendoscopy with optical magnification, narrow-band imaging, and other image-enhanced endoscopic techniques are commercially available to assist in the diagnosis of premalignant gastric lesions and early gastric cancer. Furthermore, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection have become more widely available and offer potentially curative endoscopic resection for dysplastic lesions of the stomach and early gastric cancers, which is an alternative to traditional surgical resection. PMID:25013389

Gomez, Justin M.

2014-01-01

441

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

442

21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders....

2014-04-01

443

21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders....

2011-04-01

444

21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders....

2013-04-01

445

21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gastric fluid. Measurements of gastric acidity are used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders....

2012-04-01

446

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

447

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices.  

PubMed

Survival of a five-strain mixture of stationary phase (nonadapted) and acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices was evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C). The juices were reconstituted from concentrates that contained no preservatives and intrinsic pH values of 2.5 to 2.6 and titratable acidities of 4.51 to 4.53% (wt/vol, citric acid). A greater than 5-log reduction of stationary-phase cells was achieved in both lemon and lime juices after 72 h of incubation. Similar log reductions were obtained when the reconstituted juices were adjusted to pH 2.7, which is above the highest value normally observed in juice processing plants during the reconstitution of single-strength lemon or lime juice from concentrates. Lemon juice had a significantly higher inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on E. coli O157:H7 than did lime juice. Validation tests with commercially produced shelf-stable lemon and lime juices confirmed that storage of the juices at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days may be an alternative to heat treatment to ensure the 5-log reduction of vegetative pathogens of concern required for the products under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration juice hazard analysis and critical control point regulations. PMID:19350967

Enache, Elena; Chen, Yuhuan; Elliott, Philip H

2009-02-01

448

A Modified Grapefruit Juice Eliminates Two Compound Classes as Major Mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo ‘Connect’  

PubMed Central

The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p?0.008 and p?0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction. PMID:23878024

Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.

2014-01-01

449

A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. PMID:23692760

Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

2013-10-15

450

Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.  

PubMed

Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. PMID:24418831

Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

2014-03-01

451

Gastric Pseudotumoral Lesion Caused by a Fish Bone Mimicking a Gastric Submucosal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastric complications following unintentional foreign body ingestion are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old healthy woman who presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and an apparent gastric submucosal tumor that was incidentally detected by gastrofiberscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, which revealed an intact gastric wall with no tumor invasion, deformity, or evidence of a gastric submucosal lesion. However, an impacted fish bone was found. PMID:25328766

Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

2014-01-01

452

Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

453

Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.  

PubMed

Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

2015-03-01

454

Magnifying Chromoendoscopic Findings of Early Gastric Cancer and Gastric Adenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In the field of colorectal cancer and adenoma, Kudo’s classification of pit pattern with magnifying chromocolonoscopy using\\u000a crystal violet (CV) staining is now accepted. Magnifying endoscopy using narrow band imaging has been used for the diagnosis\\u000a of gastric carcinoma; the characteristic findings of microvascular patterns have been demonstrated. However, there was limited\\u000a information on magnified endoscopic findings with CV staining

Ken OhnitaHajime; Hajime Isomoto; Saburo Shikuwa; Naoyuki Yamaguchi; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Hitoshi Nishiyama; Kenta Okamoto; Eiichiro Fukuda; Fuminao Takeshima; Tomayoshi Hayashi; Shigeru Kohno; Kazuhiko Nakao

455

Molecular targeting to treat gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is the only approved molecular targeting agent for treating gastric cancer in Japan and the outcomes have been favorable. However, trastuzumab is effective for only 10% to 20% of the population with gastric cancer that expresses HER2 protein. Molecular targeting therapy with bevacizumab against vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and with cetuximab and panitumumab against the epidermal growth factors pathway that have been approved for treating colorectal cancer are not considered effective for treating gastric cancer according to several clinical trials. However, ramucirumab that targets VEGF receptor-2 prolonged overall survival in a large phase III clinical trial and it might be an effective molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer. The significance of molecular targeting therapy for gastric cancer remains controversial. A large-scale randomized clinical trial of novel molecular targeting agents with which to treat gastric cancer is needed. PMID:25320512

Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2014-01-01

456

Selection of LAB strains for fermented red beet juice production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authentic LAB strains were investigated for their lactic acid, H 2O 2, and biogenic amine production, and their effect on red beet betalains. There was no significant difference between the strains in respect of cell propagation in beet juice. Lb. curvatus 2770 provided the best pH drop. None of the investigated LAB excreted either histamine or tyramine, but in the

Ágnes Baráth; Anna Halász; Edina Németh; Zsolt Zalán

2004-01-01

457

Pancreatic Juice Cytology in IPMN of the Pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a disease ranging from adenoma to borderline (with moderate dysplasia) and further to carcinoma (noninvasive and invasive) and surgical strategy is different by the grades of dysplasia. Methods: Preoperativepancreatic juice cytology in IPMN was reviewed in 71 patients with IPMN who underwent surgical resection. Results: The IPMN was adenoma in 48

Koji Yamaguchi; Masafumi Nakamura; Kengo Shirahane; Masahiko Kawamoto; Hiroyuki Konomi; Masayukii Ohta; Masao Tanaka

2005-01-01

458

Review article Collection of pancreatic juice in experimental animals  

E-print Network

Review article Collection of pancreatic juice in experimental animals: mini-review of materials and methods R Zabielski V Lesniewska P Guilloteau I Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary aspects. Isolated preparations of the pancreas, lobuli and acini are used to identify more specific

Boyer, Edmond

459

Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

460

Thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase, juice cloud loss and greening  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple forms of pectin methylesterase (PME) have been isolated and characterized from citrus fruit tissue. PME is the causative agent responsible for destabilization of citrus juice cloud, a serious product quality defect. This report will present an up to date state of our knowledge regarding the...