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Sample records for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-expressing

  1. Lutetium-177-labeled gastrin releasing peptide receptor binding analogs: a novel approach to radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Panigone, S; Nunn, A D

    2006-12-01

    Optimization of therapy for individual patients remains a goal of clinical practice. Radionuclide imaging can identify those patients who may benefit from subsequent targeted therapy by providing regional information on the distribution of the target. An ideal situation may be when the imaging and the therapeutic compounds are the same agent. Two antibodies ([ [90Y]ibritumomab, [131I]tositumomab) are now approved for the systemic radiotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The main hurdle is to deliver higher absorbed doses to the more refractory solid tumors paying particular regard to the bone marrow toxicity. The low dose is thought to be a result of the large size of antibodies slowing delivery to the target. Peptides having high affinity to receptors expressed on cancer cells are a promising alternative. They are usually rapidly excreted from the body through renal and/or hepatobiliary excretion thus creating a prolonged accumulation of the radioactivity in the kidneys, which represents a recognized issue for systemic radiotherapy. The first radiopeptide developed was a somatostatin analogue, which led to a major breakthrough in the field. Beside the kidney issue, somatostatin use remains limited to few cancers that express receptors in sufficiently large quantities, mainly neuroendocrine tumors. The gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor is an attractive target for development of new radiopeptides with diagnostic and therapeutic potential. This is based upon the functional expression of GRP receptors in several of the more prevalent cancers including prostate, breast, and small cell lung cancer. This review covers the efforts currently underway to develop new and clinically promising GRP-receptor specific molecules labeled with imageable and therapeutic radionuclides. PMID:17043628

  2. Insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides mediated by gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Q; Yao, G; Yannaing, S; ThanThan, S; Kuwayama, H

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterizes the receptor that mediates the insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides (BLP) in ruminants. Eight Holstein steers were randomly and intravenously injected with synthetic bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), neuromedin B (NMB; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), or neuromedin C (NMC; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), each alone or combined with the antagonist of GRP receptors N-acetyl-GRP-OCHCH (N-GRP-EE; 22.5 nmol/kg BW) or the antagonist of GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 (21.5 nmol/kg BW). Blood samples were collected at -10, 0 (just before injection), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min relative to injection time. Levels of injected peptides, insulin, and glucose in plasma were analyzed. Results showed that the peak of insulin levels was seen at 5 min after injection of NMC or GRP. Plasma glucose was observed in 2 phases; a significant rise followed a remarkable fall after NMC or GRP administration compared with injection of the vehicle ( < 0.05). On a same molar basis, effects of GRP on insulin and glucose were more potent than those of NMC ( < 0.05). The NMC-induced changes of insulin and glucose were completely blocked by N-GRP-EE, but [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 did not block any of these changes. Administration of NMB or N-GRP-EE alone did not change the circulating levels of insulin or glucose during any of the sampling time points ( > 0.05). These results indicated that the insulinotropic action of BLP is mediated by GRP receptors but not through a ghrelin/GHS-R1a pathway and that BLP may be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in ruminants. PMID:26812312

  3. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and FSH mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  4. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and Fsh mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  5. Characterization of the detergent solubilized receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Moody, T.W.; Comoglio, P.; Schlessinger, J.; Kris, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Properties of detergent solubilized gastrin-releasing peptide receptor were investigated. Swiss 3T3 membranes were covalently labeled with ({sup 125}I)GRP and homobifunctional cross-linkers. A major labeled protein of 75 kDa was resolved using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the same preparation was solubilized with zwitterionic detergent and analyzed under nondenaturing conditions the protein bound radioactivity was resolved in two different peaks, a major one of apparent molecular weight 220,000 (peak 1) and a minor one of 80,000 (peak 2) both containing the 75 kDa protein. Specific ligand binding activity also eluted with peak 1. These results indicate that the active form of bombesin/GRP receptor is a large complex containing the 75 kDa ligand binding domain.

  6. An update of radiolabeled bombesin analogs for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zilin; Ananias, Hildo J K; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Hoving, Hilde D; Helfrich, Wijnand; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Wang, Fan; de Jong, Igle J; Elsinga, Philip H

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a critical public health problem in USA and Europe. New non-invasive imaging methods are urgently needed, due to the low accuracy and specificity of current screen methods and the desire of localizing primary prostate cancer and bone metastasis. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are the non-invasive and sensitive imaging methods which have been widely used for diagnosing diseases in the clinic. Lack of suitable radiotracers is the major issue for nuclear imaging of prostate cancer, although radiolabeled bombesin (BN) peptides targeting the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) on tumor cells are widely investigated. In this review we discuss the recent trends in the development of GRPR-targeted radiopharmaceuticals based on BN analogs with regard to their potential for imaging and therapy of GRPR-expressing malignancies. Following a brief introduction of GRPR and bombesin peptides, we summarize the properties of prostate cancer specific radiolabeled bombesins. New bombesin tracers published in the last five years are reviewed and compared according to their novelties in biomolecules, radionuclides, labeling methods, bifunctional chelators and linkers. Hot topics such as multimerization, application of agonists and antagonists are highlighted in the review. Lastly, a few clinical trials of cancer nuclear imaging with radiolabeled bombesin have been discussed. PMID:23431995

  7. Gastrin-releasing peptide expression and its effect on the calcification of developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Jin, Chengri; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is considered to be one of the cancer growth factors. This peptide's receptor (GRPR) is known as a G protein-coupled receptor, regulating intracellular calcium storage and releasing signals. This study is the first to investigate the function of GRP during mouse incisor development. We hypothesized that GRP is one of the factors that affects the regulation of calcification during tooth development. To verify the expression pattern of GRP, in situ hybridization was processed during incisor development. GRP was expressed at the late bell stage and hard tissue formation stage in the epithelial tissue. To identify the genuine function of GRP during incisor development, a gain-of-function analysis was performed. After GRP overexpression in culture, the phenotype of ameloblasts, odontoblasts and predentin was altered compared to control group. Moreover, enamel and dentin thickness was increased after renal capsule transplantation of GRP-overexpressed incisors. With these results, we suggest that GRP plays a significant role in the formation of enamel and dentin by regulating ameloblasts and predentin formation, respectively. Thus, GRP signaling is strongly related to calcium acquisition and secretion during mouse incisor development. PMID:26126650

  8. Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Lebacq-Verheyden, A M; Kasprzyk, P G; Raum, M G; Van Wyke Coelingh, K; Lebacq, J A; Battey, J F

    1988-01-01

    The 27-amino-acid gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27) is a neuropeptide and growth factor that is synthesized by various neural and neuroendocrine cells. The major pro-GRP hormone (isoform I) contains both GRP1-27 and a novel C-terminal extension peptide termed pro-GRP31-125. In order to define potentially active neuropeptides that could be generated from this novel protein domain, we analyzed the posttranslational processing of endogenous human pro-GRP1-125 in a small-cell lung cancer cell line. Because such studies are much easier in an overexpression system, we investigated at the same time the posttranslational processing of baculovirus-expressed human pro-GRP1-125 in an insect ovary cell line. In the small-cell lung cancer cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved as expected from the endogenous prohormone at a pair of basic amino acids (29 and 30) and alpha-amidated at its C-terminal methionine; however, a number of novel peptides were generated by additional cleavages in the pro-GRP31-125 domain. In the insect ovary cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved from the expressed prohormone by a different mechanism, as were a number of other peptides that appeared to be similar in size to those produced by the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line. These data show for the first time that an insect ovary cell line that is widely used to overexpress proteins can process a human neuropeptide precursor. They also reveal the existence of novel pro-GRP-derived peptides that are candidates for biologically active ligands. Images PMID:3211139

  9. The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) in the Spinal Cord as a Novel Pharmacological Target

    PubMed Central

    Takanami, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a mammalian neuropeptide that acts through the G protein-coupled receptor, GRP receptor (GRPR). Increasing evidence indicates that GRPR-mediated signaling in the central nervous system plays an important role in many physiological processes in mammals. Additionally, we have recently reported that the GRP system within the lumbosacral spinal cord not only controls erection but also triggers ejaculation in male rats. This system of GRP neurons is sexually dimorphic, being prominent in male rats but vestigial or absent in females. It is suggested that the sexually dimorphic GRP/GRPR system in the lumbosacral spinal cord plays a critical role in the regulation of male sexual function. In parallel, it has been reported that the somatosensory GRP/GRPR system in the spinal cord contributes to the regulation of itch specific transmission independently of the pain transmission. Interestingly, these two distinct functions in the same spinal region are both regulated by the neuropeptide, GRP. In this report, we review findings on recently identified GRP/GRPR systems in the spinal cord. These GRP/GRPR systems in the spinal cord provide new insights into pharmacological treatments for psychogenic erectile dysfunction as well as for chronic pruritus. PMID:25426011

  10. Gastrin Releasing Peptide Modulates Fast Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Per1-Expressing SCN Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Karen L.; Kudo, Takashi; Colwell, Christopher S.; McMahon, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives and maintains 24-h physiological rhythms, the phases of which are set by the local environmental light-dark cycle. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) communicates photic phase setting signals in the SCN by increasing neurophysiological activity of SCN neurons. Here, the ionic basis for persistent GRP-induced changes in neuronal activity was investigated in SCN slice cultures from Per1::GFP reporter mice during the early night. Recordings from Per1-fluorescent neurons in SCN slices several hours after GRP treatment revealed a significantly greater action potential frequency, a significant increase in voltage-activated outward current at depolarized potentials, and a significant increase in 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) sensitive fast delayed rectifier (fDR) potassium currents when compared to vehicle-treated slices. In addition, the persistent increase in spike rate following early night GRP application was blocked in SCN neurons from mice deficient in Kv3 channel proteins. Because fDR currents are regulated by the clock and are elevated in amplitude during the day, the present results support the model that GRP delays the phase of the clock during the early night by prolonging day-like membrane properties of SCN cells. Furthermore, these findings implicate fDR currents in the ionic basis for GRP-mediated entrainment of the primary mammalian circadian pacemaker. PMID:21454290

  11. Oxygen, Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, and Pediatric Lung Disease: Life in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive oxygen (O2) can cause tissue injury, scarring, aging, and even death. Our laboratory is studying O2-sensing pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) and the PNEC-derived product gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from exposure to hyperoxia, ozone, or ionizing radiation (RT) can induce PNEC degranulation and GRP secretion. PNEC degranulation is also induced by hypoxia, and effects of hypoxia are mediated by free radicals. We have determined that excessive GRP leads to lung injury with acute and chronic inflammation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis (PF), triggered via ROS exposure or by directly treating mice with exogenous GRP. In animal models, GRP-blockade abrogates lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. The optimal time frame for GRP-blockade and the key target cell types remain to be determined. The concept of GRP as a mediator of ROS-induced tissue damage represents a paradigm shift about how O2 can cause injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. The host PNEC response in vivo may depend on individual ROS sensing mechanisms and subsequent GRP secretion. Ongoing scientific and clinical investigations promise to further clarify the molecular pathways and clinical relevance of GRP in the pathogenesis of diverse pediatric lung diseases. PMID:25101250

  12. Gastrin-releasing peptide contributes to the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Walton, Noah M; de Koning, Anoek; Xie, Xiuyuan; Shin, Rick; Chen, Qian; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Gross, Adam K; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Heusner, Carrie L; Tamura, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the postnatal hippocampus, newly generated neurons contribute to learning and memory. Disruptions in neurogenesis and neuronal development have been linked to cognitive impairment and are implicated in a broad variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To identify putative factors involved in this process, we examined hippocampal gene expression alterations in mice possessing a heterozygous knockout of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha heterozygous knockout gene (CaMK2α-hKO), an established model of cognitive impairment that also displays altered neurogenesis and neuronal development. Using this approach, we identified gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) as the most dysregulated gene. In wild-type mice, GRP labels NeuN-positive neurons, the lone exception being GRP-positive, NeuN-negative cells in the subgranular zone, suggesting GRP expression may be relevant to neurogenesis and/or neuronal development. Using a model of in vitro hippocampal neurogenesis, we determined that GRP signaling is essential for the continued survival and development of newborn neurons, both of which are blocked by transient knockdown of GRP's cognate receptor (GRPR). Furthermore, GRP appears to negatively regulate neurogenesis-associated proliferation in neural stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GRP resulted in a decrease in immature neuronal markers, increased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and decreased neurogenesis. Despite increased levels of GRP mRNA, CaMK2α-hKO mutant mice expressed reduced levels of GRP peptide. This lack of GRP may contribute to the elevated neurogenesis and impaired neuronal development, which are reversed following exogenous GRP infusion. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that GRP modulates neurogenesis and neuronal development and may contribute to hippocampus-associated cognitive impairment. PMID:24806094

  13. Gastrin releasing peptide-29 requires vagal and splanchnic neurons to evoke satiation and satiety.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susan A; Washington, Martha C; Garcia, Carlos; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that gastrin-releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), the large molecular form of GRP in rats, reduces meal size (MS, intake of 10% sucrose solution) and prolongs the intermeal interval (IMI). In these studies, we first investigated possible pathways for these responses in rats undergoing total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX, removal of vagal afferent and efferent innervation of the gut), celiaco-mesenteric ganglionectomy (CMGX, removal of splanchnic afferent and efferent innervation of the gut) and combined VGX and CMGX. Second, we examined if the duodenum communicates the feeding signals (MS and IMI) of GRP-29 (0, 0.3, 1.0, 2.1, 4.1, 10.3 and 17.2 nmol/kg) with the feeding control areas of the hindbrain by performing duodenal myotomy (MYO), a procedure that severs some layers of the duodenal wall including the vagal, splanchnic and enteric neurons. We found that GRP-29 (2.1, 4.1, 10.3, 17.2 nmol/kg) reduced the size of the first meal (10% sucrose) and (1, 4.1, 10.3 nmol/kg) prolongs the first IMI but did not affect the subsequent meals or IMIs. In addition, CMGX and combined VGX/CMGX attenuated reduction of MS by GRP-29 and all surgeries attenuated the prolongation of the IMI. Therefore, reduction of MS and prolongation of IMI by GRP-29 require vagal and splanchnic nerves, and the duodenum is the major conduit that communicates prolongation of IMI by GRP-29 with the brain. PMID:22210008

  14. Specializations of Gastrin Releasing Peptide Cells of the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Drouyer, Elise; LeSauter, Joseph; Hernandez, Amanda L.; Silver, Rae

    2010-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. It is constituted of a heterogeneous population of cells which together form the circuits underlying its master clock function. Numerous studies suggest the existence of two regions that have been termed core and shell. At a gross level, differences between these regions map to distinct functional differences, though the specific role(s) of various peptidergic cellular phenotypes remains unknown. In mouse, gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) cells lie in the core, are directly retinorecipient and lack detectable rhythmicity in clock gene expression, raising interest in their role in the SCN. Here, we provide evidence that calbindin expressing cells of perinatal mouse SCN express GRP, identified by a green fluorescent protein (GFP+), but lack detectable calbindin later in development. To explore the intra-SCN network in which GRP neurons participate, individual GFP+ cells were filled with tracer and their morphological characteristics, processes, and connections, as well as those of their non-GFP containing immediate neighbors, were compared. The results show that GFP+ neurons form a dense network of local circuits within the core, revealed by appositions on other GFP+ cells and by the presence of dye-coupled cells. Dendrites and axons of GFP+ cells make appositions on arginine vasopressin neurons, while non-GFP cells have a less extensive fiber network, largely confined to the region of GFP+ cells. The results point to specialized circuitry within the SCN, presumably supporting synchronization of neural activity and reciprocal communication between core and shell regions. PMID:20151358

  15. Site-specific effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kallingal, George J.; Mintz, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are dependent on the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the SCN. In this study, the interaction between GRP, glutamate and serotonin in the regulation of circadian phase in Syrian hamsters was evaluated. Microinjection of GRP into the third ventricle induced c-fos and p-ERK expression throughout the SCN. Coadministration of an NMDA antagonist or 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin [a serotonin (5-HT)1A,7 agonist, DPAT] with GRP limited c-fos expression in the SCN to a region dorsal to GRP cell bodies. Similar to the effects of NMDA antagonists, DPAT attenuated GRP-induced phase shifts in the early night, suggesting that the actions of serotonin on the photic phase shifting mechanism occur downstream from retinorecipient cells. c-fos and p-ERK immunoreactivity in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei also increased following ventricular microinjection of GRP. Because of this finding, a second set of experiments was designed to test a potential role for the SON in the regulation of clock function. Syrian hamsters were given microinjections of GRP into the peri-SON during the early night. GRP-induced c-fos activity in the SCN was similar to that following ventricular administration of GRP. GRP or bicuculline (a γ-aminobutyric acidA antagonist) administered near the SON during the early night elicited phase delays of circadian activity rhythms. These data suggest that GRP-induced phase-resetting is dependent on levels of glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the SCN and implicate activity in the SON as a potential regulator of photic signaling in the SCN. PMID:24528136

  16. Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor Imaging in Breast Cancer Using the Receptor Antagonist 68Ga-RM2 And PET

    PubMed Central

    Stoykow, Christian; Erbes, Thalia; Maecke, Helmut R; Bulla, Stefan; Bartholomä, Mark; Mayer, Sebastian; Drendel, Vanessa; Bronsert, Peter; Werner, Martin; Gitsch, Gerald; Weber, Wolfgang A; Stickeler, Elmar; Meyer, Philipp T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed in breast cancer. The present study evaluates GRPR imaging as a novel imaging modality in breast cancer by employing positron emission tomography (PET) and the GRPR antagonist 68Ga-RM2. Methods: Fifteen female patients with biopsy confirmed primary breast carcinoma (3 bilateral tumors; median clinical stage IIB) underwent 68Ga-RM2-PET/CT for pretreatment staging. In vivo tumor uptake of 68Ga-RM2 was correlated with estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression, HER2/neu status and MIB-1 proliferation index in breast core biopsy specimens. Results: 13/18 tumors demonstrated strongly increased 68Ga-RM2 uptake compared to normal breast tissue (defined as PET-positive). All PET-positive primary tumors were ER- and PR-positive (13/13) in contrast to only 1/5 PET-negative tumors. Mean SUVMAX of ER-positive tumors was 10.6±6.0 compared to 2.3±1.0 in ER-negative tumors (p=0.016). In a multivariate analysis including ER, PR, HER2/neu and MIB-1, only ER expression predicted 68Ga-RM2 uptake (model: r2=0.55, p=0.025). Normal breast tissue showed inter- and intraindividually variable, moderate GRPR binding (SUVMAX 2.3±1.0), while physiological uptake of other organs was considerably less except pancreas. Of note, 68Ga-RM2-PET/CT detected internal mammary lymph nodes with high 68Ga-RM2 uptake (n=8), a contralateral axillary lymph node metastasis (verified by biopsy) and bone metastases (n=1; not detected by bone scan and CT). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that 68Ga-RM2-PET/CT is a promising imaging method in ER-positive breast cancer. In vivo GRPR binding assessed by 68Ga-RM2-PET/CT correlated with ER expression in primary tumors of untreated patients. PMID:27446498

  17. Critical evaluation of the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Devin M; Li, Hui; Liu, Xian-Yu; Shen, Kai-Feng; Liu, Xue-Ting; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Munanairi, Admire; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Jun; Sun, Yan-Gang; Li, Yun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    There are substantial disagreements about the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in sensory neurons and whether GRP antibody cross-reacts with substance P (SP). These concerns necessitate a critical revaluation of GRP expression using additional approaches. Here, we show that a widely used GRP antibody specifically recognizes GRP but not SP. In the spinal cord of mice lacking SP (Tac1 KO), the expression of not only GRP but also other peptides, notably neuropeptide Y (NPY), is significantly diminished. We detected Grp mRNA in dorsal root ganglias using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and RNA-seq. We demonstrated that Grp mRNA and protein are upregulated in dorsal root ganglias, but not in the spinal cord, of mice with chronic itch. Few GRP+ immunostaining signals were detected in spinal sections following dorsal rhizotomy and GRP+ cell bodies were not detected in dissociated dorsal horn neurons. Ultrastructural analysis further shows that substantially more GRPergic fibers form synaptic contacts with gastrin releasing peptide receptor-positive (GRPR+) neurons than SPergic fibers. Our comprehensive study demonstrates that a majority of GRPergic fibers are of primary afferent origin. A number of factors such as low copy number of Grp transcripts, small percentage of cells expressing Grp, and the use of an eGFP GENSAT transgenic as a surrogate for GRP protein have contributed to the controversy. Optimization of experimental procedures facilitates the specific detection of GRP expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons. PMID:27068287

  18. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. PMID:26658172

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    PubMed

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. PMID:27025446

  20. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Signaling Plays a Limited and Subtle Role in Amygdala Physiology and Aversive Memory

    PubMed Central

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H.; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe6, Leu-NHEt13, des-Met14)-Bombesin (6–14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders. PMID:22509372

  1. Hypothalamic gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mediates an antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of stress

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lihua; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Hexiang; Xiang, Dan; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Huiling; Wang, Gaohua; Zhu, Fan; Liu, Zhongchun

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has shown that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is involved in responses to stress and anxiety. The primary role of GRPR is to stimulate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Thus, the mechanisms of GRPR signaling should be elucidated to discover novel therapeutic targets for treating depression. This study aimed to investigate GRPR alterations in the C57 mouse hypothalamus after the animals were subjected to stress and fluoxetine treatments. Specifically, we subjected the mice to isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for three weeks to establish an experimental model of depression. These mice were subsequently treated with fluoxetine for three weeks. Then, we performed the sucrose preference test and the open field test and measured food intake and body weight to explore the effects of stress and fluoxetine on activity and anhedonia. After fluoxetine treatment, we also assessed changes in the levels of GRPR expression in the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). We found that stressed mice showed significant reductions in locomotion, food intake/body weight, and sucrose preference; these reduced parameters indicated a state of anhedonia. Marked increases in mRNA and protein expression of GRPR in the hypothalamus of CUMS-exposed mice were also observed, although treatment with fluoxetine reversed these stress-induced changes. Our results also demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the C57 mouse model of depression established by CUMS and isolation. After fluoxetine treatment was administered, the animals’ depression symptoms were alleviated, and these behavioral alterations were accompanied by specific changes in mRNA and protein expression of GRPR in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that GRPR may be implicated in depression; therefore, new therapeutic targets of depression focused on GRPR signaling

  2. Hypothalamic gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mediates an antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of stress.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lihua; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Hexiang; Xiang, Dan; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Huiling; Wang, Gaohua; Zhu, Fan; Liu, Zhongchun

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has shown that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is involved in responses to stress and anxiety. The primary role of GRPR is to stimulate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Thus, the mechanisms of GRPR signaling should be elucidated to discover novel therapeutic targets for treating depression. This study aimed to investigate GRPR alterations in the C57 mouse hypothalamus after the animals were subjected to stress and fluoxetine treatments. Specifically, we subjected the mice to isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for three weeks to establish an experimental model of depression. These mice were subsequently treated with fluoxetine for three weeks. Then, we performed the sucrose preference test and the open field test and measured food intake and body weight to explore the effects of stress and fluoxetine on activity and anhedonia. After fluoxetine treatment, we also assessed changes in the levels of GRPR expression in the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). We found that stressed mice showed significant reductions in locomotion, food intake/body weight, and sucrose preference; these reduced parameters indicated a state of anhedonia. Marked increases in mRNA and protein expression of GRPR in the hypothalamus of CUMS-exposed mice were also observed, although treatment with fluoxetine reversed these stress-induced changes. Our results also demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the C57 mouse model of depression established by CUMS and isolation. After fluoxetine treatment was administered, the animals' depression symptoms were alleviated, and these behavioral alterations were accompanied by specific changes in mRNA and protein expression of GRPR in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that GRPR may be implicated in depression; therefore, new therapeutic targets of depression focused on GRPR signaling

  3. FUNCTION OF NON-VISUAL ARRESTINS IN SIGNALING AND ENDOCYTOSIS OF THE GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE RECEPTOR (GRP RECEPTOR)

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Michael; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Mantey, Samuel A.; Howell, Brian; Jensen, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the role of arrestins in gastrointestinal hormone/neurotransmitter receptor endocytosis. With other G protein-coupled receptors, arrestins induce G protein-uncoupling and receptor endocytosis. In this study, we used arrestin wild-type and dominant-negative mutant constructs to analyze the arrestin dependence of endocytosis and desensitization of the gastrin- releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Co-expression of the GRP-R with wild-type arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 increased not only GRP-R endocytosis but also GRP-R desensitization in arrestin-overexpressing cells. Co-expression of the dominant-negative mutants V53D-arrestin-2 or V54D-arrestin-3 reduced GRP-R endocytosis. Notably, different trafficking routes for agonist-activated GRPR-arrestin-2 and GRPR-arrestin-3 complexes were found. Arrestin-3 internalizes with GRP-R to intracellular vesicles, arrestin-2 splits from the GRP-R and localizes to the cell membrane. Also, the recycling pathway of the GRP-R was different if co-expressed with arrestin-2 or arrestin-3. Using different GRP-R mutants, the C-terminus and the 2nd intracellular loop of the GRP-R were found to be important for the GRPR-arrestin interaction and for the difference in GRP receptor trafficking with the two arrestin subtypes. Our results show that both non-visual arrestins play an important role in GRP-R internalization and desensitization. PMID:18199425

  4. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F; Neuman, Joshua C; Brill, Allison L; Brar, Harpreet K; Thompson, Mary F; Cadena, Mark T; Connors, Kelsey M; Busch, Rebecca A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Cham, Candace M; Jones, Elaina K; Kibbe, Carly R; Davis, Dawn B; Groblewski, Guy E; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-09-15

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  5. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), peptide YY (PYY) gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and others in hamster lung and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, R.; Keith, I.M.

    1986-03-05

    Rabbit antisera to CGRP, PYY, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and GRP were used for immunocytochemical localization of these peptides in lungs of neonate hamsters at birth and 6 d of age and young (70 gm) and adult (107 gm) hamsters. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied to paraffin sections of tissue fixed in Bouin's or Zamboni's solution. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to quantify these peptides in lung tissue and plasma from the young hamsters (n=13). Distinct CGRP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in grouped (NEB) and individual (NEC) neuroendocrine cells at all ages including all airways from trachea (NECs only) to alveoli. In some NEBs this IR coexisted with 5-HT-like IR. PYY- and NPY-like Ir was mainly noted in NEBs and NECs at the level of bronchioles and alveoli, and weak GRP-like IR was present in neuroendocrine-like cells of small airways. Measurable quantities of all peptides were recorded by RIA. Females had higher lung and plasma levels of CGRP and plasma levels of PYY than males and tended to have higher lung levels of GRP. The neuropeptides CGRP, PYY and the analog NPY are putative regulators of local pulmonary blood flow by vasodilation (CGRP) and constriction (PYY, NPY), and GRP is known to regulate peptide release.

  6. Electrophysiological properties of brain-natriuretic peptide- and gastrin-releasing peptide-responsive dorsal horn neurons in spinal itch transmission.

    PubMed

    Kusube, Fumiya; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Naito, Hisashi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tomooka, Yasuhiro; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Spinal itch transmission has been reported to be mediated by at least two neuronal populations in spinal dorsal horn, neurons expressing brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP) receptor (Npra) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPR). Although Npra-expressing neurons were shown to be upstream of GRPR- expressing neurons in spinal itch transmission, the roles of BNP and GRP in the spinal neurotransmission of histamine-dependent and -independent itch remains unclear. Using in vivo electrophysiology and behavior analysis, this study examined the responses of chloroquine (histamine-independent pruritogen)-responsive and histamine-responsive dorsal horn neurons to spinal applications of BNP and GRP. Electrophysiologically, 9.5% of chloroquine-responsive neurons responded to BNP, 33.3% to GRP, and 4.8% to both, indicating that almost half of chloroquine-responsive neurons were unresponsive to both BNP and GRP. In contrast, histamine-responsive neurons did not respond to spinal BNP application, whereas 30% responded to spinal GRP application, indicating that 70% of histamine-responsive neurons were unresponsive to both BNP and GRP. Behavioral analyses showed differences in the time-course and frequency of scratching responses evoked by intrathecal BNP and GRP. These findings provide evidence that most BNP-Npra and GRP-GRPR signaling involve different pathways of spinal itch transmission, and that multiple neurotransmitters, in addition to BNP and GRP, are involved in spinal itch transmission. The electrophysiological results also suggest that spinal BNP contributes little to histaminergic itch directly. PMID:27235577

  7. SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE–MEDIATED SMALL INTERFERING RNA DELIVERY AND SILENCING GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE RECEPTOR IN HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jingbo; Hong, Tu; Guo, Honglian; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Chung, Dai H.

    2015-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has the potential to influence expression with a high degree of target gene specificity. However, the clinical application of siRNA therapeutics has proven to be less promising as evidenced by poor intracellular uptake, instability in vivo, and non-specific immune stimulations. Recently, we have demonstrated that single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-mediated siRNA delivery can enhance the efficiency of siRNA-mediated gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) gene silencing by stabilizing siRNA while selectively targeting tumor tissues. Based on our recent findings, we introduce a novel technique to silence specific gene(s) in human neuroblastoma through SWNT-mediated siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23749575

  8. Distinct functions of opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide in regulating itch and pain in the spinal cord of primates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeseung; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    How neuropeptides in the primate spinal cord regulate itch and pain is largely unknown. Here we elucidate the sensory functions of spinal opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in awake, behaving monkeys. Following intrathecal administration, β-endorphin (10-100 nmol) and GRP (1-10 nmol) dose-dependently elicit the same degree of robust itch scratching, which can be inhibited by mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor and GRP receptor (BB2) antagonists, respectively. Unlike β-endorphin, which produces itch and attenuates inflammatory pain, GRP only elicits itch without affecting pain. In contrast, enkephalins (100-1000 nmol) and nociceptin-orphanin FQ (3-30 nmol) only inhibit pain without eliciting itch. More intriguingly, dynorphin A(1-17) (10-100 nmol) dose-dependently attenuates both β-endorphin- and GRP-elicited robust scratching without affecting pain processing. The anti-itch effects of dynorphin A can be reversed by a kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. These nonhuman primate behavioral models with spinal delivery of ligands advance our understanding of distinct functions of neuropeptides for modulating itch and pain. In particular, we demonstrate causal links for itch-eliciting effects by β-endorphin-MOP receptor and GRP-BB2 receptor systems and itch-inhibiting effects by the dynorphin A-KOP receptor system. These studies will facilitate transforming discoveries of novel ligand-receptor systems into future therapies as antipruritics and/or analgesics in humans. PMID:26119696

  9. Distinct functions of opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide in regulating itch and pain in the spinal cord of primates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeseung; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    How neuropeptides in the primate spinal cord regulate itch and pain is largely unknown. Here we elucidate the sensory functions of spinal opioid-related peptides and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in awake, behaving monkeys. Following intrathecal administration, β-endorphin (10–100 nmol) and GRP (1–10 nmol) dose-dependently elicit the same degree of robust itch scratching, which can be inhibited by mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor and GRP receptor (BB2) antagonists, respectively. Unlike β-endorphin, which produces itch and attenuates inflammatory pain, GRP only elicits itch without affecting pain. In contrast, enkephalins (100–1000 nmol) and nociceptin-orphanin FQ (3–30 nmol) only inhibit pain without eliciting itch. More intriguingly, dynorphin A(1–17) (10–100 nmol) dose-dependently attenuates both β-endorphin- and GRP-elicited robust scratching without affecting pain processing. The anti-itch effects of dynorphin A can be reversed by a kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. These nonhuman primate behavioral models with spinal delivery of ligands advance our understanding of distinct functions of neuropeptides for modulating itch and pain. In particular, we demonstrate causal links for itch-eliciting effects by β-endorphin-MOP receptor and GRP-BB2 receptor systems and itch-inhibiting effects by the dynorphin A-KOP receptor system. These studies will facilitate transforming discoveries of novel ligand-receptor systems into future therapies as antipruritics and/or analgesics in humans. PMID:26119696

  10. Spinal Functions of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, and Their Cognate Receptors for Regulating Itch in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Norikazu; Sukhtankar, Devki D; Ding, Huiping; Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Kishioka, Shiroh; Peters, Christopher M; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)-natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-GRP receptor (GRPR) systems contribute to spinal processing of itch. However, pharmacological and anatomic evidence of these two spinal ligand-receptor systems are still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the spinal functions of BNP-NPRA and GRP-GRPR systems for regulating scratching activities in mice by using pharmacological and immunohistochemical approaches. Our results showed that intrathecal administration of BNP (0.3-3 nmol) dose dependently elicited scratching responses, which could be blocked by the NPRA antagonist (Arg6,β-cyclohexyl-Ala8,D-Tic16,Arg17,Cys18)-atrial natriuretic factor(6-18) amide (A71915). However, A71915 had no effect on intrathecal GRP-induced scratching. In contrast, pretreatment with a GRPR antagonist (D-Tpi6,Leu13ψ(CH2-NH)-Leu14)bombesin(6-14) (RC-3095) inhibited BNP-induced scratching. Immunostaining revealed that NPRA proteins colocalize with GRP, but not GRPR, in the superficial area of dorsal horn, whereas BNP proteins do not colocalize with either GRP or GRPR in the dorsal horn. Intradermal administration of ligands including endothelin-1, U-46619, bovine adrenal medulla 8-22, and Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SLIGRL) increased scratching bouts at different levels of magnitude. Pretreatment with intrathecal A71915 did not affect scratching responses elicited by all four pruritogens, whereas pretreatment with RC-3095 only inhibited SLIGRL-induced scratching. Interestingly, immunostaining showed that RC-3095, but not A71915, inhibited SLIGRL-elicited c-Fos activation in the spinal dorsal horn, which was in line with behavioral outcomes. These findings demonstrate that: 1) BNP-NPRA system may function upstream of the GRP-GRPR system to regulate itch in the mouse spinal cord, and 2) both NPRA and GRPR antagonists may have antipruritic efficacy against centrally, but not peripherally, elicited itch. PMID:26669425

  11. Spinal Functions of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, and Their Cognate Receptors for Regulating Itch in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kiguchi, Norikazu; Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Ding, Huiping; Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Kishioka, Shiroh; Peters, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)–natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)–GRP receptor (GRPR) systems contribute to spinal processing of itch. However, pharmacological and anatomic evidence of these two spinal ligand-receptor systems are still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the spinal functions of BNP-NPRA and GRP-GRPR systems for regulating scratching activities in mice by using pharmacological and immunohistochemical approaches. Our results showed that intrathecal administration of BNP (0.3–3 nmol) dose dependently elicited scratching responses, which could be blocked by the NPRA antagonist (Arg6,β-cyclohexyl-Ala8,D-Tic16,Arg17,Cys18)-atrial natriuretic factor(6-18) amide (A71915). However, A71915 had no effect on intrathecal GRP-induced scratching. In contrast, pretreatment with a GRPR antagonist (D-Tpi6,Leu13ψ(CH2-NH)-Leu14)bombesin(6-14) (RC-3095) inhibited BNP-induced scratching. Immunostaining revealed that NPRA proteins colocalize with GRP, but not GRPR, in the superficial area of dorsal horn, whereas BNP proteins do not colocalize with either GRP or GRPR in the dorsal horn. Intradermal administration of ligands including endothelin-1, U-46619, bovine adrenal medulla 8-22, and Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SLIGRL) increased scratching bouts at different levels of magnitude. Pretreatment with intrathecal A71915 did not affect scratching responses elicited by all four pruritogens, whereas pretreatment with RC-3095 only inhibited SLIGRL-induced scratching. Interestingly, immunostaining showed that RC-3095, but not A71915, inhibited SLIGRL-elicited c-Fos activation in the spinal dorsal horn, which was in line with behavioral outcomes. These findings demonstrate that: 1) BNP-NPRA system may function upstream of the GRP-GRPR system to regulate itch in the mouse spinal cord, and 2) both NPRA and GRPR antagonists may have antipruritic efficacy against centrally, but not peripherally, elicited itch. PMID

  12. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or N-acetylcysteine combined with omeprazol protect against mitochondrial complex II inhibition in a rat model of gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Petronilho, Fabricia C; Araújo, João H; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Cardoso, Mariane R; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2011-03-01

    The pathophysiology of gastritis involves an imbalance between gastric acid attack and mucosal defence. In addition, the gastric mucosal injury results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Several studies have shown the association of mitochondrial disorders with gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in the stomach of rats with gastritis induced by indomethacin (IDM) and treated with omeprazole (OM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, NAC, RC-3095, combination of OM plus RC-3095, OM plus NAC and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24 hr; IDM was administered. The rats were killed 6 hr later, and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and respiratory chain activity. Our results showed that complex I and IV activities were not affected by administration of IDM. On the other hand, complex II and III activities were inhibited. In addition, OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC did not reverse complex II activity inhibition. However, the complex III activity inhibition was reversed only with the combined use of OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC. Our results are in agreement with previous studies indicating mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal tract disease and we suggest that GRPR antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy in gastritis. PMID:21138529

  13. Intravenous infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 and bombesin in rats reveals differential effects on meal size and intermeal interval length

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Martha C.; Salyer, Sarah; Aglan, Amnah H.; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that the intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of gastrin-releasing peptide-27 (GRP-27) or bombesin (BN) (at 0.21, 0.41 and 1.03 nmol/kg) reduces meal size (MS) and prolongs the intermeal interval (IMI). Here, we hypothesized that the intravenous (i.v) administration of the same doses of GRP-27 and BN will be as effective as the i.p administration in evoking these feeding responses. To test this hypothesis, we administered GRP-27 and BN i.v and measured first MS (10% sucrose), IMI, satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS) and second MS in overnight food-deprived but not water-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats. We found that (1) only GRP-27 reduced the first MS, (2) BN prolonged the IMI, (3) GRP-27 and BN increased the SR and (4) only BN reduced the size of the second meal. Contrary to our hypothesis, the i.v administration of GRP-27 and BN affected the MS and IMI differently than did the i.p administration. In conclusion, this pharmacological study suggests that the MS and IMI are regulated at different sites. PMID:24291388

  14. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) to look for evidence that interneurons expressing GRP were activated following intradermal injection of chloroquine into the calf, in mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in these cells. Results Injection of chloroquine resulted in numerous Fos- or phospho-ERK (pERK) positive cells in the somatotopically appropriate part of the superficial dorsal horn. The proportion of all neurons in this region that showed Fos or pERK was 18% and 21%, respectively. However, among the GRP–EGFP, only 7% were Fos-positive and 3% were pERK-positive. As such, GRP–EGFP cells were significantly less likely than other neurons to express Fos or to phosphorylate ERK. Conclusions Both expression of Fos and phosphorylation of ERK can be used to identify dorsal horn neurons activated by chloroquine injection. However, these results do not support the hypothesis that interneurons expressing GRP are critical components in the itch pathway. PMID:27270268

  15. Neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide excite arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y neurons in a novel transgenic mouse expressing strong renilla GFP in NPY neurons

    PubMed Central

    van den Pol, Anthony N.; Yao, Yang; Fu, Li-Ying; Foo, Kylie; Huang, Hao; Coppari, Roberto; Lowell, Brad; Broberger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most widespread neuropeptides in the brain. Transgenic mice were generated that expressed bright renilla GFP in most or all of the known NPY cells in the brain, which otherwise were not identifiable. GFP expression in NPY cells was confirmed with immunocytochemistry and single cell RT-PCR. NPY neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus play an important role in energy homeostasis and endocrine control. Whole cell patch clamp recording was used to study identified arcuate NPY cells. Primary agents that regulate energy balance include melanocortin receptor agonists, AgRP, and cannabinoids; none of these substances substantially influenced electrical properties of NPY neurons. In striking contrast, neuropeptides of the bombesin family, including gastrin releasing peptide and neuromedin B which are found in axons in the arcuate nucleus and may also be released from the gut to signal the brain, showed strong direct excitatory actions at nanomolar levels on the NPY neurons, stronger than the actions of ghrelin and hypocretin/orexin. Bombesin-related peptides reduced input resistance and depolarized the membrane potential. The depolarization was attenuated by several factors: substitution of choline for sodium, extracellular Ni2+, inclusion of BAPTA in the pipette, KB-R7943 and SKF96365. Reduced extracellular calcium enhanced the current, which reversed around − 20 mV. Together, these data suggest two mechanisms, activation of non-selective cation channels and the sodium/calcium exchanger. Since both NPY and POMC neurons, which we also studied, are similarly directly excited by bombesin-like peptides, the peptides may function to initiate broad activation, rather than the cell-type selective activation or inhibition reported for many other compounds that modulate energy homeostasis. PMID:19357287

  16. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C.; Nock, Berthold A.; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of 177Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with 177Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients. PMID:26722377

  17. The majority of dorsal spinal cord gastrin releasing peptide is synthesized locally whereas neuromedin B is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing somatosensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Itch is one of the major somatosensory modalities. Some recent findings have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (Grp) is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and functions as a selective neurotransmitter for transferring itch information to spinal cord interneurons. However, expression data from public databases and earlier literatures indicate that Grp mRNA is only detected in dorsal spinal cord (dSC) whereas its family member neuromedin B (Nmb) is highly expressed in DRG neurons. These contradictory results argue that a thorough characterization of the expression of Grp and Nmb is warranted. Findings Grp mRNA is highly expressed in dSC but is barely detectable in DRGs of juvenile and adult mice. Anti-bombesin serum specifically recognizes Grp but not Nmb. Grp is present in a small number of small-diameter DRG neurons and in abundance in layers I and II of the spinal cord. The reduction of dSC Grp after dorsal root rhizotomy is significantly different from those of DRG derived markers but similar to that of a spinal cord neuronal marker. Double fluorescent in situ of Nmb and other molecular markers indicate that Nmb is highly and selectively expressed in nociceptive and itch-sensitive DRG neurons. Conclusion The majority of dSC Grp is synthesized locally in dorsal spinal cord neurons. On the other hand, Nmb is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing DRG neurons. Our findings provide direct anatomic evidence that Grp could function locally in the dorsal spinal cord in addition to its roles in DRG neurons and that Nmb has potential roles in nociceptive and itch-sensitive neurons. These results will improve our understanding about roles of Grp and Nmb in mediating itch sensation. PMID:22776446

  18. Gastrin-releasing peptide mediates photic entrainable signals to dorsal subsets of suprachiasmatic nucleus via induction of Period gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Reiko; Moriya, Takahiro; Araki, Miwa; Akiyama, Masashi; Wada, Keiji; Wada, Etsuko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2002-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locus of the central circadian clock, consists of two neuronal populations (i.e., a light-recipient ventral SCN subpopulation directly entrained by light and a dorsal SCN subpopulation with an autonomous oscillatory function possessing an indirect or weak light response). However, the mechanism underlying the transmission of photic signals from the ventral to dorsal SCN remains unclear. Because gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), expressed mainly in the ventral SCN, exerts phase-shifting actions, loss of the GRP receptor intuitively implies a reduction of photic information from the ventral to dorsal SCN. Therefore, using GRP receptor-deficient mice, we examined the involvement of GRP and the GRP receptor in light- and GRP-induced entrainment by the assessment of behavioral rhythm and induction of mousePeriod (mPer) gene in the SCN, which is believed to be a critical for photic entrainment. Administration of GRP during nighttime dose dependently produced a phase delay of behavior in wild-type but not GRP receptor-deficient mice. This phase-shift by GRP was closely associated with induction of mPer1 and mPer2 mRNA as well as c-Fos protein in the dorsal portion of the SCN, where the GRP receptor was also expressed abundantly. Both the light-induced phase shift in behavior and the induction of mPer mRNA and c-Fos protein in the dorsal SCN were attenuated in GRP receptor-deficient mice. Our present studies suggest that GRP neurons in the retinorecipient ventral area of the SCN convey the photic entrainable signals from the ventral SCN to the dorsal SCN via induction of the mPer gene. PMID:11752203

  19. Physiological function of gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin B receptors in regulating itch scratching behavior in the spinal cord of mice.

    PubMed

    Sukhtankar, Devki D; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus (itch) is a severe side effect associated with the use of drugs as well as hepatic and hematological disorders. Previous studies in rodents suggest that bombesin receptor subtypes i.e. receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRPr) and neuromedin B (NMBr) differentially regulate itch scratching. However, to what degree spinal GRPr and NMBr regulate scratching evoked by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides is not known. The first aim of this study was to pharmacologically compare the dose-response curves for scratching induced by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides versus morphine, which is known to elicit itch in humans. The second aim was to determine if spinal GRPr and NMBr selectively or generally mediate scratching behavior. Mice received intrathecal injection of bombesin (0.01-0.3 nmol), GRP (0.01-0.3 nmol), NMB (0.1-1 nmol) or morphine (0.3-3 nmol) and were observed for one hour for scratching activity. Bombesin elicited most profound scratching over one hour followed by GRP and NMB, whereas morphine failed to evoke scratching response indicating the insensitivity of mouse models to intrathecal opioid-induced itch. Intrathecal pretreatment with GRPr antagonist RC-3095 (0.03-0.1 nmol) produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching but not NMB-induced scratching. Similarly, PD168368 (1-3 nmol) only attenuated NMB but not GRP-induced scratching. Individual or co-administration of RC-3095 and PD168368 failed to alter bombesin-evoked scratching. A higher dose of RC-3095 (0.3 nmol) generally suppressed scratching induced by all three peptides but also compromised motor function in the rotarod test. Together, these data indicate that spinal GRPr and NMBr independently drive itch neurotransmission in mice and may not mediate bombesin-induced scratching. GRPr antagonists at functionally receptor-selective doses only block spinal GRP-elicited scratching but the suppression of scratching

  20. A rhesus monkey model to characterize the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in lung development. Evidence for stimulation of airway growth.

    PubMed Central

    Li, K; Nagalla, S R; Spindel, E R

    1994-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is developmentally expressed in human fetal lung and is a growth factor for normal and neoplastic lung but its role in normal lung development has yet to be clearly defined. In this study we have characterized the expression of GRP and its receptor in fetal rhesus monkey lung and determined the effects of bombesin on fetal lung development in vitro. By RNA blot analysis, GRP mRNA was first detectable in fetal monkey lung at 63 days gestation, reached highest levels at 80 days gestation, and then declined to near adult levels by 120 days gestation; a pattern closely paralleling GRP expression in human fetal lung. As in human lung, in situ hybridization localized GRP mRNA to neuroendocrine cells though during the canalicular phase of development (between 63-80 days gestation) GRP mRNA was present not only in classic pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, but also in cells of budding airways. Immunohistochemistry showed that bombesin-like immunoreactivity was present in neuroendocrine cells, but not in budding airways, suggesting that in budding airways either the GRP mRNA is not translated, is rapidly secreted, or a related, but different RNA is present. RNase protection analysis using a probe to the monkey GRP receptor demonstrated that the time course of receptor RNA expression closely paralleled the time course of GRP RNA expression. In situ hybridization showed that GRP receptors were primarily expressed in epithelial cells of the developing airways. Thus GRP would appear to be secreted from neuroendocrine cells to act on target cells in developing airways. This hypothesis was confirmed by organ culture of fetal monkey lung in the presence of bombesin and bombesin antagonists. Bombesin treatment at 1 and 10 nM significantly increased DNA synthesis in airway epithelial cells and significantly increased the number and size of airways in cultured fetal lung. In fact, culturing 60 d fetal lung for 5 d with 10 nM bombesin increased airway size

  1. Biological evaluation of (177)Lu-labeled DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive prostate tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, So young; Nam, Sung Soo; Park, Ul Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin binds with selectivity and high affinity to a Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics of DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 (DOTA-sBBNA), an antagonist analogue of bombesin peptide for the targeting of GRPR. DOTA-sBBNA was synthesized and labeled with (177)Lu as previously published. A saturation assay on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells revealed that the Kd value of the radiolabeled peptide was 1.88 nM with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 289.3 fmol/10(6) cells. The radio-peptide slowly internalized, and 24.4±0.5% of the total binding was internalized in 4hr. Biodistribution studies were conducted in healthy and PC-3 xenografted balb/c mice, which showed high uptake and retention of tumor-associated radioactivity in PC-3 xenografted mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio was 126.02±9.36 at 1.5hr p.i., and was increased to 216.33±61.58 at 24hr p.i., which means that the radiolabeled peptide was highly accumulated in a tumor and rapidly cleared from the blood pool. The GRPR is also over-expressed in Korean prostate cancer patients. These results suggest that this (177)Lu-labeled peptide has promising characteristics for application in nuclear medicine, namely for the diagnosis and treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors. PMID:25457455

  2. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann

    2006-12-12

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  3. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  4. Gastrin Receptor-Avid Peptide Conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann

    2005-07-26

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  5. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Sieckman, Gary; Smith, Charles J.; Gali, Hariprasad

    2006-06-13

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a-moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  6. Gastrin release in fistula dogs with solid compared to nutrient and nonnutrient liquid meals.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I

    1983-08-01

    Using conscious gastric fistula dogs, gastrin release stimulated by a 360-g meat-based solid meal was compared to that stimulated by two isocaloric (1 kcal/g), hypertonic (approximately 700 mosm/kg) nutrient liquids (Sustacal and Vivonex) and by two nonnutrient, hypotonic (60 mosm/kg) liquids (mannitol and coffee). Serum gastrin levels were measured at 15- to 30-min intervals over 120 min. Without a meal, serum gastrin levels remained stable. Effectiveness in stimulating gastrin release was coffee = mannitol less than Sustacal = Vivonex less than solid food; 2-hr integrated gastrin responses were 1.2, 2.6, 4.3, 5.6, and 12.2 ng/ml/min, respectively. The greater gastrin responses produced by nutrient liquids and meat meals could be explained by slower emptying and delayed acidification of gastric contents. We conclude that solid meals are preferable to liquid meals in studies of antral gastrin release. PMID:6409571

  7. Monoamine oxidase: an important intracellular regulator of gastrin release in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dial, E J; Huang, J; Delansorne, R; Lichtenberger, L M

    1986-04-01

    The role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the meal-induced or amino acid-induced release of gastrin was investigated. Rats that were pretreated with the nonspecific MAO inhibitor nialamide (200 mg/kg) showed a greater rise in meal-induced serum gastrin than did untreated controls. In vitro experiments demonstrated that gastrin secretion from dispersed antral G cells in response to a stimulatory dose of phenylalanine or methylbenzylamine (10 mM) was markedly enhanced if the cells were treated with nialamide. Studies with the more specific MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl indicated that antral mucosa contained predominantly type A activity. Inhibition of MAO type A with clorgyline, both in vivo and in vitro, resulted in a greater release of gastrin after stimulation by a meal or phenylalanine. It is concluded that MAO may play an important role in the regulation of gastrin release from the G cell by partially controlling the level of amines within the cell. PMID:3081396

  8. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; von der Weid, Benoît; Rodriguez, Ivan; Spehr, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, the basic biophysical characteristics of the more recently identified FPR-expressing vomeronasal neurons have not been studied. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse strain that coexpresses an enhanced variant of yellow fluorescent protein together with FPR-rs3 allowing to identify and analyze FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in acute VNO tissue slices. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings allow comparative characterization of the biophysical properties inherent to a prototypical member of the FPR-expressing subpopulation of VNO neurons. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled vs. unmarked vomeronasal neurons. Our results reveal striking similarities in the basic (electro) physiological architecture of both transgene-expressing and non-expressing neurons, confirming the suitability of this genetically engineered mouse model for future studies addressing more specialized issues in vomeronasal FPR neurobiology. PMID:25484858

  9. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor expression in normal and diseased human thyroid and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Waser, Beatrice; Blank, Annika; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Perren, Aurel; Reubi, Jean C

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs may induce thyroid or pancreatic diseases in animals, raising questions about their use in diabetic patients. There is, however, controversy regarding expression of GLP1 receptors (GLP1R) in human normal and diseased thyroid and pancreas. Here, 221 human thyroid and pancreas samples were analyzed for GLP1R immunohistochemistry and compared with quantitative in vitro GLP1R autoradiography. Neither normal nor hyperplastic human thyroids containing parafollicular C cells express GLP1R with either method. Papillary thyroid cancer do not, and medullary thyroid carcinomas rarely express GLP1R. Insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells in the normal pancreas express a high density of GLP1R, whereas acinar cells express them in low amounts. Ductal epithelial cells do not express GLP1R. All benign insulinomas express high densities of GLP1R, whereas malignant insulinomas rarely express them. All ductal pancreatic carcinomas are GLP1R negative, whereas 6/20 PanIN 1/2 and 0/12 PanIN 3 express GLP1R. Therefore, normal thyroid, including normal and hyperplastic C cells, or papillary thyroid cancer are not targets for GLP1 analogs in humans. Conversely, all pancreatic insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells are physiological GLP1 targets, as well as most acini. As normal ductal epithelial cells or PanIN 3 or ductal pancreatic carcinomas do not express GLP1R, it seems unlikely that GLP1R is related to neoplastic transformation in pancreas. GLP1R-positive medullary thyroid carcinomas and all benign insulinomas are candidates for in vivo GLP1R targeting. PMID:25216224

  10. Sex- and age-specific differences in relaxin family peptide receptor expression within the hippocampus and amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Meadows, K L; Byrnes, E M

    2015-01-22

    Relaxin is an essential pregnancy-related hormone with broad peripheral effects mediated by activation of relaxin-like family peptide 1 receptors (RXFP1). More recent studies suggest an additional role for relaxin as a neuropeptide, with RXFP1 receptors expressed in numerous brain regions. Neurons in an area of the brainstem known as the nucleus incertus (NI) produce relaxin 3 (RLN3), the most recently identified neuropeptide in the relaxin family. RLN3 has been shown to activate both RXFP1 and relaxin-like family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3) receptor subtypes. Studies suggest wide-ranging neuromodulatory effects of both RXFP1 and RXFP3 activation, although to date the majority of studies have been conducted in young males. In the current study, we examined potential sex- and age-related changes in RLN3 gene expression in the NI as well as RXFP1 and RXFP3 gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus (HI), ventral hippocampus (vHI) and amygdala (AMYG) using young adult (9-12weeks) and middle-aged (9-12months) male and female rats. In addition, regional changes in RXFP1 and RXFP3 protein expression were examined in the CA1, CA2/CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) as well as within basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), and medial (MeA) amygdaloid nuclei. In the NI, RLN3 showed an age-related decrease in males. In the HI, only the RXFP3 receptor showed an age-related change in gene expression, however, both receptor subtypes showed age-related changes in protein expression that were region specific. Additionally, while gene and protein expression of both receptors increased with age in AMYG, these effects were both region- and sex-specific. Finally, overall males displayed a greater number of cells that express the RXFP3 protein in all of the amygdaloid nuclei examined. Cognitive and emotional processes regulated by activity within the HI and AMYG are modulated by both sex and age. The vast majority of studies exploring the influence of sex on age-related changes in the HI and AMYG have

  11. Somatostatin receptor expression in small cell lung cancer as a prognostic marker and a target for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lapa, Constantin; Hänscheid, Heribert; Wild, Vanessa; Pelzer, Theo; Schirbel, Andreas; Werner, Rudolf A.; Droll, Sabine; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lückerath, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial responsiveness to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) commonly relapses within months. Although neuroendocrine characteristics may be difficult to demonstrate in individual cases, a relevant expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) on the cell surface has been described. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of SSTR-expression in advanced SCLC. We further examined pre-requisites for successful peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). 21 patients with extensive stage SCLC were enrolled. All patients underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 68Ga-DOTATATE to select patients for SSTR-directed therapy. PET scans were visually and semi-quantitatively assessed and compared to SSTR2a and SSTR5 expression in biopsy samples. Peak standardized uptake values (SUVpeak) of tumors as well as tumor-to-liver ratios were correlated to progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In 4/21 patients all SCLC lesions were PET-positive. 6/21 subjects were rated “intermediate” with the majority of lesions positive, the remaining 11/21 patients were PET-negative. PET-positivity correlated well with histologic SSTR2a, but not with SSTR5 expression. Neither PET-positivity nor SUVpeak were predictors of PFS or OS. In 4 patients with intensive SSTR2a-receptor expression, PRRT was performed with one partial response and one stable disease, respectively. SSTR-expression as detected by 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET and/or histology is not predictive of PFS or OS in patients with advanced SCLC. However, in patients exhibiting sufficient tracer uptake, PRRT might be a treatment option given its low toxicity and the absence of effective alternatives. PMID:26936994

  12. Cholecystokinin-B/Gastrin receptor-targeting peptides for staging and therapy of medullary thyroid cancer and other cholecystokinin-B receptor-expressing malignancies.

    PubMed

    Behr, Thomas M; Béhé, Martin P

    2002-04-01

    The high sensitivity of the pentagastrin stimulation test in detecting primary or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) suggests a widespread expression of the corresponding receptor type on human MTC. Indeed, autoradiographic studies demonstrated cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptors not only in more than 90% of MTCs, but also in a high percentage of small-cell lung cancers, stromal ovarian tumors, and potentially a variety of other tumors, including gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and malignant glioma. The aim of our work was to develop and systematically optimize suitable radioligands for targeting CCK-B receptors in vivo and to investigate their role in the staging and therapy of MTC and other CCK-B receptor expressing malignancies. For this purpose, a variety of CCK/gastrin-related peptides, all having in common the C-terminal CCK-receptor binding tetrapeptide sequence-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2) or derivatives thereof, were investigated. They were members of the gastrin or cholecystokinin families or possessed characteristics of both, which differ by the intramolecular position of a tyrosyl moiety. Their stability and affinity were studied and optimized in vitro and in vivo; their biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy were tested in preclinical models. Best tumor uptake and tumor to nontumor ratios were obtained with members of the gastrin family, because of their superior selectivity and affinity for the CCK-B receptor subtype. Radiometal-labeled derivates of minigastrin showed excellent targeting of CCK-B receptor expressing tissues in animals and healthy human volunteers. Preclinical therapy experiments in MTC-bearing animals showed significant antitumor efficacy. In a subsequent clinical study, 45 MTC patients with metastatic MTC were investigated; 23 had known and 22 had occult disease. CCK-B receptor scintigraphy was performed with (111)In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-d-Glu(1)-minigastrin. The normal organ uptake was

  13. Glugacon-like peptide-2: broad receptor expression, limited therapeutic effect on intestinal inflammation and novel role in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    El-Jamal, Noura; Erdual, Edmone; Neunlist, Michel; Koriche, Dine; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Maggiotto, Francois; Chevalier, Julien; Berrebi, Dominique; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Boulanger, Eric; Cortot, Antoine; Desreumaux, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotrophic hormone with growth promoting and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the full biological functions of GLP-2 and the localization of its receptor (GLP-2R) remain controversial. Among cell lines tested, the expression of GLP-2R transcript was detected in human colonic myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and in primary culture of rat enteric nervous system but not in intestinal epithelial cell lines, lymphocytes, monocytes, or endothelial cells. Surprisingly, GLP-2R was expressed in murine (GLUTag), but not human (NCI-H716) enteroendocrine cells. The screening of GLP-2R mRNA in mice organs revealed an increasing gradient of GLP-2R toward the distal gut. An unexpected expression was detected in the mesenteric fat, mesenteric lymph nodes, bladder, spleen, and liver, particularly in hepatocytes. In two mice models of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the colonic expression of GLP-2R mRNA was decreased by 60% compared with control mice. Also, GLP-2R mRNA was significantly downregulated in intestinal tissues of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Therapeutically, GLP-2 showed a weak restorative effect on intestinal inflammation during TNBS-induced colitis as assessed by macroscopic score and inflammatory markers. Finally, GLP-2 treatment accelerated mouse liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy as assessed by histological and molecular analyses. In conclusion, the limited therapeutic effect of GLP-2 on colonic inflammation dampens its utility in the management of severe inflammatory intestinal disorders. However, the role of GLP-2 in liver regeneration is a novelty that might introduce GLP-2 into the management of liver diseases and emphasizes on the importance of elucidating other extraintestinal functions of GLP-2. PMID:24875097

  14. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leshuai W.; McMahon Tobin, Grainne A.; Rouse, Rodney L.

    2012-10-15

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and has become an important target for a growing class of drugs designed to treat type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the effect of the GLP1R agonist, exenatide (Ex4), in “on-target” RIN-5mF (islet) cells as well as in “off-target” AR42J (acinar) and DSL-6A/C1 (ductal) cells in a diabetic environment. Ex4 increased islet cell proliferation but did not affect acinar cells or ductal cells at relevant concentrations. A high caloric, high fat diet is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. An in vitro Oleic acid (OA) model was used to investigate the effect of Ex4 in a high calorie, high fat environment. At 0.1 and 0.4 mM, OA mildly decreased the proliferation of all pancreatic cell types. Ex4 did not potentiate the inhibitory effect of OA on cell proliferation. Akt phosphorylation in response to Ex4 was diminished in OA-treated ductal cells. GLP1R protein detected by western blot was time and concentration dependently decreased after glucose stimulation in OA-treated ductal cells. In ductal cells, OA treatment altered the intracellular localization of GLP1R and its co-localization with early endosome and recycling endosomes. Chloroquine (lysosomal inhibitor), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor), fully or partially, rescued GLP1R protein in OA-pretreated, glucose-stimulated ductal cells. The impact of altered regulation on phenotype/function is presently unknown. However, these data suggest that GLP1R regulation in ductal cells can be altered by a high fat, high calorie environment. -- Highlights: ► Exenatide did not inhibit islet, acinar or ductal cell proliferation. ► GLP1R protein decreased after glucose stimulation in oleic acid-treated ductal cells. ► Oleic acid treatment altered localization of GLP1R with early and recycling

  15. Interrogating the Role of Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms: Biological Fate of Peptide-Functionalized Radiolabeled Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Zambre, Ajit; Campello, Maria Paula Cabral; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, Isabel; Ferraria, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Maria João; Singh, Amolak; Upendran, Anandhi; Paulo, António; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2016-04-20

    To get a better insight on the transport mechanism of peptide-conjugated nanoparticles to tumors, we performed in vivo biological studies of bombesin (BBN) peptide functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in human prostate tumor bearing mice. Initially, we sought to compare AuNPs with thiol derivatives of acyclic and macrocyclic chelators of DTPA and DOTA types. The DTPA derivatives were unable to provide a stable coordination of (67)Ga, and therefore, the functionalization with the BBN analogues was pursued for the DOTA-containing AuNPs. The DOTA-coated AuNPs were functionalized with BBN[7-14] using a unidentate cysteine group or a bidentate thioctic group to attach the peptide. AuNPs functionalized with thioctic-BBN displayed the highest in vitro cellular internalization (≈ 25%, 15 min) in gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor expressing cancer cells. However, these results fail to translate to in vivo tumor uptake. Biodistribution studies following intravenous (IV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of nanoconjugates in tumor bearing mice indicated that the presence of BBN influences to some degree the biological profile of the nanoconstructs. For IV administration, the receptor-mediated pathway appears to be outweighed by the EPR effect. By contrast, in IP administration, it is reasoned that the GRPr-mediated mechanism plays a role in pancreas uptake. PMID:27003101

  16. Molecular imaging of cancer with radiolabeled peptides and PET.

    PubMed

    Vāvere, Amy L; Rossin, Raffaella

    2012-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise for diagnosis and therapy of cancer as well as for early monitoring of therapy outcomes, patient stratification, etc. This manuscript focuses on the development of peptides labeled with 18F, 64Cu, 68Ga and other positron-emitting radionuclides for PET imaging. The major techniques for radionuclide incorporation are briefly discussed. Then, examples of positron-emitting peptides targeting somatostatin receptors, integrins, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors, vasointestinal peptide receptors, melanocortin 1 receptors and others are reviewed. PMID:22292762

  17. RC-3095, a Selective Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist, Does Not Protect the Lungs in an Experimental Model of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Freitas, Vera L.; Thomaz, Leonardo Dalla Giacomassa Rocha; Simoneti, Lucas Elias Lise; Malfitano, Christiane; De Angelis, Kátia; Ulbrich, Jane Maria; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Andrade, Cristiano Feijó

    2015-01-01

    RC-3095, a selective GRPR antagonist, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in different models of inflammation. However, its protective effect on lungs submitted to lung ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been addressed before. Then, we administrated RC-3095 intravenously before and after lung reperfusion using an animal model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) by clamping the pulmonary hilum. Twenty Wistar rats were subjected to an experimental model in four groups: SHAM, ischemia-reperfusion (IR), RC-Pre, and RC-Post. The final mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in IR and RC-Pre compared to their values before reperfusion (P < 0.001). The RC-Post group showed significant decrease of partial pressure of arterial oxygen at the end of the observation when compared to baseline (P = 0.005). Caspase-9 activity was significantly higher in the RC-Post as compared to the other groups (P < 0.013). No significant differences were observed in eNOS activity among the groups. The groups RC-Pre and RC-Post did not show any significant decrease in IL-1β (P = 0.159) and TNF-α (P = 0.260), as compared to IR. The histological score showed no significant differences among the groups. In conclusion, RC-3095 does not demonstrate a protective effect in our LIRI model. Additionally, its use after reperfusion seems to potentiate cell damage, stimulating apoptosis. PMID:25893195

  18. A bombesin immunoreactive peptide in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, G D; Lazarus, L H

    1984-01-01

    Immunoreactivity to the amphibian peptide bombesin was found in instant nonfat dry milk (ca. 0.7 ng/ml) and in the whey of whole or skim bovine milk (ca. 1.2 ng/ml) even after ultracentrifugation. The soluble immunoreactivity was associated with a peptide exhibiting the following characteristics: (i) parallel displacement in an immunoassay using an antiserum recognizing bombesin amino acid residues 5-8; (ii) separation from both gastrin-releasing peptide and amphibian bombesin by gel filtration--the approximate Mr was 3,200; (iii) denaturation in urea, reduction by dithiothreitol, and acetylation by iodoacetamide had no effect on its elution profile by gel-filtration chromatography and the aggregation of added bombesin to milk proteins or peptides was not observed; (iv) reversed-phase HPLC separated milk immunoreactivity from gastrin-releasing peptide and bombesin; (v) digestion by trypsin yielded a smaller immunoreactive peptide fragment, whereas nearly all immunoreactivity was lost by treatment with alpha-chymotrypsin; and (vi) the level of immunoreactivity was unaffected by boiling. These data show that milk is an exogenous source of bombesin-like immunoreactivity, which may account for the increase of gastric acid and gastrointestinal hormone levels after the consumption of milk. PMID:6582513

  19. GRPR-targeted Protein Contrast Agents for Molecular Imaging of Receptor Expression in Cancers by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Fan; Qiao, Jingjuan; Xue, Shenghui; Yang, Hua; Patel, Anvi; Wei, Lixia; Hekmatyar, Khan; Salarian, Mani; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Liu, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is differentially expressed on the surfaces of various diseased cells, including prostate and lung cancer. However, monitoring temporal and spatial expression of GRPR in vivo by clinical MRI is severely hampered by the lack of contrast agents with high relaxivity, targeting capability and tumor penetration. Here, we report the development of a GRPR-targeted MRI contrast agent by grafting the GRPR targeting moiety into a scaffold protein with a designed Gd3+ binding site (ProCA1.GRPR). In addition to its strong binding affinity for GRPR (Kd = 2.7 nM), ProCA1.GRPR has high relaxivity (r1 = 42.0 mM−1s−1 at 1.5 T and 25 °C) and strong Gd3+ selectivity over physiological metal ions. ProCA1.GRPR enables in vivo detection of GRPR expression and spatial distribution in both PC3 and H441 tumors in mice using MRI. ProCA1.GRPR is expected to have important preclinical and clinical implications for the early detection of cancer and for monitoring treatment effects. PMID:26577829

  20. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  1. Inhibition of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) C receptor expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in A10 vascular smooth-muscle cells is associated with attenuation of ANP-C-receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Palaparti, A; Li, Y; Anand-Srivastava, M B

    2000-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mediates a variety of physiological effects through its interaction with ANP-A, ANP-B or ANP-C receptors. However, controversies exist regarding the involvement of ANP-C receptor and adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signal-transduction systems to which these receptors are coupled in mediating these responses. In the present studies, we have employed an antisense approach to eliminate the ANP-C receptor and to examine the effect of this elimination on adenylyl cyclase inhibition. An 18-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (OH-2) targeted at the initiation codon of the ANP-C receptor was used to examine its effects on the expression of the ANP-C receptor and ANP-C-receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in vascular smooth-muscle cells (A10). Treatment of the cells with antisense oligonucleotide resulted in complete attenuation of C-ANP(4-23) [des(Gln(18), Ser(19), Gln(20), Leu(21), Gly(22))ANP(4-23)-NH(2)]-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, whereas sense and missense oligomers did not affect the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by C-ANP(4-23). In addition, the stimulatory effects of guanine nucleotides, isoproterenol, sodium fluoride and forskolin as well as the inhibitory effects of angiotensin II on adenylyl cyclase were not affected by antisense-oligonucleotide treatment. The attenuation of C-ANP(4-23)-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by antisense oligonucleotide was dose- and time-dependent. A complete attenuation of ANP-C-receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was observed at 2.5 microM. In addition, treatment of the cells with antisense oligonucleotide and not with sense or missense oligomers resulted in the inhibition of the levels of ANP-C-receptor protein and mRNA as determined by immunoblotting and Northern blotting using antisera against the ANP-C receptor and a cDNA probe of the ANP-C receptor respectively. On the other hand, ANP-A/B-receptor-mediated increases in cGMP levels were not

  2. Sinonasal Leiomyoma With Estrogen Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Seung; Shin, Jin Yong; Kwon, Sam Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Leiomyoma is an extremely rare tumor in sinonasal area. The reason for this is due to minimal amount of the smooth muscle in the area. The origin of this tumor is not clear and its etiology has not been proven in the literature. A 58-year-old woman who experienced nasal obstruction and epiphora visited our clinic. A huge mass was noted in right nasal cavity originating from the lacrimal bone area. The authors conducted endoscopic sinus surgery and obtained the specimen. Immunochemistry showed leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which expressed estrogen receptor. There was no progesterone receptor expressed. The authors describe a sinonasal leiomyoma with estrogen receptors, not ever reported in previous article. PMID:26355987

  3. Peptide neurons in the canine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Costa, M; Furness, J B; Keast, J R

    1985-07-01

    The distributions of peptide-containing nerve fibers and cell bodies in the canine small intestine were determined with antibodies raised against seven peptides: enkephalin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers were found for each peptide except neurotensin. In the muscle layers there were numerous substance P, VIP, and enkephalin fibers, fewer neuropeptide Y fibers, and very few GRP or somatostatin fibers. The mucosa contained many VIP and substance P fibers, moderate numbers of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and GRP fibers and rare enkephalin fibers. Nerve cell bodies reactive for each of the six neural peptides were located in both the myenteric and submucous plexuses. The distributions of nerve cell bodies and processes in the canine small intestine show many similarities with other mammals, for example, in the distributions of VIP, substance P, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin nerves. There are some major differences, such as the presence in dogs of numerous submucosal nerve cell bodies with enkephalinlike immunoreactivity and of GRP-like immunoreactivity in submucous nerve cell bodies and mucosal fibers. PMID:2411766

  4. Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Bouaboula, M; Rinaldi, M; Carayon, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Shire, D; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

    1993-05-15

    Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS), probably through the cannabinoid receptor, which has recently been cloned in rat and human. While numerous reports have also described effects of cannabinoids on the immune system, the observation of both mRNA and cannabinoid receptor has hitherto been exclusively confined to the brain, a reported detection in the testis being the sole example of its presence at the periphery. Here we report the expression of the cannabinoid receptor on human immune tissues using a highly sensitive polymerase-chain-reaction-based method for mRNA quantification. We show that, although present in a much lower abundance than in brain, cannabinoid receptor transcripts are found in human spleen, tonsils and peripheral blood leukocytes. The distribution pattern displays important variations of the mRNA level for the cannabinoid receptor among the main human blood cell subpopulations. The rank order of mRNA levels in these cells is B cells > natural killer cells > or = polymorphonuclear neutrophils > or = T8 cells > monocytes > T4 cells. Cannabinoid-receptor mRNA, which is also found in monocytic, as well as T and B leukemia cell lines but not in Jurkat cells, presents a great diversity of expression on these cells as well, B-cell lines expressing a much higher level than T-cell lines. The cannabinoid receptor PCR products from leukocytes and brain are identical both in size and sequence suggesting a strong similarity between central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors. The expression of this receptor was demonstrated on membranes of the myelomonocytic U937 cells using the synthetic cannabinoid [3H]CP-55940 as ligand. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 0.1 nM and the Bmax for membranes was 525 fmol/mg protein. The demonstration of cannabinoid-receptor expression at both mRNA and protein levels on human leukocytes provides a molecular basis for cannabinoid action on these cells. PMID

  5. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( SVI-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides.

  6. Substance P antagonist also inhibits specific binding and mitogenic effects of vasopressin and bombesin-related peptides in Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-05-29

    While vasopressin and peptides of the bombesin family bind to different receptors in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells, the antagonist (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro/sup 2/,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P blocks the specific binding of both (/sup 3/H) vasopressin and /sup 125/I-gastrin-releasing peptide to these cells. In addition, the antagonist inhibits the mobilization of Ca/sup 2 +/ and induction of DNA synthesis by vasopressin. These results indicate that (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P has the ability to interact with the receptors for three structurally unrelated peptide hormones.

  7. Treadmill exercise enhances NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenia mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ki; Lee, Sam-Jun; Kim, Tae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder with several symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Although the causes of schizophrenia are still unclear, there is a strong suspicion that the abnormality in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor may contribute to schizophrenia symptoms. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on the NMDA receptor expression was evaluated using MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice. Immunohistochemistry for expressions of NMDA receptor tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was conducted. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also performed. In the present results, the mice in the MK-801-treated group displayed reduced NMDA receptor expression. Enhanced TH expression and suppressed BDNF expression were also observed in the MK-801-treated mice. Treadmill exercise improved NMDA receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice. Treadmill exercise also suppressed TH expression and enhanced BDNF expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice. The present study showed that down-regulation of NMDA receptor demonstrated schizophrenia-like parameters, meanwhile treadmill running improved schizophrenia-related parameters through enhancing NMDA receptor expression. PMID:24678500

  8. The Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1: A new player during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jérémie, Lemarié; Amir, Boufenzer; Marc, Derive; Sébastien, Gibot

    2015-10-01

    Following myocardial ischemia, an intense activation of the immune system occurs that leads to inflammatory cytokines and chemokines production and to the recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in the infarcted area. Although pro-inflammatory signals initiate the cellular events necessary for scar formation, excessive and prolonged inflammation promotes deleterious cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a highly conserved immune-receptor expressed by neutrophils and monocytes that acts as an amplifier of the innate immune response. Blockade of TREM-1 activation protects from hyper-responsiveness and death during severe infections. Here we review the role of TREM-1 in orchestrating the inflammatory response that follows MI. TREM-1 deletion (Trem-1-/-) or modulation by the use of a short inhibitory peptide (LR12) dampens myocardial inflammation, limits leukocyte recruitment, and improves heart function and survival in mice or pigs. Moreover, the soluble form of TREM-1 (sTREM-1) is found in the plasma of patients suffering from an acute MI and its concentration is an independent predictor of death. This suggests that TREM-1 may constitute a new therapeutic target during acute MI. PMID:26318764

  9. Endotoxin suppresses rat hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, W; Rudling, M; Angelin, B

    1996-01-01

    Endotoxin induces hyperlipidaemia in experimental animals. In the current study, we investigated whether endotoxin alters hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression in rats. Endotoxin treatment suppressed hepatic LDL receptor expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Eighteen hours after intraperitoneal injection of increasing amounts of endotoxin, LDL receptor and its mRNA levels were determined by ligand blot and solution hybridization respectively. LDL receptor expression was inhibited by about 70% at a dose of 500 micrograms/100 g body weight. However, LDL receptor mRNA levels were markedly increased in all endotoxin-treated groups at this time point (by 83-136%; P < 0.001). Time-course experiments showed that LDL receptor expression was already reduced by 48% 4 h after endotoxin injection and was maximally reduced (by 63-65%) between 8 and 18 h. Changes in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA showed a different pattern. By 4 h after endotoxin injection, LDL receptor mRNA had decreased by 78% (P < 0.001). However, by 8 h after endotoxin injection, LDL receptor mRNA had returned to levels similar to controls, and 18 and 24 h after endotoxin injection, they were increased by about 60% (P < 0.05). Separation of plasma lipoproteins by FPLC demonstrated that endotoxin-induced changes in plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol were due to accumulation of plasma apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins among very-low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein and LDL. It is concluded that endotoxin suppresses hepatic LDL receptor expression in vivo in rats. PMID:8611169

  10. Clinical review: Role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 during sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gibot, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a recently identified molecule that is involved in monocytic activation and in the inflammatory response. It belongs to a family related to the natural killer cell receptors and is expressed on neutrophils, mature monocytes and macrophages. The inflammatory response mediated by Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 stimulation is amplified by the engagement of TREM-1. The expression of membrane-bound TREM-1 is greatly increased on monocytes during sepsis. Moreover, infection induces the release of a soluble form of this receptor, which can be measured in biological fluid and may be useful as a diagnostic tool. Modulation of the TREM-1 signalling pathway by the use of small synthetic peptides confers interesting survival advantages during experimental septic shock in mice, even when this teatment is administered late after the onset of sepsis. PMID:16277737

  11. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

    PubMed

    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. PMID:24628891

  12. Association between AT1 and AT2 angiotensin II receptor expression with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Oscar; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Vizcaíno, Gloria; Pineda, Benjamín; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Guevara-Salazar, Patricia; Wegman-Ostrosky, Talia; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Geraldine; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has been associated with vascular proliferation in tumor and non-tumor models through its receptors AT1 and AT2. Our objective was to determine AT1 and AT2 receptor expression in operable breast cancer and its association with tumor grade, vascular density, and cellular proliferation. Seventy-seven surgically malignant breast tumors with no distant metastasis were included, and 7 benign lesions were used as controls. AT1 and AT2 receptor expression was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 68 out of the 77 malignant lesions and in the 7 benign lesions. AT1 and AT2 receptor expression was detected in 35.3 and 25 % of cases, in both RT-PCR and IHC. Tumors that express AT1 showed an increase in T3 stage (92.3 vs. 7.7 % p < 0.001), mitotic index (4 ± 1 vs 2 ± 1, p = 0.05), vascular density (15 ± 3 vs 8 ± 5, p = 0.05), and cellular proliferation (85 ± 18 vs 55 ± 10, p = 0.01) versus AT1-negative lesions. Non-differences between clinical-pathologic variables and AT2 expression were found. AT1 receptor expression was associated to enhance angiogenesis and cellular proliferation rate, but no relationship with AT2 was found. ANGII and its peptides might play a role in the development and pathophysiology of breast cancer, and this could be valuable in the in the development of targeted therapies. PMID:25682288

  13. Myoinhibiting peptides are the ancestral ligands of the promiscuous Drosophila sex peptide receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male insects change behaviors of female partners by co-transferring accessory gland proteins (Acps) like sex peptide (SP), with their sperm. The Drosophila sex peptide receptor (SPR) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the female’s nervous system and genital tract. While most Acps show a fa...

  14. Regulation of peptide YY homeostasis by gastric acid and gastrin.

    PubMed

    Gomez, G; Padilla, L; Udupi, V; Tarasova, N; Sundler, F; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C; Greeley, G H

    1996-04-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone localized primarily in the distal bowel. Because circulating PYY inhibits gastric acid secretion, we investigated the effects of gastric acid secretion and gastrin on gene expression and secretion of PYY. In conscious dogs, PYY release in response to oral food was inhibited (P < 0.05) by pharmacologic inhibition of gastric acid secretion (omeprazole, famotidine). In rats, omeprazole treatment resulted in a significant elevation in serum gastrin concentrations and a simultaneous decrease in PYY messenger RNA (mRNA) and peptide levels in the colon; administration of a gastrin receptor antagonist (L365, 260) prevented the inhibitory actions of omeprazole on colonic PYY mRNA levels. In athymic-nude mice, implantation of a human gastrinoma resulted in an elevation of serum gastrin concentrations and a concomitant depression of colonic PYY mRNA levels. We conclude that endogenous gastric acid secretion up-regulates PYY release and PYY mRNA expression. Circulating gastrin acts to down-regulate PYY release and PYY mRNA expression. This study provides evidence that foregut functions (i.e., gastric acid secretion and gastrin release) exert control over an antiacid signal (e.g. PYY release) emanating from the hindgut. PMID:8625912

  15. Probing the Backbone Function of Tumor Targeting Peptides by an Amide-to-Triazole Substitution Strategy.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Ibai E; Vomstein, Sandra; Fischer, Christiane A; Mascarin, Alba; Mindt, Thomas L

    2015-09-24

    Novel backbone-modified radiolabeled analogs based on the tumor targeting peptide bombesin were synthesized and fully evaluated in vitro and in vivo. We have recently introduced the use of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles as metabolically stable trans-amide bond surrogates in radiolabeled peptides in order to improve their tumor targeting. As an extension of our approach, we now report several backbone-modified analogs of the studied bombesin peptide bearing multiple triazole substitutions. We investigated the effect of the modifications on several biological parameters including the internalization of the radiopeptidomimetics into tumor cells, their affinity toward the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), metabolic stability in blood plasma, and biodistribution in mice bearing GRPr-expressing xenografts. The backbone-modified radiotracers exhibited a significantly increased resistance to proteolytic degradation. In addition, some of the radiopeptidomimetics retained a nanomolar affinity toward GRPr, resulting in an up to 2-fold increased tumor uptake in vivo in comparison to a (all amide bond) reference compound. PMID:26309061

  16. Current concepts. I. High affinity receptors for bombesin/GRP-like peptides on human small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, T.W.; Carney, D.N.; Cuttitta, F.; Quattrocchi, K.; Minna, J.D.

    1985-07-15

    The binding of a radiolabeled bombesin analogue to human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines was investigated. (/sup 125/I-Tyr/sup 4/)bombesin bound with high affinity (Kd = 0.5 nM) to a single class of sites (2000/cell) using SCLC line NCI-H446. Binding was reversible, saturable and specific. The pharmacology of binding was investigated, using NCI-H466 and SCLC line NCI-H345. Bombesin and structurally related peptides, such as gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), but not other peptides, such as substance P or vasopressin, inhibited high affinity (/sup 125/I-Tyr/sup 4/)BN binding activity. Finally, the putative receptor, a 78,000 dalton polypeptide, was identified by purifying radiolabeled cell lysates on bombesin or GRP affinity resins and then displaying the bound polypeptides on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gels. Because SCLC both produces bombesin/GRP-like peptides and contains high affinity receptors for these peptides, they may function as important autocrine regulatory factors for human SCLC. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Imaging site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixin; Zhang, Miao; Yu, Ping

    2011-03-01

    We report imaging studies on site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using newly developed optical peptide probes and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system used two broadband superluminescent light emission diodes with different central wavelengths. An electro-optic modulation in the reference beam was used to get full-range deep imaging inside tumor tissues. The optical probes were based on Bombesin (BBN) that is a fourteen amino acid peptide. BBN has high binding affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors overexpressed on several human cancer cell lines. Fluorescence BBN probes were developed by conjugating the last eight residues of BBN, -Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH2), with Alexa Flour 680 or Alexa Fluor 750 dye molecules via amino acid linker -G-G-G. The SD-OCT imaging can identify normal tissue and tumor tissue through the difference in scattering coefficient, and trace the BBN conjugate probes through the absorption of the dye molecules using the twowavelength algorithm. We performed the specific uptake and receptor-blocking experiments of the optical BBN probes in severely compromised immunodeficient mouse model bearing human PC-3 prostate tumor xenografts. Tumor and muscle tissues were collected and used for SD-OCT imaging. The SD-OCT images showed fluorescence traces of the BBN probes in the peptide-targeted tumor tissues. Our results demonstrated that SD-OCT is a potential tool for preclinical and clinical early cancer detection.

  18. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Koenck, Carleigh; Quirk, Shannon K; Lim, Victoria M; Mitkov, Mario V; Trowbridge, Ryan M; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-10-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of melanoma, the prototypical immunologic cutaneous malignancy. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family of innate immune receptors modulates inflammatory and innate immune signaling. It has been investigated in various neoplastic diseases, but not in melanoma. This study examines the expression of TREM-1 (a proinflammatory amplifier) and TREM-2 (an anti-inflammatory modulator and phagocytic promoter) in human cutaneous melanoma and surrounding tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence staining was performed on skin biopsies from 10 melanoma patients and staining intensity was semiquantitatively scored. Expression of TREM-1 and TREM-2 was higher in keratinocytes than melanoma tissue (TREM-1: p < 0.01; TREM-2: p < 0.01). Whereas TREM-2 was the dominant isoform expressed in normal keratinocytes, TREM-1 expression predominated in melanoma tissue (TREM-1 to TREM-2 ratio: keratinocytes = 0.78; melanoma = 2.08; p < 0.01). The increased TREM ratio in melanoma tissue could give rise to a proinflammatory and protumor state of the microenvironment. This evidence may be suggestive of a TREM-1/TREM-2 paradigm in which relative levels dictate inflammatory and immune states, rather than absolute expression of one or the other. Further investigation regarding this paradigm is warranted and could carry prognostic or therapeutic value in treatment for melanoma. PMID:26184544

  19. Antipsychotic treatment modulates glutamate transport and NMDA receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Zink, Mathias; Englisch, Susanne; Schmitt, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia patients often suffer from treatment-resistant cognitive and negative symptoms, both of which are influenced by glutamate neurotransmission. Innovative therapeutic strategies such as agonists at metabotropic glutamate receptors or glycin reuptake inhibitors try to modulate the brain's glutamate network. Interactions of amino acids with monoamines have been described on several levels, and first- and second-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs, SGAs) are known to exert modulatory effects on the glutamatergic system. This review summarizes the current knowledge on effects of FGAs and SGAs on glutamate transport and receptor expression derived from pharmacological studies. Such studies serve as a control for molecular findings in schizophrenia brain tissue and are clinically relevant. Moreover, they may validate animal models for psychosis, foster basic research on antipsychotic substances and finally lead to a better understanding of how monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmissions are intertwined. In the light of these results, important differences dependent on antipsychotic substances, dosage and duration of treatment became obvious. While some post-mortem findings might be confounded with multifold drug effects, others are unlikely to be influenced by antipsychotic treatment and could represent important markers of schizophrenia pathophysiology. In similarity to the convergence of toxic and psychotomimetic effects of dopaminergic, serotonergic and anti-glutamatergic substances, the therapeutic mechanisms of SGAs might merge on a yet to be defined molecular level. In particular, serotonergic effects of SGAs, such as an agonism at 5HT1A receptors, represent important targets for further clinical research. PMID:25214389

  20. High-affinity receptors for peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1985-11-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) labeled with /sup 125/I at tyrosine-15 (/sup 125/I-GRP) binds to intact quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in a specific and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis indicates the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites of Kd = 0.5 X 10(-9) M and a value for the number of sites per cell of about 100,000. /sup 125/I-GRP binding was not inhibited by other mitogens for these cells, and cell lines that are mitogenically unresponsive to GRP do not exhibit specific GRP binding. Structure-activity relationships show a close parallel between the ability of a range of GRP-related peptides to both inhibit GRP binding and to stimulate mitogenesis. Further, GRP binding is selectively blocked in a competitive fashion by a novel bombesin antagonist, (D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11) substance P. In addition, this compound selectively inhibits GRP and bombesin-induced mitogenesis. These results demonstrate that the mitogenic response of Swiss 3T3 cells to peptides of the bombesin family is mediated by a class of receptors distinct from those of other mitogens for these cells.

  1. Dopamine receptor expression and function in corticotroph pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; Kros, Johan M; De Caro, Maria Laura Del Basso; Arvigo, Marica; Annunziato, Lucio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Hofland, Leo J; Lamberts, Steven W J

    2004-05-01

    The role of dopamine agonist treatment in corticotroph pituitary tumors is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate D(2) receptor expression in 20 corticotroph pituitary tumors and to correlate it to the in vitro effect of dopamine agonists on ACTH secretion and the in vivo effect of short-term cabergoline treatment on cortisol secretion. D(2) expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. A 50% or more decrease in daily urinary cortisol levels was considered a significant clinical response. At receptor-ligand binding, specific binding of [(125)I]epidepride was found in 80% of cases. At immunohistochemistry, specific D(2) immunostaining was found in 75% of cases. D(2) expression was found in 83.3% of cases (D(2long) in 40%, D(2short) in 20%, and both in 40%) by RT-PCR. Significant in vitro inhibition of ACTH secretion was found in 100% of D(2)-positive cases, but not in 100% of D(2)-negative cases by either bromocriptine or cabergoline. A significant in vivo inhibition of cortisol secretion after 3-month cabergoline treatment was found in 60%, although a normalization of cortisol secretion was found in 40% of cases. All cabergoline-responsive cases were associated with D(2) expression, whereas all noncabergoline-responsive cases but one were not associated with D(2) expression. In conclusion, functional D(2) receptors were expressed in approximately 80% of corticotroph pituitary tumors. The effectiveness of cabergoline in normalizing cortisol secretion in 40% of cases supports its therapeutic use in the management of Cushing's disease. PMID:15126577

  2. Repertoire of Chemokine Receptor Expression in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Bruce K.; Landay, Alan; Andersson, Jan; Brown, Clark; Behbahani, Homira; Jiyamapa, Dan; Burki, Zareefa; Stanislawski, Donna; Czerniewski, Mary Ann; Garcia, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone therapy increase susceptibility to lentivirus transmission. Infection of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on expression of specific chemokine receptors known to function as HIV co-receptors. Quantitative kinetic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was developed to determine the in vivo expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CCR2b, and the cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cervical biopsies from 12 women with and without sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone-predominant conditions. Our data indicate that CCR5 is the major HIV co-receptor expressed in the female genital tract, and CXCR4 is the predominantly expressed HIV co-receptor in peripheral blood. CCR5 mRNA expression in the ectocervix was 10-fold greater than CXCR4, 20-fold greater than CCR2b, and 100-fold greater than CCR3. In peripheral blood, CXCR4 expression was 1.5-fold greater than CCR5, 10-fold greater than CCR2b, and 15-fold greater than CCR3. US28 was not expressed in cervical tissue despite expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from five individuals. CCR5 was significantly increased (p < 0.02) in biopsies from women with sexually transmitted diseases and others who were progesterone predominant. In vitro studies demonstrate that progesterone increases CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3 expression and decreases CCR2b expression in lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Characterization of chemokine receptors at the tissue level provides important information in identifying host determinants of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:9708808

  3. Flow cytometric monitoring of hormone receptor expression in human solid tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, Awtar

    2002-05-01

    Hormone receptor expression in human breast and prostate tumors is of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. With the availability of anti-estrogen, androgen and progesterone antibodies, immunohistochemistry has become a standard tool for determination of receptor expression in human tumor biopsies. However, this method is dependent on examination of a small number of cells under a microscope and the data obtained in most cases is not quantitative. As most of the commercially used anti-hormone antibodies have nuclear specificity, we have developed methods for isolation and antigen unmasking of nuclei from formalin fixed/paraffin embedded archival human tumors. After immunostaining with the antibodies and propidium iodide (for DNA content and cell cycle analysis), nuclei are analyzed by multiparametric laser flow cytometry for hormone receptor expression, DNA content, aneuploidy and cell cycle determination. These multiparametric methods are especially important for retrospective studies seeking to correlate hormone receptor expression with clinical response to anti-hormonal therapy of human breast and prostate tumors.

  4. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS). The CCL20 receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4+ T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells). Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have assessed whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4+ T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays, whereas less than 1% produced IL-17. About 1% of CD4+ T cells produced both cytokines. CCR6 was expressed by Th1, Th1+17 and by Th17 cells, but not by CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells expressed CXCR3, which was also expressed by CD4+ T cells, with no correlation to cytokine profile. Messenger RNA for IFNγ, IL-17A, and the Th1 and Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and RORγt was detected in both CCR6+ and CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells. IFNγ, but not IL-17A mRNA expression was detected in CD8+ T cells in CNS. CCR6 and CD4 were co-localized in spinal cord infiltrates by double immunofluorescence. Consistent with flow cytometry data some but not all CD4+ T cells expressed CCR6 within infiltrates. CD4-negative CCR6+ cells included macrophage/microglial cells. Thus we have for the first time directly studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the CNS of mice with peak EAE, and determined IFNγ and IL17 expression by cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. We show that neither CCR6 or CXCR3 align with CD4 T cell subsets, and Th1 or mixed Th1+17 predominate in EAE. PMID:25071447

  5. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model. PMID:23538211

  6. Accessory Scrotum With Perineal Lipoma: Pathologic Evaluation Including Androgen Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Keitaro; Mizuno, Kentaro; Nishio, Hidenori; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro

    2014-01-01

    Accessory scrotum is an unusual developmental anomaly defined as additional scrotal tissue in addition to a normally developed scrotum. The accessory scrotum arises posterior to the normally located scrotum and does not contain a testis. We report a case of an 18-month-old boy with an accessory scrotum attached to a perineal lipoma. We resected both and determined histologically that they were of the same tissue as the scrotum, including the presence of androgen receptor expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to assess androgen receptor expression in an accessory scrotum using immunostaining. PMID:26958486

  7. Breast cancer photothermal therapy based on gold nanorods targeted by covalently-coupled bombesin peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Zahra; Salouti, Mojtaba; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-05-01

    Photothermal therapy, a minimally invasive treatment method for killing cancers cells, has generated a great deal of interest. In an effort to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects, better targeting of photoabsorbers to tumors has become a new concept in the battle against cancer. In this study, a bombesin (BBN) analog that can bind to all gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor subtypes was bound covalently with gold nanorods (GNRs) using Nanothinks acid as a link. The BBN analog was also coated with poly(ethylene glycol) to increase its stability and biocompatibility. The interactions were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A methylthiazol tetrazolium assay showed no cytotoxicity of the PEGylated GNR-BBN conjugate. The cell binding and internalization studies showed high specificity and uptake of the GNR-BBN-PEG conjugate toward breast cancer cells of the T47D cell line. The in vitro study revealed destruction of the T47D cells exposed to the new photothermal agent combined with continuous-wave near-infrared laser irradiation. The biodistribution study showed significant accumulation of the conjugate in the tumor tissue of mice with breast cancer. The in vivo photothermal therapy showed the complete disappearance of xenographted breast tumors in the mouse model.

  8. Next Step toward Optimization of GRP Receptor Avidities: Determination of the Minimal Distance between BBN(7-14) Units in Peptide Homodimers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Lindner, S; Litau, S; Schirrmacher, R; Wängler, B; Wängler, C

    2015-08-19

    As the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed on several tumor types, it represents a promising target for the specific in vivo imaging of these tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). We were able to show that PESIN-based peptide multimers can result in substantially higher GRPR avidities, highly advantageous in vivo pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties compared to the respective monomers. However, the minimal distance between the peptidic binders, resulting in the lowest possible system entropy while enabling a concomitant GRPR binding and thus optimized receptor avidities, has not been determined so far. Thus, we aimed here to identify the minimal distance between two GRPR-binding peptides in order to provide the basis for the development of highly avid GRPR-specific PET imaging agents. We therefore synthesized dimers of the GRPR-binding bombesin analogue BBN(7-14) on a dendritic scaffold, exhibiting different distances between both peptide binders. The homodimers were further modified with the chelator NODAGA, radiolabeled with (68)Ga, and evaluated in vitro regarding their GRPR avidity. We found that the most potent of the newly developed radioligands exhibits GRPR avidity twice as high as the most potent reference compound known so far, and that a minimal distance of 62 bond lengths between both peptidic binders within the homodimer can result in concomitant peptide binding and optimal GRPR avidities. These findings answer the question as to what molecular design should be chosen when aiming at the development of highly avid homobivalent peptidic ligands addressing the GRPR. PMID:26200324

  9. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  10. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. PMID:26055295

  11. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  12. Hypothyroidism affects D2 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-03-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age-matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. PMID:24434437

  13. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Acker, Nathalie; Ragé, Michael; Vermeirsch, Hilde; Schrijvers, Dorien; Nuydens, Rony; Byttebier, Geert; Timmers, Maarten; De Schepper, Stefanie; Streffer, Johannes; Andries, Luc; Plaghki, Léon; Cras, Patrick; Meert, Theo

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes. PMID:27598321

  14. Effects of chemotherapy agents on Sphingosine-1-Phosphate receptors expression in MCF-7 mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, P; Sukocheva, O A; Wang, T; Mayne, G C; Watson, D I; Hussey, D J

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive sphingolipid involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and cancer progression. Increased expression of S1P receptors has been detected in advanced breast tumours with poor prognosis suggesting that S1P receptors might control tumour response to chemotherapy. However, it remains unclear how the levels of S1P receptor expression are influenced by chemotherapy agents. Western immunoblotting, PCR analysis and fluorescent microscopy techniques were used in this study to analyze expression patterns of S1P receptors 2 and 3 (S1P2/S1P3) in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells treated by Tamoxifen (TAM) and/or Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). We found that TAM/MPA induce downregulation of S1P3 receptors, but stimulate expression of S1P2. According to cell viability and caspase activity analyses, as expected, TAM activated apoptosis. We also detected TAM/MPA-induced autophagy marked by formation of macroautophagosomes and increased level of Beclin 1. Combined application of TAM and MPA resulted in synergistic apoptosis- and autophagy-stimulating effects. Assessed by fluorescent microscopy with autophagosome marker LAMP-2, changes in S1P receptor expression coincided with activation of autophagy, suggestively, directing breast cancer cells towards death. Further studies are warranted to explore the utility of manipulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptor expression as a novel treatment approach. PMID:27261597

  15. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in subtypes of canine mammary tumours in intact and ovariectomised dogs.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, M; Rasotto, R; Carnier, P; Zappulli, V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate as a potential prognostic indicator the relationship between histological subtype of canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and oestrogen-α (ORα) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression. Using immunohistochemistry, receptor expression in neoplastic epithelial cells was assessed in 12 different subtypes in 113 CMTs (34 benign, 79 malignant) and 101 surrounding normal tissues. Sixty-eight and 45 CMTs were from intact and ovariectomised bitches, respectively. Histological subtype strongly influenced ORα/PR expression: simple and complex adenomas as well as simple tubular carcinomas exhibited the greatest expression, whereas immunohistochemical labelling for these receptors was weakest in carcinoma and malignant myoepitheliomas, as well as in solid/anaplastic carcinomas and comedocarcinomas. Receptor expression was generally higher in benign relative to malignant neoplasms, and in the latter it was significantly lower in ovariectomised vs. intact bitches. Lymphatic invasion, mitotic index, nodule diameter, and tumour grade were significantly associated with ORα/PR expression. Although not found to be an independent prognostic indicator, tumours from dogs with <10% cells with ORα/PR expression had a poorer prognosis. Lymphatic invasion, the state of the margins of excision, and mitotic index were found to be independent prognostic indicators. Overall, the results suggest that differences in histological subtype and whether or not a bitch has been ovariectomised should be considered when evaluating the significance of ORα and PR expression in CMTs. PMID:24980810

  16. Effect of Hyperoxia on Retinoid Metabolism and Retinoid Receptor Expression in the Lungs of Newborn Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Jin; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm newborns that receive oxygen therapy often develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is abnormal lung development characterized by impaired alveologenesis. Oxygen-mediated injury is thought to disrupt normal lung growth and development. However, the mechanism of hyperoxia-induced BPD has not been extensively investigated. We established a neonatal mouse model to investigate the effects of normobaric hyperoxia on retinoid metabolism and retinoid receptor expression. Methods Newborn mice were exposed to hyperoxic or normoxic conditions for 15 days. The concentration of retinol and retinyl palmitate in the lung was measured by HPLC to gauge retinoid metabolism. Retinoid receptor mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. Proliferation and retinoid receptor expression in A549 cells were assessed in the presence and absence of exogenous vitamin A. Results Hyperoxia significantly reduced the body and lung weight of neonatal mice. Hyperoxia also downregulated expression of RARα, RARγ, and RXRγ in the lungs of neonatal mice. In vitro, hyperoxia inhibited proliferation and expression of retinoid receptors in A549 cells. Conclusion Hyperoxia disrupted retinoid receptor expression in neonatal mice. PMID:26509921

  17. Clinical Relevance of VPAC1 Receptor Expression in Early Arthritis: Association with IL-6 and Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Iria V.; Ortiz, Ana M.; Piris, Lorena; Lamana, Amalia; Juarranz, Yasmina; García-Vicuña, Rosario; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Gomariz, Rosa P.; Martínez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 mediate anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data on the expression of these receptors could complement clinical assessment in the management of RA. Our goal was to investigate the correlation between expression of both receptors and the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with early arthritis (EA). We also measured expression of IL-6 to evaluate the association between VIP receptors and systemic inflammation. Methods We analyzed 250 blood samples collected at any of the 5 scheduled follow-up visits from 125 patients enrolled in the Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal study. Samples from 22 healthy donors were also analyzed. Sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic data were systematically recorded. mRNA expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. Then, longitudinal multivariate analyses were performed. Results PBMCs from EA patients showed significantly higher expression of VPAC2 receptors at baseline compared to healthy donors (p<0.001). With time, however, VPAC2 expression tended to be significantly lower while VPAC1 receptor expression increased in correlation with a reduction in DAS28 index. Our results reveal that more severe inflammation, based on high levels of IL-6, is associated with lower expression of VPAC1 (p<0.001) and conversely with increased expression of VPAC2 (p<0.001). A major finding of this study is that expression of VPAC1 is lower in patients with increased disease activity (p = 0.001), thus making it possible to differentiate between patients with various degrees of clinical disease activity. Conclusion Patients with more severe inflammation and higher disease activity show lower levels of VPAC1 expression, which is associated with patient-reported impairment. Therefore, VPAC1 is a biological marker in EA. PMID:26881970

  18. Peptide conjugated polymeric nanoparticles as a carrier for targeted delivery of docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Hitesh; Pooja, Deep; Shrivastava, Shweta; V G M, Naidu; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research work was to develop Bombesin peptide (BBN) conjugated, docetaxel loaded nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer. Docetaxel loaded nanoparticles (DNP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method using sodium cholate as surfactant. BBN was conjugated to DNP surface through covalent bonding. Both DNP and BBN conjugated DNP (BDNP) were characterized by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. The particle diameter and zeta potential of BDNP were 136±3.95 nm and -10.8±2.7 mV, respectively. The change in surface charge and FTIR studies confirmed the formation of amide linkage between BBN and DNP. AFM analysis showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shapes. In nanoparticles, docetaxel was present in its amorphous form as confirmed by DSC and PXRD analysis and was stable during the thermal studies. The formulations showed the sustained release of DTX over the period of 120 h. During cellular toxicity assay in gastrin releasing peptide receptor positive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), BDNP were found to be 12 times more toxic than pure DTX and Taxotere. The IC50 value for DTX, Taxotere, DNP and BDNP was >375, >375, 142.23 and 35.53 ng/ml, respectively. The above studies showed that Bombesin conjugated nanocarrier system could be a promising carrier for active targeting of anticancer drugs in GRP receptor over expressing cancer cells. PMID:24632389

  19. Lutetium-177 Labeled Bombesin Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tamila Stott; Bandari, Rajendra P; Jiang, Zongrun; Smith, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earth radionuclides that decay by beta particle (β-) emission are considered to be ideal in the context of targeted radiotherapy. The rare-earth isotopes exist primarily in the 3+ oxidation state and are considered to be hard metal centers, requiring multidentate, hard donor ligands such as the poly(aminocarboxylates) for in vivo kinetic inertness. 177Lu is a rare-earth radionuclide that is produced in moderate specific activity (740 GBq/mg) by direct neutron capture of enriched 176Lu via the 176Lu(n,γ)177Lu nuclear reaction. 177Lu has a half-life of 6.71 d, decays by beta emission (Ebmax = 0.497 MeV), and emits two imagable photons (113keV, 3% and 208kev, 11%). High specific activity, no-carrier-added 177Lu can also be prepared by an indirect neutron capture nuclear reaction on a 176Yb target. Herein, we report upon bombesin (BBN) peptides radiolabeled with 177Lu. The impetus driving many of the research studies that we have described in this review is that the high-affinity gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, BBN receptor subtype 2, BB2) has been identified in tissue biopsy samples and immortalized cell lines of many human cancers and is an ideal biomarker for targeting early-stage disease. Early on, the ability of GRPR agonists to be rapidly internalized coupled with a high incidence of GRPR expression on various neoplasias was a driving force for the design and development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents targeting GRP receptor-positive tumors. Recent reports, however, show compelling evidence that radiopharmaceutical design and development based upon antagonist-type ligand frameworks clearly bears reexamination. Last of all, the ability to target multiple biomarkers simultaneously via a heterodimeric targeting ligand has also provided a new avenue to investigate the dual targeting capacity of bivalent radioligands for improved in vivo molecular imaging and treatment of specific human cancers. In this report, we describe recent advances

  20. Type I Interferon Elevates Co-Regulatory Receptor Expression on CMV- and EBV-Specific CD8 T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Owusu Sekyere, Solomon; Suneetha, Pothakamuri Venkata; Hardtke, Svenja; Falk, Christine Susanne; Hengst, Julia; Manns, Michael Peter; Cornberg, Markus; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Schlaphoff, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) readily sets up persistence in a large fraction of infected hosts. Mounting epidemiological and immunological evidence suggest that HCV’s persistence could influence immune responses toward unrelated pathogens and vaccines. Nonetheless, the fundamental contribution of the inflammatory milieu during persistent HCV infection in impacting immune cells specific for common pathogens such as CMV and EBV has not been fully studied. As the co-regulatory receptors PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4 have all been shown to be vital in regulating CD8+ T cell function, we assessed their expression on CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy controls ex vivo and upon stimulation with virus-specific peptides in vitro. Total and CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4 were highly enriched in patients with CHC compared to healthy individuals ex vivo. In vitro peptide stimulation further potentiated the differential co-regulatory receptor expression of PD-1, Tim-3, and 2B4, which then culminated in an enhanced functionality of CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in CHC patients. Comprehensively analyzing plasma cytokines between the two cohorts, we observed that not only was IFNα-2a dominant among 21 other inflammatory mediators elevated in CHC patients but it also correlated with PD-1 and Tim-3 expressions ex vivo. Importantly, IFNα-2a further caused upregulation of these markers upon in vitro peptide stimulation. Finally, we could prospectively study patients receiving novel IFN-free antiviral therapy. Here, we observed that treatment-induced clearance of HCV resulted in a partial reversion of the phenotype of CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in patients with CHC. These data reveal an alteration of the plasma concentrations of IFNα-2a together with other inflammatory mediators during CHC, which appeared to pervasively influence co-regulatory receptor expression on CMV/EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:26113847

  1. Functional pharmacology of H1 histamine receptors expressed in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, I V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Histamine H1 receptors are highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons and mediate histaminergic modulation of several brain-controlled physiological functions, such as sleep, feeding and thermoregulation. In spite of the fact that the mouse is used as an experimental model for studying histaminergic signalling, the pharmacological characteristics of mouse H1 receptors have not been studied. In particular, selective and potent H1 receptor agonists have not been identified. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ca2+ imaging using fura-2 fluorescence signals and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons in culture. KEY RESULTS The H1 receptor antagonists mepyramine and trans-triprolidine potently antagonized the activation by histamine of these receptors with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.2 μM respectively. All H1 receptor agonists studied had relatively low potency at the H1 receptors expressed by these neurons. Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine had full-agonist activity with potencies similar to that of histamine. In contrast, 2-pyridylethylamine and betahistine showed only partial agonist activity and lower potency than histamine. The histamine receptor agonist, 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)heptanecarboxamide (HTMT) had no agonist activity at the H1 receptors H1 receptors expressed by mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons but displayed antagonist activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine were identified as full agonists of mouse H1 receptors. These results also indicated that histamine H1 receptors in mice exhibited a pharmacological profile in terms of agonism, significantly different from those of H1 receptors expressed in other species. PMID:23808378

  2. Comparison of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in normal and tumor mammary tissues from dogs.

    PubMed

    Donnay, I; Rauïs, J; Devleeschouwer, N; Wouters-Ballman, P; Leclercq, G; Verstegen, J

    1995-09-01

    Concentrations of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors were measured by radioreceptor assay in tumor (n = 319) and normal (n = 166) mammary tissue from 248 bitches. Correlations between ER and PR and between receptor expression in tumor and normal mammary tissue from the same bitches were evaluated. The influence of tumor, clinical, or hormonal variables on receptor expression also was studied. Approximately 80% of tumor and 95% of normal mammary tissue expressed detectable concentrations of ER, PR, or both. Direct correlation was found between ER and PR concentrations in normal and tumor tissues. Median ER concentrations were significantly higher (46 +/- 47 fmol/mg of cytosolic protein vs 27 +/- 24 fmol/mg of cytosolic protein; P = 0.0002) in normal than in tumor tissue. On the other hand, PR concentrations were significantly higher (57 +/- 52 fmol/mg vs 77 +/- 99 fmol/mg; P = 0.03) in tumors (especially benign tumors) than in normal tissue. Poorly differentiated malignant tumors expressed lower concentrations of receptors than did benign or well differentiated malignant tumors. The ER and PR concentrations decreased with increasing size of the lesion. Hormonal status of the bitch significantly (P < 0.05) influenced receptor expression in normal tissue: bitches in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle had higher concentrations of ER (69 +/- 62 fmol/mg) than did ovariectomized bitches (24 +/- 19 fmol/mg) or bitches in anestrus (38 +/- 45 fmol/mg) or the follicular phase (13 +/- 7 fmol/mg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7486397

  3. Characterization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Perroy, Julie; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    The hippocampal formation is part of an anatomical system critically involved in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that dopamine plays an important role in learning and memory as well as in several forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the precise identification of neuronal populations expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors within the hippocampus is still lacking. To clarify this issue, we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. In Drd1a-EGFP mice, sparse GFP-expressing neurons were detected among glutamatergic projecting neurons of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and GABAergic interneurons located in the hilus. A dense immunofluorescence was observed in the outer and medial part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as well as in the inner part of the molecular layer of CA1 corresponding to the terminals of pyramidal neurons of the entorhinal cortex defining the perforant and the temporo-ammonic pathway respectively. Finally, scattered D1 receptor-expressing neurons were also identified as GABAergic interneurons in the CA3/CA1 fields of the hippocampus. In Drd2-EGFP transgenic mice, GFP was exclusively detected in the glutamatergic mossy cells located in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. This pattern was confirmed in Drd2-Cre mice crossed with NLS-LacZ-Tau(mGFP) :LoxP and RCE:LoxP reporter lines. Our results demonstrate that D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons are strictly segregated in the mouse hippocampus. By clarifying the identity of D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the hippocampus, this study establishes a basis for future investigations aiming at elucidating their roles in the hippocampal network. PMID:22777829

  4. Renal cell carcinoma alters endothelial receptor expression responsible for leukocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Juengel, Eva; Krueger, Geraldine; Rutz, Jochen; Nelson, Karen; Werner, Isabella; Relja, Borna; Seliger, Barbara; Fisslthaler, Beate; Fleming, Ingrid; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) escapes immune recognition. To elaborate the escape strategy the influence of RCC cells on endothelial receptor expression and endothelial leukocyte adhesion was evaluated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were co-cultured with the RCC cell line, Caki-1, with and without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial (E)-selectin, standard and variants (V) of CD44 were then analysed in HUVEC, using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. To determine which components are responsible for HUVEC-Caki-1 interaction causing receptor alteration, Caki-1 membrane fragments versus cell culture supernatant were applied to HUVECS. Adhesion of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to endothelium was evaluated by co-culture adhesion assays. Relevance of endothelial receptor expression for adhesion to endothelium was determined by receptor blockage. Co-culture of RCC and HUVECs resulted in a significant increase in endothelial ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, CD44 V3 and V7 expression. Previous stimulation of HUVECs with TNF-alpha and co-cultivation with Caki-1 resulted in further elevation of endothelial CD44 V3 and V7 expression, whereas ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression were significantly diminished. Since Caki-1 membrane fragments also caused these alterations, but cell culture supernatant did not, cell-cell contact may be responsible for this process. Blocking ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin or CD44 with respective antibodies led to a significant decrease in PBL and PMN adhesion to endothelium. Thus, exposing HUVEC to Caki-1 results in significant alteration of endothelial receptor expression and subsequent endothelial attachment of PBL and PMN. PMID:26943029

  5. Oxygen Modulates Human Decidual Natural Killer Cell Surface Receptor Expression and Interactions with Trophoblasts1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Alison E.; Goulwara, Sonu S.; Whitley, Guy S.; Cartwright, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells have been shown to both promote and inhibit trophoblast behavior important for decidual remodeling in pregnancy and have a distinct phenotype compared to peripheral blood NK cells. We investigated whether different levels of oxygen tension, mimicking the physiological conditions of the decidua in early pregnancy, altered cell surface receptor expression and activity of dNK cells and their interactions with trophoblast. dNK cells were isolated from terminated first-trimester pregnancies and cultured in oxygen tensions of 3%, 10%, and 21% for 24 h. Cell surface receptor expression was examined by flow cytometry, and the effects of secreted factors in conditioned medium (CM) on the trophoblast cell line SGHPL-4 were assessed in vitro. SGHPL-4 cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 10% were significantly more invasive (P < 0.05) and formed endothelial-like networks to a greater extent (P < 0.05) than SGHPL-4 cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 3% or 21%. After 24 h, a lower percentage of dNK cells expressed CD56 at 21% oxygen (P < 0.05), and an increased percentage of dNK cells expressed NKG2D at 10% oxygen (P < 0.05) compared to other oxygen tensions, with large patient variation. This study demonstrates dNK cell phenotype and secreted factors are modulated by oxygen tension, which induces changes in trophoblast invasion and endovascular-like differentiation. Alterations in dNK cell surface receptor expression and secreted factors at different oxygen tensions may represent regulation of function within the decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25232021

  6. Association between Oestrogens Receptor Expressions in Breast Cancer and Comorbidities: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    de Decker, Laure; Campone, Mario; Retornaz, Frederique; Berrut, Gilles; Kabeshova, Anastasia; Molinié, Florence; Beauchet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer with oestrogen receptor expression is common in older women. Several factors, such as age and reproductive hormone exposure, have been associated with oestrogen receptor expression in breast cancer. However, the association between comorbidities and the oestrogen receptor expression has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that there was an association between burden comorbidity and breast cancer with oestrogen receptor expression in older women. Objective To determine whether oestrogen receptor expression in breast cancer was associated with burden comorbidity in community-dwelling women. Methods A total of 1,707 women with breast cancer registered on the list of a breast cancer registry were included. The recorded data included: age, Charlson Comorbidity Index score≥1, breast cancer characteristics (coded according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology), and breast cancer pathological stage (the pathological-tumour-node-metastasis, Scarff Bloom Richardson, and hormonal status of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor). Results Breast cancer with oestrogen receptor expression was identified in 1,378 patients (80·7%). The fully-adjusted logistic regression showed that oestrogen receptor expression was associated with Charlson Comorbidity Index score≥1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1·91,95%confidence interval [CI] = [1.01–3.61], P = 0·048), progesterone receptor expression (OR = 16·64, 95%CI = [11.62–23.81], P<0·001), human epidermal growth factor receptor (OR = 0·54, 95%CI = [0.34–0.84], P = 0·007), age (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = [1.00–1.03], P = 0.008), Scarff Bloom Richardson grade II and grade III (OR = 0·21with 95%CI = [0.10–0.44] and OR = 0·06 with 95%CI = [0.03–0.12], P<0·001). Conclusion Our findings provide new data showing an independent positive association between burden comorbidity and breast

  7. Effect of trimebutine maleate on emptying of stomach and gallbladder and release of gut peptide following a solid meal in man.

    PubMed

    Okano, H; Saeki, S; Inui, A; Kawai, Y; Ohno, S; Morimoto, S; Ohmoto, A; Nakashima, T; Miyamoto, M; Okita, M

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the effect of orally administered trimebutine maleate on gastric and gallbladder emptying and on the release of gut peptide, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and gastrin in humans for 120 min after ingestion of a solid meal. Gastric emptying was measured by a radionuclide technique. Gallbladder emptying was estimated by real-time ultrasonography. The oral administration of 200 mg of trimebutine maleate significantly shortened the lag time in starting gastric emptying (P < 0.05). Considering gallbladder emptying, trimebutine significantly inhibited the fasting emptying induced by neural reflex. Postprandially, there was a tendency toward an accelerated gallbladder emptying in the early phase. Neither the maximal percentage of gallbladder emptying nor the time of peak gallbladder emptying were affected. Trimebutine significantly blunted the post-prandial PP response in the cephalic and gastric phases, reflecting a vagal-cholinergic activity (P < 0.05). The PP response in the intestinal phase was also blunted. Gastrin release was significantly augmented only during the period of fasting after drug administration (P < 0.05). The major effect of trimebutine maleate appears to be a shortening of the lag time at the start of gastric emptying probably via its anticholinergic activity. PMID:8482179

  8. An animal model allowing controlled receptor expression for molecular ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Saini, Reshu; Sorace, Anna G; Warram, Jason M; Mahoney, Marshall J; Zinn, Kurt R; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Reported in this study is an animal model system for evaluating targeted ultrasound (US) contrast agents binding using adenoviral (Ad) vectors to modulate cellular receptor expression. An Ad vector encoding an extracellular hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter was used to regulate receptor expression. A low and high receptor density (in breast cancer tumor bearing mice) was achieved by varying the Ad dose with a low plaque forming unit (PFU) on day 1 and high PFU on day 2 of experimentation. Targeted US contrast agents, or microbubbles (MB), were created by conjugating either biotinylated anti-HA or IgG isotype control antibodies to the MB surface with biotin-streptavidin linkage. Targeted and control MBs were administered on both days of experimentation and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) was performed on each mouse using MB flash destruction technique. Signal intensities from MBs retained within tumor vasculature were analyzed through a custom Matlab program. Results showed intratumoral enhancement attributable to targeted MB accumulation was significantly increased from the low Ad vector dosing and the high Ad vector dosing (p = 0.001). Control MBs showed no significant differences between day 1 and day 2 imaging (p = 0.96). Additionally, targeted MBs showed a 10.5-fold increase in intratumoral image intensity on day 1 and an 18.8-fold increase in image intensity on day 2 compared with their control MB counterparts. PMID:23122640

  9. Altered sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death and glutamate receptor expression between two commonly studied mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Rozzy; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in glutamatergic synapse function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many different neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. While studying glutamate receptor function in juvenile Batten disease on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds, we noticed differences unlikely to be due to mutation difference alone. We report here that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures from C57BL/6J mice are more sensitive to NMDA-mediated cell death. Moreover, sensitivity to AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity is more variable and is dependent upon the treatment conditions and age of the cultures. Glutamate receptor surface expression levels examined in vitro by in situ ELISA and in vivo by Western blot in surface cross-linked cerebellar samples indicated that these differences in sensitivity are likely due to strain-dependent differences in cell surface receptor expression levels. We propose that differences in glutamate receptor expression and in excitotoxic vulnerability should be taken into consideration in the context of characterizing disease models on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds. PMID:20544821

  10. Peptide agonists of the thrombopoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Dower, W J; Cwirla, S E; Balasubramanian, P; Schatz, P J; Baccanari, D P; Barrett, R W

    1998-01-01

    We have screened a variety of L-amino acid peptide libraries against the extracellular domain of the human thrombopoietin (HuTPO) receptor, c-Mpl. A large number of peptide ligands were recovered and categorized into two families. Peptides from each family compete with the binding of HuTPO and with the binding of peptides from the other familiy. Representative peptides were synthesized and found to activate the full-length HuTPO receptor expressed in Ba/F3 cells to promote proliferation. These peptide families show no apparent homology to the primary sequence of TPO. We have focused our optimization efforts on one of the peptides, a linear 14-mer (IEGPTLRQWLAARA) with an IC50 of 2 nM in a competition binding assay and an EC50 of 400 nM in the proliferation assay. In order to enhance the potency of the compound, we constructed dimeric peptides by linking the carboxy-termini of the 14-mers to a lysine branch. These molecules exhibited slightly higher affinity (0.5 nM) and greatly increased potency (0.1 nM). The EC50 of the dimeric peptide was equivalent to that of the 332 aa form of baculovirus-expressed recombinant HuTPO. As previously shown for the erythropoietin-mimetic peptides, the TPO-mimetic peptides probably activate the TPO receptor by binding and inducing receptor dimerization. This supposition is supported by the observation that covalent dimerization of the peptide enhances its potency by 4,000-fold over that of the monomer. The peptide dimer is also active in stimulating in vitro proliferation of progenitors and maturation of megakaryocytes from human bone marrow, and in promoting an increase in platelet count when administered to normal mice. PMID:11012174

  11. Normal Morphology and Hormone Receptor Expression in the Male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Naydan, Diane K.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen α (ER α), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In the some tissues, ER α expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone – mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER α and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract. PMID:19768750

  12. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Mariagrazia; Piermattei, Alessia; Di Sante, Gabriele; Delogu, Giovanni; Ria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25147831

  13. Tonotopic changes in GABA receptor expression in guinea pig inferior colliculus after partial unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Rodger, J; Mulders, W H A M; Robertson, D

    2010-06-25

    Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the topographic distribution of the alpha1 subunit of the GABA receptor (GABRA1) in guinea pig inferior colliculus after treatments that caused a unilateral loss of peripheral neural sensitivity in the high-frequency regions of the cochlea. Both forms of treatment (direct mechanical lesion of the cochlea and acoustic overstimulation) resulted in a significant decrease in GABRA1 labeling in regions of the contralateral inferior colliculus in which high-frequency sound stimuli are represented. This localized region of reduced inhibitory receptor expression corresponds to the region in which hyperactivity of inferior colliculus neurons has been shown to develop after such treatments. The results strengthen the notion of a causal link between reduced GABRA1 expression and neural hyperactivity in central auditory nuclei and provide a possible mechanism for the development of phantom auditory sensations, or tinnitus. PMID:20438718

  14. Notch Receptor Expression in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Carlos, Vanessa; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches. PMID:24039926

  15. Functional characteristics of enhanced Fc receptor expression of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Goji, N; Noda, H; Kuwabara, M

    1996-01-01

    Fc receptor expression, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, chemiluminescent (CL) response, and electron spin resonance (ESR) combined with spin trapping of blood mononuclear phagocytes from control heifers and a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated to elucidate the relationships between complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and Fc receptor expression and their functional responses. The mean fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-bovine IgG bound to mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was 1.8-fold higher than that of control heifers. The mean increments of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD stimulated with OPZ, Agg-IgG, and PMA were 39.4 (P < 0.05), 118, and 71.6% compared with those of control heifers. A 1.27-fold increase in the CL response relative to control heifers was detected when mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were stimulated with Agg-IgG. The OPZ-induced CL response of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the PMA-induced CL response was similar to that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was increased when stimulated with Agg-IgG, and was impaired when stimulated by OPZ compared with that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes stimulated with PMA was similar in control heifers and the heifer with LAD. Fc receptors on mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were enhanced, and their cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, CL response, and ESR-spin trapping when stimulated with Agg-IgG and OPZ appeared to be associated with enhanced Fc receptors. PMID:8805104

  16. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  17. ML-18 is a non-peptide bombesin receptor subtype-3 antagonist which inhibits lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Nakamura, Taichi; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype (BRS)-3 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the bombesin (BB)-family of peptides. BRS-3 is an orphan GPCR and little is known of its physiological role due to the lack of specific agonists and antagonists. PD168368 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (R) whereas PD176252 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) R and NMBR but not BRS-3. Here nonpeptide analogs of PD176252 e.g. the S-enantiomer ML-18, and the R-enantiomer, EMY-98, were investigated as BRS-3 antagonists using lung cancer cells. ML-18 and EMY-98 inhibited specific (125)I-BA1 (DTyr-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-βAla-His-Phe-Nle-NH2)BB(6-14) binding to NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells stably transfected with BRS-3 with IC50 values of 4.8 and >100μM, respectively. In contrast, ML-18 bound with lower affinity to the GRPR and NMBR with IC50 values of 16 and >100μM, respectively. ML-18 (16μM), but not its enantiomer EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 10nM BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) in a reversible manner using lung cancer cells loaded with FURA2-AM. ML-18 (16μM), but not EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 100nM BA1 to cause tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells. ML-18 but not EMY-98 inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The results indicate that ML-18 is a nonpeptide BRS-3 antagonist that should serve as a template to improve potency and selectivity. PMID:25554218

  18. Monitoring β-arrestin recruitment via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation: purification of peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for mammalian bombesin receptors.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Seitaro; Takeda, Norifumi; Toko, Haruhiro; Takimoto, Eiki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Komuro, Issei; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cognate ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a starting point for understanding novel regulatory mechanisms. Although GPCR ligands have typically been evaluated through the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, recent studies have shown that GPCRs signal not only through G proteins but also through β-arrestins. As such, monitoring β-arrestin signaling instead of G protein signaling will increase the likelihood of identifying currently unknown ligands, including β-arrestin-biased agonists. Here, we developed a cell-based assay for monitoring ligand-dependent GPCR-β-arrestin interaction via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation. Inter alia, β-lactamase is a superior reporter enzyme because of its cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. This substrate makes the assay non-destructive and compatible with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In a reporter cell, complementary fragments of β-lactamase (α and ω) were fused to β-arrestin 2 and GPCR, respectively. Ligand stimulation initiated the interaction of these chimeric proteins (β-arrestin-α and GPCR-ω), and this inducible interaction was measured through reconstituted β-lactamase activity. Utilizing this system, we screened various mammalian tissue extracts for agonistic activities on human bombesin receptor subtype 3 (hBRS3). We purified peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for hBRS3, which was also found to be an agonist for the other two mammalian bombesin receptors such as gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). Successful purification of peptide E has validated the robustness of this assay. We conclude that our newly developed system will facilitate the discovery of GPCR ligands. PMID:26030739

  19. Monitoring β-arrestin recruitment via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation: purification of peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for mammalian bombesin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Seitaro; Takeda, Norifumi; Toko, Haruhiro; Takimoto, Eiki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Komuro, Issei; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cognate ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a starting point for understanding novel regulatory mechanisms. Although GPCR ligands have typically been evaluated through the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, recent studies have shown that GPCRs signal not only through G proteins but also through β-arrestins. As such, monitoring β-arrestin signaling instead of G protein signaling will increase the likelihood of identifying currently unknown ligands, including β-arrestin-biased agonists. Here, we developed a cell-based assay for monitoring ligand-dependent GPCR-β-arrestin interaction via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation. Inter alia, β-lactamase is a superior reporter enzyme because of its cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. This substrate makes the assay non-destructive and compatible with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In a reporter cell, complementary fragments of β-lactamase (α and ω) were fused to β-arrestin 2 and GPCR, respectively. Ligand stimulation initiated the interaction of these chimeric proteins (β-arrestin-α and GPCR-ω), and this inducible interaction was measured through reconstituted β-lactamase activity. Utilizing this system, we screened various mammalian tissue extracts for agonistic activities on human bombesin receptor subtype 3 (hBRS3). We purified peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for hBRS3, which was also found to be an agonist for the other two mammalian bombesin receptors such as gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). Successful purification of peptide E has validated the robustness of this assay. We conclude that our newly developed system will facilitate the discovery of GPCR ligands. PMID:26030739

  20. ANALYSIS OF ANDROGEN- AND EGF-RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT PHALLUS AFTER EXPOSURE TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of Androgen- and EGF-Receptor Expression in the Fetal Rat Phallus After Exposure to Vinclozolin
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Barbara Abbott1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2NCSU, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Ral...

  1. Effects of avian triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-A1) activation on heterophil functional activites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel class of innate receptors called the triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) has been discovered and shown to be involved in innate inflammatory responses. The TREM family has been found in the chicken genome and consists of one activating gene (TREM-A1) and two inhibitory ge...

  2. Harnessing endogenous miR-181a to segregate transgenic antigen receptor expression in developing versus post-thymic T cells in murine hematopoietic chimeras.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Eirini P; Kovalovsky, Damian; Beloeil, Laurent; Sant'angelo, Derek; Sadelain, Michel

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting complementary sequences, referred to as miRNA recognition elements (MREs), typically located in the 3' untranslated region of mRNAs. miR-181a is highly expressed in developing thymocytes and markedly downregulated in post-thymic T cells. We investigated whether endogenous miR-181a can be harnessed to segregate expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and TCRs between developing and mature T cells. Lentiviral-encoded antigen receptors were tagged with a miR-181a-specific MRE and transduced into mouse BM cells that were used to generate hematopoietic chimeras. Expression of a CAR specific for human CD19 (hCD19) was selectively suppressed in late double-negative and double-positive thymocytes, coinciding with the peak in endogenous miR-181a expression. Receptor expression was fully restored in post-thymic resting and activated T cells, affording protection against a subsequent challenge with hCD19+ tumors. Hematopoietic mouse chimeras engrafted with a conalbumin-specific TCR prone to thymic clonal deletion acquired peptide-specific T cell responsiveness only when the vector-encoded TCR transcript was similarly engineered to be subject to regulation by miR-181a. These results demonstrate the potential of miRNA-regulated transgene expression in stem cell-based therapies, including cancer immunotherapy. PMID:19033646

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 1 (TRPC1) Channels as Regulators of Sphingolipid and VEGF Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad Yasir; Magnusson, Melissa; Kemppainen, Kati; Sukumaran, Pramod; Löf, Christoffer; Pulli, Ilari; Kalhori, Veronica; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-01-01

    The identity of calcium channels in the thyroid is unclear. In human follicular thyroid ML-1 cancer cells, sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), through S1P receptors 1 and 3 (S1P1/S1P3), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) stimulates migration. We show that human thyroid cells express several forms of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, including TRPC1. In TRPC1 knockdown (TRPC1-KD) ML-1 cells, the basal and S1P-evoked invasion and migration was attenuated. Furthermore, the expression of S1P3 and VEGFR2 was significantly down-regulated. Transfecting wild-type ML-1 cells with a nonconducting TRPC1 mutant decreased S1P3 and VEGFR2 expression. In TRPC1-KD cells, receptor-operated calcium entry was decreased. To investigate whether the decreased receptor expression was due to attenuated calcium entry, cells were incubated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid). In these cells, and in cells where calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase were blocked pharmacologically, S1P3 and VEGFR2 expression was decreased. In TRPC1-KD cells, both hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expression and the secretion and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 were attenuated, and proliferation was decreased in TRPC1-KD cells. This was due to a prolonged G1 phase of the cell cycle, a significant increase in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin D2, cyclin D3, and CDK6. Transfecting TRPC1 to TRPC1-KD cells rescued receptor expression, migration, and proliferation. Thus, the expression of S1P3 and VEGFR2 is mediated by a calcium-dependent mechanism. TRPC1 has a crucial role in this process. This regulation is important for the invasion, migration, and proliferation of thyroid cancer cells. PMID:25971967

  4. Correlation of leptin receptor expression with BMI in differential grades of human meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    RUTKOWSKI, ROBERT; RESZEC, JOANNA; HERMANOWICZ, ADAM; CHRZANOWSKI, ROBERT; LYSON, TOMASZ; MARIAK, ZENON; CHYCZEWSKI, LECH

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma is one of the most common primary brain tumor, especially in postmenopausal women. The most important risk factors include radiation, primary head injury or genetic alterations, however it is currently unclear why postmenopausal women are predominantly affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate leptin receptor (LEPR) expression and body mass index (BMI) in patients with meningiomas of differential grades. Specimens of 158 meningiomas were classified as either G1 (low-grade meningiomas, n=114) or G2/G3 (high-grade meningiomas, n=44). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess LEPR expression. The mean BMIs of the female and male patient groups were 28.43±5.29 and 23.93±4.66, respectively. Mean BMI was significantly higher in the female group, by ~4.50 kg/m2. Patient age significantly correlated with LEPR expression, with the highly positive (++) and positive (+) groups having mean ages of 62.3±12.07 and 52.3±13.04, respectively. A strong positive correlation (r=0.73) was observed between leptin receptor expression and BMI, with the LEPR (++) group having a mean BMI of 30.11±4.49, compared to 22.12±2.48 for the LEPR (+) group. Furthermore, in the low-grade meningioma group, mean BMI was higher in female patients than male patients (28.13±5.54 and 25.38±4.57, respectively; P=0.01). Additionally, there was strong positive correlation between BMI and leptin receptor expression in the low-grade meningioma group (r=0.69). For the high-grade meningioma group, mean BMI was 29.49±4.26 and 21.76±3.98 in female and male patients, respectively, and LEPR expression strongly correlated with BMI in this group (r=0.80). The present study demonstrates a correlation between patient BMI, age, and LEPR expression status in low- and high-grade meningiomas. Our results indicate that in addition to endogenous hormones, such as estrogen or progesterone, or fatty tissue-associated proinflammatory cytokines, LEPR expression status may be a risk factor for

  5. Synthesis of peptide and pseudopeptide amides inhibiting the proliferation of small cell and epithelial types of lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nyéki, O; Rill, A; Schon, I; Orosz, A; Schrett, J; Bartha, L; Nagy, J

    1998-12-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines produce and secrete various peptide hormones, e.g. bombesin (BN)/gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) like peptides that are proposed to function as their autocrine growth factors. To inhibit the proliferative effect of these hormones we have synthesized short chain BN[7-14]-analogues replacing the C-terminal peptide bond by a methylene-amino (-CH2NH-) unit and introducing D-Phe or D-Ser into position 12. As several substance P (SP) analogues were found to inhibit the growth of SCLC cells, some short chain SP-analogues have been synthesized. (Pseudo)octapeptides were synthesized in solution, by fragment condensation using the DCC/HOPfp method. Fragments and SP-analogues were synthesized stepwise using pentafluorophenyl esters. The resistance to hydrolysis of the reduced peptide bond made permitted exact quantification of the Leupsi(CH2NH)Leu pseudopeptide in hydrolysates. The binding ability of both types of peptides to BN-receptors on Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells and their antiproliferative effect on NCI-H69 human SCLC cell line have been tested and compared with a short chain SP-antagonist pHOPA-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-Leu-Leu-NH2 (R) previously described as a potent inhibitor of SCLC proliferation. While BN-analogues showed weak activity in inhibition of proliferation of SCLC cells, SP-analogues 6: D-MePhe-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-Leu(psi)(CH2NH)-Leu-NH2 and 7: D-MePhe-DTrp-Phe-D-Trp-Leu-MPA, in spite of greatly diminished affinity towards the BN-receptor, inhibited SCLC proliferation more effectively than R (6: IC50 = 2 microM, 7: IC50 = 5 microM and R: IC50 = 10 microM). Moreover, 6 inhibited the respiratory activity of SK-MES 1 epithelial type of lung carcinoma cells in proliferating but not in the quiescent state, suggesting that the antiproliferative effect of these compounds is not due to simple cytotoxicity. These short chain analogues of SP might be promising candidates as therapeutic agents in the treatment of SCLC. PMID:9927255

  6. Comparative pharmacology of bombesin receptor subtype-3, nonpeptide agonist MK-5046, a universal peptide agonist, and peptide antagonist Bantag-1 for human bombesin receptors.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Reitman, Marc L; González, Nieves; Coy, David H; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor of the bombesin (Bn) family whose natural ligand is unknown and which does not bind any natural Bn-peptide with high affinity. It is present in the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and tumors; however, its role in normal physiology/pathophysiology is largely unknown because of the lack of selective ligands. Recently, MK-5046 [(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-[4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-{[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-2-yl)propan-2-ol] and Bantag-1 [Boc-Phe-His-4-amino-5-cyclohexyl-2,4,5-trideoxypentonyl-Leu-(3-dimethylamino) benzylamide N-methylammonium trifluoroacetate], a nonpeptide agonist and a peptide antagonist, respectively, for BRS-3 have been described, but there have been limited studies on their pharmacology. We studied MK-5046 and Bantag-1 interactions with human Bn-receptors-human bombesin receptor subtype-3 (hBRS-3), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), and neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R)-and compared them with the nonselective, peptide-agonist [d-Tyr6,βAla11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6-14) (peptide #1). Receptor activation was detected by activation of phospholipase C (PLC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and Akt. In hBRS-3 cells, the relative affinities were Bantag-1 (1.3 nM) > peptide #1 (2 nM) > MK-5046 (37-160 nM) > GRP, NMB (>10 μM), and the binding-dose-inhibition curves were broad (>4 logs), with Hill coefficients differing significantly from unity. Curve-fitting demonstrated high-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 0.08 nM) and low-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 11-29 nM) binding sites. For PLC activation in hBRS-3 cells, the relative potencies were MK-5046 (0.02 nM) > peptide #1 (6 nM) > GRP, NMB, Bantag-1 (>10 μM), and MK-5046 had a biphasic dose response, whereas peptide #1 was monophasic. Bantag-1 was a specific hBRS-3-antagonist. In hBRS-3 cells, MK-5046 was a full agonist for activation of MAPK, FAK, Akt

  7. Comparative Pharmacology of Bombesin Receptor Subtype-3, Nonpeptide Agonist MK-5046, a Universal Peptide Agonist, and Peptide Antagonist Bantag-1 for Human Bombesin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A.; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Reitman, Marc L.; González, Nieves; Coy, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor of the bombesin (Bn) family whose natural ligand is unknown and which does not bind any natural Bn-peptide with high affinity. It is present in the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and tumors; however, its role in normal physiology/pathophysiology is largely unknown because of the lack of selective ligands. Recently, MK-5046 [(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-[4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-{[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-2-yl)propan-2-ol] and Bantag-1 [Boc-Phe-His-4-amino-5-cyclohexyl-2,4,5-trideoxypentonyl-Leu-(3-dimethylamino) benzylamide N-methylammonium trifluoroacetate], a nonpeptide agonist and a peptide antagonist, respectively, for BRS-3 have been described, but there have been limited studies on their pharmacology. We studied MK-5046 and Bantag-1 interactions with human Bn-receptors—human bombesin receptor subtype-3 (hBRS-3), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), and neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R)—and compared them with the nonselective, peptide-agonist [d-Tyr6,βAla11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6–14) (peptide #1). Receptor activation was detected by activation of phospholipase C (PLC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and Akt. In hBRS-3 cells, the relative affinities were Bantag-1 (1.3 nM) > peptide #1 (2 nM) > MK-5046 (37–160 nM) > GRP, NMB (>10 μM), and the binding-dose-inhibition curves were broad (>4 logs), with Hill coefficients differing significantly from unity. Curve-fitting demonstrated high-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 0.08 nM) and low-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 11–29 nM) binding sites. For PLC activation in hBRS-3 cells, the relative potencies were MK-5046 (0.02 nM) > peptide #1 (6 nM) > GRP, NMB, Bantag-1 (>10 μM), and MK-5046 had a biphasic dose response, whereas peptide #1 was monophasic. Bantag-1 was a specific hBRS-3-antagonist. In hBRS-3 cells, MK-5046 was a full agonist for activation of MAPK

  8. Fighting experience alters brain androgen receptor expression dependent on testosterone status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Yu; Earley, Ryan L.; Huang, Shu-Ping; Hsu, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Contest decisions are influenced by the outcomes of recent fights (winner–loser effects). Steroid hormones and serotonin are closely associated with aggression and therefore probably also play important roles in mediating winner–loser effects. In mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, individuals with higher testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels are more capable of winning, but titres of these hormones do not directly mediate winner–loser effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of winning/losing experiences on brain expression levels of the receptor genes for androgen (AR), oestrogen α/β (ERα/β), glucocorticoid (GR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR). The effect of contest experience on AR gene expression depended on T levels: repeated losses decreased, whereas repeated wins increased AR gene expression in individuals with low T but not in individuals with medium or high T levels. These results lend strong support for AR being involved in mediating winner–loser effects, which, in previous studies, were more detectable in individuals with lower T. Furthermore, the expression levels of ERα/β, 5-HT1AR and GR genes were higher in individuals that initiated contests against larger opponents than in those that did not. Overall, contest experience, underlying endocrine state and hormone and serotonin receptor expression patterns interacted to modulate contest decisions jointly. PMID:25320171

  9. GABAA Receptor Expression in the Forebrain of Ataxic Rolling Nagoya Mice.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard; Kaja, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The human CACNA1A gene encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels and is the locus for several neurological disorders, including episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 1 (FHM1). Several spontaneous mouse Cacna1a mutant strains exist, among them Rolling Nagoya (tg (rol)), carrying the R1262G point mutation in the mouse Cacna1a gene. tg (rol) mice display a phenotype of severe gait ataxia and motor dysfunction of the hind limbs. At the functional level, the R1262G mutation results in a positive shift of the activation voltage of the CaV2.1 channel and reduced current density. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit expression depends critically on neuronal calcium influx, and GABAA receptor dysfunction has previously been described for the cerebellum of tg (rol) and other ataxic Cacna1a mutant mice. Given the expression pattern of CaV2.1, it was hypothesized that calcium dysregulation in tg (rol) might affect GABAA receptor expression in the forebrain. Herein, functional GABAA receptors in the forebrain of tg (rol) mice were quantified and pharmacologically dissociated using [(3)H] radioligand binding. No gross changes to functional GABAA receptors were identified. Future cell type-specific analyses are required to identify possible cortical contributions to the psychomotor phenotype of tg (rol) mice. PMID:25309056

  10. Comparison of steroid receptor expression in normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic canine and feline mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Millanta, F; Calandrella, M; Bari, G; Niccolini, M; Vannozzi, I; Poli, A

    2005-12-01

    Steroid receptor expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic, hyperplastic/dysplastic, and normal mammary tissue samples removed from 68 queens and 47 bitches, using monoclonal antibodies against human oestrogen-alpha (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Mammary lesions were classified according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and all animals with invasive carcinomas were clinically followed for 2 years. Stromal and/or lymphatic invasion and histological grading were also recorded. In both species, ER expression was significantly higher in healthy tissues, hyperplastic/dysplastic lesions, and benign tumours than in carcinomas. The loss of ER expression was more marked in feline than in canine carcinomas. In queens, PR expression increased in dysplastic lesions and "in situ" carcinomas and decreased in invasive carcinomas, even if parts of these tumours were still PR-positive. In bitches no significant variation in PR expression was observed between normal tissue, dysplasias, and benign neoplasms, but was significantly lower in carcinomas. In both species ER and PR expression in invasive carcinomas did not correlate either with histological parameters or overall survival time. This study demonstrates several differences in steroid hormone dependency between the two species. The percentage of PR-positive feline carcinomas suggests a possible role of progesterone in promoting early tumour cell growth in queens. The low percentage of ER-positive invasive carcinomas further demonstrated the aggressive phenotype and behaviour of feline mammary tumours. PMID:16054892

  11. A short review of twin pregnancy and how oxytocin receptor expression may differ in multiple pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Turton, Peter; Neilson, James P; Quenby, Siobhan; Burdyga, Theodor; Wray, Susan

    2009-05-01

    During a multiple pregnancy, the mother and her fetuses are exposed to a variety of risks during both pregnancy and labour. The most notable of these risks is that of pre-term labour and its associated sequelae. Whilst much research has been directed towards understanding the mechanisms of uterine contractility, very little research has focussed on how contractility in multiple pregnancy differs from contractility in the singleton pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to review the changing prevalence and risks of a twin pregnancy, as well as reviewing what is known about myometrium from multiple pregnancies. The paper ends by discussing how oxytocin receptor expression may differ in twin pregnancy, based on the evidence of animal models, as well as presenting our own evidence of how oxytocin affects myometrium from twin pregnancies. We highlight the lack of the basic information needed to characterize human myometrium in twin pregnancies. Of particular note is the lack of supporting data for the hypothesis that stretch is responsible for earlier activation of the uterus in multiple pregnancy. New hypotheses based on increased experimental work are called for. Such information may throw light on specific mechanisms leading to the increased incidence of pre-term delivery in twins. PMID:19303192

  12. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui

    2015-06-30

    A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4×10(6)cellsmL(-1) with a detection limit of 40cellsmL(-1) was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35×10(5) with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening. PMID:26041531

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor expression and sub-cellular localization in dopamine neurons of the rat midbrain.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Pritchard, L M

    2013-11-27

    Stress plays an important role in the development of addiction. Animals subjected to stress exhibit sensitized responses to psychostimulant drugs, and this sensitized response is associated with functional adaptations of the mesolimbic dopamine system. These adaptations likely arise from direct or indirect effects of glucocorticoids on dopaminergic neurons. Though glucocorticoid receptor expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons has been examined in previous studies, results have been somewhat equivocal. We sought to clarify this issue by analyzing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) co-localization in the rat midbrain by dual fluorescence immunohistochemistry. We also examined sub-cellular localization of the GR in rat midbrain neurons after acute restraint stress. Adult Long-Evans rats were sacrificed 0, 30, 60 or 120min after 30min of restraint stress. A control group did not undergo restraint. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after restraint for measurement of plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay. Glucocorticoid receptors were observed in dopaminergic neurons in both the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The degree of co-localization of TH and GR did not differ between the VTA and the SN. All animals subjected to stress exhibited significant increases in plasma corticosterone. Significant translocation of GR signal to cell nuclei was observed after restraint in the SN, but not in the VTA. These results suggest that stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion could trigger functional changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system by direct activation of glucocorticoid receptors in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24121048

  14. Delayed Gelatinase Inhibition Induces Reticulon 4 Receptor Expression in the Peri-Infarct Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nardai, Sándor; Dobolyi, Arpád; Skopál, Judit; Lakatos, Kinga; Merkely, Béla; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition can potentially prevent hemorrhagic transformation following cerebral infarction; however, delayed-phase MMP activity is also necessary for functional recovery after experimental stroke. We sought to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the impaired recovery associated with subacute MMP inhibition in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia in CD rats. Gelatinase inhibition was achieved by intracerebral injection of the Fn-439 MMP inhibitor 7 days after stroke. Treatment efficacy was determined on day 9 by in situ gelatin zymography. The peri-infarct cortex was identified by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, and tissue samples were dissected for TaqMan array gene-expression study. Of 84 genes known to influence poststroke regeneration, we found upregulation of mRNA for the reticulon 4 receptor (Rtn4r), a major inhibitor of regenerative nerve growth in the adult CNS, and borderline expression changes for 3 additional genes (DCC, Jun, andNgfr). Western blot confirmed increased Rtn4r protein in the peri-infarct cortex of treated animals, and double immunolabeling showed colocalization primarily with the S100 astrocyte marker. These data suggest that increased Rtn4 receptor expression in the perilesional cortex may contribute to the impaired regeneration associated with MMP inhibition in the subacute phase of cerebral infarction. PMID:26945033

  15. Intranasally Administered Neuropeptide S (NPS) Exerts Anxiolytic Effects Following Internalization Into NPS Receptor-Expressing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Irina A; Dine, Julien; Yen, Yi-Chun; Buell, Dominik R; Herrmann, Leonie; Holsboer, Florian; Eder, Matthias; Landgraf, Rainer; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Experiments in rodents revealed neuropeptide S (NPS) to constitute a potential novel treatment option for anxiety diseases such as panic and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, both its cerebral target sites and the molecular underpinnings of NPS-mediated effects still remain elusive. By administration of fluorophore-conjugated NPS, we pinpointed NPS target neurons in distinct regions throughout the entire brain. We demonstrated their functional relevance in the hippocampus. In the CA1 region, NPS modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. NPS is taken up into NPS receptor-expressing neurons by internalization of the receptor–ligand complex as we confirmed by subsequent cell culture studies. Furthermore, we tracked internalization of intranasally applied NPS at the single-neuron level and additionally demonstrate that it is delivered into the mouse brain without losing its anxiolytic properties. Finally, we show that NPS differentially modulates the expression of proteins of the glutamatergic system involved inter alia in synaptic plasticity. These results not only enlighten the path of NPS in the brain, but also establish a non-invasive method for NPS administration in mice, thus strongly encouraging translation into a novel therapeutic approach for pathological anxiety in humans. PMID:22278093

  16. The progesterone and estrogen modify the uterine prolactin and prolactin receptor expression of hyperprolactinemic mice.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Vinícius Cestari; Carvalho, Kátia Candido; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; Simoncini, Tommaso; da Silva, Priscilla Ludovico; Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Soares, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor's expression in the uterus of mice. For this purpose, 49 Swiss mice were divided into the following groups: GrSS (non-ovariectomized mice given vehicle); GrMET (non-ovariectomized mice treated with metoclopramide); OvSS (ovariectomized mice given vehicle); OvMET (ovariectomized mice treated with metoclopramide); OvMET+17βE (ovariectomized mice treated with metoclopramide and 17β estradiol); OvMET+MP (ovariectomized mice treated with metoclopramide and micronized progesterone); OvMET+17βE+MP (ovariectomized mice treated with metoclopramide and a solution of 17β estradiol and micronized progesterone). Immunohistochemical analyzes were evaluated semi-quantitatively. Our results showed that GrMET, OvMET+MP, and OvMET+17βE+MP presented strong PRL expression. OvMET and OvMET+17βE presented mild reaction, while GrSS and OvSS presented weak reaction. Concerning PRL receptor, OvMET+MP and OvMET+17βE+MP showed strong reaction; GrMET, OvSS, and OvMET+17βE showed mild reaction; and GrSS and OvMET showed weak reaction. These findings suggest that progesterone alone or in combination with estrogen may increase the expression of uterine PRL and PRL receptor. PMID:25299230

  17. [Modulation of Fcgamma and C3b receptor expression by marine bioglycans in mouse splenocytes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of polysacharide immunomodulators of marine origin was performed--mitilane, alpha-1,4;1,6-D-glucane, isolated from midia Crenomytilus grayanus, and translam--beta-1,3;1,6-D-glucane isolated from marine algae Laminaria cichorioides were compared. Mechanisms of phagocytes cells activation were investigated. Dose-dependent ability of investigated bioglycanes to facilitate Fc gamma R [symbol: see text] C3bR expression at mice splenocytes was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The effect depended on immunomodulator type, incubation conditions, dose, period of incubation in vitro and by splenocytes population used for Fc gamma R and C3bR identification. It was shown that C3bR expression was more enhanced by immunomodulators than Fc gamma R expression. For Fc gamma R induction on lymphocytes membranes the presence of phagocytes cell (macrophages and neutrophils) is obligatory. Mitilane, containing alpha-1,4;1,6-D-glucane and some amount of protein is more effective in stimulation of membrane receptors expression than translam--beta-1,3;1,6-D-glucane. The results of investigation demonstrates the possibility to use marine bioglicanes as activators of Fc gamma R and C3bR activity, that is the base for control of pathological processes, related to immune system. PMID:12914116

  18. Apolipoprotein E Is a Ligand for Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2).

    PubMed

    Atagi, Yuka; Liu, Chia-Chen; Painter, Meghan M; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Verbeeck, Christophe; Zheng, Honghua; Li, Xia; Rademakers, Rosa; Kang, Silvia S; Xu, Huaxi; Younkin, Steven; Das, Pritam; Fryer, John D; Bu, Guojun

    2015-10-23

    Several heterozygous missense mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have recently been linked to risk for a number of neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, and frontotemporal dementia. These discoveries have re-ignited interest in the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. TREM2 is highly expressed in microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. Along with its adaptor protein, DAP12, TREM2 regulates inflammatory cytokine release and phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Here, we report apolipoprotein E (apoE) as a novel ligand for TREM2. Using a biochemical assay, we demonstrated high-affinity binding of apoE to human TREM2. The functional significance of this binding was highlighted by increased phagocytosis of apoE-bound apoptotic N2a cells by primary microglia in a manner that depends on TREM2 expression. Moreover, when the AD-associated TREM2-R47H mutant was used in biochemical assays, apoE binding was vastly reduced. Our data demonstrate that apoE-TREM2 interaction in microglia plays critical roles in modulating phagocytosis of apoE-bound apoptotic neurons and establish a critical link between two proteins whose genes are strongly linked to the risk for AD. PMID:26374899

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

  20. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  1. Neural endocannabinoid CB1 receptor expression, social status, and behavior in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    DeVries, M Susan; Cordes, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Jonathan D; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2016-08-01

    Many species modify behavior in response to changes in resource availability or social status; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these modifications are not well understood. Prior work in male starlings demonstrates that status-appropriate changes in behavior involve brain regions that regulate social behavior and vocal production. Endocannabinoids are ubiquitously distributed neuromodulators that are proposed to play a role in adjusting behavior to match social status. As an initial step to provide insight into this hypothesis we observed flocks of male starlings in outdoor aviaries during the breeding season. We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of endocannabinoid CB1 receptors in brain regions involved in social behavior and motivation (lateral septum [LS], ventral tegmental area [VTA], medial preoptic nucleus [POM]) and vocal behavior (Area X and robust nucleus of the arcopallium; RA). Males with nesting sites sang to females and displaced other males more than males without nesting sites. They also had higher levels of CB1 receptor expression in LS and RA. CB1 expression in LS correlated positively with agonistic behaviors. CB1 expression in RA correlated positively with singing behavior. CB1 in VTA also correlated positively with singing when only singing birds were considered. These correlations nicely map onto the well-established role of LS in agonistic behavior and the known role of RA in song production and VTA in motivation and song production. Studies are now needed to precisely characterize the role of CB1 receptors in these regions in the production of status-appropriate social behaviors. PMID:27206544

  2. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Göbel, Thomas W; Viertlboeck, Birgit C

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50-70%. PMID:26967520

  3. Characterization of a thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human kidney and other tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Sakurai, A.; Szilak, I.; Bell, G.I.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1988-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a specific form of thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human liver, kidney, placenta, and brain was isolated from a human kidney library. Identical clones were found in human placenta and HepG2 cDNA libraries. The cDNA encodes a 490-amino acid protein. When expressed and translated in vitro, the protein products binds triiodothyronine with K/sub a/ of 2.3 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/. This protein, designated human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 (hTR..cap alpha..2), has the same domain structure as other members of the v-erbA-related superfamily of receptor genes. It is similar to thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha.. described in chicken and rat and less similar to human thyroid hormone receptor type ..beta.. (formerly referred to as c-erbA..beta..) from placenta. However, it is distinguished from these receptors by an extension of the C-terminal hormone binding domain making it 80 amino acids longer than rat thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..1. Different sizes of mRNA found in liver and kidney suggest that there may be tissue-specific processing of the primary transcript of this gene. Identification of human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 indicates that two or more forms of thyroid hormone receptor exist in human tissues and may explain the normal variation in thyroid hormone responsiveness of various organs and the selective tissue abnormalities found in the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes.

  4. Characteristics of glycine receptors expressed by embryonic rat brain mRNAs.

    PubMed

    García-Alcocer, G; García-Colunga, J; Martínez-Torres, A; Miledi, R

    2001-02-27

    A study was made of glycine (Gly) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat mRNAs isolated from the encephalon, midbrain, and brainstem of 18-day-old rat embryos. In oocytes injected with encephalon, midbrain, or brainstem mRNAs, the Gly-current amplitudes (membrane current elicited by Gly; 1 mM Gly) were respectively 115 +/- 35, 346 +/- 28, and 389 +/- 22 nA, whereas the GABA-currents (1 mM GABA) were all < or =40 nA. Moreover, the Gly-currents desensitized faster in oocytes injected with encephalon or brainstem mRNAs. The EC(50) for Gly was 611 +/- 77 microM for encephalon, 661 +/- 28 microM for midbrain, and 506 +/- 18 microM for brainstem mRNA-injected oocytes, and the corresponding Hill coefficients were all approximately 2. Strychnine inhibited all of the Gly-currents, with an IC(50) of 56 +/- 3 nM for encephalon, 97 +/- 4 nM for midbrain, and 72 +/- 4 nM for brainstem mRNAs. During repetitive Gly applications, the Gly-currents were potentiated by 1.6-fold for encephalon, 2.1-fold for midbrain, and 1.3-fold for brainstem RNA-injected oocytes. Raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly increased the Gly-currents in oocytes injected with midbrain and brainstem mRNAs. Reverse transcription-PCR studies showed differences in the Gly receptor (GlyR) alpha-subunits expressed, whereas the beta-subunit was present in all three types of mRNA. These results indicate differential expression of GlyR mRNAs in the brain areas examined, and these mRNAs lead to the expression of GlyRs that have different properties. The modulation of GlyRs by Ca(2+) could play important functions during brain development. PMID:11226317

  5. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  6. The adaptor 3BP2 is required for KIT receptor expression and human mast cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Picado, César; Sayós, Joan; Rivera, Juan; Martín, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    3BP2 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that acts as a positive regulator in mast cell FcεRI-dependent signaling. The KIT receptor whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for mast cell development, proliferation and survival as well as for optimal IgE-dependent signal. Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with several diseases including mastocytosis. In the present work, we found that 3BP2 silencing impairs KIT signaling pathways, thus affecting PI3K and MAP kinase pathways in human mast cells from HMC-1, LAD2 (human mast cell lines) and CD34+-derived mast cells. Unexpectedly, silencing of 3BP2 reduces KIT expression in normal human mast cells as well as in HMC-1 cells where KIT is mutated, thus increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity. 3BP2 silencing reduces KIT transcription expression levels. Interestingly, 3BP2 silencing decreased MITF expression, a transcription factor involved in KIT expression. Reconstitution of 3BP2 in knockdown cells leads to reversal of KIT expression as well as survival phenotype. Accordingly MITF reconstitution enhances KIT expression levels in 3BP2 silenced cells. Moreover, downregulation of KIT expression by miRNA221 overexpression or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib also reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression. Furthermore, KIT tyrosine activity inhibition reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression, demonstrating again a tight and reciprocal relationship between these molecules. Taken together, our results show that 3BP2 regulates human mast cell survival and participates in KIT-mediated signal transduction by directly controlling KIT receptor expression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and deregulated KIT disorders. PMID:25810396

  7. Lipid flippase modulates olfactory receptor expression and odorant sensitivity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tal Soo; Xia, Ruohan; Zhang, Haiying; Smith, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male-specific pheromone cVA (11-cis-vaccenyl acetate) functions as a sex-specific social cue. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cVA pheromone transduction and its regulation are incomplete. Using a genetic screen combined with an electrophysiological assay to monitor pheromone-evoked activity in the cVA-sensing Or67d neurons, we identified an olfactory sensitivity factor encoded by the dATP8B gene, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian ATP8B. dATP8B is expressed in all olfactory neurons that express Orco, the odorant receptor coreceptor, and the odorant responses in most Orco-expressing neurons are reduced. Or67d neurons are severely affected, with strongly impaired cVA-induced responses and lacking spontaneous spiking in the mutants. The dATP8B locus encodes a member of the P4-type ATPase family thought to flip aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one membrane leaflet to the other. dATP8B protein is concentrated in the cilia of olfactory neuron dendrites, the site of odorant transduction. Focusing on Or67d neuron function, we show that Or67d receptors are mislocalized in dATP8B mutants and that cVA responses can be restored to dATP8B mutants by misexpressing a wild-type dATP8B rescuing transgene, by expressing a vertebrate P4-type ATPase member in the pheromone-sensing neurons or by overexpressing Or67d receptor subunits. These findings reveal an unexpected role for lipid translocation in olfactory receptor expression and sensitivity to volatile odorants. PMID:24821794

  8. Prolactinoma ErbB receptor expression and targeted therapy for aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Odelia; Mamelak, Adam; Bannykh, Serguei; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien; Lim, Stephen; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Ben-Shlomo, Anat

    2014-06-01

    As ErbB signaling is a determinant of prolactin synthesis, role of ErbB receptors was tested for prolactinoma outcomes and therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize ErbB receptor expression in prolactinomas and then perform a pilot study treating resistant prolactinomas with a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Retrospective analysis of prolactinomas and pilot study for dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas in tertiary referral center. We performed immunofluorescent staining of a tissue array of 29 resected prolactinoma tissues for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 correlated with clinical features. Two patients with aggressive resistant prolactinomas enrolled and completed trial. They received lapatinib 1,250 mg daily for 6 months with tumor and hormone assessments. Main outcome measures were positive tumor staining of respective ErbB receptors, therapeutic reduction of prolactin levels and tumor shrinkage. Treated PRL levels and tumor volumes were suppressed in both subjects treated with TKI. EGFR expression was positive in 82 % of adenomas, ErbB2 in 92 %, ErbB3 in 25 %, and ErbB4 in 71 %, with ErbB2 score > EGFR > ErbB4 > ErbB3. Higher ErbB3 expression was associated with optic chiasm compression (p = 0.03), suprasellar extension (p = 0.04), and carotid artery encasement (p = 0.01). Higher DA response rates were observed in tumors with higher ErbB3 expression. Prolactinoma expression of specific ErbB receptors is associated with tumor invasion, symptoms, and response to dopamine agonists. Targeting ErbB receptors may be effective therapy in patients with resistant prolactinomas. PMID:24287797

  9. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM)-2 Impairs Host Defense in Experimental Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Hommes, Tijmen J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; de Jong, Hanna K.; Roelofs, Joris. J.T.H.; de Vos, Alex F.; Colonna, Marco; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2016-01-01

    Background Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) -1 and TREM-2 are key regulators of the inflammatory response that are involved in the clearance of invading pathogens. Melioidosis, caused by the "Tier 1" biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common form of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast-Asia. TREM-1 has been suggested as a biomarker for sepsis and melioidosis. We aimed to characterize the expression and function of TREM-1 and TREM-2 in melioidosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-type, TREM-1/3 (Trem-1/3-/-) and TREM-2 (Trem-2-/-) deficient mice were intranasally infected with live B. pseudomallei and killed after 24, and/or 72 h for the harvesting of lungs, liver, spleen, and blood. Additionally, survival studies were performed. Cellular functions were further analyzed by stimulation and/or infection of isolated cells. TREM-1 and TREM-2 expression was increased both in the lung and liver of B. pseudomallei-infected mice. Strikingly, Trem-2-/-, but not Trem-1/3-/-, mice displayed a markedly improved host defense as reflected by a strong survival advantage together with decreased bacterial loads, less inflammation and reduced organ injury. Cellular responsiveness of TREM-2, but not TREM-1, deficient blood and bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was diminished upon exposure to B. pseudomallei. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of B. pseudomallei by BMDM and alveolar macrophages were TREM-1 and TREM-2-independent. Conclusions/Significance We found that TREM-2, and to a lesser extent TREM-1, plays a remarkable detrimental role in the host defense against a clinically relevant Gram-negative pathogen in mice: TREM-2 deficiency restricts the inflammatory response, thereby decreasing organ damage and mortality. PMID:27253382

  10. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A.; Göbel, Thomas W.; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50–70%. PMID:26967520

  11. Differential effects of diazepam treatment and withdrawal on recombinant GABAA receptor expression and functional coupling.

    PubMed

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainić, Josipa; Jazvinsćak Jembrek, Maja; Pericić, Danka

    2008-12-30

    Prolonged exposure to benzodiazepines, drugs known to produce tolerance and dependence and also to be abused, leads to adaptive changes in GABA(A) receptors. To further explore the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena, we studied the effects of prolonged diazepam treatment on the recombinant alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A) receptors, stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The results demonstrating that long-term (48 and 72 h) exposure of cells to a high concentration of diazepam (50 microM) enhanced the maximum number (B(max)) of [(3)H]flunitrazepam, [(3)H]muscimol and [(3)H]t-butylbicycloorthobenzoate ([(3)H]TBOB) binding sites, without changing their affinity (K(d)), suggested the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptors. As demonstrated by cell counting and WST-1 proliferation assay, the observed increase in receptor expression was not a consequence of stimulated growth of cells exposed to diazepam. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, showing elevated levels of alpha(1) subunit mRNA as well as beta(2) and gamma(2) subunit proteins, respectively, suggested that prolonged high dose diazepam treatment induced de novo receptor synthesis by acting at both transcriptional and translational levels. The finding that the number of GABA(A) receptor binding sites returned to control value 24 h following diazepam withdrawal, makes this process less likely to account for the development of benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence. On the other hand, the results demonstrating that observed functional uncoupling between GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites persisted after the termination of diazepam treatment supported the hypothesis of its possible role in these phenomena. PMID:18955034

  12. Phosphorylated STAT3 and PD-1 regulate IL-17 production and IL-23 receptor expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Anuradha; Devalraju, Kamakshi P; Paidipally, Padmaja; Dhiman, Rohan; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Barnes, Peter F; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-07-01

    We studied the factors that regulate IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production in human tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients secreted less IL-17 than did CD4(+) T cells from healthy tuberculin reactors (PPD(+) ). M. tb-cultured monocytes from tuberculosis patients and PPD(+) donors expressed equal amounts of IL-23p19 mRNA and protein, suggesting that reduced IL-23 production is not responsible for decreased IL-17 production by tuberculosis patients. Freshly isolated and M. tb-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients had reduced IL-23 receptor and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression, compared with cells from PPD(+) donors. STAT3 siRNA reduced IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells from PPD(+) donors. Tuberculosis patients had increased numbers of PD-1(+) T cells compared with healthy PPD(+) individuals. Anti-PD-1 antibody enhanced pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression and IL-17 production by M. tb-cultured CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. Anti-tuberculosis therapy decreased PD-1 expression, increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production and pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression. These findings demonstrate that increased PD-1 expression and decreased pSTAT3 expression reduce IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. PMID:24643836

  13. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer K; Wade, Juli

    2007-08-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  14. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer K.; Wade, Juli

    2010-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well as in the preoptic area and amygdala, were compared in males displaying varying degrees of sexual function. This study revealed that individual differences in behavior among unmanipulated males, in particular the extension of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship, were positively correlated with the size of fibers in the associated muscle and with soma size in the amygdala. The physiological response to testosterone, as indicated by the height of cells in an androgen-sensitive portion of the kidney, was also correlated with male sexual behavior, and predicted it better than plasma androgen levels. Androgen receptor expression was not related to the display of courtship or copulation in any of the tissues examined. The present data indicate that higher levels of male courtship behavior result in (or are the result of) enhanced courtship muscle and amygdala morphology, and that androgen-sensitive tissue in studs may be more responsive to testosterone than duds. However, some mechanism(s) other than androgen receptor expression likely confer this difference in responsiveness. PMID:17531996

  15. Antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With increasing antibiotics resistance, there is an urgent need for novel infection therapeutics. Since antimicrobial peptides provide opportunities for this, identification and optimization of such peptides have attracted much interest during recent years. Here, a brief overview of antimicrobial peptides is provided, with focus placed on how selected hydrophobic modifications of antimicrobial peptides can be employed to combat also more demanding pathogens, including multi-resistant strains, without conferring unacceptable toxicity. PMID:24758244

  16. Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including p...

  17. Developmental regulation of voltage-gated K+ channel and GABAA receptor expression in Bergmann glial cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Fritschy, J M; Grosche, J; Pratt, G D; Möhler, H; Kettenmann, H

    1994-05-01

    , although they yield a prominent staining of both the Purkinje cells and the granule cells. These changes in the Bergmann glial cell membrane properties and GABAA receptor expression suggest a transition between functional states during development of the Bergmann glial cells. PMID:8182424

  18. Protein malnutrition up-regulates growth hormone receptor expression in rat splenic B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Naranjo, Wilson; Sánchez-Gomez, Myriam

    2004-12-01

    The reciprocal interaction between the endocrine and immune systems has been the subject of active research during the last decade, and an important body of evidence has accumulated supporting the role of the GH/IGF axis in immune function. More recently, the GH/IGF axis has been postulated as playing an important role in the modulation of stress conditions, such as catabolic stages, aging-related disorders, immunodeficient aids patients and malnutrition. Whether these effects are exerted through endocrine, autocrine or paracrine mechanisms remains to be determined for different immune cell types and tissues. The aim of the current study was to define which specific subsets of lymphocytes are the primary targets for GH action. In addition, the regulatory role of stress induced by protein restriction was investigated with respect to the relative distribution of GH receptor positive lymphoid cells. Normal growing rats were fed isocaloric diets with variable protein content (0, 4, 8, 12 and 20%) for a period of 14 days. The lymphoid cells were then separated from spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Flow cytometry analysis measured the binding characteristics of Fluos-rrGH to lymphocytes together with specific PE-labelled mAbs defining CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B lymphocytes. The pattern of expression of the GH receptor differed among the lymphoid tissues and cell subsets. Spleen was the most responsive organ to protein deprivation with highest GH receptor expression in B lymphocytes, followed by CD4+ T cells. As the protein intake was decreased from 20% to 0%, the percentage of GHR positive cells increased from 12% to 52% in splenic B lymphocytes and from 8% to 17% in CD4+ T cells. In contrast, only 10%-13% of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and 2%-4% in circulation, showed binding sites to GH associated with protein deprivation. In conclusion, the increase in GH receptors on lymphocytes under catabolic stress induced by protein malnutrition gives support

  19. Postprandial dyslipidemia in men with visceral obesity: an effect of reduced LDL receptor expression?

    PubMed

    Mamo, J C; Watts, G F; Barrett, P H; Smith, D; James, A P; Pal, S

    2001-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia after an oral fat challenge was studied in middle-aged men with visceral obesity. The two groups had similar plasma cholesterol levels, but obese subjects had higher levels of plasma triglyceride and reduced amounts of high-density cholesterol. Fasting plasma insulin was fourfold greater in obese subjects because of concomitant insulin resistance, with a calculated HOMA score of 3.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Plasma apolipoprotein B(48) (apoB(48)) and retinyl palmitate (RP) after an oral fat challenge were used to monitor chylomicron metabolism. Compared with lean subjects, the fasting concentration of apoB(48) was more than twofold greater in obese individuals, suggestive of an accumulation of posthydrolyzed particles. After the oral lipid load, the incremental areas under the apoB(48) and RP curves (IAUC) were both significantly greater in obese subjects (apoB(48): 97 +/- 17 vs. 44 +/- 12 microg.ml(-1). h; RP: 3,120 +/- 511 vs. 1,308 +/- 177 U. ml(-1). h, respectively). A delay in the conversion of chylomicrons to remnants probably contributed to postprandial dyslipidemia in viscerally obese subjects. The triglyceride IAUC was 68% greater in obese subjects (4.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.8 mM. h, P < 0.06). Moreover, peak postprandial triglyceride was delayed by approximately 2 h in obese subjects. The reduction in triglyceride lipolysis in vivo did not appear to reflect changes in hydrolytic enzyme activities. Postheparin plasma lipase rates were found to be similar for lean and obese subjects. In this study, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression on monunuclear cells was used as a surrogate marker of hepatic activity. We found that, in obese subjects, the binding of LDL was reduced by one-half compared with lean controls (70.9 +/- 15.07 vs. 38.9 +/- 4.6 ng LDL bound/microg cell protein, P = 0.02). Because the LDL receptor is involved in the removal of proatherogenic chylomicron remnants, we suggest that the hepatic

  20. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SiFA-tagged bombesin and RGD peptides as tumor imaging probes for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Simon; Michler, Christina; Leidner, Stephanie; Rensch, Christian; Wängler, Carmen; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bartenstein, Peter; Wängler, Björn

    2014-04-16

    Gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP)-receptors and αvβ3-integrins are widely discussed as potential target structures for oncological imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Favored by the overexpression of receptors on the surface of tumor cells good imaging characteristics can be achieved with highly specific radiolabeled receptor ligands. PEGylated bombesin (PESIN) derivatives as specific GRP receptor ligands and RGD (one-letter codes for arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptides as specific αvβ3 binders were synthesized and tagged with a silicon-fluorine-acceptor (SiFA) moiety. The SiFA synthon allows for a fast and highly efficient isotopic exchange reaction at room temperature giving the [(18)F]fluoride labeled peptides in up to 62% radiochemical yields (d.c.) and ≥99% radiochemical purity in a total synthesis time of less than 20 min. Using nanomolar quantities of precursor high specific activities of up to 60 GBq μmol(-1) were obtained. To compensate the high lipophilicity of the SiFA moiety various hydrophilic structure modifications were introduced leading to significantly reduced logD values. Competitive displacement experiments with the PESIN derivatives showed a 32 to 6 nM affinity to the GRP receptor on PC3 cells, and with the RGD peptides a 7 to 3 μM affinity to the αvβ3 integrins on U87MG cells. All derivatives proved to be stable in human plasma over at least 120 min. Small animal PET measurements and biodistribution studies revealed an enhanced and specific accumulation of the RGD peptide (18)F-SiFA-LysMe3-γ-carboxy-d-Glu-RGD (17) in the tumor tissue of U87MG tumor-bearing mice of 5.3% ID/g whereas the PESIN derivatives showed a high liver uptake and only a low accumulation in the tumor tissue of PC3 xenografts. Stability studies with compound 17 provided further information on its metabolism in vivo. These results altogether demonstrate that the reduction of the overall lipophilicity of SiFA tagged RGD peptides is a promising

  1. Specific photothermal therapy to the tumors with high EphB4 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuhua; Sun, Jihong; Qiu, Yunqing; Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaomeng; Li, Qingpo; Zhang, Hanbo; Zhou, Jialin; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang; You, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) employs photo-absorbing agents to generate heat from optical energy, leading to the 'burning' of tumor cells. Real-time imaging of in vivo distribution of photothermal agents and monitoring of post-treatment therapeutic outcomes are very important to design and optimize personalized PTT treatment. In this work, we used chitosan-stearic acid copolymer (CSO-SA) to encapsulate hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tracer, DiR. Then, the surface of nanoparticles was further conjugated with a peptide (TNYL), which facilitates EphB4-positive tumor targeting delivery. Using a paired tumor mode in vivo and a double tumor-cell co-culture strategy in vitro, we demonstrated the feasibility of increasing the accumulation of our nanoparticles (DiR loaded and TNYL-CSO-SA coated HAuNS (DTCSH)) into EphB4-positive tumors through interaction between TNYL-peptide on the nanoparticles and EpHB4 receptors on tumor cells. When combined with NIR laser irradiation, our nanoparticles induced more EphB4-positive tumor cells death in vitro. We further developed optical imaging to temporally and spatially monitor the biodistribution of DTCSH. Under NIR laser irradiation, PTT exhibited dramatically stronger antitumor effect against EphB4-positive tumors than EphB4-negative tumors. This was attributed to enhanced accumulation of our nanoparticles in EphB4-positive tumors. PMID:26264644

  2. Molecular basis for high affinity and selectivity of peptide antagonist, Bantag-1, for the orphan BB3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Taichi; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Iordanskaia, Tatiana; Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Jensen, R T

    2016-09-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BB3 receptor) is a G-protein-coupled-orphan-receptor classified in the mammalian Bombesin-family because of high homology to gastrin-releasing peptide (BB2 receptor)/neuromedin-B receptors (BB1 receptor). There is increased interest in BB3 receptor because studies primarily from knockout-mice suggest it plays roles in energy/glucose metabolism, insulin-secretion, as well as motility and tumor-growth. Investigations into its roles in physiological/pathophysiological processes are limited because of lack of selective ligands. Recently, a selective, peptide-antagonist, Bantag-1, was described. However, because BB3 receptor has low-affinity for all natural, Bn-related peptides, little is known of the molecular basis of its high-affinity/selectivity. This was systematically investigated in this study for Bantag-1 using a chimeric-approach making both Bantag-1 loss-/gain-of-affinity-chimeras, by exchanging extracellular (EC) domains of BB3/BB2 receptor, and using site-directed-mutagenesis. Receptors were transiently expressed and affinities determined by binding studies. Bantag-1 had >5000-fold selectivity for BB3 receptor over BB2/BB1 receptors and substitution of the first EC-domain (EC1) in loss-/gain-of affinity-chimeras greatly affected affinity. Mutagenesis of each amino acid difference in EC1 between BB3 receptor/BB2 receptor showed replacement of His(107) in BB3 receptor by Lys(107) (H107K-BB3 receptor-mutant) from BB2 receptor, decreased affinity 60-fold, and three replacements [H107K, E11D, G112R] decreased affinity 500-fold. Mutagenesis in EC1's surrounding transmembrane-regions (TMs) demonstrated TM2 differences were not important, but R127Q in TM3 alone decreased affinity 400-fold. Additional mutants in EC1/TM3 explored the molecular basis for these changes demonstrated in EC1, particularly important is the presence of aromatic-interactions by His(107), rather than hydrogen-bonding or charge-charge interactions, for determining

  3. Differential developmental trajectories for CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in limbic/associative and sensorimotor cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Lijun; Beverley, Joel A.; Steiner, Heinz; Tseng, Kuei Y.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia and other disorders. The neuronal basis is unclear, but prefrontal cortical mechanisms have been implicated. Here, we investigated developmental changes in the endocannabinoid system by assessing expression and function of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in prefrontal and other cortical areas in juvenile (postnatal day 25, P25), adolescent (P40) and adult (P70) rats. Overall, the expression of CB1 receptors in the cortex is highest in juveniles and drops thereafter towards adult levels. However, CB1 receptor expression follows distinct developmental trajectories in different cortical areas. The most pronounced and progressive decrease in CB1 expression was observed in medial prefrontal and other limbic/associative regions. In contrast, major changes in sensorimotor cortices occurred only after P40. We also assessed electrophysiological measures of CB1 receptor function and found that CB1-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission in the prefrontal cortex follows the same developmental trajectory as observed for receptor expression. Together, these findings indicate that CB1 receptor-mediated signaling decreases during development, but is differentially regulated in limbic/associative vs. sensorimotor systems. Therefore, cannabis use during adolescence likely differentially affects limbic/associative and sensorimotor cortical circuits. PMID:20687106

  4. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. PMID:26166951

  5. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. PMID:26166951

  6. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats. PMID:27235743

  7. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor expression in clinical pain disorders and functional effects in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Anand, Praveen; Yiangou, Yiangos; Anand, Uma; Mukerji, Gaurav; Sinisi, Marco; Fox, Michael; McQuillan, Anthony; Quick, Tom; Korchev, Yuri E; Hein, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP), activated by its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), exerts several effects including modulation of pain signalling. We have examined, for the first time, the tissue distribution of the NOP receptor in clinical visceral and somatic pain disorders by immunohistochemistry and assessed functional effects of NOP and μ-opioid receptor activation in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Quantification of NOP-positive nerve fibres within the bladder suburothelium revealed a remarkable several-fold increase in detrusor overactivity (P < 0.0001) and painful bladder syndrome patient specimens (P = 0.0014) compared with controls. In postmortem control human DRG, 75% to 80% of small/medium neurons (≤50 μm diameter) in the lumbar (somatic) and sacral (visceral) DRG were positive for NOP, and fewer large neurons; avulsion-injured cervical human DRG neurons showed similar numbers. NOP immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in injured peripheral nerves (P = 0.0004), and also in painful neuromas (P = 0.025). Calcium-imaging studies in cultured rat DRG neurons demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of capsaicin responses in the presence of N/OFQ, with an IC50 of 8.6 pM. In cultured human DRG neurons, 32% inhibition of capsaicin responses was observed in the presence of 1 pM N/OFQ (P < 0.001). The maximum inhibition of capsaicin responses was greater with N/OFQ than μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO. Our findings highlight the potential of NOP agonists, particularly in urinary bladder overactivity and pain syndromes. The regulation of NOP expression in visceral and somatic sensory neurons by target-derived neurotrophic factors deserves further study, and the efficacy of NOP selective agonists in clinical trials. PMID:27127846

  8. Identification of the bombesin receptor on murine and human cells by cross-linking experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kris, R.M.; Hazan, R.; Villines, J.; Moody, T.W.; Schlessinger, J.

    1987-08-15

    The bombesin receptor present on the surface of murine and human cells was identified using /sup 125/I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide as a probe, the cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. A clone of NIH-3T3 cells which possesses approximately 80,000 bombesin receptors/cell with a single binding constant of approximately 1.9 X 10(-9) M was used in these studies. In addition, we used Swiss 3T3 cells and a human glioma cell line which possesses approximately 100,000 and approximately 55,000 bombesin receptors/cell, respectively. Under conditions found optimal for binding, it is demonstrated that /sup 125/I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide can be cross-linked specifically to a glycoprotein of apparent molecular mass of 65,000 daltons on the surface of the NIH-3T3 cells. Similar results were obtained when the cross-linked product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing or non-reducing conditions. Moreover, the cross-linking reaction is specific and saturable and the 65,000-dalton polypeptide is not observed when the cross-linking experiments were performed with a NIH-3T3 cell line which is devoid of bombesin receptors. Interestingly, glycoproteins with apparent molecular weights of 75,000 were labeled specifically by /sup 125/I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide when similar experiments were performed with Swiss 3T3 cells and with human glioma cell line GM-340. These different molecular weights may indicate differential glycosylation as treatment with the enzyme N-glycanase reduced the apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked polypeptide to 45,000. On the basis of these results it is concluded that the cross-linked polypeptides represent the bombesin receptor or the ligand-binding subunit of a putative larger bombesin receptor expressed on the surface of these cells.

  9. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na/sup +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes, Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity, and intracellular pH

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, S.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Lopez-Rivas, A.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-06-01

    The amphibian tetradecapeptide, bombesin, and structurally related peptides caused a marked increase in ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake (a measure of Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity) in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect occurred within seconds after the addition of the peptide and appeared to be mediated by an increase in Na/sup +/ entry into the cells. The effect of bombesin on Na/sup +/ entry and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity was concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 0.3-0.4 nM. The structurally related peptides litorin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B also stimulated ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake; the relative potencies of these peptides in stimulating the Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump were comparable to their potencies in increasing DNA synthesis. Bombesin increased Na/sup +/ influx, at least in part, through an Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiport. The peptide augmented intracellular pH and this effect was abolished in the absence of extracellular Na/sup +/. In addition to monovalent ion transport, bombesin and the structurally related peptides rapidly increased the efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This Ca/sup 2 +/ came from an intracellular pool and the efflux was associated with a 50% decrease in total intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The peptides also caused a rapid increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phorbol dibutyrate, which causes a loss of protein kinase C activity, greatly decreased the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake and Na/sup +/ entry by bombesin implicating this phosphotransferase system in the mediation of part of these responses to bombesin. Since some activation of monovalent ion transport by bombesin was seen in phorbol dibutyrate-pretreated cells, it is likely that the peptide also stimulates monovalent ion transport by a second mechanism.

  10. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  11. Substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression by intrinsic airway neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fontán, J J; Cortright, D N; Krause, J E; Velloff, C R; Karpitskyi, V V; Carver, T W; Shapiro, S D; Mora, B N

    2000-02-01

    Tachykinins and their receptors are involved in the amplification of inflammation in the airways. We analyzed the expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor genes by intrinsic airway neurons in the rat. We also tested the hypothesis that PPT-A-encoded peptides released by these neurons fulfill the requisite role of substance P in immune complex injury of the lungs. We found that ganglion neurons in intact and denervated airways or in primary culture coexpress PPT-A and NK-1 receptor mRNAs and their protein products. Denervated ganglia from tracheal xenografts (nu/nu mice) or syngeneic lung grafts had increased PPT-A mRNA contents, suggesting preganglionic regulation. Formation of immune complexes in the airways induced comparable inflammatory injuries in syngeneic lung grafts, which lack peptidergic sensory fibers, and control lungs. The injury was attenuated in both cases by pretreatment with the NK-1 receptor antagonist LY-306740. We conclude that tachykinins released by ganglia act as a paracrine or autocrine signal in the airways and may contribute to NK-1 receptor-mediated amplification of immune injury in the lungs. PMID:10666119

  12. Leptin deficiency leads to the regulation of kinin receptors expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Mori, Marcelo Alves da Silva; Pesquero, Joao Bosco

    2007-02-01

    Kinins are vasoactive and pro-inflammatory peptides generated by the cleavage of the kininogen by kallikreins. Two kinin receptors have been described and denominated B1 and B2. Obesity frequently accompanies other pathologies, such as diabetes and hypertention. The clustering of these pathologies is usually known as "metabolic syndrome". Mice lacking leptin gene (ob/ob) are severely obese and hyperphagic. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis of B1 and B2 mRNAs expression, we described for the first time a correlation between the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) and severe obesity in mice. The ob/ob mice presented lower expression of B2 mRNA in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and hypothalamus, both primary sites for neuroendocrine regulation of the energetic metabolism. B1 mRNA, however, is overexpressed in these tissues of ob/ob mice. An upregulation of the B1 mRNA has also been seen in liver, abdominal aorta and stomach fundus. However, different from the lean mice, the expression of the B1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and heart is completely abolished. Our data show that kinin receptors are differently modulated in distinct tissues in obesity. These findings suggest a connection between the KKS and obesity, and suggest that kinin receptors could be involved in the ethiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17184856

  13. Axospinous synaptic subtype-specific differences in structure, size, ionotropic receptor expression, and connectivity in apical dendritic regions of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Daniel A.; Geinisman, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    The morphology of axospinous synapses and their parent spines varies widely. Additionally, many of these synapses are contacted by multiple synapse boutons (MSBs) and show substantial variability in receptor expression. The two major axospinous synaptic subtypes are perforated and nonperforated, but there are several subcategories within these two classes. The present study used serial section electron microscopy to determine whether perforated and nonperforated synaptic subtypes differed with regard to their distribution, size, receptor expression, and connectivity to MSBs in three apical dendritic regions of rat hippocampal area CA1: the proximal and distal thirds of stratum radiatum, and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. All synaptic subtypes were present throughout the apical dendritic regions, but there were several subclass-specific differences. First, segmented, completely partitioned synapses changed in number, proportion, and AMPA receptor expression with distance from the soma beyond that found within other perforated synaptic subtypes. Second, atypically large nonperforated synapses showed NMDA receptor immunoreactivity identical to perforated synapses, levels of AMPA receptor expression intermediate to nonperforated and perforated synapses, and perforated synapse-like changes in structure with distance from the soma. Finally, MSB connectivity was highest in proximal stratum radiatum, but only for those MSBs comprised of nonperforated synapses. The immunogold data suggest that most MSBs would not generate simultaneous depolarizations in multiple neurons or spines, however, because the vast majority of MSBs are comprised of two synapses with abnormally low levels of receptor expression, or involve one synapse with a high level of receptor expression and another with only a low level. PMID:19006199

  14. Prenatal stress induces vulnerability to nicotine addiction and alters D2 receptors' expression in the nucleus accumbens in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-09-24

    Prenatal stress (PS) can induce several long-lasting behavioral and molecular abnormalities in rats. It can also be considered as a risk factor for many psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia, depression or PTSD and predispose to addiction. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal stress on the reinforcing properties of nicotine in the CPP paradigm. Then, we examined the mRNA expression of the D2 dopaminergic receptors using the quantitative real-time PCR technique in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). We found that prenatally stressed rats exhibited a greater place preference for the nicotine-paired compartment than the control rats. Moreover, we observed an overexpression of the DRD2 gene in adult offspring stressed in utero and a downregulation in the PS NIC group (PS rats treated with nicotine) compared with their control counterparts (C NIC). These data suggest that maternal stress can permanently alter the offspring's addictive behavior and D2 receptors' expression. PMID:26192093

  15. Natural killer cell receptor expression in patients with severe and recurrent Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infections.

    PubMed

    Carter, C; Savic, S; Cole, J; Wood, P

    2007-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen which in a minority of people causes severe infections. In immunocompetent hosts the infection is self limiting. However, a small minority of people have frequent attacks. As NK cells have been implicated in host protection against HSV-1, the aim of this study was to compare NK cell receptor expression in healthy controls and in patients suffering from recurrent HSV-1 reactivations using monoclonal antibodies against NK cell receptors and 3 colour flow cytometry. Eighteen patients were recruited into the study and the results were compared to a control group. The results obtained showed that overall there was no statistical difference between patient and control groups in the expression of the NK cell receptors. There were however, individuals in the patient group (in particular, two members of one family) with significantly reduced level of activating receptors compared to the control group. PMID:17706187

  16. Glucocorticoids down-regulate beta 1-adrenergic-receptor expression by suppressing transcription of the receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, J; Hadcock, J R; Bahouth, S W; Malbon, C C

    1994-01-01

    The expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors is up-regulated by glucocorticoids. In contrast, beta 1-adrenergic receptors display glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation. In rat C6 glioma cells, which express both of these subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone stimulates no change in the total beta-adrenergic receptor content, but rather shifts the beta 1:beta 2 ratio from 80:20 to 50:50. Radioligand binding and immunoblotting demonstrate a sharp decline in beta 1-adrenergic receptor expression. Metabolic labelling of cells with [35S]-methionine in tandem with immunoprecipitation by beta 1-adrenergic-receptor-specific antibodies reveals a sharp decline in the synthesis of the receptor within 48 h for cells challenged with glucocorticoid. Steady-state levels of beta 1-adrenergic-receptor mRNA declined from 0.47 to 0.26 amol/microgram of total cellular RNA within 2 h of dexamethasone challenge, as measured by DNA-excess solution hybridization. The stability of receptor mRNA was not influenced by glucocorticoid; the half-lives of the beta 1- and beta 2-subtype mRNAs were 1.7 and 1.5 h respectively. Nuclear run-on assays revealed the basis for the down-regulation of receptor expression, i.e. a sharp decline in the relative rate of transcription for the beta 1-adrenergic-receptor gene in nuclei from dexamethasone-treated as compared with vehicle-treated cells. These data demonstrate transcriptional suppression as a molecular explanation for glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation of beta 1-adrenergic receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:8092990

  17. A novel pair of immunoglobulin-like receptors expressed by B cells and myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Kubagawa, Hiromi; Burrows, Peter D.; Cooper, Max D.

    1997-01-01

    An Fcα receptor probe of human origin was used to identify novel members of the Ig gene superfamily in mice. Paired Ig-like receptors, named PIR-A and PIR-B, are predicted from sequence analysis of the cDNAs isolated from a mouse splenic library. Both type I transmembrane proteins possess similar ectodomains with six Ig-like loops, but have different transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. The predicted PIR-A protein has a short cytoplasmic tail and a charged Arg residue in the transmembrane region that, by analogy with the FcαR relative, suggests the potential for association with an additional transmembrane protein to form a signal transducing unit. In contrast, the PIR-B protein has an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail containing four potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. These features are shared by the related killer inhibitory receptors. PIR-A proteins appear to be highly variable, in that predicted peptide sequences differ for seven randomly selected PIR-A clones, whereas PIR-B cDNA clones are invariant. Southern blot analysis with PIR-B and PIR-A-specific probes suggests only one PIR-B gene and multiple PIR-A genes. The PIR-A and PIR-B genes are expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid lineage cells, wherein both are expressed simultaneously. The characteristics of the highly-conserved PIR-A and PIR-B genes and their coordinate cellular expression suggest a potential regulatory role in humoral, inflammatory, and allergic responses. PMID:9144225

  18. Orexin receptor expression in human adipose tissue: effects of orexin-A and orexin-B.

    PubMed

    Digby, J E; Chen, J; Tang, J Y; Lehnert, H; Matthews, R N; Randeva, H S

    2006-10-01

    Orexin-A and orexin-B, via their receptors orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of feeding, body weight, and energy expenditure. Adipose tissue also contributes significantly to the maintenance of body weight by interacting with a complex array of bioactive peptides; however, there are no data as yet on the expression of orexin components in adipose tissue. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of OX1R and OX2R in human adipose tissue and determined functional responses to orexin-A and orexin-B. OX1R and OX2R mRNA expression was detected in subcutaneous (s.c.) and omental adipose tissue and in isolated adipocytes. Protein for OX1R and OX2R was also detected in whole adipose tissue sections and lysates. Treatment with orexin-A, and orexin-B (100 nM, 24 h) resulted in a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma-2 mRNA expression in s.c. adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Hormone sensitive lipase mRNA was significantly reduced in omental adipose tissue with orexin-A and orexin-B treatment (P < 0.05). Glycerol release from omental adipose tissue was also significantly reduced with orexin-A treatment (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of functional orexin receptors in human adipose tissue and suggest a role for orexins in adipose tissue metabolism and adipogenesis. PMID:17065396

  19. A novel pair of immunoglobulin-like receptors expressed by B cells and myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Kubagawa, H; Burrows, P D; Cooper, M D

    1997-05-13

    An Fcalpha receptor probe of human origin was used to identify novel members of the Ig gene superfamily in mice. Paired Ig-like receptors, named PIR-A and PIR-B, are predicted from sequence analysis of the cDNAs isolated from a mouse splenic library. Both type I transmembrane proteins possess similar ectodomains with six Ig-like loops, but have different transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. The predicted PIR-A protein has a short cytoplasmic tail and a charged Arg residue in the transmembrane region that, by analogy with the FcalphaR relative, suggests the potential for association with an additional transmembrane protein to form a signal transducing unit. In contrast, the PIR-B protein has an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail containing four potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. These features are shared by the related killer inhibitory receptors. PIR-A proteins appear to be highly variable, in that predicted peptide sequences differ for seven randomly selected PIR-A clones, whereas PIR-B cDNA clones are invariant. Southern blot analysis with PIR-B and PIR-A-specific probes suggests only one PIR-B gene and multiple PIR-A genes. The PIR-A and PIR-B genes are expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid lineage cells, wherein both are expressed simultaneously. The characteristics of the highly-conserved PIR-A and PIR-B genes and their coordinate cellular expression suggest a potential regulatory role in humoral, inflammatory, and allergic responses. PMID:9144225

  20. Neuropeptide S- and Neuropeptide S receptor-expressing neuron populations in the human pons

    PubMed Central

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Uhlén, Mathias; Reinscheid, Rainer R.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide with potent pharmacological effects. In rodents, NPS is expressed in a few pontine cell clusters. Its receptor (NPSR1) is, however, widely distributed in the brain. The anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects of NPS make the NPS–NPSR1 system an interesting potential drug target in mood-related disorders. However, so far possible disease-related mechanisms involving NPS have only been studied in rodents. To validate the relevance of these animal studies for i.a. drug development, we have explored the distribution of NPS-expressing neurons in the human pons using in situ hybridization and stereological methods and we compared the distribution of NPS mRNA expressing neurons in the human and rat brain. The calculation revealed a total number of 22,317 ± 2411 NPS mRNA-positive neurons in human, bilaterally. The majority of cells (84%) were located in the parabrachial area in human: in the extension of the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus and around the adjacent lateral lemniscus. In human, in sharp contrast to the rodents, only very few NPS-positive cells (5%) were found close to the locus coeruleus. In addition, we identified a smaller cell cluster (11% of all NPS cells) in the pontine central gray matter both in human and rat, which has not been described previously even in rodents. We also examined the distribution of NPSR1 mRNA-expressing neurons in the human pons. These cells were mainly located in the rostral laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the microcellular tegmental nucleus region and in the periaqueductal gray. Our results show that both NPS and NPSR1 in the human pons are preferentially localized in regions of importance for integration of visceral autonomic information and emotional behavior. The reported interspecies differences must, however, be considered when looking for targets for new pharmacotherapeutical interventions. PMID:26441556

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of peptide-conjugated phthalocyanine photosensitizers with highly hydrophilic modifications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu; Liu, Qian; Liang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jin; Pang, Mingpei; Huang, Weiqiang; Wu, Wenjie; Hong, Zhangyong

    2016-04-01

    The selectivity of targeted photosensitizer delivery is a constant challenge for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, with the aim of optimizing the affinity, selectivity and activity of peptide-conjugated photosensitizers for PDT therapy and fluorescence imaging, we designed a solid-phase strategy for the efficient synthesis of peptide-phthalocyanine (Pc) conjugates with two types of highly hydrophilic modifications to the Pc rings. The peptide conjugation clearly increased the photodynamic efficacy and selectivity of Pcs against cancer cells with different receptor expression levels. A highly hydrophilic modification to the Pc rings can block non-specific interactions between the Pcs and biological molecules while minimally influencing peptide ligand affinity with target receptors. Compared with the triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether group modification, the glycerol group modification exhibited a stronger capability to decrease the Pc aggregation tendency in aqueous medium, reduce non-specific binding and non-specific, light-induced cytotoxicity towards cells with low receptor expression in vitro; increased targeting selectivity was observed in the in vivo distribution experiments via the obvious reduction of background signals. Highly hydrophilic modifications to the Pc rings may be very useful for improving targeting selectivity for PDT with the construction of peptide-conjugated photosensitizers. PMID:26956169

  2. Micro-structured peptide surfaces for the detection of high-affinity peptide-receptor interactions in living cells.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Anna-Maria; Ji, Bozhi; Hager, Roland; Haas, Sandra; Schweiggl, Simone; Sonnleitner, Alois; Haselgrübler, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    Peptide ligands have great potential as selective agents for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic targeting of human cancers. A number of high-throughput assays for screening potential candidate peptides have been developed. Although these screening assays are indispensable for the identification of peptide ligands at a large scale, it is crucial to validate peptide binding and selectivity for targeted receptors in a live-cell context. For testing high-affinity peptide-receptor interactions in the plasma membrane of living cells, we developed cell-resistant, micro-structured glass surfaces with high-density and high-contrast peptide features. Cell adhesion and recruitment of fluorescent receptors to micro-patterned peptides in the live-cell membrane were evaluated by reflection interference contrast (RIC) and total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, respectively. To demonstrate both the specificity and modularity of the assay, co-patterning of fluorescent receptors with three different immobilized micro-structured ligands was shown: first, interaction of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expressed in Jurkat cells with immobilized EGF was detected and quantified. Second, using Jurkat cells, we demonstrated specific interaction of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged β3 integrin with c(RGDfK) peptide. Third, we identified indirect recruitment of GFP-tagged α5 integrin to an 11-mer peptide. In summary, our results show that the developed micro-structured surfaces are a useful tool for the validation and quantification of peptide-receptor interactions in their natural cellular environment. PMID:26210593

  3. Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Peter G.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Perretti, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, we examined the role played by B1 receptors in leukocyte trafficking across mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. B1 receptor blockade attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β–induced (5 ng intraperitoneally, 2 h) leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte emigration (∼50% reduction). The B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9bradykinin (DABK), although inactive in saline- or IL-8–treated mice, caused marked neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and emigration 24 h after challenge with IL-1β (when the cellular response to IL-1β had subsided). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed a temporal association between the DABK-induced response and upregulation of mesenteric B1 receptor mRNA and de novo protein expression after IL-1β treatment. DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking was antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10HOE 140 but not by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. Similarly, DABK effects were maintained in B2 receptor knockout mice. The DABK-induced responses involved the release of neuropeptides from C fibers, as capsaicin treatment inhibited the responses. Treatment with the neurokinin (NK)1 and NK3 receptor antagonists attenuated the responses, whereas NK2, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists had no effect. Substance P caused leukocyte recruitment that, similar to DABK, was inhibited by NK1 and NK3 receptor blockade. Mast cell depletion using compound 48/80 reduced DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking, and DABK treatment was shown histologically to induce mast cell degranulation. DABK-induced trafficking was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Our findings provide clear evidence that B1 receptors play an important role in the mediation of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules, leading to leukocyte recruitment during an inflammatory response. This involves activation of C fibers and mast cells

  4. Examination of relaxin and its receptors expression in pig gametes and embryos

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relaxin is a small peptide also known as pregnancy hormone in many mammals. It is synthesized by both male and female tissues, and its secretions are found in various body fluids such as plasma serum, ovarian follicular fluid, utero-oviduct secretions, and seminal plasma of many mammals, including pigs. However, the presence and effects of relaxin in porcine gametes and embryos are still not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in pig gametes and embryos. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from sows' ovaries collected at the abattoir. After in vitro-maturation, COCs were in vitro-fertilized and cultured. For studies, immature and mature COCs were separately collected, and oocytes were freed from their surrounding cumulus cells. Denuded oocytes, cumulus cells, mature boar spermatozoa, zygotes, and embryos (cleaved and blastocysts) were harvested for temporal and spatial gene expression studies. Sections of ovary, granulosa and neonatal porcine uterine cells were also collected to use as controls. Results Using both semi-quantitative and quantitative PCRs, relaxin transcripts were not detected in all tested samples, while RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA were present. Both receptor gene products were found at higher levels in oocytes compared to cumulus cells, irrespective of the maturation time. Cleaved-embryos contained higher levels of RXFP2 mRNA, whereas, blastocysts were characterized by a higher RXFP1 mRNA content. Using western-immunoblotting or in situ immunofluorescence, relaxin and its receptor proteins were detected in all samples. Their fluorescence intensities were consistently more important in mature oocytes than immature ones. The RXFP1 and RXFP2 signal intensities were mostly located in the plasma membrane region, while the relaxin ones appeared homogeneously distributed within the oocytes and embryonic cells. Furthermore, spermatozoa displayed

  5. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D2-Receptor Expressing Neurons Control Behavioral Flexibility in a Place Discrimination Task in the IntelliCage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated…

  6. Chondrocyte IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation in mouse articular cartilage during various phases of experimentally induced arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Verschure, P J; van Marle, J; Joosten, L A; van den Berg, W B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the distribution of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors and the biological response to IGF-1 stimulation in articular cartilage of normal mouse knee joints and arthritic joints taken at various stages of experimentally induced arthritis. METHODS--In situ IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation were examined in murine articular cartilage at different phases in two models of experimentally induced arthritis. IGF-1 receptor expression was visualised in joint sections with the use of anti-IGF-1 receptor antibodies and quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Chondrocyte proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was measured by incorporation of 35S-sulphate. RESULTS--In control cartilage, the majority of IGF-1 receptors were found on chondrocytes localised in the middle and deeper zones of the cartilage, whereas receptor expression in surface zone chondrocytes was very low. During culture of normal articular cartilage, IGF-1 was able to maintain chondrocyte PG synthesis at the in vivo level. Concurrently with the development of arthritis, cartilage lost its capacity to react to IGF-1, but IGF-1 stimulation recovered when the inflammatory response waned. Shortly after induction of arthritis, IGF-1 receptor expression initially declined, but it had returned to normal levels by day 1 and remained increased thereafter. CONCLUSION--The distribution of IGF-1 receptor expression in the different zones of normal articular cartilage reflects IGF-1 stimulation and metabolic activity of chondrocytes in these layers. This correlation is disturbed in arthritic cartilage, suggesting inadequate or overruled signalling. Images PMID:7677441

  7. Glucocorticoid-dependent induction of interleukin-6 receptor expression in human hepatocytes facilitates interleukin-6 stimulation of amino acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, C P; Bode, B P; Takahashi, K; Tanabe, K K; Souba, W W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors studied the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on glutamine and alanine transport in isolated human hepatocytes. They also evaluated the role of dexamethasone in modulating this response and its effects on the expression of the plasma membrane high-affinity IL-6 receptor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Animal studies indicate that cytokines are important mediators of the increased hepatic amino acid uptake that occurs during cancer and sepsis, but studies in human tissues are lacking. The control of transport by cytokines and cytokine receptor expression in the liver may provide a mechanism by which hepatocytes can modulate amino acid availability during catabolic disease states. METHODS: Human hepatocytes were isolated from wedge biopsy specimens and plated in 24-well trays. Interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha, in combination with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, were added to hepatocytes in culture, and the transport of radiolabeled glutamine and alanine was measured. Fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis was used to study the effects of dexamethasone on IL-6 receptor number in the well-differentiated human hepatoma HepG2. RESULTS: Both IL-6 and TNF-alpha exerted a small stimulatory effect on alanine and glutamine transport. Dexamethasone alone did not alter transport rates, but pretreatment of cells augmented the effects of both cytokines on carrier-mediated amino acid uptake. Dexamethasone pretreatment and a combination of IL-6 and TNF-alpha resulted in a greater than twofold increase in transport activity. Fluorescent-activated cell sorter analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone induced a threefold increase in the expression of high-affinity IL-6 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha work coordinately with glucocorticoids to stimulate amino acid uptake in human hepatocytes. Dexamethasone exerts a permissive effect on cytokine-mediated increases in transport by increasing IL

  8. Evidence for estrogen receptor expression in germ cell and somatic cell subpopulations in the ovary of the newly hatched chicken.

    PubMed

    Méndez, M C; Chávez, B; Echeverría, O; Vilchis, F; Vázquez Nin, G H; Pedernera, E

    1999-10-01

    Estrogens are involved in the gonadal morphogenesis of vertebrates, and almost all hormonal effects of 17beta-estradiol are mediated through specific receptors. At the time of sexual differentiation in the chicken, or even before, there is evidence of the presence of estrogen receptors and the secretion of 17beta-estradiol. However, no information is available regarding the cellular types that express the estrogen receptor in the immature chick ovary. The present study analyzes estrogen receptor expression in germ and somatic cells of the ovary in the newly hatched chicken. Highly purified cell subpopulations of germ and somatic cells were evaluated for specific 17beta-estradiol nuclear binding. In addition, the estrogen receptor was localized at the ultrastructural level by the immunogold technique. Finally, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction procedures detected a steady-state level of mRNA for the estrogen receptor. Somatic cells including typical steroidogenic cells showed specific 17beta-estradiol nuclear binding, displayed the estrogen receptor, and possessed estrogen receptor transcripts. The same result was observed in primary oocytes, together with the ultrastructural localization of estrogen receptor in extended chromatin filaments. Our experimental data support the hypothesis that estrogens are involved in the function of somatic and germ cells subpopulations in the immature chicken ovary. PMID:10555548

  9. Female predominance in meningiomas can not be explained by differences in progesterone, estrogen, or androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Katariina; Salminen, Tiina; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi; Isola, Jorma; Haapasalo, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The female predominance in meningioma incidence and association between meningioma and breast cancer suggest that growth of meningiomas is hormone-dependent. There are several discrepancies in literature about the proliferative effect of sex hormones on meningiomas. This study aims to evaluate the hormone receptor status of meningiomas and assess its relation to age, sex, histological grade, recurrence, and proliferation activity. The material was based on consecutive patients operated for meningioma at Tampere University Hospital in 1989-1999. The occurrence of progesterone, estrogen and androgen receptor in patients with primary and recurrent meningiomas was studied immunohistochemically by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Hormonal status was determined in 510 tumor samples. 443 samples were from primary meningiomas and 67 from recurrent tumors. Of the samples, 455 were benign (WHO grade I), 49 atypical (grade II), and 6 malignant (grade III). Of the primary tumor samples, 88% were progesterone receptor positive, 40% were positive for estrogen and 39% for androgen receptors. Grade I meningiomas had significantly higher incidence for estrogen and androgen receptors than higher grade meningiomas. Estrogen positive tumor samples had significantly higher proliferation index than estrogen negative samples. No difference in expression of sex hormone receptors was observed by sexes or age group. Estrogen and androgen receptors may have more influence on the pathogenesis of meningiomas than earlier thought. The higher incidence of meningiomas in women can not be explained by differences of sex hormone receptor expression. PMID:16703453

  10. Immune response genes receptors expression and polymorphisms in relation to multiple sclerosis susceptibility and response to INF-β therapy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Rehab A; Rezk, Noha A; Amer, Mona M; Fathy, Hala A

    2016-09-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β is one of the disease modifying drugs used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. A predictive marker that indicates good or poor response to the treatment is highly desirable. We aimed to investigate the relation between the immune response genes receptors (IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5) expression and their polymorhic variants and multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility as well as the response to IFN-β therapy. The immune response genes receptors expression and genotyping were analyzed in 80 patients with MS, treated with IFN-β and in 110 healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA expression and a significant increase of CCR5 mRNA expression in MS patients compared with the control group. Also, the level of IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5 mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the responders than nonresponders. Carriers of IFNAR1 18417 C/C genotype and C allele had an increased risk of developing MS. There was a significant relation between CCR5 Δ32 allele and IFN-β treatment response in MS patients. Our results highlighted the significance of IFNAR and CCR5 genes in multiple sclerosis risk and the response to IFN-β therapy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):727-734, 2016. PMID:27346865

  11. Clinical verification of sensitivity to preoperative chemotherapy in cases of androgen receptor-expressing positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yuka; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Kurata, Kento; Morisaki, Tamami; Noda, Satoru; Takashima, Tsutomu; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Seiichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients testing positive for androgen receptor (AR) expression are thought to be chemotherapy resistant, similar to other hormone receptor-positive breast cancers; however, this has not been substantially validated in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the association between chemotherapy sensitivity and AR expression in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using standardised chemotherapy criteria and regimens. Methods: A total of 177 patients with resectable early-stage breast cancer were treated with NAC. Oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67 and AR status were assessed immunohistochemically. Results: Sixty-one patients were diagnosed with TNBC; AR expression was identified in 23 (37.7%), which was significantly less common than that found in non-TNBC patients (103 of 116; 88.8% P<0.001). The rate of pathological complete response after NAC was significantly lower (P=0.001), and disease recurrence was more common (P=0.008) in patients with AR-positive compared with those with AR-negative TNBC. In TNBC cases, as expected, the non-recurrence period in cases that were negative for AR expression was significantly extended (P=0.006, log-rank). Conclusions: Androgen receptor expressions may be useful as biomarkers to predict treatment responses to NAC in TNBC. Moreover, induction of a change in subtype to the AR-negative phenotype was observed after NAC. PMID:26757422

  12. Genomic structure, promoter identification, and chromosomal mapping of a mouse nuclear orphan receptor expressed in embryos and adult testes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Wei, Li-Na; Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1995-11-01

    We have isolated and characterized overlapping genomic clones containing the complete transcribed region of a newly isolated mouse cDNA encoding an orphan receptor expressed specifically in midgestation embryos and adult testis. This gene spans a distance of more than 50 kb and is organized into 13 exons. The transcription initiation site is located at the 158th nucleotide upstream from the translation initiation codon. All the exon/intron junction sequences follow the GT/AG rule. Based upon Northern blot analysis and the size of the transcribed region of the gene, its transcript was determined to be approximately 2.5 kb. Within approximately 500 hp upstream from the transcription initiation site, several immune response regulatory elements were identified but no TATA box was located. This gene was mapped to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10 and its locus has been designated Tr2-11. Immunohistochemical studies show that the Tr2-11 protein is present mainly in advanced germ cell populations of mature testes and that Tr2-11 gene expression is dramatically decreased in vitamin A-depleted animals. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Identification and molecular docking studies for novel inverse agonists of SREB, super conserved receptor expressed in brain.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Aya; Nikaido, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Nozomi; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Takeda, Shigeki

    2016-07-01

    The identification of novel synthetic ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is important not only for understanding human physiology, but also for the development of novel drugs, especially for orphan GPCRs for which endogenous ligands are unknown. One of the orphan GPCR subfamilies, Super conserved Receptor Expressed in Brain (SREB), consists of GPR27, GPR85 and GPR173 and is expressed in the central nervous system. We report herein the identification of inverse agonists for the SREB family without their agonists. We carried out an in vitro screening of 5472 chemical compounds from the RIKEN NPDepo chemical library. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS to the GPR173-Gsα fusion protein expressed in Sf9 cells was measured and resulted in the identification of 8 novel GPR173 inverse agonists. The most potent compound showed an IC50 of approximately 8 μm. The identified compounds were also antagonists for other SREB members, GPR27 and GPR85. These results indicated that the SREB family could couple Gs-type G proteins, and SREB-Gsα fusion proteins showed significant constitutive activities. Moreover, a molecular model of GPR173 was constructed using the screening results. The combination of computational and biological methods will provide a unique approach to ligand identification for orphan GPCRs and brain research. PMID:27184081

  14. Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 Is Released in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Radsak, Markus P.; Taube, Christian; Haselmayer, Philipp; Tenzer, Stefan; Salih, Helmut R.; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Buhl, Roland; Schild, Hansjörg

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly recognized as a systemic disease that is associated with increased serum levels of markers of systemic inflammation. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a recently identified activating receptor on neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophage subsets. TREM-1 expression is upregulated by microbial products such as the toll-like receptor ligand lipoteichoic acid of Gram-positive or lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, sera from 12 COPD patients (GOLD stages I–IV, FEV1 51 ± 6%) and 10 healthy individuals were retrospectively analyzed for soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) using a newly developed ELISA. In healthy subjects, sTREM-1 levels were low (median 0.25 ng/mL, range 0–5.9 ng/mL). In contrast, levels of sTREM-1 in sera of COPD patients were significantly increased (median 11.68 ng/mL, range 6.2–41.9 ng/mL, P<.05). Furthermore, serum levels of sTREM-1 showed a significant negative correlation with lung function impairment. In summary, serum concentrations of sTREM-1 are increased in patients with COPD. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the relevance of sTREM-1 as a potential marker of the disease in patients with COPD. PMID:18317529

  15. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 fine-tunes inflammatory responses in murine Gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gawish, Riem; Martins, Rui; Böhm, Benedikta; Wimberger, Terje; Sharif, Omar; Lakovits, Karin; Schmidt, Mariane; Knapp, Sylvia

    2015-04-01

    During infections, TLR-mediated responses require tight regulation to allow for pathogen removal, while preventing overwhelming inflammation and immunopathology. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 negatively regulates inflammation by macrophages and impacts on phagocytosis, but the function of endogenous TREM-2 during infections is poorly understood. We investigated TREM-2's role in regulating TLR4-mediated inflammation by studying wild-type and TREM-2(-/-) mice challenged with LPS and found TREM-2 to dampen early inflammation. Augmented early inflammation in TREM-2(-/-) animals was followed by an accelerated resolution and ultimately improved survival, associated with the induction of the negative regulator A20. Upon infection with Escherichia coli, the otherwise beneficial effect of an exaggerated early immune response in TREM-2(-/-) animals was counteracted by a 50% reduction in bacterial phagocytosis. In line with this, TREM-2(-/-) peritoneal macrophages (PMs) exhibited augmented inflammation following TLR4 stimulation, demonstrating the presence and negative regulatory functionality of TREM-2 on primary PMs. Significantly, we identified a high turnover rate because TREM-2 RNA is 25-fold down-regulated and the protein proteasomally degraded upon LPS encounter, thus ensuring a tightly regulated and versatile system that modulates inflammation. Our results illustrate TREM-2's effects on infection-triggered inflammation and identify TREM-2 as a potential target to prevent overwhelming inflammation while preserving antibacterial-effector functions. PMID:25477281

  16. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-01-11

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are a diverse class of naturally occurring molecules that are produced as a first line of defense by all multicellular organisms. These proteins can have broad activity to directly kill bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and even cancer cells. Insects and plants primarily deploy AMPs as an antibiotic to protect against potential pathogenic microbes, but microbes also produce AMPs to defend their environmental niche. In higher eukaryotic organisms, AMPs can also be referred to as 'host defense peptides', emphasizing their additional immunomodulatory activities. These activities are diverse, specific to the type of AMP, and include a variety of cytokine and growth factor-like effects that are relevant to normal immune homeostasis. In some instances, the inappropriate expression of AMPs can also induce autoimmune diseases, thus further highlighting the importance of understanding these molecules and their complex activities. This Primer will provide an update of our current understanding of AMPs. PMID:26766224

  17. Peptide arrays for screening cancer specific peptides.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sahar; Mathews, Anu Stella; Byeon, Nara; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we describe a novel method to screen peptides for specific recognition by cancer cells. Seventy peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane in an array format, and a direct method to study the peptide-whole cell interaction was developed. The relative binding affinity of the cells for different peptides with respect to a lead 12-mer p160 peptide, identified by phage display, was evaluated using the CyQUANT fluorescence of the bound cells. Screening allowed identification of at least five new peptides that displayed higher affinity (up to 3-fold) for MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 human cancer cells compared to the p160 peptide. These peptides showed very little binding to the control (noncancerous) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Three of these peptides were synthesized separately and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to study their uptake and interaction with the cancer and control cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The results confirmed the high and specific affinity of an 11-mer peptide 11 (RGDPAYQGRFL) and a 10-mer peptide 18 (WXEAAYQRFL) for the cancer cells versus HUVECs. Peptide 11 binds different receptors on target cancer cells as its sequence contains multiple recognition motifs, whereas peptide 18 binds mainly to the putative p160 receptor. The peptide array-whole cell binding assay reported here is a complementary method to phage display for further screening and optimization of cancer targeting peptides for cancer therapy and diagnosis. PMID:20799711

  18. A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM) Family Member, TLT-6, is Involved in Activation and Proliferation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Seunghoon; Kong, Il-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Eun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family, which is abundantly expressed in myeloid lineage cells, plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by using in silico bioinformatics and to characterize the identified receptor. We thus found the TREM-like transcript (TLT)-6, a new member of TREM family. TLT-6 has a single immunoglobulin domain in the extracellular region and a long cytoplasmic region containing 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like domains. TLT-6 transcript was expressed in HSCs, monocytes and macrophages. TLT-6 protein was up-regulated on the surface of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. TLT-6 exerted anti-proliferative effects in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that TLT-6 may regulate the activation and proliferation of macrophages. PMID:26557807

  19. Patched Targeting Peptides for Imaging and Treatment of Hedgehog Positive Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Kong, Fanlin; Yang, David; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    High tumor hedgehog expression is correlated with poor prognosis in invasive ductal carcinoma. Peptides which bind the patched receptor have recently been reported to have a growth inhibitory effect in tumors with activated hedgehog signaling. We sought to examine growth inhibition with these peptides in breast cancer cells and use these peptides as molecular imaging probes to follow changes in hedgehog expression after chemotherapy. Significant growth inhibition was observed in breast cancer cell lines treated with PTCH-blocking peptides. Significant in vitro uptake was observed with both FITC- and 99mTc-EC-peptide conjugates. In vivo imaging studies displayed greater accumulation of 99mTc-labeled peptides within tumors as compared to adjacent muscle tissue. Patched receptor expression increased after treatment and this correlated with an increase in tumor radiotracer uptake. These studies suggest that peptides which bind the sonic hedgehog docking site in patched receptor correlate with patched expression and can be used to image patched in vivo. Further, our data suggest that radiolabeled peptides may enable us to examine the activity of the hedgehog signaling pathway and to evaluate response to anti-cancer therapies. PMID:25276795

  20. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgueta, Claudio; Vielma, Alex H.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB) cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > DhβE > MLA) together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine >> RJR2403 ~ choline), suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the β4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca2+ accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular Ca2+ stores. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG), suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing. PMID:25709566

  1. Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Nadjar, Agnes; Layé, Sophie; Leyrolle, Quentin; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Domercq, María; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Savage, Julie C.; Hui, Chin-Wai; Deudero, Juan J. P.; Brewster, Amy L.; Anderson, Anne E.; Zaldumbide, Laura; Galbarriatu, Lara; Marinas, Ainhoa; Vivanco, Maria dM.; Matute, Carlos; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response. When challenged with excitotoxicity in vitro (via the glutamate agonist NMDA) or inflammation in vivo (via systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or by omega 3 fatty acid deficient diets), microglia resorted to different strategies to boost their phagocytic efficiency and compensate for the increased number of apoptotic cells, thus maintaining phagocytosis and apoptosis tightly coupled. Unexpectedly, this coupling was chronically lost in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as well as in hippocampal tissue resected from individuals with MTLE, a major neurological disorder characterized by seizures, excitotoxicity, and inflammation. Importantly, the loss of phagocytosis/apoptosis coupling correlated with the expression of microglial proinflammatory, epileptogenic cytokines, suggesting its contribution to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. The phagocytic blockade resulted from reduced microglial surveillance and apoptotic cell recognition receptor expression and was not directly mediated by signaling through microglial glutamate receptors. Instead, it was related to the disruption of local ATP microgradients caused by the hyperactivity of the hippocampal network, at least in the acute phase of epilepsy. Finally, the uncoupling led to an accumulation of apoptotic newborn cells in the neurogenic niche that was due not to decreased survival but to delayed cell clearance

  2. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Cluny, N.L.; Baraboi, E.D.; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G.; Richard, D.; Dockray, G.J.; Sharkey, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. PMID:24145047

  3. Anabolic steroid- and exercise-induced cardio-depressant cytokines and myocardial β1 receptor expression in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, Vittorio; Di Paolo, Marco; Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; D'Errico, Stefano; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Parente, Ruggero; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rabozzi, Roberto; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2011-02-01

    Few animal model studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the impact of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) supraphysiological doses on the cardiovascular system and myocardial injury. Twenty-five male CD1 mice (8-10 weeks old; 35g initial body weight) were randomized into three AAS treated groups and two control groups. The AAS mice received intramuscular Nandrolone Decanoate (DECA-DURABOLIN), vehicled in arachidis oil, for 42 days, twice per week, with different dosages, studying plasma lipid analysis, cardiac histopathological features, cardiac β (1) adrenergic receptor expression, and the effects of the myocardial expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of cardiomyocytes apoptosis (HSP 70, TUNEL), using proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis. The mice had free movements in their animal rooms (two groups) or exercised by running on a motor-driven treadmill the others three groups. Recurring high dose AAS administration and physical training in mice produce significant increase in body weight and for total cholesterol. A moderate increase of the heart weight, cardiac hypertrophy and wide colliquative myocytolysis, were observed in high dose AAS administration and physical training group. The expression of HSP70 and inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increased in the three AAS-treated groups. TNF- α showed a more extensive expression in the AAS-high dose group. A significant apoptotic process randomly sparse in the myocardium was described. Our data support the hypothesis that the combined effects of vigorous training, anabolic steroid abuse and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, may predispose to myocardial injury. PMID:21050164

  4. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  5. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues: emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Herrera Moro Chao, D; Argmann, C; Van Eijk, M; Boot, R G; Ottenhoff, R; Van Roomen, C; Foppen, E; Siljee, J E; Unmehopa, U A; Kalsbeek, A; Aerts, J M F G

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and extra-oral tissues from lean and obese mice, remains poorly characterized. We focused on the impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, namely the hypothalamus and brainstem. We demonstrate that many of the GPCTRs and α-subunits are co-expressed in these tissues and that obesity decreases expression of T1R3, T2R116, Gα14, αTrans and TRPM5. In vitro high levels of glucose caused a prominent down-regulation of T1R2 and Gα14 expression in cultured hypothalamic neuronal cells, leptin caused a transient down-regulation of T1R2 and T1R3 expression. Intriguingly, expression differences were also observed in other extra-oral tissues of lean and obese mice, most strikingly in the duodenum where obesity reduced the expression of most bitter and sweet receptors. In conclusion, obesity influences components of sweet and bitter taste sensing in the duodenum as well as regions of the mouse brain involved in energy homeostasis, including hypothalamus and brainstem. PMID:27388805

  6. Uterine gland development begins postnatally and is accompanied by estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the dog.

    PubMed

    Cooke, P S; Borsdorf, D C; Ekman, G C; Doty, K F; Clark, S G; Dziuk, P J; Bartol, F F

    2012-11-01

    During neonatal and juvenile life, mammalian uteri undergo extensive structural and functional changes, including uterine gland differentiation and development. In sheep and mice, inhibition of neonatal uterine gland development induced by progestin treatment led to a permanent aglandular uterine phenotype and adult infertility, suggesting that this strategy might be useful for sterilizing dogs and other companion animals. The goal of this study was to define temporal patterns of adenogenesis (gland development), cell proliferation, and progesterone and estrogen receptor expression in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs as a first step toward determining whether neonatal progestin treatments might be a feasible contraceptive approach in this species. Uteri obtained from puppies at postnatal wk 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 were evaluated histologically and immunostained for MKI67, a marker of cell proliferation, estrogen receptor-1, and progesterone receptor. Adenogenesis was under way at 1 wk of age, as indicated by the presence of nascent glands beginning to bud from the luminal epithelium, and rapid proliferation of both luminal epithelial and stromal cells. By Week 2, glands were clearly identifiable and proliferation of luminal, glandular, and stromal cells was pronounced. At Week 4, increased numbers of endometrial glands were evident penetrating uterine stroma, even as proliferative activity decreased in all cell compartments as compared with Week 2. Whereas gland development was most advanced at Weeks 6 to 8, luminal, glandular, and stromal proliferation was minimal, indicating that the uterus was nearly mitotically quiescent at this age. Both estrogen receptor-1 and progesterone receptor were expressed consistently in uterine stromal and epithelial cells at all ages examined. In summary, canine uterine adenogenesis was underway by 1 wk of age and prepubertal glandular proliferation was essentially complete by Week 6. These results provided information necessary to

  7. Morphine-induced early delays in wound closure: involvement of sensory neuropeptides and modification of neurokinin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Jerri M.; Hasan, Wohaib; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Dose-limiting side effects of centrally-acting opioid drugs have led to the use of topical opioids to reduce the pain associated with chronic cutaneous wounds. However, previous studies indicate that topical morphine application impairs wound healing. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which morphine delays wound closure. Rats were depleted of sensory neuropeptides by treatment with capsaicin, and full-thickness 4 mm diameter wounds were excised from the intrascapular region. Wounds were treated topically twice daily with 5 mM morphine sulfate, 1 mM substance P, 1 mM neurokinin A, or 5 mM morphine combined with 1 m M substance P or neurokinin A and wound areas assessed. During closure, wound tissue was taken 1, 3, 5, and 8 days post-wounding from control and morphine-treated rats and immunostained for neurokinin receptors and markers for macrophages, myofibroblasts, and vasculature. Results obtained from capsaicin-treated animals demonstrated a significant delay in the early stages of wound contraction that was reversed by neuropeptide application. Treatment of capsaicin-treated rats with topical morphine did not further delay wound closure, suggesting that topical opioids impair wound closure via the inhibition of peripheral neuropeptide release into the healing wound. Morphine application altered neurokinin-1 and neurokinin-2 receptor expression in inflammatory and parenchymal cells essential for wound healing in a cell-specific manner, demonstrating a direct effect of morphine on neurokinin receptor regulation within an array of cells involved in wound healing. These data provide evidence indicating a potentially detrimental effect of topical morphine application on the dynamic wound healing process. PMID:19428329

  8. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues: emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Herrera Moro Chao, D.; Argmann, C.; Van Eijk, M.; Boot, R. G.; Ottenhoff, R.; Van Roomen, C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J. E.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and extra-oral tissues from lean and obese mice, remains poorly characterized. We focused on the impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, namely the hypothalamus and brainstem. We demonstrate that many of the GPCTRs and α-subunits are co-expressed in these tissues and that obesity decreases expression of T1R3, T2R116, Gα14, αTrans and TRPM5. In vitro high levels of glucose caused a prominent down-regulation of T1R2 and Gα14 expression in cultured hypothalamic neuronal cells, leptin caused a transient down-regulation of T1R2 and T1R3 expression. Intriguingly, expression differences were also observed in other extra-oral tissues of lean and obese mice, most strikingly in the duodenum where obesity reduced the expression of most bitter and sweet receptors. In conclusion, obesity influences components of sweet and bitter taste sensing in the duodenum as well as regions of the mouse brain involved in energy homeostasis, including hypothalamus and brainstem. PMID:27388805

  9. Progesterone receptor expression declines in the guinea pig uterus during functional progesterone withdrawal and in response to prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Toni N; Hirst, Jonathan J; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  10. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Javier A; Forsythe, Paul; Chew, Marianne V; Escaravage, Emily; Savignac, Hélène M; Dinan, Timothy G; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F

    2011-09-20

    There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABA(B1b) mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABA(Aα2) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABA(Aα2) in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. PMID:21876150

  11. Motor and behavioral phenotype in conditional mutants with targeted ablation of cortical D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luning; O'Leary, Claire; Kim, Hyun Ah; Parish, Clare L; Massalas, Jim; Waddington, John L; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schütz, Günter; Gantois, Ilse; Lawrence, Andrew J; Drago, John

    2015-04-01

    D1-dopamine receptors (Drd1a) are highly expressed in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and the striatum. A number of human diseases such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia are known to have cortical pathology involving dopamine receptor expressing neurons. To illuminate their functional role, we exploited a Cre/Lox molecular paradigm to generate Emx-1(tox) MUT mice, a transgenic line in which cortical Drd1a-expressing pyramidal neurons were selectively ablated. Emx-1(tox) MUT mice displayed prominent forelimb dystonia, hyperkinesia, ataxia on rotarod testing, heightened anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent abnormalities in a test of social interaction. The latter occurred in the context of normal working memory on testing in the Y-maze and for novel object recognition. Some motor and behavioral abnormalities in Emx-1(tox) MUT mice overlapped with those in CamKIIα(tox) MUT transgenic mice, a line in which both striatal and cortical Drd1a-expressing cells were ablated. Although Emx-1(tox) MUT mice had normal striatal anatomy, both Emx-1(tox) MUT and CamKIIα(tox) MUT mice displayed selective neuronal loss in cortical layers V and VI. This study shows that loss of cortical Drd1a-expressing cells is sufficient to produce deficits in multiple motor and behavioral domains, independent of striatal mechanisms. Primary cortical changes in the D1 dopamine receptor compartment are therefore likely to model a number of core clinical features in disorders such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia. PMID:25684539

  12. Effect of Exercise on µ-Opioid Receptor Expression in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla in Neuropathic Pain Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Jin; Byun, Jeong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuropathic pain and verify whether regular treadmill exercise alters opioid receptor expression in the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) in a neuropathic pain rat model. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. All rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e., group A, sham group (n=10); group B, chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n=11); and group C, CCI+exercise group (n=11). Regular treadmill exercise was performed for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks at the speed of 8 m/min for 5 minutes, 11 m/min for 5 minutes, and 22 m/min for 20 minutes. Withdrawal threshold and withdrawal latency were measured before and after the regular exercise program. Immunohistochemistry and Western blots analyses were performed using antibodies against µ-opioid receptor (MOR). Results Body weight of group C was the lowest among all groups. Withdrawal thresholds and withdrawal latencies were increased with time in groups B and C. There were significant differences of withdrawal thresholds between group B and group C at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after exercise. There were significant differences of withdrawal latencies between group B and group C at 3rd and 4th weeks after exercise. MOR expression of group C was significantly decreased, as compared to that of group B in the RVM and spinal cord. Conclusion In neuropathic pain, exercise induced analgesia could be mediated by desensitization of central MOR by endogenous opioids, leading to the shift of RVM circuitry balance to pain inhibition. PMID:26161338

  13. Adolescent social defeat alters N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and impairs fear learning in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Mears, Mackenzie; Forster, Gina L; Lei, Yanlin; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Repeated social defeat of adolescent male rats results in adult mesocortical dopamine hypofunction, impaired working memory, and increased contextual anxiety-like behavior. Given the role of glutamate in dopamine regulation, cognition, and fear and anxiety, we investigated potential changes to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors following adolescent social defeat. As both NMDA receptors and mesocortical dopamine are implicated in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear, a separate cohort of rats was challenged with a classical fear conditioning paradigm to investigate whether fear learning is altered by adolescent defeat. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure 3H-MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus. Assessment of fear learning was achieved using an auditory fear conditioning paradigm, with freezing toward the auditory tone used as a measure of conditioned fear. Compared to controls, adolescent social defeat decreased adult NMDA receptor expression in the infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while increasing expression in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Previously defeated rats also displayed decreased conditioned freezing during the recall and first extinction periods, which may be related to the observed decreases and increases in NMDA receptors within the central amygdala and CA3, respectively. The alteration in NMDA receptors seen following adolescent social defeat suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic systems, combined with mesocortical dopamine deficits, likely plays a role in the some of the long-term behavioral consequences of social stressors in adolescence seen in both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26876136

  14. Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Abiega, Oihane; Beccari, Sol; Diaz-Aparicio, Irune; Nadjar, Agnes; Layé, Sophie; Leyrolle, Quentin; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Domercq, María; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Paris, Iñaki; Valero, Jorge; Savage, Julie C; Hui, Chin-Wai; Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Deudero, Juan J P; Brewster, Amy L; Anderson, Anne E; Zaldumbide, Laura; Galbarriatu, Lara; Marinas, Ainhoa; Vivanco, Maria dM; Matute, Carlos; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Encinas, Juan M; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response. When challenged with excitotoxicity in vitro (via the glutamate agonist NMDA) or inflammation in vivo (via systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or by omega 3 fatty acid deficient diets), microglia resorted to different strategies to boost their phagocytic efficiency and compensate for the increased number of apoptotic cells, thus maintaining phagocytosis and apoptosis tightly coupled. Unexpectedly, this coupling was chronically lost in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as well as in hippocampal tissue resected from individuals with MTLE, a major neurological disorder characterized by seizures, excitotoxicity, and inflammation. Importantly, the loss of phagocytosis/apoptosis coupling correlated with the expression of microglial proinflammatory, epileptogenic cytokines, suggesting its contribution to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. The phagocytic blockade resulted from reduced microglial surveillance and apoptotic cell recognition receptor expression and was not directly mediated by signaling through microglial glutamate receptors. Instead, it was related to the disruption of local ATP microgradients caused by the hyperactivity of the hippocampal network, at least in the acute phase of epilepsy. Finally, the uncoupling led to an accumulation of apoptotic newborn cells in the neurogenic niche that was due not to decreased survival but to delayed cell clearance

  15. Effect of exercise on hyperactivity, impulsivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of spontaneous hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Sam; Baek, Dae Jung; Baek, Seung Soo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly believed that the symptoms of ADHD are closely associated with hypo-function of the dopamine system. Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine. Physical exercise is known to improve structural and functional impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the therapeutic effect of exercise on ADHD. [Methods] Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were evaluated by western blotting. [Results] The present results indicated that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity and impulsivity. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were increased in ADHD rats. Exercise alleviated hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD rats. Furthermore, dopamine D2 receptor expression in ADHD rats was also decreased by exercise. [Conclusion] We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain. PMID:25671205

  16. Somatostatin receptor expression, tumour response, and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with long-acting octreotide.

    PubMed

    Cebon, J; Findlay, M; Hargreaves, C; Stockler, M; Thompson, P; Boyer, M; Roberts, S; Poon, A; Scott, A M; Kalff, V; Garas, G; Dowling, A; Crawford, D; Ring, J; Basser, R; Strickland, A; Macdonald, G; Green, M; Nowak, A; Dickman, B; Dhillon, H; Gebski, V

    2006-10-01

    Octreotide may extend survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Forty-one per cent of HCCs have high-affinity somatostatin receptors. We aimed to determine the feasibility, safety, and activity of long-acting octreotide in advanced HCC; to identify the best method for assessing somatostatin receptor expression; to relate receptor expression to clinical outcomes; and to evaluate toxicity. Sixty-three patients with advanced HCC received intramuscular long-acting octreotide 20 mg monthly until progression or toxicity. Median age was 67 years (range 28-81 years), male 81%, Child-Pugh A 83%, and B 17%. The aetiologies of chronic liver disease were alcohol (22%), viral hepatitis (44%), and haemochromatosis (6%). Prior treatments for HCC included surgery (8%), chemotherapy (2%), local ablation (11%), and chemoembolisation (6%). One patient had an objective partial tumour response (2%, 95% CI 0-9%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased more than 50% in four (6%). Median survival was 8 months. Thirty four of 61 patients (56%) had receptor expression detected by scintigraphy; no clear relationship with clinical outcomes was identified. There were few grade 3 or 4 toxicities: hyperglycaemia (8%), hypoglycaemia (2%), diarrhoea (5%), and anorexia (2%). Patients reported improvements in some symptoms, but no major changes in quality of life were detected. Long-acting octreotide is safe in advanced HCC. We found little evidence of anticancer activity. A definitive randomised trial would identify whether patients benefit from this treatment in other ways. PMID:16953241

  17. C-Peptide Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... C-peptide is a useful marker of insulin production. The following are some purposes of C-peptide ... it nearly impossible to directly evaluate endogenous insulin production. In these cases, C-peptide measurement is a ...

  18. Vasoactive-intestinal-Peptide (vip) modulates the growth fraction of epithelial skin cells.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1992-06-01

    Using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, modifications of the growth fraction due to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were determined by immunostaining with monoclonal antibody Ki67. In addition, the expression of VIP receptor and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor have been analysed. VIP (10-(7) to 10-(11) M) produced an almost doubling of the total number of Ki67-positive cells in cultures with 2% fetal calf serum (FCS), wheras it was ineffective in FCS-free and 10% FCS cultures. The nuclear Ki67-staining patterns were classified into four categories. In FCS-free cultures VIP induced a shift from type III (light nucleus, staining nuclei) to type II (multiple, intensely stained spots). In cultures with 2% FCS, VIP induced a shift from type II to type III. VIP receptor expression was facilitated by VIP, when cells were grown in a medium supplemented with 10% FCS. VIP increased EGF receptor expression in FCS-free cultures but decreased the number EGF receptor-positive cells in experiments with 2% FCS. In conclusion, VIP is capable to modulate the growth fraction and receptor expression of HaCaT cells in vitro. The effects are dependent on the concentration of FCS within the culture medium. The findings might be of interest for keratinocyte pathology in general and dermatooncology in particular. PMID:21584504

  19. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning. PMID:22010640

  20. Endometriosis Is Associated With a Shift in MU Opioid and NMDA Receptor Expression in the Brain Periaqueductal Gray.

    PubMed

    Torres-Reverón, Annelyn; Palermo, Karylane; Hernández-López, Anixa; Hernández, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Thompson, Kenira J; Flores, Idhaliz; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-09-01

    Studies have examined how endometriosis interacts with the nervous system, but little attention has been paid to opioidergic systems, which are relevant to pain signaling. We used the autotransplantation rat model of endometriosis and allowed to progress for 60 days. The brain was collected and examined for changes in endogenous opioid peptides, mu opioid receptors (MORs), and the N-methyl-d-aspartate subunit receptor (NR1) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), since both of these receptors can regulate PAG activity. No changes in endogenous opioid peptides in met- and leu-enkephalin or β-endorphin levels were observed within the PAG. However, MOR immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in the ventral PAG in the endometriosis group. Endometriosis reduced by 20% the number of neuronal profiles expressing MOR and reduced by 40% the NR1 profiles. Our results suggest that endometriosis is associated with subtle variations in opioidergic and glutamatergic activity within the PAG, which may have implications for pain processing. PMID:27089914

  1. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. PMID:27094122

  2. Analgesic tolerance of opioid agonists in mutant mu-opioid receptors expressed in sensory neurons following intrathecal plasmid gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are known to play critical roles in the receptor functions. Our understanding of their participation in opioid analgesia is mostly based on studies of opioid effects on mutant receptors expressed in in vitro preparations, including cell lines, isolated neurons and brain slices. The behavioral consequences of the mutation have not been fully explored due to the complexity in studies of mutant receptors in vivo. To facilitate the determination of the contribution of phosphorylation sites in MOR to opioid-induced analgesic behaviors, we expressed mutant and wild-type human MORs (hMORs) in sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, a major site for nociceptive (pain) signaling and determined morphine- and the full MOR agonist, DAMGO,-induced effects on heat-induced hyperalgesic behaviors and potassium current (IK) desensitization in these rats. Findings A mutant hMOR DNA with the putative phosphorylation threonine site at position 394 replaced by an alanine (T394A), i.e., hMOR-T, or a plasmid containing wild type hMOR (as a positive control) was intrathecally delivered. The plasmid containing GFP or saline was used as the negative control. To limit the expression of exogenous DNA to neurons of DRGs, a neuron-specific promoter was included in the plasmid. Following a plasmid injection, hMOR-T or hMOR receptors were expressed in small and medium DRG neurons. Compared with saline or GFP rats, the analgesic potency of morphine was increased to a similar extent in hMOR-T and hMOR rats. Morphine induced minimum IK desensitization in both rat groups. In contrast, DAMGO increased analgesic potency and elicited IK desensitization to a significantly less extent in hMOR-T than in hMOR rats. The development and extent of acute and chronic tolerance induced by repeated morphine or DAMGO applications were not altered by the T394A mutation. Conclusions These results indicate that phosphorylation of T394

  3. Substance P, a potent bombesin antagonist in murine Swiss 3T3 cells, inhibits the growth of human small cell lung cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Woll, P.J.; Rozengurt, E. )

    1988-03-01

    In the search for a more potent bombesin antagonist, the authors found (D-Arg{sup 1},D-Phe{sup 5},D-Trp{sup 7,9},Leu{sup 11})substance P to be effective in mouse fibroblasts and to inhibit the growth of small cell lung cancer, a tumor that secretes bombesin-like peptides that may act as autocrine growth factors. In murine Swiss 3T3 cells, substance P proved to be a bombesin antagonist as judged by the following criteria: (i) inhibition of DNA synthesis induced by gastrin-releasing peptide and other bombesin-like peptides; (ii) inhibition of {sup 125}I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide binding to the bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor; (iii) reduction in cross-linking of the M{sub r} 75,000-85,000 protein putatively a component of the bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor; (iv) blocking of early cellular events that precede mitogenesis-calcium mobilization and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding. Substance P also inhibits mitogenesis induced by vasopressin but not that induced by a variety of other mitogens. Both antagonists reversibly inhibited the growth of small cell lung cancer in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Peptide antagonists could, therefore, have far-reaching therapeutic implications.

  4. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor overexpression in adrenocortical hyperplasia in MEN1 syndrome without loss of heterozygosity at the 11q13 locus

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcia Helena Soares; Domenice, Sorahia; Toledo, Rodrigo Almeida; Lourenço, Delmar Muniz; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Pinto, Emilia Modolo; Toledo, Sergio Pereira Almeida; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis of the adrenocortical lesions seen in MEN1 syndrome (ACL-MEN1) remain poorly understood; loss of heterozygosity at 11q13 and somatic mutations of MEN1 are not usually found in these lesions. Thus, additional genes must be involved in MEN1 adrenocortical disorders. Overexpression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor has been shown to promote adrenocortical tumorigenesis in a mice model and has also been associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome in humans. However, to our knowledge, the status of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical lesions in MEN1 has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with MEN1 syndrome. MATERIALS/METHODS: Three adrenocortical tissue samples were obtained from patients with previously known MEN1 germline mutations and in whom the presence of a second molecular event (a new MEN1 somatic mutation or an 11q13 loss of heterozygosity) had been excluded. The expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor was quantified by qPCR using the ΔΔCT method, and β-actin was used as an endogenous control. RESULTS: The median of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in the adrenocortical lesions associated with MEN1 syndrome was 2.6-fold (range 1.2 to 4.8) higher than the normal adrenal controls (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The current study represents the first investigation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical lesions without 11q13 loss of heterozygosity in MEN1 syndrome patients. Although we studied a limited number of cases of MEN1 adrenocortical lesions retrospectively, our preliminary data suggest an involvement of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor overexpression in the etiology of adrenocortical

  5. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Couch, Yvonne; Xie, Qin; Lundberg, Louise; Sharp, Trevor; Anthony, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS. PMID:26147001

  6. Evidence that MDMA ('ecstasy') increases cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in microglial cells: role in the neuroinflammatory response in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elisa; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Borcel, Erika; Peraile, Ines; Mayado, Andrea; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2010-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') produces selective long-lasting serotonergic neurotoxicity in rats. The drug also produces acute hyperthermia which modulates the severity of the neurotoxic response. In addition, MDMA produces signs of neuroinflammation reflected as microglial activation and an increase in the release of interleukin-1beta, the latter of which appears to be a consequence of the hyperthermic response and to be implicated in the neurotoxicity induced by the drug. Over-expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglia during non-immune and immune pathological conditions is thought to be aimed at controlling the production of neurotoxic factors such as proinflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to study the pattern of CB2 receptor expression following MDMA and to examine the effect of JWH-015 (a CB2 agonist) on the MDMA-induced neuroinflammatory response as well as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxicity. Adult Dark Agouti rats were given MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed 3 h or 24 h later for the determination of CB2 receptor expression. JWH-015 was given 48 h, 24 h and 0.5 h before MDMA and 1 h and/or 6 h later and animals were killed for the determination of microglial activation (3 h and 24 h) and 5-HT neurotoxicity (7 days). MDMA increased CB2 receptor expression shortly after administration and these receptors were found in microglia. JWH-015 decreased MDMA-induced microglial activation and interleukin-1beta release and slightly decreased MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. In conclusion, CB2 receptor activation reduces the neuroinflammatory response following MDMA and provides partial neuroprotection against the drug. PMID:20067581

  7. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Yvonne; Xie, Qin; Lundberg, Louise; Sharp, Trevor; Anthony, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS. PMID:26147001

  8. Mammalian antimicrobial peptide influences control of cutaneous Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Barbi, Joseph; McMaster, W. Robert; Gallo, Richard L.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) are important mediators of innate immunity against microbial pathogens acting through direct interaction with and disruption of microbial membranes and indirectly through modulation of host cell migration and activation. Using a mouse knock-out model in CAMP we studied the role of this host peptide in control of dissemination of cutaneous infection by the parasitic protozoan Leishmania. The presence of pronounced host inflammatory infiltration in lesions and lymph nodes of infected animals was CAMP-dependent. Lack of CAMP expression was associated with higher levels of IL-10 receptor expression in bone marrow, splenic and lymph node macrophages as well as higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by bone marrow macrophages and spleen cells but reduced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ by lymph nodes. Unlike wild-type mice, local lesions were exacerbated and parasites were found largely disseminated in CAMP knockouts. Infection of CAMP knockouts with parasite mutants lacking the surface metalloprotease virulence determinant resulted in more robust disseminated infection than in control animals suggesting that CAMP activity is negatively regulated by parasite surface proteolytic activity. This correlated with the ability of the pro-tease to degrade CAMP in vitro and co-localization of CAMP with parasites within macrophages. Our results highlight the interplay of antimicrobial peptides and Leishmania that influence the host immune response and the outcome of infection. PMID:21501359

  9. Sensory neuron-specific GPCRs Mrgprs are itch receptors mediating chloroquine-induced pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin; Tang, Zongxiang; Surdenikova, Lenka; Kim, Seungil; Patel, Kush N.; Kim, Andrew; Ru, Fei; Guan, Yun; Weng, Hao-Jui; Geng, Yixun; Undem, Bradley J.; Kollarik, Marian; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Anderson, David J.; Dong, Xinzhong

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating histamine-independent itch in primary sensory neurons are largely unknown. Itch induced by chloroquine (CQ) is a common side-effect of this widely used anti-malarial drug. Here we show that Mrgprs, a family of G protein-coupled receptors expressed exclusively in peripheral sensory neurons, function as itch receptors. Mice lacking a cluster of Mrgpr genes display significant deficits in itch induced by CQ but not histamine. CQ directly excites sensory neurons in an Mrgpr-dependent manner. CQ specifically activates mouse MrgprA3 and human MrgprX1. Loss- and gain-of-function studies demonstrate that MrgprA3 is required for CQ responsiveness in mice. Furthermore, MrgprA3-expressing neurons respond to histamine and co-express Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, a peptide involved in itch sensation, and MrgprC11. Activation of these neurons with MrgprC11-specific agonist BAM8-22 induces itch in wild-type but not mutant mice. Therefore, Mrgprs may provide molecular access to itch-selective neurons and constitute novel targets for itch therapeutics. PMID:20004959

  10. Sensory neuron-specific GPCR Mrgprs are itch receptors mediating chloroquine-induced pruritus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Tang, Zongxiang; Surdenikova, Lenka; Kim, Seungil; Patel, Kush N; Kim, Andrew; Ru, Fei; Guan, Yun; Weng, Hao-Jui; Geng, Yixun; Undem, Bradley J; Kollarik, Marian; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Anderson, David J; Dong, Xinzhong

    2009-12-24

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating histamine-independent itch in primary sensory neurons are largely unknown. Itch induced by chloroquine (CQ) is a common side effect of this widely used antimalarial drug. Here, we show that Mrgprs, a family of G protein-coupled receptors expressed exclusively in peripheral sensory neurons, function as itch receptors. Mice lacking a cluster of Mrgpr genes display significant deficits in itch induced by CQ but not histamine. CQ directly excites sensory neurons in an Mrgpr-dependent manner. CQ specifically activates mouse MrgprA3 and human MrgprX1. Loss- and gain-of-function studies demonstrate that MrgprA3 is required for CQ responsiveness in mice. Furthermore, MrgprA3-expressing neurons respond to histamine and coexpress gastrin-releasing peptide, a peptide involved in itch sensation, and MrgprC11. Activation of these neurons with the MrgprC11-specific agonist BAM8-22 induces itch in wild-type but not mutant mice. Therefore, Mrgprs may provide molecular access to itch-selective neurons and constitute novel targets for itch therapeutics. PMID:20004959

  11. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  12. Treadmill exercise inhibits hippocampal apoptosis through enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by abnormal mental functioning and disruptive behaviors. Abnormal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the glutamate receptor subtypes, has also been suggested to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The effect of treadmill exercise on schizophrenia-induced apoptosis in relation with NMDA receptor has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus using MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. MK-801 was intraperitoneally injected once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 60 min, once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, repeated injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced expression of NMDA receptor in hippocampal CA2-3 regions. MK-801 injection increased casapse-3 expression and enhanced cytochrome c release in the hippocampus. The ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 was higher in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice than the normal mice. In contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced NMDA receptor expression, suppressed caspae-3 activation and cytochrome c release, and inhibited the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Based on present finding, we concluded that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced neuronal apoptosis in MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed neuronal apoptosis through enhancing NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenic mice. PMID:25210696

  13. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Anju, Thoppil R; Smijin, Soman; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-secreting β cells, share common characteristics with neurons. Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and pancreas, and its action is mediated through glutamate receptors. In the present work, we analysed the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of AMPA receptor subunit and their functional role in insulin release. Radio receptor binding study in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density. Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells. We also found lowered IP3 content and decreased IP3 receptor in pancreas of diabetic rats. The alterations in AMPA and IP3 receptor resulted in reduced cytosolic calcium level concentration, which further blocks Ca(2+)-mediated insulin release. Vitamin D3 supplementation restored the alteration in vitamin D receptor expression, AMPA receptor density and AMPA and IP3 receptor expression in the pancreatic islets that helps to restore the calcium-mediated insulin secretion. Our study reveals the antidiabetic property of vitamin D3 that is suggested to have therapeutic role through regulating glutamatergic function in diabetic rats. PMID:26054778

  14. Gold nanoprobes-based resonance Rayleigh scattering assay platform: Sensitive cytosensing of breast cancer cells and facile monitoring of folate receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huai-Hong; Pi, Jiang; Lin, Xiaoying; Li, Baole; Li, Aiqun; Yang, Pei-Hui; Cai, Jiye

    2015-12-15

    A rapid, facile assay for sensitive cytosensing of breast cancer cells should help to guide potential medical evaluation for breast cancer. Here, we report development of novel resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) cytosensor for cell recognitions and folate (FA) receptor expression analyses on living cells. Using FA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (FA-AuNPs) as nanoprobes, the constructed nanoprobes-assembled recognition interface could increase the binding capacity for cell recognition, amplify Au-aggregates-enhanced RRS signal, and then enhance the sensitivity for membrane antibody assay. FA-AuNPs-based RRS measurements enabled a distinct 34-times-enhancement in RRS intensities after incubation with human breast cancer cells, compared with normal cells. Receptor-targeted cytosensor was used to quantitatively detect human breast cancer MCF-7, liver cancer HepG2 and normal cells, which expressing different amount of FA receptor, respectively. The detection limit for MCF-7 cells was 12 cells/mL with good selectivity and reproducibility. Furthermore, the proposed cytosensor allowed for dynamic evaluation of FA receptor expression on different living cells after dihydroartemisinin stimulus. This assay platform shows the good potential for clinical diagnostics and antibody-targeted drug screening. PMID:26141102

  15. Pesticide exposure during pregnancy, like nicotine, affects the brainstem α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression, increasing the risk of sudden unexplained perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Cappiello, Achille; Pusiol, Teresa; Corna, Melissa Felicita; Termopoli, Veronica; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-01-15

    This study indicates the impact of nicotine and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides used in agriculture) on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in human perinatal life. An in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system and immunohistochemistry to analyze the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in the brainstem from 44 fetuses and newborns were performed. In addition, the presence of selected agricultural pesticides in cerebral cortex samples of the victims was determined by specific analytical procedures. Hypodevelopment of brainstem structures checking the vital functions, frequently associated with α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor immunopositivity and smoke absorption in pregnancy, was observed in high percentages of victims of sudden unexpected perinatal death. In nearly 30% of cases however the mothers never smoked, but lived in rural areas. The search for pesticides highlighted in many of these cases traces of both organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. We detain that exposition to pesticides in pregnancy produces homologous actions to those of nicotine on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, allowing to developmental alterations of brainstem vital centers in victims of sudden unexplained death. PMID:25433450

  16. Seasonal changes in morphology and steroid receptor expression in the prostate of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula): an animal model for the study of prostate growth?

    PubMed

    Martyn, Helen; Pugazhenthi, Kamali; Gould, Maree; Fink, Jo W; McLeod, Bernie; Nicholson, Helen D

    2011-01-01

    The prostate of the brushtail possum undergoes growth and regression during the year. The present study investigated the morphological changes and expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Prostate tissue was collected from adult possums at 2-monthly intervals. The periurethral and outer glandular areas were separated and the volume of stromal, epithelial and luminal tissues measured in each area. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate cell proliferation with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and to localise androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptors α and β (ERα, ERβ). Seasonal changes in expression of the three receptors were investigated using quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. During the breeding season the volume of stromal tissue in the periurethral area and the luminal volume in the glandular area significantly increased. The change in periurethral volume was associated with increased PCNA-immunopositive cells. While the localisation of AR to the stromal and epithelial cells did not change, there was a significant increase in receptor expression before the main breeding season. ERα and ERβ expression and localisation did not alter during the year. Similarities in receptor expression and localisation suggest that the possum may be a suitable animal model for the study of human prostate growth. PMID:21635819

  17. Localization of human brain tumors by Tc-99m labelled P-280 synthetic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, P.; Varrella, P.; Vergara, E.

    1994-05-01

    A preliminary study in humans, using a 3021D molecular weight synthetic peptide (26 amino acids) which includes the RGD sequence that binds to the IIb/IIIa receptor expressed by activated platelets as well as by neoplasm cells, is reported. P-280 labelled with Tc-99M, via a chelator fused to the peptide, allows external gamma imaging. We have studied 21 patients (8 M/ 13 F, 21 to 80 years) with various diseases to define the pharmacokinetic and diagnostic accuracy of this probe. Imaging was performed as follows: dynamic, 0-15 min; planar 0.5, 2 and 4hrs; SPET 3 hrs. p.i. Doses ranged between 17.5-28 mCi of Tc-99m P-280 (0.2-0.4 mg).

  18. Brain natriutetic peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007509.htm Brain natriuretic peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test is a blood test that measures ...

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  20. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested. PMID:27145593

  1. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  3. Antimicrobial peptides in 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  4. EC-145, a folate-targeted Vinca alkaloid conjugate for the potential treatment of folate receptor-expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Dosio, Franco; Milla, Paola; Cattel, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    EC-145, under development by Endocyte, is a conjugate composed of desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide linked through a peptide spacer to the targeting moiety folic acid, for the potential intravenous treatment of folate receptor-overexpressing tumors, in particular ovarian and lung cancers. In vitro studies demonstrated that EC-145 selectively binds to cells that overexpress the folate receptor, causing dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, coincubation of the KB human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line with EC-145 and doxorubicin resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. Experiments in mouse tumor xenograft models have confirmed the potency of EC-145 and the curative effects of the drug conjugate were demonstrated in an aggressive lymphoma xenograft model. In a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors, adverse events were generally of moderate severity with the most frequent being fatigue, constipation and peripheral sensory neuropathy. Preliminary data from a phase II clinical trial in patients with advanced ovarian cancer demonstrated that third- or fourth-line treatment with EC-145 yielded better disease control than second- or third-line liposomal doxorubicin. Coadministration of EC-145 and liposomal doxorubicin produced a statistically significant increase in progression-free survival over standard therapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Phase III clinical trials are expected to confirm these promising results. PMID:21154124

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta and transforming growth factor beta-receptor expression in human meningioma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. D.; Federspiel, C. F.; Gold, L. I.; Moses, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) family in mammals includes three closely related peptides that influence proliferation and numerous physiologic processes in most mesenchymal cells. In this study, Northern blots, immunohistochemistry, TGF beta radioreceptor assays, TGF beta receptor affinity labeling and [3H] thymidine incorporation were used to evaluate whether primary cell cultures of human meningiomas synthesize the three TGF beta isoforms, bear TGF beta receptors, and respond to TGF beta. Transcripts for TGF beta 1 and 2 were detected in the three cases analyzed. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 immunoreactivity was detected in three of six cases, and TGF beta 2 and 3 immunoreactivity were detected in each case analyzed. Media conditioned by cells cultured from six meningiomas also contained latent TGF beta-like activity. Transforming growth factor-beta receptor cross-linking studies identified TGF beta binding sites corresponding to the type 1, type 2, and type 3 receptors on meningioma cells. Treatment with active TGF beta 1 produced a statistically significant reduction in [3H] thymidine incorporation after stimulation with 10% fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor in all six cases studied. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1325741

  6. Novel 1,4-diarylpiperidine-4-methylureas as anti-hyperlipidemic agents: dual effectors on acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase and low-density lipoprotein receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Ban, Hitoshi; Kino, Kouichi; Ioriya, Katsuhisa; Muraoka, Masami

    2009-02-15

    A family of 1,4-diarylpiperidine-4-methylureas were designed and synthesized as novel dual effectors on ACAT and LDL receptor expression. We examined SAR of the synthesized compounds focusing on substitution at the three aromatic parts of the starting compound 1 and succeeded in identifying essential substituents for inhibition of ACAT and up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor expression. Especially, we found that compound 12f, which can easily be prepared, has biological properties comparable to those of SMP-797, a promising ACAT inhibitor. In addition, the in vitro effects of 12f on lipid metabolism were substantially superior to those of a known ACAT inhibitor, Avasimibe. PMID:19167888

  7. Differential cerebellar GABAA receptor expression in mice with mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Kaja, S; Payne, A J; Nielsen, E Ø; Thompson, C L; van den Maagdenberg, A M J M; Koulen, P; Snutch, T P

    2015-09-24

    Ataxia is the predominant clinical manifestation of cerebellar dysfunction. Mutations in the human CACNA1A gene, encoding the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, underlie several neurological disorders, including Episodic Ataxia type 2 and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 1 (FHM1). Several mouse mutants exist that harbor mutations in the orthologous Cacna1a gene. The spontaneous Cacna1a mutants Rolling Nagoya (tg(rol)), Tottering (tg) and Leaner (tg(ln)) mice exhibit behavioral motor phenotypes, including ataxia. Transgenic knock-in (KI) mouse strains with the human FHM1 R192Q and S218L missense mutations have been generated. R192Q KI mice are non-ataxic, whereas S218L KI mice display a complex behavioral phenotype that includes cerebellar ataxia. Given the dependence of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit functioning on localized calcium currents, and the functional link between GABAergic inhibition and ataxia, we hypothesized that cerebellar GABAA receptor expression is differentially affected in Cacna1a mutants and contributes to the ataxic phenotype. Herein we quantified functional GABAA receptors and pharmacologically dissociated cerebellar GABAA receptors in several Cacna1a mutants. We did not identify differences in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits or in the number of functional GABAA receptors in the non-ataxic R192Q KI strain. In contrast, tg(rol) mice had a ∼15% decrease in the number of functional GABAA receptors, whereas S218L KI mice showed a ∼29% increase. Our data suggest that differential changes in cerebellar GABAA receptor expression profile may contribute to the neurological phenotype of cerebellar ataxia and that targeting GABAA receptors might represent a feasible complementary strategy to treat cerebellar ataxia. PMID:26208839

  8. Exposure to opiates in female adolescents alters mu opiate receptor expression and increases the rewarding effects of morphine in future offspring.

    PubMed

    Vassoler, Fair M; Wright, Siobhan J; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2016-04-01

    Prescription opiate use and abuse has increased dramatically over the past two decades, including increased use in adolescent populations. Recently, it has been proposed that use during this critical period may affect future offspring even when use is discontinued prior to conception. Here, we utilize a rodent model to examine the effects of adolescent morphine exposure on the reward functioning of the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine for 10 days during early adolescence (post-natal day 30-39) using an escalating dosing regimen. Animals then remained drug free until adulthood at which point they were mated with naïve males. Adult offspring (F1 animals) were tested for their response to morphine-induced (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioned place preference (CPP) and context-independent morphine-induced sensitization. Naïve littermates were used to examine mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Results indicate that F1 females whose mothers were exposed to morphine during adolescence (Mor-F1) demonstrate significantly enhanced CPP to the lowest doses of morphine compared with Sal-F1 females. There were no differences in context-independent sensitization between maternal treatment groups. Protein expression analysis showed significantly increased levels of accumbal mu opiate receptor in Mor-F1 offspring and decreased levels in the VTA. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a shift in the dose response curve with regard to the rewarding effects of morphine in Mor-F1 females which may in part be due to altered mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and VTA. PMID:26700246

  9. Modafinil restores methamphetamine induced object-in-place memory deficits in rats independent of glutamate N-methyl d-aspartate receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Gilstrap, Meghin G.; Ramsey, Lauren A.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse in humans can lead to various cognitive deficits, including memory loss. We previously showed that chronic meth self-administration impairs memory for objects relative to their location and surrounding objects. Here, we demonstrate that the cognitive enhancer, modafinil, reversed this cognitive impairment independent of glutamate N-methyl d-aspartate (GluN) receptor expression. Methods Male, Long-Evans rats underwent a noncontingent (Experiment 1) or contingent (Experiment 2) meth regimen. After one week of abstinence, rats were tested for object-in-place recognition memory. Half the rats received either vehicle or modafinil (100 mg/kg) immediately after object familiarization. Rats (Experiment 2) were sacrificed immediately after the test and brain areas that comprise the key circuitry for object in place performance were manually dissected. Subsequently, glutamate receptor expression was measured from a crude membrane fraction using western blot procedures. Results Saline-treated rats spent more time interacting with the objects in changed locations, while meth-treated rats distributed their time equally among all objects. Meth-treated rats that received modafinil showed a reversal in the deficit, whereby they spent more time exploring the objects in the new locations. GluN2B receptor subtype was decreased in the perirhinal cortex, yet remained unaffected in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of meth rats. This meth-induced down regulation occurred whether or not meth experienced rats received vehicle or modafinil. Conclusions These data support the use of modafinil for memory impairment in meth addiction. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural mechanisms of modafinil reversal of cognitive impairments. PMID:24120858

  10. 64Cu-labeled alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog for microPET imaging of melanocortin 1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen; Xiong, Zhengming; Subbarayan, Murugesan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2007-01-01

    The alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) receptor (melanocortin type 1 receptor, or MC1R) plays an important role in the development and growth of melanoma cells. It was found that MC1R was overexpressed on most murine and human melanoma, making it a promising molecular target for melanoma imaging and therapy. Radiolabeled alpha-MSH peptide and its analogs that can specifically bind with MC1R have been extensively explored for developing novel agents for melanoma detection and radionuclide therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate a 64Cu-labeled alpha-MSH analog, Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys(DOTA)-NH2 (DOTA-NAPamide), as a potential molecular probe for microPET imaging of melanoma and MC1R expression in melanoma xenografted mouse models. 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated NAPamide was synthesized and radiolabeled with 64Cu (t1/2=12 h) in NH4OAc (0.1 M; pH 5.5) buffered solution for 60 min at 50 degrees C. Cell culture studies reveal rapid and high uptake and internalization of 64Cu-DOTA-NAPamide in B16F10 cells. Over 90% of receptor-bound tracer is internalized at 3 h incubation. A cellular retention study demonstrates that the receptor-bound 64Cu-DOTA-NAPamide is slowly released from the B16F10 cells into the medium; 66% of the radioactivity is still associated with the cells even after 3 h incubation. The biodistribution of 64Cu-DOTA-NAPamide was then investigated in C57BL/6 mice bearing subcutaneous murine B16F10 melanoma tumors with high capacity of MC1R and Fox Chase Scid mice bearing human A375M melanoma with a relatively low number of MC1R receptors. Tumor uptake values of 64Cu-DOTA-NAPamide are found to be 4.63 +/- 0.45% and 2.49 +/- 0.31% ID/g in B16F10 and A375M xenografted melanoma at 2 h postinjection (pi), respectively. The B16F10 tumor uptake at 2 h pi is further inhibited to 2.29 +/- 0.24% ID/g, while A375M tumor uptake at 2 h pi remains 2.20 +/- 0.41% ID/g with a coinjection of excess

  11. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  12. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation. PMID:26281357

  13. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  14. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  15. Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.

    PubMed

    Moran, A W; Al-Rammahi, M; Zhang, C; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes is accomplished by sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the majority of mammalian species, expression (this includes activity) of SGLT1 is upregulated in response to increased dietary monosaccharides. This regulatory pathway is initiated by sensing of luminal sugar by the gut-expressed sweet taste receptor. The objectives of our studies were to determine (1) if the ruminant intestine expresses the sweet taste receptor, which consists of two subunits [taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3)], and other key signaling molecules required for SGLT1 upregulation in nonruminant intestines, and (2) whether T1R2-T1R3 sensing of artificial sweeteners induces release of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and enhances SGLT1 expression. We found that the small intestine of sheep and cattle express T1R2, T1R3, G-protein gustducin, and GLP-2 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Maintaining 110-d-old ruminating calves for 60d on a diet containing a starter concentrate and the artificial sweetener Sucram (consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) enhances (1) Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake by over 3-fold, (2) villus height and crypt depth by 1.4- and 1.2-fold, and (3) maltase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity by 1.5-fold compared to calves maintained on the same diet without Sucram. No statistically significant differences were observed for rates of intestinal glucose uptake, villus height, crypt depth, or enzyme activities between 50-d-old milk-fed calves and calves maintained on the same diet containing Sucram. When adult cows were kept on a diet containing 80:20 ryegrass hay-to-concentrate supplemented with Sucram, more than a 7-fold increase in SGLT1 protein abundance was noted. Collectively, the data indicate that inclusion of this artificial sweetener enhances SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth in ruminant animals. Exposure of ruminant sheep

  16. The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Subverts Nuclear Receptors Expression and Induces a STAT1-Dependent Proinflammatory Phenotype in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; D'Amore, Claudio; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. Aim While several HIV proteins have been identified and characterized for their ability to maintain immune activation, the role of HIV-p17, a matrix protein involved in the viral replication, is still undefined. Results Here, we report that exposure of macrophages to recombinant human p17 induces the expression of proinflammatory and proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36) while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPARγ) that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells. Exposure of macrophage cell lines to p17 activates a signaling pathway mediated by Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 and causes a promoter-dependent regulation of STAT-1 target genes. These effects are abrogated by sera obtained from HIV-infected persons vaccinated with a p17 peptide. Ligands for FXR and PPARγ counteract the effects of p17. Conclusions The results of this study show that HIV p17 highjacks a Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 pathway in macrophages, and that the activation of this pathway leads to a simultaneous dysregulation of immune and metabolic functions. The binding of STAT-1 to specific responsive elements in the promoter of PPARγ and FXR and MCP-1 shifts macrophages toward a pro-atherogenetic phenotype characterized by high levels of expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. The present work identifies p17 as a novel target in HIV

  17. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr6,Apa-4Cl11,Phe13,Nle14]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated Ca2+ influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  18. The peptidergic control circuit for sighing.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Janczewski, Wiktor A; Yackle, Kevin; Kam, Kaiwen; Pagliardini, Silvia; Krasnow, Mark A; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-02-18

    Sighs are long, deep breaths expressing sadness, relief or exhaustion. Sighs also occur spontaneously every few minutes to reinflate alveoli, and sighing increases under hypoxia, stress, and certain psychiatric conditions. Here we use molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches to identify a peptidergic sigh control circuit in murine brain. Small neural subpopulations in a key breathing control centre, the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG), express bombesin-like neuropeptide genes neuromedin B (Nmb) or gastrin-releasing peptide (Grp). These project to the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the respiratory rhythm generator, which expresses NMB and GRP receptors in overlapping subsets of ~200 neurons. Introducing either neuropeptide into preBötC or onto preBötC slices, induced sighing or in vitro sigh activity, whereas elimination or inhibition of either receptor reduced basal sighing, and inhibition of both abolished it. Ablating receptor-expressing neurons eliminated basal and hypoxia-induced sighing, but left breathing otherwise intact initially. We propose that these overlapping peptidergic pathways comprise the core of a sigh control circuit that integrates physiological and perhaps emotional input to transform normal breaths into sighs. PMID:26855425

  19. The peptidergic control circuit for sighing

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Kaiwen; Pagliardini, Silvia; Krasnow, Mark A.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Sighs are long, deep breaths expressing sadness, relief, or exhaustion. Sighs also occur spontaneously every few minutes to reinflate alveoli, and sighing increases under hypoxia, stress, and certain psychiatric conditions. Here we use molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches to identify a peptidergic sigh control circuit in murine brain. Small neural subpopulations in a key breathing control center (RTN/pFRG) express bombesin-like neuropeptide genes neuromedin B (Nmb) or gastrin releasing peptide (Grp). These project to the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the respiratory rhythm generator, which expresses NMB and GRP receptors in overlapping subsets of ~200 neurons. Introducing either neuropeptide into preBötC, or onto preBötC slices, induced sighing, whereas elimination or inhibition of either receptor reduced basal sighing and inhibition of both abolished it. Ablating receptor-expressing neurons eliminated basal and hypoxia-induced sighing, but left breathing otherwise intact initially. We propose these overlapping peptidergic pathways comprise the core of a sigh control circuit that integrates physiological and perhaps emotional input to transform normal breaths into sighs. PMID:26855425

  20. Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Jeffry, Joseph; Hampton, Lori; Demehri, Shadmehr; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Xian-Yu; Barry, Devin M.; Wan, Li; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Li, Hui; Turkoz, Ahu; Ma, Kaijie; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Kopan, Raphael; Battey, James F.; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Zhou-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAFNav1.8 mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAFNav1.8 mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAFNav1.8 mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis– or dry skin–elicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation. PMID:24216512

  1. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr(6),Apa-4Cl(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  2. Antihypertensive peptides from curd

    PubMed Central

    Dabarera, Melani Chathurika; Athiththan, Lohini V.; Perera, Rasika P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Curd (Dadhi) peptides reduce hypertension by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and serum cholesterol. Peptides vary with bacterial species and milk type used during fermentation. Aim: To isolate and assay the antihypertensive peptides, before and after digestion, in two commercially available curd brands in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Whey (Dadhi Mastu) separated by high-speed centrifugation was isolated using reverse-phase-high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Eluted fractions were analyzed for ACE inhibitory activity using modified Cushman and Cheung method. Curd samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion with pepsin, trypsin, and carboxypeptidase-A at their optimum pH and temperature. Peptides isolated using reverse-phase-HPLC was assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Results: Whey peptides of both brands gave similar patterns (seven major and five minor peaks) in HPLC elution profile. Smaller peptides concentration was higher in brand 1 and penta-octapeptides in brand 2. Pentapeptide had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (brand 2–90% and brand 1–73%). After digestion, di and tri peptides with similar inhibitory patterns were obtained in both which were higher than before digestion. Thirteen fractions were obtained, where nine fractions showed more than 70% inhibition in both brands with 96% ACE inhibition for a di-peptide. Conclusion: Curd has ACE inhibitory peptides and activity increases after digestion. PMID:27011726

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  4. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. PMID:23355488

  5. Peptide folding simulations.

    PubMed

    Gnanakaran, S; Nymeyer, Hugh; Portman, John; Sanbonmatsu, Kevin Y; García, Angel E

    2003-04-01

    Developments in the design of small peptides that mimic proteins in complexity, recent advances in nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy methods to study peptides and the development of modern, highly parallel simulation algorithms have come together to give us a detailed picture of peptide folding dynamics. Two newly implemented simulation techniques, parallel replica dynamics and replica exchange molecular dynamics, can now describe directly from simulations the kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide formation, respectively. Given these developments, the simulation community now has the tools to verify and validate simulation protocols and models (forcefields). PMID:12727509

  6. Evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF in chordates: insights from novel amphioxus RFamide peptides.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Okamura, Tomoki; Son, You Lee; Ohkubo, Makoto; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Henmi, Yasuhisa; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a newly identified hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits pituitary hormone secretion in vertebrates. GnIH has an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif at the C-terminal in representative species of gnathostomes. On the other hand, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), a neuropeptide characterized as a pain-modulatory neuropeptide, in vertebrates has a PQRFamide motif similar to the C-terminal of GnIH, suggesting that GnIH and NPFF have diverged from a common ancestor. Because GnIH and NPFF belong to the RFamide peptide family in vertebrates, protochordate RFamide peptides may provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF. In this study, we identified a novel gene encoding RFamide peptides and two genes of their putative receptors in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis indicated that these genes are closely related to the genes of GnIH and NPFF and their receptors of vertebrates. We further identified mature RFamide peptides and their receptors in protochordates. The identified amphioxus RFamide peptides inhibited forskolin induced cAMP signaling in the COS-7 cells with one of the identified amphioxus RFamide peptide receptors expressed. These results indicate that the identified protochordate RFamide peptide gene is a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes, suggesting that the origin of GnIH and NPFF may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH gene and NPFF gene may have diverged by whole-genome duplication in the course of vertebrate evolution. PMID:24983238

  7. Insulin C-peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin produced by the body and insulin injected ...

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor expression and function in fibroblasts from two patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15.

    PubMed

    Siebler, T; Lopaczynski, W; Terry, C L; Casella, S J; Munson, P; De Leon, D D; Phang, L; Blakemore, K J; McEvoy, R C; Kelley, R I

    1995-12-01

    Most patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 have intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth deficiency in addition to developmental abnormalities. It has been proposed that the absence of one copy of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor gene may play a role in the growth deficiency seen in this syndrome. To address this question we examined IGF-I receptor expression and function in fibroblasts from two patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 (15q26.1-->qter). Quantitative Southern blot analysis of the IGF-I receptor gene was performed on HindIII digests of fibroblast DNA. Radioactivity in the 1.7-kilobase receptor fragment in the two patients was 55% and 51% of the values in controls, consistent with the absence of one copy of the IGF-I receptor gene. IGF-I receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels were quantitated by a solution hybridization/nuclease protection assay. Receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the two patients were 45% and 52% of the values in controls. Northern blotting demonstrated normal size IGF-I receptor transcripts and affinity crosslinking of [125I]IGF-I to Triton X-100-solubilized fibroblasts demonstrated a normal size receptor in the patients. Analysis of placental membranes prepared from one patient revealed no difference in [125I]IGF-I binding. In the patients' fibroblasts, however, binding of [125I]long [R3]-IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor was significantly reduced, as assessed by the amount of radioactivity competed by the monoclonal antibody alpha IR-3 or insulin and Scatchard analysis of binding data. To assess IGF-I receptor function, stimulation of [alpha-1-14C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid transport and stimulation of [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by a full range of IGF-I concentrations was examined in patient and control fibroblasts. There was a significant decrease in the maximal response to IGF-I in both assays for one of the two patients when

  9. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of rat, cat, and human in relation to tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S K; Joyce, J N

    1994-06-01

    A detailed study comparing the distribution of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices of the rat, cat, and human was conducted. The distribution of [125I]epidepride binding to D2 receptors along the transverse and longitudinal axes of the hippocampus and parahippocampus differed among the species. In rat hippocampus, the number of sites was highest in septal portions of lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 and stratum moleculare of the subiculum. Virtually no binding to D2 receptors existed in the temporal hippocampus. For the cat hippocampus, the highest binding existed in the inner one-third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). There were also significant numbers of D2 receptors in strata radiatum and oriens of the CA subfields, with almost undetectable levels in lacunosum moleculare and subiculum. The number of sites was higher in the septal than temporal hippocampus. In the human hippocampus, highest binding was observed in the molecular layer of DG and the subiculum, with lower levels in strata oriens and lacunosum-moleculare of CA3, and very low binding in CA1. The histochemical demonstration of the pattern of mossy fibers revealed an organization complementary to that of D2 receptors in cat and human. In none of the species was there significant expression of D2 receptors in the entorhinal cortex, except in the caudal extreme of this region in the rat. In that region a trilaminar pattern was exhibited that continued into the perirhinal cortex. A trilaminar pattern of D2 receptor expression was observed in the perirhinal cortex of all species, with the highest values in the external and deep laminae and low expression in the middle laminae. The organization of dopamine fibers was assessed by comparing the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive and dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in these same regions. It revealed consistent mismatches between the pattern of D2

  10. Chronic cortisol suppresses pituitary and hypothalamic peptide message expression in pigtailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Szot, P; Wilkinson, C W; White, S S; Leverenz, J B; Greenup, J L; Colasurdo, E A; Peskind, E R; Raskind, M A

    2004-01-01

    The effects of chronic elevations in circulating glucocorticoids on the expression of peptides and peptide receptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been studied extensively in rodents, but they have not been examined in primates. To determine the responses of the HPA axis in primates to elevated cortisol, hypothalamic and pituitary tissue from normal older pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) that had received daily oral administration of cortisol or placebo for 1 year were studied. Pro-opiomelanocortin in the anterior pituitary and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly reduced in cortisol-treated monkeys in comparison with controls. CRF receptor 1 (CRF-R1) expression in the anterior pituitary and arginine vasopressin mRNA expression in the PVN were unchanged by chronic cortisol administration. Sustained elevation of circulating glucocorticoids results in suppression of HPA peptide and peptide receptor expression in the PVN and anterior pituitary similar to those found in rodents. Chronic therapeutic administration of glucocorticoids in humans may have unintended consequences for hypothalamic and pituitary function. PMID:15145089

  11. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  13. Nucleus accumbens dopamine D2-receptor expressing neurons control behavioral flexibility in a place discrimination task in the IntelliCage.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated group-housing experimental cage apparatus, in combination with a reversible neurotransmission blocking technique to examine the role of NAc D1- and D2-MSNs in the acquisition and reversal learning of a place discrimination task. We demonstrated that NAc D1- and D2-MSNs do not mediate the acquisition of the task, but that suppression of activity in D2-MSNs impairs reversal learning and increased perseverative errors. Additionally, global knockout of the dopamine D2L receptor isoform produced a similar behavioral phenotype to D2-MSN-blocked mice. These results suggest that D2L receptors and NAc D2-MSNs act to suppress the influence of previously correct behavioral strategies allowing transfer of behavioral control to new strategies. PMID:27317196

  14. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  15. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-feng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  16. Up-regulation of ryanodine receptor expression increases the calcium-induced calcium release and spontaneous calcium signals in cerebral arteries from hindlimb unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Luc; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Prevot, Anne; Macrez, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume. Consequently, astronauts' body pressure is modified so that the upright blood pressure gradient is abolished, thereby inducing a modification in cerebral blood pressure. This effect is mimicked in the hindlimb unloaded rat model. After a duration of 8 days of unloading, Ca2+ signals activated by depolarization and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate intracellular release were increased in cerebral arteries. In the presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin, the depolarization-induced Ca2+ signals remained increased in hindlimb suspended animals, indicating that Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism were both increased. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves and localized Ca2+ events were also investigated. Increases in both amplitude and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ waves were measured in hindlimb suspension conditions. After pharmacological segregation of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ sparklets, their kinetic parameters were characterized. Hindlimb suspension induced an increase in the frequencies of both Ca2+ localized events, suggesting an increase of excitability. Labeling with bodipy compounds suggested that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptor expressions were increased. Finally, the expression of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 (RyR1) was increased in hindlimb unloading conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that RyR1 expression and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activity are the focal points of the regulation of Ca2+ signals activated by vasoconstriction in rat cerebral arteries with an increase of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. PMID:24233561

  17. Combined effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol on reproductive hormone levels and receptor expression in females of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Shi, Dazhao

    2012-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1; ratio of 2:1) on reproductive hormone levels and the expression of their receptors in female Mongolian gerbils were examined. We show that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased, whereas serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increased after EP-1 treatment. EP1 down-regulated mRNA expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) βin the ovary. EP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the ovary as well as ERα and PR in the uterus of Mongolian gerbils. The effects were time-dependent and dose-dependent. EP-1 had no obvious effects on ERα mRNA expression in the ovary. The current study demonstrates that the effect of EP-1 on the expression of ER subtypes is tissue-specific in Mongolian gerbils. EP-1 disrupted the reproductive endocrinology of the Mongolian gerbil. These findings suggest that the effects of EP-1 on reproductive hormone levels and their receptor expression in Mongolian gerbils may be the result of synergistic actions of levonorgestrel and quinestrol, with quinestrol playing the major role. PMID:22233494

  18. TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity may be involved in dysfunction of glutamate metabolism and its receptor expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ze, Xiao; Su, Mingyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Hao; Hong, Jie; Yu, Xiaohong; Liu, Dong; Xu, Bingqing; Sheng, Lei; Zhou, Qiuping; Zhou, Junling; Cui, Jingwen; Li, Kai; Wang, Ling; Ze, Yuguan; Hong, Fashui

    2016-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been used in environmental management, food, medicine, and industry. But TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier and store up in the brain organization, leading to glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity. However, the neurotoxicity in the brain is not well understood. In this study, mice were exposed to 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs for 9 months, and the glutamate-glutamine cyclic pathway and expressions of glutamate receptors associated with the hippocampal neurotoxicity were investigated. Our findings showed elevations of glutamate release and phosphate-activated glutaminase activity, and reductions in glutamine and glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus following exposure to TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs significantly inhibited the expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits (including NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 in mouse hippocampus. These findings suggest that the imbalance of glutamate metabolism triggered inhibitions of glutamate receptor expression in the TiO2 NP-exposed hippocampus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 655-662, 2016. PMID:25411160

  19. The Differential Effects of Anti-Diabetic Thiazolidinedione on Prostate Cancer Progression Are Linked to the TR4 Nuclear Receptor Expression Status.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Lin, Chang-Yi; Yang, Dong-Rong; Izumi, Kouji; Yan, Emily; Niu, Xiaodan; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Nancy; Li, Gonghui; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin sensitizers, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have been used as anti-diabetic drugs since the discovery of their ability to alter insulin resistance through transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, their side effects in hepatitis, cardiovascular diseases, and bladder cancer resulted in some selling restrictions in the USA and Europe. Here, we found that the potential impact of TZDs on the prostate cancer (PCa) progression might be linked to the TR4 nuclear receptor expression. Clinical surveys found that 9% of PCa patients had one allele TR4 deletion in their tumors. TZD increased cell growth and invasion in PCa cells when TR4 was knocked down. In contrast, TZD decreased PCa progression in PCa cells with wild type TR4. Mechanism dissection found that the Harvey Rat Sarcoma (HRAS) oncogene increased on TZD treatment of the TR4 knocked-down CWR22Rv1 and C4-2 cells, and interruption with HRAS inhibitor resulted in reversal of TZD-induced PCa progression. Together, these results suggest that TZD treatment may promote PCa progression depending on the TR4 expression status that may be clinically relevant since extra caution may be needed for those diabetic PCa patients receiving TZD treatment who have one allele TR4 deletion. PMID:25925376

  20. Effect of Increased Cyclic AMP Concentration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.; Bridge, K. Y.; Smith, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Analogies of epinephrine are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle when fed to animals. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through interaction with the P-adrenergic receptor. Since the intracellular signal generated by the Beta-adrenergic receptor is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in cell culture to determine if artificial elevation of cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter muscle protein metabolism and P-adrenergic receptor expression. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were treated with 0.2-30 micrometers forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the treatment period, both the concentration of cAMP and the quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were measured. Concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, the quantity of MHC was increased approximately 50% above control cells at 0.2 micrometers forskolin, but exhibited a gradual decline at higher levels of forskolin so that the quantity of MHC in cells treated with 30 micrometers forskolin was not significantly different from controls. Curiously, the intracellular concentration of cAMP which elicited the maximum increase in the quantity of MHC was only 40% higher than cAMP concentration in control cells.

  1. Dawn-song onset coincides with increased HVC androgen receptor expression but is decoupled from high circulating testosterone in an equatorial songbird.

    PubMed

    Quispe, René; Sèbe, Frédéric; da Silva, Maria Luisa; Gahr, Manfred

    2016-03-15

    The song of songbirds is a testosterone-sensitive behavior that is controlled by brain regions expressing androgen receptors. At higher latitudes, seasonal singing is stimulated by increasing day-length and elevated circulating testosterone. However, a large number of songbird species inhabit equatorial regions under a nearly constant photoperiod, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms of seasonal song in these species have rarely been investigated. We studied males from an equatorial population of the silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo), an Amazonian songbird. We found seasonality in dawn-song behavior, which was displayed continuously for more than half a year throughout an extended breeding territoriality stage. The seasonal activation of dawn-song was correlated with an increased area of androgen receptor expression in HVC, a major brain area of song control. However, testosterone levels remained low for several weeks after activation of dawn-song. Circulating levels of testosterone were elevated only later in the breeding season, coinciding with a higher dawn-song output and with the mating period. Our results suggest that the seasonal activation of dawn-song and territoriality involves an increase of androgen target cells in HVC. This mechanism could potentially function to circumvent adverse effects of high testosterone levels in a species with an extended breeding season. PMID:26752610

  2. Evaluation and Validation of the Detection of soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hasibeder, Astrid; Stein, Pamela; Brandwijk, Ricardo; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays an important role in innate immune responses and is upregulated under infectious as well as non-infectious conditions. In addition, a soluble TREM-1 variant (sTREM-1) is detectable in sera or bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids from patients. Currently, various studies are difficult to compare, since the methods of detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) vary among different research groups. In this study, we compared three different s-TREM-1 specific ELISAs and identified individual assay characteristics finding notable differences in sTREM-1 concentrations in part depending on the employed buffers. Investigating potential confounding factors for sTREM-1 detection, serum heat-inactivation (HI) showed improved recovery compared to non-HI (NHI) serum, reproducible by addition of complement and re-heat-inactivation. Hence we identified complement as a heat-sensitive confounder in some sTREM-1 ELISAs. We conclude that it is difficult to directly compare data of several studies, in particular if different ELISAs are engaged. Immunoassays for research use only are in general hampered by lack of standardization. Further standardization is needed until sTREM-1 ELISA is capable for better reproducibility of studies and clinical application. PMID:26480887

  3. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p < 0.05). Levels of blood total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  4. Differential relationships between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor expression in the medial preoptic nucleus and sexually-motivated song in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    DeVries, M S; Cordes, M A; Stevenson, S A; Riters, L V

    2015-08-20

    Converging data in songbirds support a central role for the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in motivational aspects of vocal production. Recent data suggest that dopamine in the POM plays a complex modulatory role in the production of sexually-motivated song and that an optimal level of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation is required to facilitate singing behavior. To further explore this possibility, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine relationships between mRNA expression of D1 as well as D2 receptors in the POM (and also the lateral septum and Area X) and sexually-motivated singing behavior in male European starlings. Results showed that both males with the highest and lowest D1 expression in the POM sang significantly less than males with intermediate levels of expression. Furthermore, singing behavior rose linearly in association with increasing levels of D1 expression in POM but dropped abruptly, such that individuals with D1 expression values higher than the mean sang very little. Analysis of birds with low and intermediate levels of D1 expression in POM revealed strong positive correlations between D1 expression and song but negative relationships between D2 receptor expression and song. These findings support prior work suggesting an optimal level of POM D1 receptor stimulation best facilitates sexually-motivated singing behavior. Results also suggest that D2 receptors may work in opposition to D1 receptors in POM to modify vocal production. PMID:26079111

  5. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. PMID:26993168

  6. In Vivo Tumor Angiogenesis Imaging Using Peptide-Based Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Conti, Peter S; Chen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an emerging imaging technique for studying diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with a near-infrared emitting fluorophore for targeting tumor angiogenesis offers a noninvasive method for early tumor detection and efficient monitoring of tumor response to anti-angiogenesis therapy. CD13 receptor, a zinc-dependent membrane-bound ectopeptidase, plays important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis and the growth of new blood vessels. In this chapter, we use CD13 receptor as an example to demonstrate how to construct CD13-specific NGR-containing peptides via bioorthogonal click chemistry for visualizing and quantifying the CD13 receptor expression in vivo by means of NIRF optical imaging. PMID:27283419

  7. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  8. Synthetic antimicrobial peptide design.

    PubMed

    Powell, W A; Catranis, C M; Maynard, C A

    1995-01-01

    To guide the design of potential plant pathogen-resistance genes, synthetic variants of naturally occurring antimicrobial gene products were evaluated. Five 20-amino acid (ESF1, ESF4, ESF5, ESF6, ESF13), one 18-amino acid (ESF12), and one 17-amino acid (ESF17) amphipathic peptide sequences were designed, synthesized, and tested with in vitro bioassays. Positive charges on the hydrophilic side of the peptide were shown to be essential for antifungal activity, yet the number of positive charges could be varied with little or no change in activity. The size could be reduced to 18 amino acids, but at 17 amino acids a significant reduction in activity was observed. ESF1, 5, 6, and 12 peptides were inhibitory to the germination of conidia from Cryphonectria parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Septoria musiva but did not inhibit the germination of pollen from Castanea mollissima and Salix lucida. ESF12 also had no effect on the germination of Malus sylvestris and Lycopersicon esculentum pollen, but inhibited the growth of the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the active ESF peptides were similar to those of the naturally occurring control peptides, magainin II and cecropin B. The significant differential in sensitivity between the microbes and plant cells indicated that the active ESF peptides are potentially useful models for designing plant pathogen-resistance genes. PMID:7579625

  9. Antimitotic peptides and depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Ernest; Covell, David G

    2002-01-01

    Tubulin is the target for an ever increasing number of unusual peptides and depsipeptides that were originally isolated from a wide variety of organisms. Since tubulin is the major component of cellular microtubules, which maintain cell shape in interphase and form the mitotic spindle, most of these compounds are highly toxic to mammalian cells. These peptides and depsipeptides disrupt cellular microtubules and prevent formation of a functional spindle, resulting in the accumulation of cultured cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle through specific inhibition of mitosis. At the biochemical level, the compounds all inhibit the assembly of tubulin into polymer and, in the cases where it has been studied, strongly suppress microtubule dynamics at low concentrations. In most cases the peptides and depsipeptides inhibit the binding of vinblastine and vincristine to tubulin in a noncompetitive manner, inhibit tubulin-dependent GTP hydrolysis, and interfere with nucleotide turnover at the exchangeable GTP site on beta-tubulin. Most of the peptides and depsipeptides induce tubulin to form oligomers of aberrant morphology, including tubulin rings that vary in diameter depending on the (depsi) peptide under study. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the cellular, biochemical, in vivo, and SAR aspects of this group of compounds. We also summarize initial efforts by computer modeling to decipher a pharmacophore among the diverse structures of these peptides and depsipeptides. PMID:12678750

  10. Expression and potential role of the peptide orexin-A in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, Salvatore; Liguori, Giovanna; Tafuri, Simona; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Campese, Roberto; Monaco, Roberto; Iachetta, Giuseppina; Assisi, Loredana; Mirabella, Nicola; Forte, Maurizio; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2015-09-04

    The peptides orexin-A and orexin-B and their G protein-coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors are involved in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Altered expression or signaling dysregulation of orexins and their receptors have been associated with a wide range of human diseases including narcolepsy, obesity, drug addiction, and cancer. Although orexin-A, its precursor molecule prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor have been detected in the human normal and hyperplastic prostate tissues, their expression and function in the prostate cancer (PCa) remains to be addressed. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the immunohistochemical localization of orexin-A in human PCa specimens, and the expression of prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in these tissues. Orexin-A administration to the human androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP up-regulates OX1 receptor expression resulting in a decrease of cell survival. Noteworthy, nanomolar concentrations of the peptide counteract the testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor in the cells: the orexin-A action is prevented by the addition of the OX1 receptor antagonist SB-408124 to the test system. These findings indicate that orexin-A/OX1 receptor interaction interferes with the activity of the androgen receptor which regulates PCa onset and progression, thus suggesting that orexin-A and its receptor might represent novel therapeutic targets to challenge this aggressive cancer. - Highlights: • Orexin-A and OX1 receptor are present in human cancer prostate tissues. • Orexin-A up-regulates OX1 receptor expression in LNCaP cells. • Orexin-A inhibits testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of androgen receptor.

  11. Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Suryanarayana, Shreyas M; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2014-12-01

    The dopaminergic system influences motor behavior, signals reward and novelty, and is an essential component of the basal ganglia in all vertebrates including the lamprey, one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates. The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals. The nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, a homologue of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) is present in lamprey, but only scarce data exist about its connectivity. Likewise, the D2 receptor is expressed in the striatum, but little is known about its localization in other brain areas. We used in situ hybridization and tracer injections, both in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, to characterize the SNc/VTA efferent and afferent connectivity, and to relate its projection pattern with D2 receptor expression in particular. We show that most features of the dopaminergic system are highly conserved. As in mammals, the direct pallial (cortex in mammals) input and the basal ganglia connectivity with the SNc/VTA are present as part of the evaluation system, as well as input from the tectum as the evolutionary basis for salience/novelty detection. Moreover, the SNc/VTA receives sensory information from the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, octavolateral area, and dorsal column nucleus, and it innervates, apart from the nigrostriatal pathway, several motor-related areas. This suggests that the dopaminergic system also contributes to the control of different motor centers at the brainstem level. PMID:24942187

  12. Dendritic Cells Expressing Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 Correlate with Plaque Stability in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients with Carotid Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vikrant; Rao, Velidi H; Shao, Zhifei; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with atherosclerotic plaques containing inflammatory cells, including T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that are responsible for progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Stressed cells undergoing necrosis release molecules that act as endogenous danger signals to alert and activate innate immune cells. In atherosclerotic tissue the number of DCs increases with the progression of the lesion and produce several inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays a crucial role in inflammation. However, relationship of DCs and the role of TREM-1 with the stability of atherosclerotic plaques have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the heterogeneity of the plaque DCs, myeloid (mDC1 and mDC2) and plasmacytoid (pDCs), and examined the expression of TREM-1 and their co-localization with DCs in the plaques from symptomatic (S) and asymptomatic (AS) patients with carotid stenosis. We found increased expression of HLA-DR, fascin, and TREM-1 and decreased expression of TREM-2 and α-smooth muscle actin in S compared to AS atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Both TREM-1 and fascin were co-localized suggesting increased expression of TREM-1 in plaque DCs of S compared to AS patients. These data were supported by increased mRNA transcripts of TREM-1 and decreased mRNA transcripts of TREM-2 in carotid plaques of S compared to AS patients. There was higher density of both CD1c+ mDC1 and CD141+ mDC2 in the carotid plaques from AS compared to S patients, where as the density of CD303+ pDCs were higher in the carotid plaques of S compared to AS patients. These findings suggest a potential role of pDCs and TREM-1 in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. Thus, newer therapies could be developed to selectively block TREM-1 for stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27148736

  13. Compromised NMDA/Glutamate Receptor Expression in Dopaminergic Neurons Impairs Instrumental Learning, But Not Pavlovian Goal Tracking or Sign Tracking1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    James, Alex S.; Pennington, Zachary T.; Tran, Phu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two theories regarding the role for dopamine neurons in learning include the concepts that their activity serves as a (1) mechanism that confers incentive salience onto rewards and associated cues and/or (2) contingency teaching signal reflecting reward prediction error. While both theories are provocative, the causal role for dopamine cell activity in either mechanism remains controversial. In this study mice that either fully or partially lacked NMDARs in dopamine neurons exclusively, as well as appropriate controls, were evaluated for reward-related learning; this experimental design allowed for a test of the premise that NMDA/glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated mechanisms in dopamine neurons, including NMDA-dependent regulation of phasic discharge activity of these cells, modulate either the instrumental learning processes or the likelihood of pavlovian cues to become highly motivating incentive stimuli that directly attract behavior. Loss of NMDARs in dopamine neurons did not significantly affect baseline dopamine utilization in the striatum, novelty evoked locomotor behavior, or consumption of a freely available, palatable food solution. On the other hand, animals lacking NMDARs in dopamine cells exhibited a selective reduction in reinforced lever responses that emerged over the course of instrumental learning. Loss of receptor expression did not, however, influence the likelihood of an animal acquiring a pavlovian conditional response associated with attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues (sign tracking). These data support the view that reductions in NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons affect instrumental reward-related learning but do not lend support to hypotheses that suggest that the behavioral significance of this signaling includes incentive salience attribution. PMID:26464985

  14. Estrogen Receptor Expression Is High But Is of Lower Intensity in Tubular Carcinoma Than in Well-Differentiated Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jorns, Julie M.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Healy, Patrick N.; Daignault, Stephanie; Vickery, Tammi L.; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Davies, Sherri R.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Tubular carcinoma (TC) is a rare, luminal A subtype of breast carcinoma with excellent prognosis, for which adjuvant chemotherapy is usually contraindicated. Objective To examine the levels of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in cases of TC and well-differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma as compared to normal breast glands and to determine if any significant differences could be detected via molecular testing. Design We examined ER and progesterone receptor via immunohistochemistry in tubular (N = 27), mixed ductal/tubular (N = 16), and well-differentiated ductal (N = 27) carcinomas with comparison to surrounding normal breast tissue. We additionally performed molecular subtyping of 10 TCs and 10 ductal carcinomas via the PAM50 assay. Results Although ER expression was high for all groups, TC had statistically significantly lower ER staining percentage (ER%) (P = .003) and difference in ER expression between tumor and accompanying normal tissue (P = .02) than well-differentiated ductal carcinomas, with mixed ductal/tubular carcinomas falling between these 2 groups. Mean ER% was 79%, 87%, and 94%, and mean tumor-normal ER% differences were 13.6%, 25.9%, and 32.6% in tubular, mixed, and ductal carcinomas, respectively. Most tumors that had molecular subtyping were luminal A (9 of 10 tubular and 8 of 10 ductal), and no significant differences in specific gene expression between the 2 groups were identified. Conclusions Tubular carcinoma exhibited decreased intensity in ER expression, closer to that of normal breast parenchyma, likely as a consequence of a high degree of differentiation. Lower ER% expression by TC may represent a potential pitfall when performing commercially available breast carcinoma prognostic assays that rely heavily on ER-related gene expression. PMID:25357113

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A isoform and (co)receptor expression are differentially regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the ovariectomised mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lisa M; Rogers, Peter A W; Girling, Jane E

    2010-08-01

    The angiogenic effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) in the mouse endometrium are mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA). We analysed the temporal and spatial changes in VEGFA isoform and (co)receptor expression in ovariectomised mouse uteri following E(2) treatment. VEGFA isoform and receptor mRNA were quantified in whole uterine tissue collected 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after E(2) or vehicle treatment. Laser capture microdissection was used to investigate mRNA expression in epithelial, stromal and myometrial tissues separately. Endothelial cell proliferation, VEGFA and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) protein were visualised using immunohistochemistry. Endometrial endothelial cell proliferation was only observed 24 h after E(2) treatment. In whole uterine tissue, total Vegfa, Vegfa(164) and Vegfa(120) mRNA expression increased 2 h post E(2) treatment, and then decreased by 24 h. Vegfa(188) expression was lower in E(2)-treated animals at all time points relative to control animals. Vegfr2 and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) mRNA expression did not change following E(2) treatment; Nrp2 expression decreased by 24 h. When uterine compartments were considered separately at 24 h post E(2) or vehicle, stromal Vegfa(120), Vegfa(188) and Vegfr2 mRNA expression and myometrial Vegfa(120) and Vegfa(188) mRNA expression were reduced in E(2)-treated mice relative to controls, whereas epithelial Vegfa(188) mRNA expression increased. The highest VEGFA immunoexpression was observed in luminal epithelium; expression increased at 24 h relative to other time points. No changes were noted in VEGFR2 immunoexpression among treatment groups. We have provided the first evidence that VEGFA isoform and receptor mRNA expression are differentially regulated by E(2) in different uterine cell compartments. PMID:20530092

  16. Dendritic Cells Expressing Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 Correlate with Plaque Stability in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients with Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhifei; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with atherosclerotic plaques containing inflammatory cells, including T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that are responsible for progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Stressed cells undergoing necrosis release molecules that act as endogenous danger signals to alert and activate innate immune cells. In atherosclerotic tissue the number of DCs increases with the progression of the lesion and produce several inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays a crucial role in inflammation. However, relationship of DCs and the role of TREM-1 with the stability of atherosclerotic plaques have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the heterogeneity of the plaque DCs, myeloid (mDC1 and mDC2) and plasmacytoid (pDCs), and examined the expression of TREM-1 and their co-localization with DCs in the plaques from symptomatic (S) and asymptomatic (AS) patients with carotid stenosis. We found increased expression of HLA-DR, fascin, and TREM-1 and decreased expression of TREM-2 and α-smooth muscle actin in S compared to AS atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Both TREM-1 and fascin were co-localized suggesting increased expression of TREM-1 in plaque DCs of S compared to AS patients. These data were supported by increased mRNA transcripts of TREM-1 and decreased mRNA transcripts of TREM-2 in carotid plaques of S compared to AS patients. There was higher density of both CD1c+ mDC1 and CD141+ mDC2 in the carotid plaques from AS compared to S patients, where as the density of CD303+ pDCs were higher in the carotid plaques of S compared to AS patients. These findings suggest a potential role of pDCs and TREM-1 in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. Thus, newer therapies could be developed to selectively block TREM-1 for stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27148736

  17. L-tetrahydropalmatine inhibits methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity via regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity and dopamine D3 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk

    2014-09-25

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredient found in Corydalis ternata which has been used as a traditional herbal preparation in Asian countries for centuries, however, the effect of l-THP on METH-induced phenotypes largely unknown. In this study, to evaluate the effect of l-THP on METH-induced psychotropic effects, rats were pretreated with l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) before acute METH injection, following which the total distance the rats moved in an hour was measured. To clarify a possible mechanism underlying the effect of l-THP on METH-induced behavioral changes, dopamine receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats was measured following the locomotor activity study. In addition, the effect of l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) on serotonergic (5-HTergic) neuronal pathway activation was studied by measurement of 5-HT (80 μg/10μl/mouse)-induced head twitch response (HTR) in mice. l-THP administration significantly inhibited both hyperlocomotion in rats and HTR in mice. l-THP inhibited climbing behavior-induced by dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal activation in mice. Furthermore, l-THP attenuated the decrease in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats induced by METH. These results suggest that l-THP can ameliorate behavioral phenotype induced by METH through regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity and dopamine D3 receptor expression. PMID:25172791

  18. Ginsenoside-Rg1 induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg1-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg1 could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3'-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg1 was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg1, and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. PMID:26115870

  19. Loss of GATA-6 and GATA-4 in Granulosa Cells Blocks Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Expression Leading to Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jill; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gossen, Jan; Zhou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Single GATA-6 (G6gcko), GATA-4 (G4gcko), and double GATA-4/6 (G4/6gcko) granulosa cell-specific knockout mice were generated to further investigate the role of GATA transcription factors in ovarian function in vivo. No reproductive defects were found in G6gcko animals. G4gcko animals were subfertile as indicated by the reduced number of pups per litter and the release of significantly fewer oocytes at ovulation. In marked contrast, G4/6gcko females fail to ovulate and are infertile. Furthermore, G4/6gcko females had irregular estrous cycles, which correlate with the abnormal ovarian histology found in unstimulated adult G4/6gcko females showing lack of follicular development and increased follicular atresia. Moreover, treatment with exogenous gonadotropins did not rescue folliculogenesis or ovulation in double-knockout G4/6gcko mice. In addition, ovary weight and estradiol levels were significantly reduced in G4gcko and G4/6gcko animals when compared with control and G6gcko mice. Aromatase, P450scc, and LH receptor expression was significantly lower in G4gcko and G4/6gcko mice when compared with control animals. Most prominently, FSH receptor (FSHR) protein was undetectable in granulosa cells of G4gcko and G4/6gcko. Accordingly, gel shift and reporter assays revealed that GATA-4 binds and stimulates the activity of the FSHR promoter. These results demonstrate that GATA-4 and GATA-6 are needed for normal ovarian function. Our data are consistent with a role for GATA-4 in the regulation of the FSHR gene and provide a possible molecular mechanism to explain the fertility defects observed in animals with deficient GATA expression in the ovary. PMID:22434075

  20. Prospective Evaluation of Procalcitonin, Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chou-Han; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Keng, Li-Ta; Lee, Ho-Sheng; Chang, Hou-Tai; Liao, Wei-Yu; Ho, Chao-Chi; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Both procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) have been investigated separately as indicators of infection in patients with autoimmune diseases. Our study simultaneously evaluated both PCT and sTREM-1 along with C-reactive protein (CRP) in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were categorized into the infection group (n = 24) or the disease flare group (n = 35). sTREM-1, PCT and CRP concentrations at fever onset were compared between the two groups of patients. Results sTREM-1 and CRP did not differ between the two groups. PCT [median (range), ng/ml] was higher in the infection group than in the disease flare group [0.53 (0.02–12.85) vs. 0.12 (0.02–19.23), p = 0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) for diagnosis of infection was 0.75 for PCT (p = 0.001), 0.63 for CRP (p = 0.09) and 0.52 for sTREM-1 (p = 0.79). Using 0.2 ng/ml as the cutoff value for PCT, sensitivity was 0.75 and specificity was 0.77. Negative predictive values for PCT were 92%, 87% and 82% for a prevalence of infection of 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. Neither immunosuppressants nor biomodulators affected the level of the three biomarkers. However, in patients treated with corticosteroids, the levels of sTREM-1 and CRP were significantly decreased compared with the untreated patients. Conclusions Setting PCT at a lower cutoff value could provide useful information on excluding infection in febrile patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible effect of corticosteroids on the level of sTREM-1 as an infection marker deserves further study. PMID:27096761

  1. Lactobacillus casei Zhang modulate cytokine and toll-like receptor expression and beneficially regulate poly I:C-induced immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jiming; Wang, Na; Li, Yunxu; Sun, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Heping

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli are frequently used as probiotics due to their beneficial effects on health. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ), which has favorable probiotic properties, was first isolated from koumiss. In this study, the immunomodulating effects of LcZ on cytokine and toll-like receptor expression in RAW264.7 macrophages was assessed and it was found that live LcZ promotes production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-β. Transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also enhanced by viable LcZ. The immunostimulating effects of live LcZ are significantly attenuated in heat-killed LcZ. Live LcZ promotes TLR2 mRNA transcription, whereas heat-killed LcZ enhances transcription of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9. Furthermore, live LcZ significantly suppresses polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-stimulated NO, iNOS and TNF-α expression while enhancing expression of IFN-β. It was also found that poly I:C-induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) reporter gene activity was significantly up-regulated by live LcZ. These results suggest that LcZ keeps the innate immune system alert by increasing transcription of Toll-like receptors and enhancing production of pro-inflammatory mediators and type I IFN in macrophages. The synergistic effect of live LcZ with poly I:C on IFN-β expression is associated with increased activity of IRF-3. LcZ has the potential to be used as an adjuvant against viral infections. PMID:23350674

  2. Aspirin inhibits surface glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, P-selectin, CD63, and CD107a receptor expression on human platelets.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Marcus E; Malinin, Alex I; Bell, Christopher R; Dzhanashvili, Alex; Horowitz, Eric D; Oshrine, Benjamin R; Atar, Dan; Serebruany, Victor L

    2003-04-01

    Platelet inhibition after aspirin therapy reduces the risk for the development of acute coronary syndromes. However, the mechanism by which aspirin affect platelets other than by prostaglandin blockade is unclear. We sought to determine the in vitro effects of aspirin on the surface expression of nine platelet receptors using whole blood flow cytometry. Blood from 24 healthy volunteers was incubated for 30 min with 1.8 and 7.2 mg/l phosphate-buffered saline-diluted acetylsalicylic acid in the presence or absence of apyrase. Platelet serotonin release, and the surface expression of platelet receptors with or without apyrase were determined using the following monoclonal antibodies: anit-CD41 [glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa], CD42b (GPIb), CD62p (P-selectin), CD51/CD61 (vitronectin receptor), CD31 [platelet/endothelial cellular adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1)], CD107a [lysosomal associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1], CD107b (LAMP-2), CD63 (LIMP or LAMP-3), and CD151 (PETA-3). Samples were then immediately fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde, and run on the flow cytometer within 48 h. Aspirin does not affect serotonin release from human platelets. Dose-dependent inhibition of GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, CD63, and CD107a receptor expression was observed in the aspirin-treated whole-blood samples. Apyrase potentiates the effects of aspirin, and independently inhibits PECAM-1. In addition to the known effect of irreversibly inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase-1, thereby blocking thromboxane A(2) synthesis, it appears that aspirin exhibits direct effects on selective major platelet receptors. PMID:12695747

  3. Etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC increase the GABA efficacy of recombinant α4β3δ and α4β3 GABAA receptors expressed in HEK cells

    PubMed Central

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W.; Otis, Thomas S.; Wallner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    General anesthetics, once thought to exert their effects through non-specific membrane effects, have highly specific ion channel targets that can silence neuronal populations in the nervous system, thereby causing unconsciousness and immobility, characteristic of general anesthesia. Inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs), particularly highly GABA-sensitive extrasynaptic receptor subtypes that give rise to sustained inhibitory currents, are uniquely sensititive to GABAAR-active anesthetics. A prominent population of extrasynaptic GABAARs is made up of α4, β2 or β3, and δ subunits. Considering the demonstrated importance of GABA receptor β3 subunits for in vivo anesthetic effects of etomidate and propofol, we decided to investigate the effects of GABA anesthetics on ”extrasynaptic” α4β3δ and also binary α4β3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Consistent with previous work on similar receptor subtypes we show that maximal GABA currents through “extrasynaptic” α4β3δ receptors, receptors defined by sensitivity to EtOH (30 mM) and the β-carboline β-CCE (1 µM), are enhanced by the GABAAR-active anesthetics etomidate propofol, and the neurosteroid anesthetic THDOC. Furthermore, we show that receptors formed by α4β3 subunits alone also show high GABA sensitivity and that saturating GABA responses of α4β3 receptors are increased to the same extent by etomidate, propofol, and THDOC as are α4β3δ receptors. Therefore, both α4β3 and α4β3δ receptors show low GABA efficacy, and GABA is also a partial agonist on certain binary αβ receptor subtypes. Increasing GABA efficacy on α4/6β3δ and α4β3 receptors is likely to make an important contribution to the anesthetic effects of etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC. PMID:18778723

  4. The role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer – immunohistochemical evaluation of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in invasive breast cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Patera, Janusz; Sobol, Maria; Przybylski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors is a very powerful and useful predictor. Because the response rate to hormonal treatment in breast cancer is associated with the presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, assessment of the receptor expression profile allows for prediction of breast cancer response to hormonal treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) in the tumour tissue of patients with invasive breast cancer correlated with tumour histological type, histological grade of malignancy, tumour size, and lymph node status. Material and methods Materials consisted of histological preparations derived from patients treated for invasive breast cancer. Evaluations were conducted with histopathological and immunohistochemical methods using suitable antibodies. Results Among 231 cases of breast cancer 18 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) and 213 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) were diagnosed. Taking the histological type of tumour into account, oestrogen receptor-positive reaction was observed in 74.2% of IDC and 77.8% of ILC, and the positive response to PR was observed in 67.1% of IDC and 61.1% of ILC. Considering the histological grade, ER- in the largest percentage (72%) was observed in second-grade (G2) invasive carcinomas. Similarly, PR expression (75%) was found in the largest percentage in second-grade (G2) carcinomas. Based on our own studies and data from literature, it appears that the ER (+) status is an indicator of good prognosis, because it points to a less aggressive cancer, in which overall survival and disease-free time is longer in comparison with ER (–) tumours. Conclusions Determination of ER status may, therefore, have significant clinical value and is widely used in routine pathological diagnostics. PMID:26557763

  5. Ex Vivo Cytokine Release and Pattern Recognition Receptor Expression of Subjects Exposed to Dampness: Pilot Study to Assess the Outcome of Mould Exposure to the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Punsmann, Stefanie; Liebers, Verena; Lotz, Anne; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In rooms with moisture damage, the indoor air can be enriched with microorganisms causing a variety of symptoms. Due to the highly diverse composition of bioaerosols and the multiple effects on humans, an assessment of the health risk is not sufficiently possible. The aim of this study was to characterize the features of innate immunity using blood from subjects exposed to moisture damage compared to control subjects living in houses without visible moisture damage. We investigated the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on the surface of monocytes from both fresh blood and after in vitro stimulation with the model substances E. coli endotoxin, zymosan A, Pam3Cys and Aspergillus versicolor in 25 exposed subjects and 25 control subjects. In vitro stimulation of whole blood with the same components was performed for 20 h and the release of inflammatory mediators IL-8 and IL-1β were quantified. In addition to an enhanced number of blood leucocytes, the expression of the receptors TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on blood monocytes was significantly enhanced in exposed subjects. In contrast, no different alteration in expression was detected between exposed and control group after in vitro stimulation with the model substances. The release of IL-8 and IL-1β after stimulation of whole blood with A. versicolor was increased in subjects exposed to moisture damage. Furthermore, in the exposed subjects the IL-1β release was significantly enhanced after in vitro stimulation with E. coli endotoxin (1000 pg/mL). In conclusion, features of the innate immune system (receptor expression and mediator release of monocytes) are altered in subjects exposed to moisture damage which may be a potential explanation for the increased incidence of respiratory health diseases observed in these populations. PMID:24340055

  6. The chemerin receptor 23 agonist, chemerin, attenuates monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing rat spinal cord neurons in inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has shown that the chemerin receptor 23 (ChemR23) represents a novel inflammatory pain target, whereby the ChemR23 agonists, resolvin E1 and chemerin, can inhibit inflammatory pain hypersensitivity, by a mechanism that involves normalisation of potentiated spinal cord responses. This study has examined the ability of the ChemR23 agonist, chemerin, to modulate synaptic input to lamina I neurokinin 1 receptor expressing (NK1R+) dorsal horn neurons, which are known to be crucial for the manifestation of inflammatory pain. Results Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pre-identified lamina I NK1R+ neurons, in rat spinal cord slices, revealed that chemerin significantly attenuates capsaicin potentiation of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency, but is without effect in non-potentiated conditions. In tissue isolated from complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) treated rats, chemerin significantly reduced the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons, termed chemerin responders. However, chemerin did not alter the peak amplitude of monosynaptic C-fibre eEPSCs in control tissue. Furthermore, paired-pulse recordings in CFA tissue demonstrated that chemerin significantly reduced paired-pulse depression in the subset of neurons classified as chemerin responders, but was without effect in non-responders, indicating that chemerin acts presynaptically to attenuate monosynaptic C-fibre input to a subset of lamina I NK1R+ neurons. Conclusions These results suggest that the reported ability of ChemR23 agonists to attenuate inflammatory pain hypersensitivity may in part be due to a presynaptic inhibition of monosynaptic C-fibre input to lamina I NK1R+ neurons and provides further evidence that ChemR23 represents a promising inflammatory pain target. PMID:24716552

  7. Chemokine-Derived Peptides: Novel Antimicrobial and Antineoplasic Agents.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio; Medina-Tamayo, Jaciel; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well recognized. An improper balance either in chemokine synthesis or chemokine receptor expression contributes to various pathological disorders making chemokines and their receptors a useful therapeutic target. Research in this area is progressing rapidly, and development of novel agents based on chemokine/ chemokine receptors antagonist functions are emerging as attractive alternative drugs. Some of these novel agents include generation of chemokine-derived peptides (CDP) with potential agonist and antagonist effects on inflammation, cancer and against bacterial infections. CDP have been generated mainly from N- and C-terminus chemokine sequences with subsequent modifications such as truncations or elongations. In this review, we present a glimpse of the different pharmacological actions reported for CDP and our current understanding regarding the potential use of CDP alone or as part of the novel therapies proposed in the treatment of microbial infections and cancer. PMID:26062132

  8. Chemokine-Derived Peptides: Novel Antimicrobial and Antineoplasic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio; Medina-Tamayo, Jaciel; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well recognized. An improper balance either in chemokine synthesis or chemokine receptor expression contributes to various pathological disorders making chemokines and their receptors a useful therapeutic target. Research in this area is progressing rapidly, and development of novel agents based on chemokine/chemokine receptors antagonist functions are emerging as attractive alternative drugs. Some of these novel agents include generation of chemokine-derived peptides (CDP) with potential agonist and antagonist effects on inflammation, cancer and against bacterial infections. CDP have been generated mainly from N- and C-terminus chemokine sequences with subsequent modifications such as truncations or elongations. In this review, we present a glimpse of the different pharmacological actions reported for CDP and our current understanding regarding the potential use of CDP alone or as part of the novel therapies proposed in the treatment of microbial infections and cancer. PMID:26062132

  9. Generation of new peptide-Fc fusion proteins that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against different types of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sioud, Mouldy; Westby, Phuong; Olsen, Julie Kristine E.; Mobergslien, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a key effector function for the clinical effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies, is triggered by the engagement of the antibody Fc domain with the Fcγ receptors expressed by innate immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. Here, we fused cancer cell-binding peptides to the Fc domain of human IgG1 to engineer novel peptide-Fc fusion proteins with ADCC activity. The designed fusion proteins were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, followed by purification and characterization by western blots. One of the engineered variants (WN-Fc), bound with high affinity to a wide range of solid tumor cell lines (e.g., colon, lung, prostate, skin, ovarian, and mammary tumors). Treatment of cancer cells with the engineered peptide-Fc fusions in the presence of effector NK cells potentially enhanced cytotoxicity, degranulation, and interferon-γ production by NK cells when compared to cells treated with the Fc control. The presence of competing peptides inhibited NK cell activation. Furthermore, a bispecific peptide-Fc fusion protein activated NK cells against HER-1- and/or HER-2-expressing cancer cells. Collectively, the engineered peptide-Fc fusions constitute a new promising strategy to recruit and activate NK cells against tumor cells, a primary goal of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26605373

  10. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  13. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, Veronika; Popelová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is an escalating epidemic, but an effective noninvasive therapy is still scarce. For obesity treatment, anorexigenic neuropeptides are promising tools, but their delivery from the periphery to the brain is complicated because peptides have a low stability and limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this review, we summarize results of several studies with our newly designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP). PrRP is involved in feeding and energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both PrRP- and PrRP-receptor-knockout mice. Lipidized PrRP analogs showed binding affinity and signaling in PrRP receptor-expressing cells similar to natural PrRP. Moreover, these analogs showed high binding affinity also to anorexigenic neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-2 receptor. Acute peripheral administration of myristoylated and palmitoylated PrRP analogs to mice and rats induced strong and long-lasting anorexigenic effects and neuronal activation in the brain areas involved in food intake regulation. Two-week-long subcutaneous administration of palmitoylated PrRP31 and myristoylated PrRP20 lowered food intake, body weight, improved metabolic parameters and attenuated lipogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity. A strong anorexigenic, body weight-reducing and glucose tolerance-improving effect of palmitoylated-PrRP31 was shown also in diet-induced obese rats after its repeated 2-week-long peripheral administration. Thus, the strong anorexigenic and body weight-reducing effects of palmitoylated PrRP31 and myristoylated PrRP20 make these analogs attractive candidates for antiobesity treatment. Moreover, PrRP receptor might be a new target for obesity therapy. PMID:27418033

  14. Opposite effects of bombesin on insulin and gastrin response to food in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Scarpignato, C; Micali, B

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bombesin on insulin and gastrin response to a standard labelled meal was studied in eight healthy male volunteers. The gastric emptying of solids was simultaneously evaluated. During intravenous infusion of the peptide (5 ng/kg/min) the insulin release after eating was greatly reduced whereas food stimulated gastrin release was significantly enhanced. Both effects of bombesin are likely to be connected with the marked inhibition of gastric emptying induced by the peptide. PMID:3516803

  15. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26724202

  16. Signal peptide of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2014-06-01

    Cellulase is an enzyme playing a crucial role in biotechnology industries ranging from textile to biofuel because of tremendous amount of cellulose produced in plant. In order to improve cellulase productivity, huge resource has been spent in search for good cellulases from microorganism in remote areas and in creation of ideal cellulase by engineering. However, not much attention is given to the secretion of cellulases from cell into extracellular space, where a cellulase plays its enzymatic role. In this minireview, the signal peptides, which lead secreted proteins to specific secretion systems and scatter in literature, are reviewed. The patterns of signal peptides are checked against 4,101 cellulases documented in UniProtKB, the largest protein database in the world, to determine how these cellulases are secreted. Simultaneous review on both literature and cellulases from the database not only provides updated knowledge on signal peptides but also indicates the gap in our research. PMID:24743986

  17. Biomimetic peptide nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Kim, Sang N; Naik, Rajesh R; McAlpine, Michael C

    2012-05-15

    The development of a miniaturized sensing platform tailored for sensitive and selective detection of a variety of biochemical analytes could offer transformative fundamental and technological opportunities. Due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, nanoscale materials are extremely sensitive sensors. Likewise, peptides represent robust substrates for selective recognition due to the potential for broad chemical diversity within their relatively compact size. Here we explore the possibilities of linking peptides to nanosensors for the selective detection of biochemical targets. Such systems raise a number of interesting fundamental challenges: What are the peptide sequences, and how can rational design be used to derive selective binders? What nanomaterials should be used, and what are some strategies for assembling hybrid nanosensors? What role does molecular modeling play in elucidating response mechanisms? What is the resulting performance of these sensors, in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and response time? What are some potential applications? This Account will highlight our early attempts to address these research challenges. Specifically, we use natural peptide sequences or sequences identified from phage display as capture elements. The sensors are based on a variety of nanomaterials including nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. We couple peptides to the nanomaterial surfaces via traditional surface functionalization methods or self-assembly. Molecular modeling provides detailed insights into the hybrid nanostructure, as well as the sensor detection mechanisms. The peptide nanosensors can distinguish chemically camouflaged mixtures of vapors and detect chemical warfare agents with sensitivities as low as parts-per-billion levels. Finally, we anticipate future uses of this technology in biomedicine: for example, devices based on these sensors could detect disease from the molecular components in human breath. Overall, these results provide a

  18. Dynamic changes of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) reflect sepsis severity and can predict prognosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined the utility of serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for the diagnoses, severity assessments, and predicting the prognoses of patients with sepsis and compared sTREM-1 values with those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Methods Fifty-two patients with sepsis were included: 15 sepsis cases and 37 severe sepsis cases (severe sepsis + septic shock). Serum levels of sTREM-1, CRP, and PCT were determined on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after admission to an ICU. Results Serum sTREM-1 levels of patients with severe sepsis were significantly higher than for those with sepsis on day 1 (240.6 pg/ml vs. 118.3 pg/ml; P < 0.01), but CRP and PCT levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The area under an ROC curve for sTREM-1 for severe sepsis patients was 0.823 (95% confidence interval: 0.690-0.957). Using 222.5 pg/ml of sTREM-1 as the cut-off value, the sensitivity was 59.5%, the specificity was 93.3%, the positive predictive value was 95.6%, the negative predictive value was 48.3%, the positive likelihood ratio was 8.92, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.434. Based on 28-day survivals, sTREM-1 levels in the surviving group showed a tendency to decrease over time, while they tended to gradually increase in the non-surviving group. sTREM-1 levels in the non-surviving group were higher than those in the surviving group at all time points, whereas CRP and PCT levels showed a tendency to decrease over time in both groups. sTREM-1 levels and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were positively correlated (r = 0.443; P < 0.001), and this correlation coefficient was greater than the correlation coefficients for both CRP and PCT. Conclusions Serum sTREM-1 levels reflected the severity of sepsis more accurately than those of CRP and PCT and were more sensitive for dynamic evaluations of sepsis prognosis. Trial Registration Current controlled trials Chi

  19. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  20. Diagnostic value of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 and C-reactive protein for patients with lung infiltrates: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Differential diagnosis of patients with lung infiltrates remains a challenge. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a neutrophil and monocyte receptor up-regulated during infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of TREM-1 and of C-reactive protein (CRP) from patients with lung infiltrates to discern community acquired lung infections. Methods 68 patients admitted to a medical ward with acute respiratory illness were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil and monocyte TREM-1 expression were measured by flow cytometry, sTREM-1 by an enzyme immunoassay and C-reactive protein by nephelometry. Clinical pulmonary infection score was recorded. Results 34 patients were diagnosed with bacterial community acquired pneumonia (group A) and 34 with non-bacterial pulmonary disease (group B). Median serum TREM-1 concentration was 102.09 pg/ml in group A and lower than 15.10 pg/ml (p < 0.0001) in group B. Mean±SE neutrophil TREM-1 expression was 4.67 ± 0.53 MFI in group A and 2.64 ± 0.25 MFI (p = 0.001) in group B. Monocyte TREM-1 expression was 4.2 ± 0.42 MFI in group A and 2.64 ± 0.35 MFI (p = 0.007) in group B and mean±SE CRP was 18.03 ± 2 mg/ml in group A and 7.1 ± 1.54 mg/ml (p < 0.001) in group B. A cut-off of 19.53 pg/ml of sTREM-1 with sensitivity 82.6% and specificity 63% to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious pulmonary infiltrates was found. sTREM-1 at admission greater than 180 pg/ml was accompanied with unfavourable outcome. Conclusion TREM-1 myeloid expression and sTREM-1 are reliable markers of bacterial infection among patients with pulmonary infiltrates; sTREM-1 is a predictor of final outcome. PMID:20920231

  1. Introduction of the human AVPR1A gene substantially alters brain receptor expression patterns and enhances aspects of social behavior in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Rhonda; Sakurai, Takeshi; Takahashi, Nagahide; Elder, Gregory A.; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Young, Larry J.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    the AVPR1A locus are responsible for differential receptor protein expression patterns across species and that they are likely to contribute to species-specific behavioral variation. The humanized AVPR1A mouse is a potential preclinical model for further understanding the regulation of receptor gene expression and the impact of variation in receptor expression on behaviors, and should be useful for screening drugs targeting human AVPR1A, taking advantage of the expression of human AVPR1A in human-relevant brain regions. PMID:24924430

  2. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  3. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  4. Cystine-knot peptides targeting cancer-relevant human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4).

    PubMed

    Maaß, Franziska; Wüstehube-Lausch, Joycelyn; Dickgießer, Stephan; Valldorf, Bernhard; Reinwarth, Michael; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Daneschdar, Matin; Avrutina, Olga; Sahin, Ugur; Kolmar, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Cystine-knot peptides sharing a common fold but displaying a notably large diversity within the primary structure of flanking loops have shown great potential as scaffolds for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. In this study, we demonstrated that the cystine-knot peptide MCoTI-II, a trypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis, can be engineered to bind to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, that has emerged as a target for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Directed evolution was used to convert a cystine-knot trypsin inhibitor into a CTLA-4 binder by screening a library of variants using yeast surface display. A set of cystine-knot peptides possessing dissociation constants in the micromolar range was obtained; the most potent variant was synthesized chemically. Successive conjugation with neutravidin, fusion to antibody Fc domain or the oligomerization domain of C4b binding protein resulted in oligovalent variants that possessed enhanced (up to 400-fold) dissociation constants in the nanomolar range. Our data indicate that display of multiple knottin peptides on an oligomeric scaffold protein is a valid strategy to improve their functional affinity with ramifications for applications in diagnostics and therapy. PMID:25964162

  5. Multidimensional signatures in antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Nannette Y.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional analyses distinguish between antimicrobial peptides by differences in amino acid sequence. Yet structural paradigms common to broader classes of these molecules have not been established. The current analyses examined the potential conservation of structural themes in antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily diverse organisms. Using proteomics, an antimicrobial peptide signature was discovered to integrate stereospecific sequence patterns and a hallmark three-dimensional motif. This striking multidimensional signature is conserved among disulfide-containing antimicrobial peptides spanning biological kingdoms, and it transcends motifs previously limited to defined peptide subclasses. Experimental data validating this model enabled the identification of previously unrecognized antimicrobial activity in peptides of known identity. The multidimensional signature model provides a unifying structural theme in broad classes of antimicrobial peptides, will facilitate discovery of antimicrobial peptides as yet unknown, and offers insights into the evolution of molecular determinants in these and related host defense effector molecules. PMID:15118082

  6. C-peptide reverses TGF-beta1-induced changes in renal proximal tubular cells: implications for treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2009-03-01

    The crucial pathology underlying progressive chronic kidney disease in diabetes is tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Central to this process is epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of proximal tubular epithelial cells driven by maladaptive transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) signaling. Novel signaling roles for C-peptide have recently been discovered with evidence emerging that C-peptide may mitigate microvascular complications of diabetes. We studied the potential for C-peptide to interrupt injurious TGF-beta1 signaling pathways and thus block development of EMT in HK2 human kidney proximal tubular cells. Cells were incubated with TGF-beta1 either alone or with C-peptide in low or high glucose. Changes in cell morphology, TGF-beta1 receptor expression, vimentin, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smads were assessed. Luciferase reporters were used to assess Smad activity. The cytoskeleton was visualized by TRITC-phalloidin staining. The typical TGF-beta1-stimulated, EMT-associated morphological alterations of proximal tubular cells, including increased vimentin expression, decreased E-cadherin expression, and cytoskeletal rearrangements, were prevented by C-peptide treatment. C-peptide also blocked TGF-beta1-induced upregulation of expression of both type I and type II TGF-beta1 receptors and attenuated TGF-beta1-mediated Smad phosphorylation and Smad transcriptional activity. These effects of C-peptide were inhibited by pertussis toxin. The results demonstrate that C-peptide almost completely reversed the morphological changes in PT cells induced by TGF-beta1 and suggest a role or C-peptide as a renoprotective agent in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:19091788

  7. Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

  8. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S.; De Smet, Ive

    2015-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants. PMID:26136270

  9. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited.

    PubMed

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B; Butenko, Melinka A; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S; De Smet, Ive

    2015-08-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants. PMID:26136270

  10. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  11. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:27479451

  12. Antimicrobial peptides: premises and promises.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V R; Yedery, R D; Aranha, C

    2004-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of the natural defences of most living organisms against invading pathogens. These are relatively small (< 10kDa), cationic and amphipathic peptides of variable length, sequence and structure. During the past two decades several AMPs have been isolated from a wide variety of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, and plants as well as from bacteria and fungi. Most of these peptides are obtained from different sources like macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial cells, haemocytes, fat body, reproductive tract, etc. These peptides exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, protozoa, yeast, fungi and viruses. A few peptides have also been found to be cytotoxic to sperm and tumour cells. AMPs are classified based on the three dimensional structural studies carried out with the help of NMR. The peptides are broadly classified into five major groups namely (a) peptides that form alpha-helical structures, (b) peptides rich in cysteine residues, (c) peptides that form beta-sheet, (d) peptides rich in regular amino acids namely histatin, arginine and proline and (e) peptides composed of rare and modified amino acids. Most of these peptides are believed to act by disrupting the plasma membrane leading to the lysis of the cell. AMPs have been found to be excellent candidates for developing novel antimicrobial agents and a few of these peptides show antimicrobial activity against pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV/HSV. Peptides, namely magainin and nisin have been shown to demonstrate contraceptive properties in vitro and in vivo. A few peptides have already entered clinical trials for the treatment of impetigo, diabetic foot ulcers and gastric helicobacter infections. In this review, we discuss the source, structures and mode of action with special reference to therapeutic considerations of various AMPs

  13. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  14. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides.

    PubMed

    Øie, Cristina Ionica; Snapkov, Igor; Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  15. Phage-displayed peptide libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, Michael B; Shen, Juqun; Scott, Jamie K

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year, significant advances have been achieved through the use of phage-displayed peptide libraries. A wide variety of bioactive molecules, including antibodies, receptors and enzymes, have selected high-affinity and/or highly-specific peptide ligands from a number of different types of peptide library. The demonstrated therapeutic potential of some of these peptides, as well as new insights into protein structure and function that peptide ligands have provided, highlight the progress made within this rapidly-expanding field. PMID:9720267

  16. Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Shiang; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi P; Lee, Jenny; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Peptides (usually 10-20 amino acid residues in length) can be used as effectively as proteins in raising antibodies producing both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies routinely with titers higher than 20,000. Peptide antigens do not function as immunogens unless they are conjugated to proteins. Production of high quality antipeptide antibodies is dependent upon peptide sequence selection, the success of peptide synthesis, peptide-carrier protein conjugation, the humoral immune response in the host animal, the adjuvant used, the peptide dose administered, the injection method, and the purification of the antibody. Peptide sequence selection is probably the most critical step in the production of antipeptide antibodies. Although the process for designing peptide antigens is not exact, several guidelines and computational B-cell epitope prediction methods can help maximize the likelihood of producing antipeptide antibodies that recognize the protein. Antibodies raised by peptides have become essential tools in life science research. Virtually all phospho-specific antibodies are now produced using phosphopeptides as antigens. Typically, 5-20 mg of peptide is enough for antipeptide antibody production. It takes 3 months to produce a polyclonal antipeptide antibody in rabbits that yields ~100 mL of serum which corresponds to ~8-10 mg of the specific antibody after affinity purification using a peptide column. PMID:27515072

  17. Effects of CYP-Induced Cystitis on Growth Factors and Associated Receptor Expression in Micturition Pathways in Mice with Chronic Overexpression of NGF in Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    We have determined if cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis produces additional changes in growth factor/receptors expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral (L6-S1) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression of NGF (NGF-OE). Functionally, NGF-OE mice treated with CYP exhibit significant increases in voiding frequency above that observed in control NGF-OE mice (no CYP). Quantitative PCR was used to determine NGF, BDNF, VEGF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) transcripts expression in tissues from NGF-OE and wild-type (WT) mice with CYP-induced cystitis of varying duration (4 h, 48 h, 8 days). In urothelium of control NGF-OE mice, NGF mRNA was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased. Urothelial expression of NGF mRNA in NGF-OE mice treated with CYP (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) was not further increased but maintained with all durations of CYP treatment evaluated. In contrast, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) regulation in BDNF, VEGF, TrkA, TrkB, and P75(NTR) mRNA in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. Similarly, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05), differential changes in transcript expression for NGF, BDNF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) in S1 DRG that was dependent on the duration-of CYP-induced cystitis. In general, NGF, BDNF, TrkA, and TrkB protein content in the urinary bladder increased in WT and NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h). Changes in NGF, TrkA and TrkB expression in the urinary bladder were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h) compared to WT mice with cystitis (4 h). However, the magnitude of change between WT and NGF-OE mice was only significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different for TrkB expression in urinary bladder of NGF-OE mice treated with CYP. These studies are

  18. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  19. Natriuretic peptides in fish physiology.

    PubMed

    Loretz, C A; Pollina, C

    2000-02-01

    Natriuretic peptides exist in the fishes as a family of structurally-related isohormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and ventricular natriuretic peptide (VNP); to date, brain natriuretic peptide (or B-type natriuretic peptide, BNP) has not been definitively identified in the fishes. Based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity, the natriuretic peptide family of isohormones may have evolved from a neuromodulatory, CNP-like brain peptide. The primary sites of synthesis for the circulating hormones are the heart and brain; additional extracardiac and extracranial sites, including the intestine, synthesize and release natriuretic peptides locally for paracrine regulation of various physiological functions. Membrane-bound, guanylyl cyclase-coupled natriuretic peptide receptors (A- and B-types) are generally implicated in mediating natriuretic peptide effects via the production of cyclic GMP as the intracellular messenger. C- and D-type natriuretic peptide receptors lacking the guanylyl cyclase domain may influence target cell function through G(i) protein-coupled inhibition of membrane adenylyl cyclase activity, and they likely also act as clearance receptors for circulating hormone. In the few systems examined using homologous or piscine reagents, differential receptor binding and tissue responsiveness to specific natriuretic peptide isohormones is demonstrated. Similar to their acute physiological effects in mammals, natriuretic peptides are vasorelaxant in all fishes examined. In contrast to mammals, where natriuretic peptides act through natriuresis and diuresis to bring about long-term reductions in blood volume and blood pressure, in fishes the primary action appears to be the extrusion of excess salt at the gills and rectal gland, and the limiting of drinking-coupled salt uptake by the alimentary system. In teleosts, both hypernatremia and hypervolemia are effective stimuli for cardiac secretion of

  20. 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in management of bilateral ovarian metastases from gastrointestinal carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Singla, Suhas; Gupta, Santosh; Reddy, Rama Mohan; Durgapal, Prashant; Bal, C S

    2012-12-01

    The management of neuroendocrine tumours is challenging when curative surgery is ruled out because of distant metastases. We report a case of gastrointestinal carcinoid with bilateral ovarian metastases in a 50-year-old female who received octreotide therapy followed by peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and surgery thereafter. Somatostatin receptor expression on neuroendocrine tumours has implications in diagnosis and therapy. (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET is a recent advancement in the field of somatostatin receptor imaging. The lesions which demonstrate tracer uptake on positron emission tomographic studies can be further planned for treatment with octreotide and (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE. The case in discussion responded well to non-invasive treatment options before proceeding to definitive surgical management. PMID:23107835

  1. SR-A and SREC-I binding peptides increase HDAd-mediated liver transduction

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Pasquale; Annunziata, Patrizia; Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors can mediate long-term, high-level transgene expression from transduced hepatocytes without inducing chronic toxicity. However, vector therapeutic index is narrow because of a toxic acute response with potentially lethal consequences elicited by high vector doses. Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are major barriers to efficient hepatocyte transduction. We investigated two small peptides (PP1 and PP2) developed by phage display to block scavenger receptor type A (SR-A) and scavenger receptor expressed on endothelial cells type I (SREC-I) respectively, for enhancement of HDAd-mediated hepatocyte transduction efficiency. Pre-incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with either PP1 or PP2 prior to HDAd infection significantly reduced viral vector uptake. In vivo, fluorochrome-conjugated PP1 and PP2 injected intravenously into mice co-localized with both CD68 and CD31 on Kupffer cells and LSECs, respectively. Compared to saline pre-treated animals, intravenous injections of both peptides prior to the injection of an HDAd resulted in up to 3.7- and 2.9-fold increase of hepatic transgene expression with PP1 and PP2, respectively. In addition to hepatocyte transduction, compared to control saline injected mice, pre-treatment with either peptide resulted in no increased levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), the major marker of adenoviral vector acute toxicity. In summary, we developed small peptides that significantly increase hepatocyte transduction efficacy and improve HDAd therapeutic index with potential for clinical applications. PMID:25119377

  2. Peptide YY Regulates Bone Remodeling in Mice: A Link between Gut and Skeletal Biology

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Iris P. L.; Driessler, Frank; Khor, Ee Cheng; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Hörmer, Birgit; Nguyen, Amy D.; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Eisman, John A.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastrointestinal peptides are increasingly being linked to processes controlling the maintenance of bone mass. Peptide YY (PYY), a gut-derived satiety peptide of the neuropeptide Y family, is upregulated in some states that also display low bone mass. Importantly, PYY has high affinity for Y-receptors, particularly Y1R and Y2R, which are known to regulate bone mass. Anorexic conditions and bariatric surgery for obesity influence circulating levels of PYY and have a negative impact on bone mass, but the precise mechanism behind this is unclear. We thus examined whether alterations in PYY expression affect bone mass. Methods Bone microstructure and cellular activity were analyzed in germline PYY knockout and conditional adult-onset PYY over-expressing mice at lumbar and femoral sites using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. Results PYY displayed a negative relationship with osteoblast activity. Male and female PYY knockout mice showed enhanced osteoblast activity, with greater cancellous bone mass. Conversely, PYY over-expression lowered osteoblast activity in vivo, via a direct Y1 receptor mediated mechanism involving MAPK stimulation evident in vitro. In contrast to PYY knockout mice, PYY over expression also altered bone resorption, as indicated by greater osteoclast surface, despite the lack of Y-receptor expression in osteoclastic cells. While evident in both sexes, cellular changes were generally more pronounced in females. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the gut peptide PYY is critical for the control of bone remodeling. This regulatory axis from the intestine to bone has the potential to contribute to the marked bone loss observed in situations of extreme weight loss and higher circulating PYY levels, such as anorexia and bariatric obesity surgery, and may be important in the maintenance of bone mass in the general population. PMID:22792209

  3. [Brain natriuretic peptide].

    PubMed

    La Villa, G; Lazzeri, C; Fronzaroli, C; Franchi, F; Gentilini, P

    1995-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone with a spectrum of activities quite similar to those of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), including diuretic, natriuretic, hypotensive and smooth muscle relaxant activities. These effects are due to the stimulation of guanylate cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptors, leading to an increase in cyclic GMP concentration in target cells. BNP has a lower affinity than ANP for C (clearance) receptors, and is less susceptible to degradation by neutral endopeptidase-24.11, resulting in a longer half-life. In the kidney, BNP increases the glomerular filtration rate and inhibits sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule. It also inhibits the release of renin and aldosterone. Unlike ANP, produced by the atria, BNP is mainly synthesized and released into circulation by the left ventricle and is therefore influenced by stimuli involving this cardiac chamber, such as an increase in arterial pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. Plasma BNP levels are very low in healthy subjects, and respond modestly, although significantly to physiological stimuli such as changes in posture or sodium intake. In contrast, plasma BNP concentrations increase in disease states such as cirrhosis with ascites, hypertension, chronic renal failure, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. In the latter condition, plasma BNP concentration is a reliable prognostic index. Evidence obtained by administering BNP to healthy subjects and hypertensive patients suggests that BNP, at physiological and pathophysiological plasma concentrations, markedly influences cardiovascular homeostasis, mainly due to its effects on sodium excretion and the renin-aldosterone axis. PMID:8718658

  4. DAP12 Stabilizes the C-terminal Fragment of the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 (TREM2) and Protects against LPS-induced Pro-inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Zhen-Lian; Wang, Zhe; Shi, Xin-Zhen; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2015-06-19

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a DAP12-associated receptor expressed in microglia, macrophages, and other myeloid-derived cells. Previous studies have suggested that TREM2/DAP12 signaling pathway reduces inflammatory responses and promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Recently, TREM2 has been identified as a risk gene for Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we show that DAP12 stabilizes the C-terminal fragment of TREM2 (TREM2-CTF), a substrate for γ-secretase. Co-expression of DAP12 with TREM2 selectively increased the level of TREM2-CTF with little effects on that of full-length TREM2. The interaction between DAP12 and TREM2 is essential for TREM2-CTF stabilization as a mutant form of DAP12 with disrupted interaction with TREM2 failed to exhibit such an effect. Silencing of either Trem2 or Dap12 gene significantly exacerbated pro-inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Importantly, overexpression of either full-length TREM2 or TREM2-CTF reduced LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Taken together, our results support a role of DAP12 in stabilizing TREM2-CTF, thereby protecting against excessive pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25957402

  5. Nanoparticles and phage display selected peptides for imaging and therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Cathy S; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Sisay, Nebiat; Cantorias, Melchor; Zambre, Ajit; McLaughlin, Mark; Kelsey, James; Upenandran, Anandhi; Robertson, Dave; Deutscher, Susan; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging probes are a special class of pharmaceuticals that target specific biochemical signatures associated with disease and allow for noninvasive imaging on the molecular level. Because changes in biochemistry occur before diseases reach an advanced stage, molecular imaging probes make it possible to locate and stage disease, track the effectiveness of drugs, treat disease, monitor response, and select patients to allow for more personalized diagnosis and treatment of disease. Targeting agents radiolabeled with positron emitters are of interest due to their ability to quantitatively measure biodistribution and receptor expression to allow for optimal dose determinations. (68)Ga is a positron emitter, which allows for quantitative imaging through positron emission chromatography (PET). The availability of (68)Ga from a generator and its ability to form stable complexes with a variety of chelates hold promise for expanding PET utilization to facilities unable to afford their own cyclotron. Nanoparticles conjugated with various proteins and peptides derived from phage display that can be selectively targeted are being developed and evaluated for guided imaging and therapy. Herein we highlight some initial efforts in combining the enhanced selectivity of nanoparticles and peptides with (68)Ga for use as molecular imaging probes. PMID:22918758

  6. Radiolabeled B9958 Derivatives for Imaging Bradykinin B1 Receptor Expression with Positron Emission Tomography: Effect of the Radiolabel-Chelator Complex on Biodistribution and Tumor Uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengxing; Amouroux, Guillaume; Pan, Jinhe; Jenni, Silvia; Zeisler, Jutta; Zhang, Chengcheng; Liu, Zhibo; Perrin, David M; Bénard, François; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

    2016-08-01

    Bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), which is upregulated in a variety of malignancies, is an attractive cancer imaging biomarker. In this study we optimized the selection of radiolabel-chelator complex to improve tumor uptake and tumor-to-background contrast of radiolabeled analogues of B9958 (Lys-Lys-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Cpg-Ser-d-Tic-Cpg), a potent B1R antagonist. Peptide sequences were assembled on solid phase. Cold standards were prepared by incubating DOTA-/NODA-conjugated peptides with GaCl3, and by incubating AlOH-NODA-conjugated peptide with NaF. Binding affinities were measured via in vitro competition binding assays. (68)Ga and (18)F labeling experiments were performed in acidic buffer and purified by HPLC. Imaging/biodistribution studies were performed in mice bearing both B1R-positive (B1R+) HEK293T::hB1R and B1R-negative (B1R-) HEK293T tumors. Z02176 (Ga-DOTA-Pip-B9958; Pip: 4-amino-(1-carboxymethyl)piperidine), Z02137 (Ga-NODA-Mpaa-Pip-B9958; Mpaa: 4-methylphenylacetic acid), and Z04139 (AlF-NODA-Mpaa-Pip-B9958) bound hB1R with high affinity (Ki = 1.4-2.5 nM). (68)Ga-/(18)F-labeled peptides were obtained on average in ≥32% decay-corrected radiochemical yield with >99% radiochemical purity and 100-261 GBq/μmol specific activity. Biodistribution/imaging studies at 1 h postinjection showed that all tracers cleared rapidly from background tissues (except kidneys) and were excreted predominantly via the renal pathway. Only kidneys, bladders, and B1R+ tumors were clearly visualized in PET images. Uptake in B1R+ tumor was higher by using (68)Ga-Z02176 (28.9 ± 6.21 %ID/g) and (18)F-Z04139 (22.6 ± 3.41 %ID/g) than (68)Ga-Z02137 (14.0 ± 4.86 %ID/g). The B1R+ tumor-to-blood and B1R+ tumor-to-muscle contrast ratios were also higher for (68)Ga-Z02176 (56.1 ± 17.3 and 167 ± 57.6) and (18)F-Z04139 (58.0 ± 20.9 and 173 ± 42.9) than (68)Ga-Z02137 (34.3 ± 15.2 and 103 ± 30.2). With improved target-to-background contrast (68)Ga-Z02176 and (18)F-Z04139 are promising for

  7. Comparative mapping of the Grpr locus on the X chromosomes of man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, G.Ll.; Boyd, Y. )

    1993-07-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor has been previously cloned from both humans and mice. The authors have mapped the mouse gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (Grpr) locus using a polymorphic CA[sub n] repeat located in the 5[prime] untranslated region of the gene and a Mus spretus/Mus musculus interspecific backcross. The Grpr locus mapped between the Pdha-1 and Amg loci on the mouse X chromosome. Studies in man indicate that GRPR maps to the Xp21.2-p22.3 region of the human X chromosome and not to the Xp11-q11 interval as previously reported. The assignment of the GRPR locus to the distal Xp region is supported by the comparative map position in the mouse. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Peptide Aptamers: Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S.; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Peptide aptamers are small combinatorial proteins that are selected to bind to specific sites on their target molecules. Peptide aptamers consist of short, 5-20 amino acid residues long sequences, typically embedded as a loop within a stable protein scaffold. Various peptide aptamer scaffolds and in vitro and in vivo selection techniques are reviewed with emphasis on specific biomedical, bioimaging, and bioanalytical applications. PMID:25866267

  9. Macrocyclization of Unprotected Peptide Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Choo, Zi-Ning; Totaro, Kyle A; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A chemistry for the facile two-component macrocyclization of unprotected peptide isocyanates is described. Starting from peptides containing two glutamic acid γ-hydrazide residues, isocyanates can be readily accessed and cyclized with hydrazides of dicarboxylic acids. The choice of a nucleophilic linker allows for the facile modulation of biochemical properties of a macrocyclic peptide. Four cyclic NYAD-1 analogues were synthesized using the described method and displayed a range of biological activities. PMID:26948900

  10. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  11. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology. PMID:26279082

  12. Peptides that influence membrane topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the mechanism of a range of polypeptides that influence membrane topology, including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, viral fusion peptides, and apoptosis proteins, and show how a combination of geometry, coordination chemistry, and soft matter physics can be used to approach a unified understanding. We will also show how such peptides can impact biomedical problems such as auto-immune diseases (psoriasis, lupus), infectious diseases (viral and bacterial infections), and mitochondrial pathologies (under-regulated apoptosis leads to neurodegenerative diseases whereas over-regulated apoptosis leads to cancer.)

  13. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  14. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  15. Effects of Starvation on Brain Short Neuropeptide F-1, -2, and -3 Levels and Short Neuropeptide F Receptor Expression Levels of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Nakane, Tomohiro; Ohara, Ayako; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Konuma, Takahiro; Nagai, Chiaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In our previous report, we demonstrated the possibility that various regulatory neuropeptides influence feeding behavior in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Among these feeding-related neuropeptides, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) exhibited feeding-accelerating activity when injected into B. mori larvae. Like other insect sNPFs, the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA encoding the sNPF precursor appears to produce multiple sNPF and sNPF-related peptides in B. mori. The presence of three sNPFs, sNPF-1, sNPF-2, and sNPF-3, in the brain of B. mori larvae was confirmed by direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric profiling. In addition, all three sNPFs are present in other larval ganglia. The presence of sNPF mRNA in the central nervous system (CNS) was also confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Semi-quantitative analyses of sNPFs in the larval brain using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry further revealed that brain sNPF levels decrease in response to starvation, and that they recover with the resumption of feeding. These data suggest that sNPFs were depleted by the starvation process. Furthermore, food deprivation decreased the transcriptional levels of the sNPF receptor (BNGR-A10) in the brain and CNS, suggesting that the sNPF system is dependent on the feeding state of the insect and that the sNPF system may be linked to locomotor activity associated with foraging behavior. Since the injection of sNPFs accelerated the onset of feeding in B. mori larvae, we concluded that sNPFs are strongly related to feeding behavior. In addition, semi-quantitative MS analyses revealed that allatostatin, which is present in the larval brain, is also reduced in response to starvation, whereas the peptide level of Bommyosuppressin was not affected by different feeding states. PMID:22649403

  16. Recognition of Bacterial Signal Peptides by Mammalian Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Schumann, Timo; Kappl, Reinhard; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Podgórska, Marta; Smola, Sigrun; Hoth, Markus; Zufall, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least 175,542 predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. PMID:25605714

  17. Phytosulfokine peptide signalling.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) belongs to the group of plant peptide growth factors. It is a disulfated pentapeptide encoded by precursor genes that are ubiquitously present in higher plants, suggestive of universal functions. Processing of the preproprotein involves sulfonylation by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in the trans-golgi and proteolytic cleavage in the apoplast. The secreted peptide is perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase of the leucine-rich repeat family. The PSK receptor PSKR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an active kinase and has guanylate cyclase activity resulting in dual-signal outputs. Receptor activity is regulated by calmodulin. While PSK may be an autocrine growth factor, it also acts non-cell autonomously by promoting growth of cells that are receptor-deficient. In planta, PSK has multiple functions. It promotes cell growth, acts in the quiescent centre cells of the root apical meristem, contributes to funicular pollen tube guidance, and differentially alters immune responses depending on the pathogen. It has been suggested that PSK integrates growth and defence signals to balance the competing metabolic costs of these responses. This review summarizes our current understanding of PSK synthesis, signalling, and activity. PMID:25754406

  18. Vitamin D supplementation promotes macrophages' anti-mycobacterial activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with low vitamin D receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Lopez, Nallely; Gonzalez-Curiel, Irma; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; Gandara-Jasso, Benjamin; Enciso-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    The increasing number of people with type 2 diabetes (DM2) is alarming and if it is taken into account that the relative odds of developing tuberculosis in diabetic patients ranges from 2.44 to 8.33 compared with non-diabetic patients, thus in developing countries where these two diseases are encountering face to face, there is a need for prophylaxis strategies. The role of vitamin D has been widely implicated in growth control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during primary infection mainly through the induction of certain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this study we evaluated the vitamin D serum levels, CYP27B1-hydroxylase enzyme, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and AMPs gene expression in Healthy donors, DM2 and TB patients. Results showed that DM2 group has lower VDR and AMPs expression levels. When Monocytes Derived Macrophages (MDM) from DM2 patients with low VDR expression were supplemented with vitamin D, MDMs eliminate efficiently M. tuberculosis. This preliminary study suggests the use of vitamin D as prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high DM2 endemic countries. PMID:25016144

  19. Effect of fasting on cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript, neuropeptide Y, and leptin receptor expression in the non-human primate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Dean A; Lujan, Marla E; Froats, Mark; Krzemien, Alicja; Couceyro, Pastor R; Reid, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine produced by white adipose tissue that circulates in direct proportion to adiposity and is an important signal of energy balance. Leptin inhibits food intake in rodents by inhibiting the orexigenic neuropetides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti regulated peptide (AgRP) and stimulating the anorexigenic neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). In order to extend our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of appetite in the primate, we determined the effect of a metabolic challenge on CART, NPY, and leptin receptor (Ob-R) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the nonhuman primate (NHP) hypothalamus. Ten adult female rhesus monkeys were either maintained on a regular diet or fasted for two days before euthanasia. CART, NPY, and Ob-R mRNA were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH). A 2-day fast decreased CART expression in the ARC, increased NPY gene expression in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and increased Ob-R expression in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN). This is the first report that fasting inhibits CART expression and stimulates Ob-R expression in monkeys. Increased NPY expression in the SON and PVN, but not the ARC of fasted monkeys also is novel. With some exceptions, our observations are confirmatory of findings in rodent studies. Similarities in the neuroendocrine responses to a metabolic challenge in monkeys and rodents support extending existing hypotheses of neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis to primates. PMID:17124379

  20. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Natriuretic Peptides and Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak K; Wang, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides are cardiac-derived hormones with a range of protective functions, including natriuresis, diuresis, vasodilation, lusitropy, lipolysis, weight loss, and improved insulin sensitivity. Their actions are mediated through membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases that lead to production of the intracellular second-messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic and acquired deficiencies of the natriuretic peptide system can promote hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, and heart failure. Clinically, natriuretic peptides are robust diagnostic and prognostic markers, and augmenting natriuretic peptides is a target for therapeutic strategies in cardiometabolic disease. This review will summarize current understanding and highlight novel aspects of natriuretic peptide biology. PMID:26103984

  2. Different mechanisms of apolipoprotein E isoform–dependent modulation of prostaglandin E2 production and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) expression after innate immune activation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianwu; Montine, Kathleen S.; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support immune response in brain as a mechanism of injury in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, immune activation is heightened in apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers; inhibitors of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis show a partially protective effect on AD risk from APOE ε4; and genetic variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are a rare but potent risk for AD. We tested the hypothesis that APOE ε4 inheritance modulates both the PGE2 pathway and TREM2 expression using primary murine microglia from targeted replacement (TR) APOE3/3 and APOE4/4 mice. Microglial cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal PGE synthase, and PGE2 expression were increased 2- to 25-fold in both genotypes by TLR activators; however, this induction was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in TR APOE4/4 microglia with TLR3 and TLR4 activators. Microglial TREM2 expression was reduced approximately 85% by all TLR activators; this reduction was approximately one-third greater in microglia from TR APOE4/4 mice. Importantly, both receptor-associated protein and a nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer inhibitor blocked TR APOE4/4–dependent effects on the PGE2 pathway but not on TREM2 expression. These data demonstrate complementary, but mechanistically distinct, regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in TR APOE4/4 murine microglia that yields a more proinflammatory state than with TR APOE3/3.—Li, X., Montine, K. S., Keene, C. D., Montine, T. J. Different mechanisms of apolipoprotein E isoform–dependent modulation of prostaglandin E2 production and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) expression after innate immune activation of microglia. PMID:25593125

  3. Nuclear factor-kappa B directs carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-infected epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Petra; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Naumann, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The human-specific pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae expresses opacity-associated (Opa) protein adhesins that bind to various members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. In this study, we have analyzed the mechanism underlying N. gonorrhoeae-induced CEACAM up-regulation in epithelial cells. Epithelial cells represent the first barrier for the microbial pathogen. We therefore characterized CEACAM expression in primary human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells and found that CEACAM1-3 (L, S) and CEACAM1-4 (L, S) splice variants mediate an increased Opa(52)-dependent gonoccocal binding to HOSE cells. Up-regulation of these CEACAM molecules in HOSE cells is a direct process that takes place within 2 h postinfection and depends on close contact between microbial pathogen and HOSE cells. N. gonorrhoeae-triggered CEACAM1 up-regulation involves activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which translocates as a p50/p65 heterodimer into the nucleus, and an NF-kappaB-specific inhibitory peptide inhibited CEACAM1-receptor up-regulation in N. gonorrhoeae-infected HOSE cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides did not induce NF-kappaB and CEACAM up-regulation, which corresponds to our findings that HOSE cells do not express toll-like receptor 4. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to up-regulate its epithelial receptor CEACAM1 through NF-kappaB suggests an important mechanism allowing efficient bacterial colonization during the initial infection process. PMID:11751883

  4. Highly Angiogenic Peptide Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Taylor, Nichole L.; Shi, Siyu; Wang, Benjamin K.; Jalan, Abhishek A.; Kang, Marci K.; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Major limitations of current tissue regeneration approaches using artificial scaffolds are fibrous encapsulation, lack of host cellular infiltration, unwanted immune responses, surface degradation preceding biointegration, and artificial degradation byproducts. Specifically, for scaffolds larger than 200 500 μm, implants must be accompanied by host angiogenesis in order to provide adequate nutrient/waste exchange in the newly forming tissue. In the current work, we design a peptide-based self-assembling nanofibrous hydrogel containing cell-mediated degradation and proangiogenic moieties that specifically address these challenges. This hydrogel can be easily delivered by syringe, is rapidly infiltrated by cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin, and rapidly forms an extremely robust mature vascular network. scaffolds show no signs of fibrous encapsulation and after 3 weeks are resorbed into the native tissue. These supramolecular assemblies may prove a vital paradigm for tissue regeneration and specifically for ischemic tissue disease. PMID:25584521

  5. Peptide-formation on cysteine-containing peptide scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, B. C.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Glyn-Cys-Glu10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu10 in the presence of Arg5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  6. Conus venom peptide pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard J; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Christie, MacDonald J

    2012-04-01

    Conopeptides are a diverse group of recently evolved venom peptides used for prey capture and/or defense. Each species of cone snails produces in excess of 1000 conopeptides, with those pharmacologically characterized (≈ 0.1%) targeting a diverse range of membrane proteins typically with high potency and specificity. The majority of conopeptides inhibit voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, providing valuable research tools for the dissection of the role played by specific ion channels in excitable cells. It is noteworthy that many of these targets are found to be expressed in pain pathways, with several conopeptides having entered the clinic as potential treatments for pain [e.g., pyroglutamate1-MrIA (Xen2174)] and one now marketed for intrathecal treatment of severe pain [ziconotide (Prialt)]. This review discusses the diversity, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptide families acting at voltage-gated ion channels (ω-, μ-, μO-, δ-, ι-, and κ-conotoxins), ligand-gated ion channels (α-conotoxins, σ-conotoxin, ikot-ikot, and conantokins), G-protein-coupled receptors (ρ-conopeptides, conopressins, and contulakins), and neurotransmitter transporters (χ-conopeptides), with expanded discussion on the clinical potential of sodium and calcium channel inhibitors and α-conotoxins. Expanding the discovery of new bioactives using proteomic/transcriptomic approaches combined with high-throughput platforms and better defining conopeptide structure-activity relationships using relevant membrane protein crystal structures are expected to grow the already significant impact conopeptides have had as both research probes and leads to new therapies. PMID:22407615

  7. NK cells: tuned by peptide?

    PubMed

    Das, Jayajit; Khakoo, Salim I

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells express multiple receptors for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, including the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and the C-type lectin-like CD94:NKG2 receptors. The KIR locus is extremely polymorphic, paralleling the diversity of its classical MHC class I ligands. Similarly, the conservation of the NKG2 family of receptors parallels the conservation of MHC-E, the ligand for CD94:NKG2A/C/E. Binding of both CD94:NKG2 heterodimers and KIR to their respective MHC class I ligand is peptide dependent, and despite the evolution of these receptors, they have retained the property of peptide selectivity. Such peptide selectivity affects these two systems in different ways. HLA-E binding non-inhibitory peptides augment inhibition at CD94:NKG2A, while HLA-C binding non-inhibitory peptides antagonize inhibition at KIR2DL2/3, implying that KIRs are specialized to respond positively to changes in peptide repertoire. Thus, while specific KIRs, such as KIR2DL3, are associated with beneficial outcomes from viral infections, viral peptides augment inhibition at CD94:NKGA. Conversely, NKG2A-positive NK cells sense MHC class I downregulation more efficiently than KIRs. Thus, these two receptor:ligand systems appear to have complementary functions in recognizing changes in MHC class I. PMID:26284480

  8. The novel desmopressin analogue [V4Q5]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastases in vasopressin type 2 receptor-expressing breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    GARONA, JUAN; PIFANO, MARINA; ORLANDO, ULISES D.; PASTRIAN, MARIA B.; IANNUCCI, NANCY B.; ORTEGA, HUGO H.; PODESTA, ERNESTO J.; GOMEZ, DANIEL E.; RIPOLL, GISELLE V.; ALONSO, DANIEL F.

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a safe haemostatic agent with previously reported antitumour activity. It acts as a selective agonist for the V2 vasopressin membrane receptor (V2r) present on tumour cells and microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the novel peptide derivative [V4Q5]dDAVP in V2r-expressing preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. We assessed antitumour effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP using human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, as well as the highly metastatic mouse F3II cell line. Effect on in vitro cancer cell growth was evaluated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry. In order to study the effect of intravenously administered [V4Q5]dDAVP on tumour growth and angiogenesis, breast cancer xenografts were generated in athymic mice. F3II cells were injected into syngeneic mice to evaluate the effect of [V4Q5]dDAVP on spontaneous and experimental metastatic spread. In vitro cytostatic effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP against breast cancer cells were greater than those of dDAVP, and associated with V2r-activated signal transduction and partial cell cycle arrest. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, [V4Q5]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice a week) reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of F3II mammary tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice resulted in complete inhibition of metastatic progression. [V4Q5]dDAVP also displayed greater antimetastatic efficacy than dDAVP on experimental lung colonisation by F3II cells. The novel analogue was well tolerated in preliminary acute toxicology studies, at doses ≥300-fold above that required for anti-angiogenic/antimetastatic effects. Our data establish the preclinical activity of [V4Q5]dDAVP in aggressive breast cancer, providing the rationale for further clinical trials. PMID:25846632

  9. (18)F-trifluoroborate derivatives of [des-arg(10)]kallidin for imaging bradykinin b1 receptor expression with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Amouroux, Guillaume; Zhang, Zhengxing; Pan, Jinhe; Hundal-Jabal, Navjit; Colpo, Nadine; Lau, Joseph; Perrin, David M; Bénard, François; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

    2015-03-01

    Bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) is involved in pain and inflammation pathways and is upregulated in inflamed tissues and cancer. Due to its minimal expression in healthy tissues, B1R is an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to treat inflammation, chronic pain, and cancer. The goal of this study is to synthesize and compare two (18)F-labeled peptides derived from potent B1R antagonists B9858 and B9958 for imaging B1R expression with positron emission tomography (PET). Azidoacetyl-B9858 2 and azidoacetyl-B9958 3 were synthesized by a solid-phase approach and subsequently clicked to ammoniomethyl-trifluoroborate (AmBF3)-conjugated alkyne 1 to obtain AmBF3-B9858 and AmBF3-B9958, respectively. AmBF3-B9858 and AmBF3-B9958 bound B1R with high affinity, with Ki values at 0.09 ± 0.08 and 0.46 ± 0.03 nM, respectively, as measured by in vitro competition binding assays. (18)F labeling was performed via an (18)F-(19)F isotope exchange reaction. The radiofluorinated tracers were obtained within a synthesis time of 30 min and with 23-32% non-decay-corrected radiochemical yield, >99% radiochemical purity, and 43-87 GBq/μmol specific activity at the end of the synthesis. PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out in mice bearing both B1R-positive (B1R(+)) HEK293T::hB1R and B1R-negative (B1R(-)) HEK293T tumors. Both tracers cleared rapidly from most organs/tissues, mainly through the renal pathway. High uptake in B1R(+) tumors ((18)F-AmBF3-B9858: 3.94 ± 1.24% ID/g, tumor-to-muscle ratio 21.3 ± 4.33; (18)F-AmBF3-B9958: 4.20 ± 0.98% ID/g, tumor-to-muscle ratio 48.6 ± 10.7) was observed at 1 h postinjection. These results indicate that (18)F-AmBF3-B9858 and (18)F-AmBF3-B9958 are promising agents for the in vivo imaging of B1R expression with PET. PMID:25629412

  10. Randomized Multicenter Trial of the Effects of Melanoma-Associated Helper Peptides and Cyclophosphamide on the Immunogenicity of a Multipeptide Melanoma Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Slingluff, Craig L.; Petroni, Gina R.; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Ross, Merrick I.; Haas, Naomi B.; von Mehren, Margaret; Grosh, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter randomized trial was designed to test whether melanoma-associated helper peptides augment CD8+ T-cell responses to a melanoma vaccine and whether cyclophosphamide (CY) pretreatment augments CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell responses to that vaccine. Patients and Methods In all, 167 eligible patients with resected stage IIB to IV melanoma were randomly assigned to four vaccination study arms. Patients were vaccinated with 12 class I major histocompatibility complex–restricted melanoma peptides (12MP) to stimulate CD8+ T cells and were randomly assigned to receive a tetanus helper peptide or a mixture of six melanoma-associated helper peptides (6MHP) to stimulate CD4+ T cells. Before vaccination, patients were also randomly assigned to receive CY pretreatment or not. T-cell responses were assessed by an ex vivo interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Clinical outcomes and toxicities were recorded. Results Vaccination with 12MP plus tetanus induced CD8+ T-cell responses in 78% of patients and CD4+ T-cell responses to tetanus peptide in 93% of patients. Vaccination with 12MP plus 6MHP induced CD8+ responses in 19% of patients and CD4+ responses to 6MHP in 48% of patients. CY had no significant effect on T-cell responses. Overall 3-year survival was 79% (95% CI, 71% to 86%), with no significant differences (at this point) by study arm. Conclusion Melanoma-associated helper peptides paradoxically decreased CD8+ T-cell responses to a melanoma vaccine (P < .001), and CY pretreatment had no immunologic or clinical effect. Prior work showed immunologic and clinical activity of 6MHP alone. Possible explanations for negative effects on CD8 responses include modulation of homing receptor expression or induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells. PMID:21690475

  11. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-07-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  12. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  13. Synthetic Peptides as Protein Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Sticht, Heinrich; Eichler, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The design and generation of molecules capable of mimicking the binding and/or functional sites of proteins represents a promising strategy for the exploration and modulation of protein function through controlled interference with the underlying molecular interactions. Synthetic peptides have proven an excellent type of molecule for the mimicry of protein sites because such peptides can be generated as exact copies of protein fragments, as well as in diverse chemical modifications, which includes the incorporation of a large range of non-proteinogenic amino acids as well as the modification of the peptide backbone. Apart from extending the chemical and structural diversity presented by peptides, such modifications also increase the proteolytic stability of the molecules, enhancing their utility for biological applications. This article reviews recent advances by this and other laboratories in the use of synthetic protein mimics to modulate protein function, as well as to provide building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26835447

  14. Food-derived immunomodulatory peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiago-López, Lourdes; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Mata-Haro, Verónica; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2016-08-01

    Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant- and animal-derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discusses the possible pathways involving these properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26940008

  15. Moonlighting Peptides with Emerging Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Villalón Rojas, Amanda; Herrera, Sur; Garza-Ramos, Georgina; Torres Larios, Alfredo; Amero, Carlos; Zarraga Granados, Gabriela; Gutiérrez Aguilar, Manuel; Lara Ortiz, María Teresa; Polanco Gonzalez, Carlos; Uribe Carvajal, Salvador; Coria, Roberto; Peña Díaz, Antonio; Bredesen, Dale E.; Castro-Obregon, Susana; del Rio, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides). We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated. PMID:22808104

  16. Moonlighting peptides with emerging function.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Plaza, Jonathan G; Villalón Rojas, Amanda; Herrera, Sur; Garza-Ramos, Georgina; Torres Larios, Alfredo; Amero, Carlos; Zarraga Granados, Gabriela; Gutiérrez Aguilar, Manuel; Lara Ortiz, María Teresa; Polanco Gonzalez, Carlos; Uribe Carvajal, Salvador; Coria, Roberto; Peña Díaz, Antonio; Bredesen, Dale E; Castro-Obregon, Susana; del Rio, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides). We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated. PMID:22808104

  17. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846352

  18. Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Brown, J W; Schally, A V; Erler, A; Gebauer, L; Treszl, A; Young, L; Fishman, L M; Engel, J B; Willenberg, H S; Petersenn, S; Eisenhofer, G; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Bornstein, S R

    2009-09-15

    Peptide analogues targeting various neuropeptide receptors have been used effectively in cancer therapy. A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction. Our microarray results have also demonstrated a differential expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in tumor subtypes of human pheochromocytoma. In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors. Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines. Cytotoxic derivatives of somatostatin AN-238 and, to a lesser extent, AN-162, reduced cell numbers of uninduced and NGF-induced adrenomedullary pheochromocytoma cells and adrenocortical cancer cells. Both the splice variant of GHRH receptor SV-1 and the LHRH receptor were also expressed in adrenocortical cancer cell lines but not in the pheochromocytoma cell line. The GHRH receptor antagonist MZ-4-71 and LHRH antagonist Cetrorelix both significantly reduced cell growth in the adrenocortical cancer cell line. In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors. PMID:19717419

  19. Kinins and peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand

    2016-04-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first contains the essential elements of the opening lecture presented by Pr. Regoli to the 2015 International Kinin Symposium in S. Paulo, Brazil on June 28th and the second is the celebration of Dr. Regoli's 60 years of research on vasoactive peptides. The cardiovascular homeostasis derives from a balance of two systems, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The biologically active effector entity of RAS is angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1R), and that of KKS is bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). The first mediates vasoconstriction, the second is the most potent and efficient vasodilator. Thanks to its complex and multi-functional mechanism of action, involving nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelial hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). B2R is instrumental for the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition to tissues. KKS is present on the vascular endothelium and functions as an autacoid playing major roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. KKS exerts a paramount role in the prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Such knowledge emphasizes the already prominent value of the ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) for the treatment of CVDs and diabetes. Indeed, the ACEIs, thanks to their double action (block of the RAS and potentiation of the KKS) are the ideal agents for a rational treatment of these diseases. PMID:26408609

  20. Peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  1. Collagen-like antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ryo; Kudo, Masakazu; Dazai, Yui; Mima, Takehiko; Koide, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    Combinatorial library composed of rigid rod-like peptides with a triple-helical scaffold was constructed. The component peptides were designed to have various combinations of basic and neutral (or hydrophobic) amino acid residues based on collagen-like (Gly-Pro-Yaa)-repeating sequences, inspired from the basic and amphiphilic nature of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Screening of the peptide pools resulted in identification of antimicrobial peptides. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the position of Arg-cluster at N-terminus and cystine knots at C-terminus in the triple helix significantly contributed to the antimicrobial activity. The most potent peptide RO-A showed activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In addition, Escherichia coli exposed to RO-A resulted in abnormal elongation of the cells. RO-A was also shown to have remarkable stability in human serum and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 453-459, 2016. PMID:27271210

  2. Latarcins: versatile spider venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Dubovskii, Peter V; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexey V; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2015-12-01

    Arthropod venoms feature the presence of cytolytic peptides believed to act synergetically with neurotoxins to paralyze prey or deter aggressors. Many of them are linear, i.e., lack disulfide bonds. When isolated from the venom, or obtained by other means, these peptides exhibit common properties. They are cationic; being mostly disordered in aqueous solution, assume amphiphilic α-helical structure in contact with lipid membranes; and exhibit general cytotoxicity, including antifungal, antimicrobial, hemolytic, and anticancer activities. To suit the pharmacological needs, the activity spectrum of these peptides should be modified by rational engineering. As an example, we provide a detailed review on latarcins (Ltc), linear cytolytic peptides from Lachesana tarabaevi spider venom. Diverse experimental and computational techniques were used to investigate the spatial structure of Ltc in membrane-mimicking environments and their effects on model lipid bilayers. The antibacterial activity of Ltc was studied against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the action of Ltc on erythrocytes and cancer cells was investigated in detail with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the present review, we give a critical account of the progress in the research of Ltc. We explore the relationship between Ltc structure and their biological activity and derive molecular characteristics, which can be used for optimization of other linear peptides. Current applications of Ltc and prospective use of similar membrane-active peptides are outlined. PMID:26286896

  3. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mäde, Veronika; Els-Heindl, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies. PMID:24991269

  4. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Exploration of the Medicinal Peptide Space.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Bert; Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The chemical properties of peptide medicines, known as the 'medicinal peptide space' is considered a multi-dimensional subset of the global peptide space, where each dimension represents a chemical descriptor. These descriptors can be linked to biofunctional, medicinal properties to varying degrees. Knowledge of this space can increase the efficiency of the peptide-drug discovery and development process, as well as advance our understanding and classification of peptide medicines. For 245 peptide drugs, already available on the market or in clinical development, multivariate dataexploration was performed using peptide relevant physicochemical descriptors, their specific peptidedrug target and their clinical use. Our retrospective analysis indicates that clusters in the medicinal peptide space are located in a relatively narrow range of the physicochemical space: dense and empty regions were found, which can be explored for the discovery of novel peptide drugs. PMID:26876881

  6. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  7. Atomic Coordination Reflects Peptide Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Antipas, Georgios S. E.; Germenis, Anastasios E.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated that the immunological identity of variant peptides may be accurately predicted on the basis of atomic coordination of both unprotonated and protonated tertiary structures, provided that the structure of the native peptide (index) is known. The metric which was discovered to account for this discrimination is the coordination difference between the variant and the index; we also showed that increasing coordination difference in respect to the index was correlated to a correspondingly weakening immunological outcome of the variant. Additionally, we established that this metric quickly seizes to operate beyond the peptide scale, e.g., within a coordination shell inclusive of atoms up to a distance of 7 Å away from the peptide or over the entire pMHC-TCR complex. Analysis of molecular orbital interactions for a range of formal charges further revealed that the N-terminus of the agonists was always able to sustain a stable ammonium (NH3+) group which was consistently absent in antagonists. We deem that the presence of NH3+ constitutes a secondary observable with a biological consequence, signifying a change in T cell activation. While our analysis of protonated structures relied on the quantum chemical relaxation of the H species, the results were consistent across a wide range of peptide charge and spin polarization conditions. PMID:26793714

  8. Expression and potential role of the peptide orexin-A in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Valiante, Salvatore; Liguori, Giovanna; Tafuri, Simona; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Campese, Roberto; Monaco, Roberto; Iachetta, Giuseppina; Assisi, Loredana; Mirabella, Nicola; Forte, Maurizio; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    The peptides orexin-A and orexin-B and their G protein-coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors are involved in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Altered expression or signaling dysregulation of orexins and their receptors have been associated with a wide range of human diseases including narcolepsy, obesity, drug addiction, and cancer. Although orexin-A, its precursor molecule prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor have been detected in the human normal and hyperplastic prostate tissues, their expression and function in the prostate cancer (PCa) remains to be addressed. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the immunohistochemical localization of orexin-A in human PCa specimens, and the expression of prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in these tissues. Orexin-A administration to the human androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP up-regulates OX1 receptor expression resulting in a decrease of cell survival. Noteworthy, nanomolar concentrations of the peptide counteract the testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor in the cells: the orexin-A action is prevented by the addition of the OX1 receptor antagonist SB-408124 to the test system. These findings indicate that orexin-A/OX1 receptor interaction interferes with the activity of the androgen receptor which regulates PCa onset and progression, thus suggesting that orexin-A and its receptor might represent novel therapeutic targets to challenge this aggressive cancer. PMID:26220343

  9. Potentiation of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy by the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib

    PubMed Central

    Nonnekens, Julie; van Kranenburg, Melissa; Beerens, Cecile E.M.T.; Suker, Mustafa; Doukas, Michael; van Eijck, Casper H.J.; de Jong, Marion; van Gent, Dik C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastases expressing tumor-specific receptors can be targeted and treated by binding of radiolabeled peptides (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or PRRT). For example, patients with metastasized somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, resulting in strongly increased progression-free survival and quality of life. There is nevertheless still room for improvement, as very few patients can be cured at this stage of disease. We aimed to specifically sensitize replicating tumor cells without further damage to healthy tissues. Thereto we investigated the DNA damaging effects of PRRT with the purpose to enhance these effects through modulation of the DNA damage response. Although PRRT induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), a larger fraction of the induced lesions are single strand breaks (expected to be similar to those induced by external beam radiotherapy) that require poly-[ADP-ribose]-polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity for repair. If these breaks cannot be repaired, they will cause replication fork arrest and DSB formation during replication. Therefore, we used the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib to increase the number of cytotoxic DSBs. Here we show that this new combination strategy synergistically sensitized somatostatin receptor expressing cells to PRRT. We observed increased cell death and reduced cellular proliferation compared to the PRRT alone. The enhanced cell death was caused by increased numbers of DSBs that are repaired with remarkably slow kinetics, leading to genome instability. Furthermore, we validated the increased DSB induction after PARP inhibitor addition in the clinically relevant model of living human NET slices. We expect that this combined regimen can thus augment current PRRT outcomes. PMID:27570553

  10. Potentiation of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy by the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib.

    PubMed

    Nonnekens, Julie; van Kranenburg, Melissa; Beerens, Cecile E M T; Suker, Mustafa; Doukas, Michael; van Eijck, Casper H J; de Jong, Marion; van Gent, Dik C

    2016-01-01

    Metastases expressing tumor-specific receptors can be targeted and treated by binding of radiolabeled peptides (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or PRRT). For example, patients with metastasized somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, resulting in strongly increased progression-free survival and quality of life. There is nevertheless still room for improvement, as very few patients can be cured at this stage of disease. We aimed to specifically sensitize replicating tumor cells without further damage to healthy tissues. Thereto we investigated the DNA damaging effects of PRRT with the purpose to enhance these effects through modulation of the DNA damage response. Although PRRT induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), a larger fraction of the induced lesions are single strand breaks (expected to be similar to those induced by external beam radiotherapy) that require poly-[ADP-ribose]-polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity for repair. If these breaks cannot be repaired, they will cause replication fork arrest and DSB formation during replication. Therefore, we used the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib to increase the number of cytotoxic DSBs. Here we show that this new combination strategy synergistically sensitized somatostatin receptor expressing cells to PRRT. We observed increased cell death and reduced cellular proliferation compared to the PRRT alone. The enhanced cell death was caused by increased numbers of DSBs that are repaired with remarkably slow kinetics, leading to genome instability. Furthermore, we validated the increased DSB induction after PARP inhibitor addition in the clinically relevant model of living human NET slices. We expect that this combined regimen can thus augment current PRRT outcomes. PMID:27570553

  11. Antagonistic actions of analogs related to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) on receptors for GHRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide on rat pituitary and pineal cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rekasi, Zoltan; Varga, Jozsef L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Halmos, Gabor; Groot, Kate; Czompoly, Tamas

    2000-01-01

    Peptide analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) can potentially interact with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors (VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R) because of the structural similarities of these two hormones and their receptors. We synthesized four new analogs related to GHRH (JV-1–50, JV-1–51, JV-1–52, and JV-1–53) with decreased GHRH antagonistic activity and increased VIP antagonistic potency. To characterize various peptide analogs for their antagonistic activity on receptors for GHRH and VIP, we developed assay systems based on superfusion of rat pituitary and pineal cells. Receptor-binding affinities of peptides to the membranes of these cells were also evaluated by radioligand competition assays. Previously reported GHRH antagonists JV-1–36, JV-1–38, and JV-1–42 proved to be selective for GHRH receptors, because they did not influence VIP-stimulated VPAC2 receptor-dependent prolactin release from pituitary cells or VPAC1 receptor-dependent cAMP efflux from pinealocytes but strongly inhibited GHRH-stimulated growth hormone (GH) release. Analogs JV-1–50, JV-1–51, and JV-1–52 showed various degrees of VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R antagonistic potency, although also preserving a substantial GHRH antagonistic effect. Analog JV-1–53 proved to be a highly potent VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor antagonist, devoid of inhibitory effects on GHRH-evoked GH release. The antagonistic activity of these peptide analogs on processes mediated by receptors for GHRH and VIP was consistent with the binding affinity. The analogs with antagonistic effects on different types of receptors expressed on tumor cells could be utilized for the development of new approaches to treatment of various human cancers. PMID:10655511

  12. Changes in D1 but not D2 dopamine or mu-opioid receptor expression in limbic and motor structures after lateral hypothalamus electrical self-stimulation: A quantitative autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Maria J; Higuera-Matas, A; Roura-Martinez, D; Ucha, M; Santos-Toscano, R; Garcia-Lecumberri, C; Ambrosio, E; Puerto, A

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is involved in the activation of neuroanatomical systems that are also associated with the processing of natural and other artificial rewarding stimuli. Specific components of this behavior (hedonic impact, learning, and motor behavior) may involve changes in different neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and opioids. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was used to examine changes in mu-opioid and D1/D2-dopamine receptor expression in various anatomical regions related to the motor and mesolimbic reward systems after intracranial self-stimulation of the LH. Results of the behavioral procedure and subsequent radiochemical assays show selective changes in D1 but not D2 or mu receptors in Accumbens-Shell, Ventral Pallidum, Caudate-Putamen, and Medial Globus Pallidus. These findings are discussed in relation to the different psychobiological components of the appetitive motivational system, identifying some dissociation among them, particularly with respect to the involvement of the D1-dopamine subsystem (but not D2 or mu receptors) in goal-directed behaviors. PMID:26656274

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  14. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of polycationic peptides.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Barchiesi, F; Del Prete, M S; Scalise, G

    1999-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six polycationic peptides, buforin II, cecropin P1, indolicidin, magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against several clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptosporidium parvum, by using microbroth dilution methods. The peptides exhibited different antibacterial activities and rapid time-dependent killing. The gram-negative organisms were more susceptible to buforin II and cecropin P1, whereas buforin II and ranalexin were the most active compounds against the gram-positive strains. Similarly, ranalexin showed the highest activity against Candida spp., whereas magainin II exerted the highest anticryptococcal activity. Finally, the peptides showed high anti-Pneumocystis activity, whereas no compound had strong inhibitory effect on C. parvum. PMID:10612440

  16. Evidence for a novel natriuretic peptide receptor that prefers brain natriuretic peptide over atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Goy, M F; Oliver, P M; Purdy, K E; Knowles, J W; Fox, J E; Mohler, P J; Qian, X; Smithies, O; Maeda, N

    2001-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exert their physiological actions by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), a receptor guanylate cyclase (rGC) that synthesizes cGMP in response to both ligands. The family of rGCs is rapidly expanding, and it is plausible that there might be additional, as yet undiscovered, rGCs whose function is to provide alternative signalling pathways for one or both of these peptides, particularly given the low affinity of NPRA for BNP. We have investigated this hypothesis, using a genetically modified (knockout) mouse in which the gene encoding NPRA has been disrupted. Enzyme assays and NPRA-specific Western blots performed on tissues from wild-type mice demonstrate that ANP-activated cGMP synthesis provides a good index of NPRA protein expression, which ranges from maximal in adrenal gland, lung, kidney, and testis to minimal in heart and colon. In contrast, immunoreactive NPRA is not detectable in tissues isolated from NPRA knockout animals and ANP- and BNP-stimulatable GC activities are markedly reduced in all mutant tissues. However, testis and adrenal gland retain statistically significant, high-affinity responses to BNP. This residual response to BNP cannot be accounted for by natriuretic peptide receptor B, or any other known mammalian rGC, suggesting the presence of a novel receptor in these tissues that prefers BNP over ANP. PMID:11513736

  17. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  18. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  19. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Douglas G. . E-mail: Douglas.G.Johns@gsk.com; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-06-22

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K {sub i} values. DNP displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K {sub i} > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure.

  20. Strategic approaches to optimizing peptide ADME properties.

    PubMed

    Di, Li

    2015-01-01

    Development of peptide drugs is challenging but also quite rewarding. Five blockbuster peptide drugs are currently on the market, and six new peptides received first marketing approval as new molecular entities in 2012. Although peptides only represent 2% of the drug market, the market is growing twice as quickly and might soon occupy a larger niche. Natural peptides typically have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties with rapid clearance, short half-life, low permeability, and sometimes low solubility. Strategies have been developed to improve peptide drugability through enhancing permeability, reducing proteolysis and renal clearance, and prolonging half-life. In vivo, in vitro, and in silico tools are available to evaluate ADME properties of peptides, and structural modification strategies are in place to improve peptide developability. PMID:25366889

  1. Membrane disruption mechanism of antimicrobial peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ka Yee

    2012-04-01

    Largely distributed among living organisms, antimicrobial peptides are a class of small (<100 residues) host defense peptides that induce selective membrane lytic activity against microbial pathogens. The permeabilizing behavior of these diverse peptides has been commonly attributed to the formation of pores, and such pore formation has been categorized as barrel-stave, toroidal, or carpet-like. With the continuing discovery of new peptide species, many are uncharacterized and the exact mechanism is unknown. Through the use of atomic force microscopy, the disruption of supported lipid bilayer patches by protegrin-1 is concentration-dependent. The intercalation of antimicrobial peptide into the bilayer results in structures beyond that of pore formation, but with the formation of worm-like micelles at high peptide concentration. Our results suggest that antimicrobial peptide acts to lower the interfacial energy of the bilayer in a way similar to detergents. Antimicrobial peptides with structural differences, magainin-1 and aurein 1.1, exhibit a mechanistic commonality.

  2. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  3. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  4. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  5. Investigating Endogenous Peptides and Peptidases using Peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Arthur D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Rather than simply being protein degradation products, peptides have proven to be important bioactive molecules. Bioactive peptides act as hormones, neurotransmitters and antimicrobial agents in vivo. The dysregulation of bioactive peptide signaling is also known to be involved in disease, and targeting peptide hormone pathways has been successful strategy in the development of novel therapeutics. The importance of bioactive peptides in biology has spurred research to elucidate the function and regulation of these molecules. Classical methods for peptide analysis have relied on targeted immunoassays, but certain scientific questions necessitated a broader and more detailed view of the peptidome–all the peptides in a cell, tissue or organism. In this review we discuss how peptidomics has emerged to fill this need through the application of advanced liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods that provide unique insights into peptide activity and regulation. PMID:21786763

  6. STM studies of synthetic peptide monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, David J.; Clauss, Wilfried; Johnson, Alan T.; Pilloud, Denis L.; Leslie Dutton, P.

    1998-08-11

    We have used scanning probe microscopy to investigate self-assembled monolayers of chemically synthesized peptides. We find that the peptides form a dense uniform monolayer, above which is found a sparse additional layer. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, submolecular resolution can be obtained, revealing the alpha helices which constitute the peptide. The nature of the images is not significantly affected by the incorporation of redox cofactors (hemes) in the peptides.

  7. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  8. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Porto, William F; Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Mahitosh; Franco, Octavio L; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industries have renewed interest in screening multifunctional bioactive peptides as a marketable product in health care applications. In this context, several animal and plant peptides with potential bioactivity have been reported. Milk proteins and peptides have received much attention as a source of health-enhancing components to be incorporated into nutraceuticals and functional foods. By using this source, 24 peptides have been fractionated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated in all 24 fractions. Nevertheless, only four fractions show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. Lactoferrin derived peptide (f8) is arginine-rich and kappa casein derived (f12) peptide is proline-rich. Both peptides (f8 and f12) showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fraction 8 (f8) exhibits growth stimulating activity in 3T3 cell line and f12 shows higher free radical scavenging activity in comparison to other fractions. Finally, both peptides were in silico evaluated and some insights into their mechanism of action were provided. Thus, results indicate that these identified peptides have multiple biological activities which are valuable for the quick development of the neonate and may be considered as potential biotechnological products for nutraceutical industry. PMID:24703967

  9. Diversity of wheat anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Tsezi A; Odintsova, Tatyana I; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2005-11-01

    From seeds of Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migusch., 24 novel anti-microbial peptides were isolated and characterized by a combination of three-step HPLC (affinity, size-exclusion and reversed-phase) with matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Based on sequence similarity and cysteine motifs, partially sequenced peptides were assigned to 7 families: defensins, thionins, lipid-transfer proteins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-like peptides, glycine-rich peptides, and MBP-1 homologs. A novel subfamily of defensins consisting of 6 peptides and a new family of glycine-rich (8 peptides with different repeat motifs) were identified. Three 6-cysteine knottin-like peptides represented by N- and C-terminally truncated variants revealed no sequence homology to any known plant anti-microbial peptides. A new 8-cysteine hevein-like peptide and three 4-cysteine peptides homologous to MBP-1 from maize were isolated. This is the first communication on the occurrence of nearly all families of plant anti-microbial peptides in a single species. PMID:16269343

  10. Unsupervised Identification of Isotope-Labeled Peptides.

    PubMed

    Goldford, Joshua E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2016-06-01

    In vivo isotopic labeling coupled with high-resolution proteomics is used to investigate primary metabolism in techniques such as stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and peptide-based metabolic flux analysis (PMFA). Isotopic enrichment of carbon substrates and intracellular metabolism determine the distribution of isotopes within amino acids. The resulting amino acid mass distributions (AMDs) are convoluted into peptide mass distributions (PMDs) during protein synthesis. With no a priori knowledge on metabolic fluxes, the PMDs are therefore unknown. This complicates labeled peptide identification because prior knowledge on PMDs is used in all available peptide identification software. An automated framework for the identification and quantification of PMDs for nonuniformly labeled samples is therefore lacking. To unlock the potential of peptide labeling experiments for high-throughput flux analysis and other complex labeling experiments, an unsupervised peptide identification and quantification method was developed that uses discrete deconvolution of mass distributions of identified peptides to inform on the mass distributions of otherwise unidentifiable peptides. Uniformly (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli protein was used to test the developed feature reconstruction and deconvolution algorithms. The peptide identification was validated by comparing MS(2)-identified peptides to peptides identified from PMDs using unlabeled E. coli protein. Nonuniformly labeled Glycine max protein was used to demonstrate the technology on a representative sample suitable for flux analysis. Overall, automatic peptide identification and quantification were comparable or superior to manual extraction, enabling proteomics-based technology for high-throughput flux analysis studies. PMID:27145348

  11. Diverse CLE peptides from cyst nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides play diverse roles in plant growth and development including maintenance of the stem cell population in the root meristem. Small secreted peptides sharing similarity to plant CLE signaling peptides have been isolated from several cyst nematode species including...

  12. Bi- or multifunctional peptide drugs

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Strategies for the design of bi- or multifunctional drugs are reviewed. A distinction is made between bifunctional drugs interacting in a monovalent fashion with two targets and ligands containing two distinct pharmacophores binding in a bivalent mode to the two binding sites in a receptor heterodimer. Arguments are presented to indicate that some of the so-called “bivalent” ligands reported in the literature are unlikely to simultaneously interact with two binding sites. Aspects related to the development of bi- or multifunctional drugs are illustrated with examples from the field of opioid analgesics. The drug-like properties of the tetrapeptide Dmt1[DALDA] with triple action as a μ opioid agonist, norepinephrine uptake inhibitor and releaser of endogenous opioid peptides to produce potent spinal analgesia are reviewed. Rationales for the development of opioid peptides with mixed agonist/antagonist profiles as analgesics with reduced side effects are presented. Progress in the development of mixed μ opioid agonist/δ opioid antagonists with low propensity to produce tolerance and physical dependence is reviewed. Efforts to develop bifunctional peptides containing a μ opioid agonist and a cholecystokinin antagonist or an NK1 receptor antagonist as analgesics expected to produce less tolerance and dependence are also reviewed. A strategy to improve the drug-like properties of bifunctional opioid peptide analgesics is presented. PMID:19285088

  13. Free-living nematode peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All nematodes employ a wide array of peptide messengers to control nearly all aspects of the life cycle, including hatching, locomotion, feeding, defense, mating, reproduction, and other behavioral and metabolic events. There are molecular and biological similarities, as well as significant differen...

  14. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  15. Isoelectric focusing of proteins and peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egen, N.

    1979-01-01

    Egg-white solution was chosen as the reference solution in order to assess the effects of operational parameters (voltage, flow rate, ampholine pH range and concentration, and protein concentration) of the RIEF apparatus on protein resolution. Topics of discussion include: (1) comparison of RIEF apparatus to conventional IEF techniques (column and PAG) with respect to resolution and throughput; (2) peptide and protein separation (AHF, Thymosin - Fraction 5, vasoactive peptide, L-asparaginase and ACP); and (3) detection of peptides - dansyl derivatives of amino acids and peptides, post-focusing fluorescent labeling of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and ampholine extraction from focused gels.

  16. Peptide ligation from alkoxyamine based radical addition.

    PubMed

    Trimaille, Thomas; Autissier, Laurent; Rakotonirina, Mamy Daniel; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Villard, Claude; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Mabrouk, Kamel

    2014-03-14

    Intermolecular radical 1,2-addition (IRA) of N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl)aminoxyl (SG1) based alkoxyamines onto activated olefins is used as a tool for peptide ligation. This strategy relies on simple peptide pre-derivatization to obtain (i) a SG1 nitroxide functionalized resin peptide at its N-terminus (SG1-peptide alkoxyamine), (ii) a vinyl functionalized peptide (either at its C-terminus or N-terminus), and does not require any coupling agents. PMID:24476638

  17. How antimicrobial peptides disrupt lipid bilayers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Durba

    2011-03-01

    The molecular basis for the activity of cyclic and linear antimicrobial peptides is analysed. We performed multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical measurements to probe the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with model membranes. Two linear antimicrobial peptides, magainin and melittin and a cyclic one, BPC194 have been studied. We test different models to determine the generic and specific forces that lead to bilayer disruption. We probe whether interfacial stress or local membrane perturbation is more likely to lead to the porated state. We further analyse the reasons that determine specificity and increase of activity in antimicrobial peptides. The results provide detailed insight in the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides.

  18. Comparative conformational analysis of peptide T analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akverdieva, Gulnare; Godjayev, Niftali; Akyuz, Sevim

    2009-01-01

    A series of peptide T analogs were investigated within the molecular mechanics framework. In order to determine the role of the aminoacid residues in spatial formation of peptide T the conformational peculiarities of the glycine-substituted analogs were investigated. The conformational profiles of some biologically tested analogs of this peptide were determined independently. The received data permit to assess the active form of this peptide. It is characterized by β-turn at the C-terminal physiologically active pentapeptide fragment of peptide molecule. The received results are important for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship and may be used at design of a rigid-molecule drug against HIV.

  19. Peptides and Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Jenssen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and highlight a few classes of traditional antimicrobial peptides with a focus on structure-activity relationship studies. After first dissecting the important physiochemical properties that influence the antimicrobial and toxic properties of antimicrobial peptides, the contributions of individual amino acids with respect to the peptides antibacterial properties are presented. A brief discussion of the mechanisms of action of different antimicrobials as well as the development of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobial peptides follows. Finally, current efforts on novel design strategies and peptidomimetics are introduced to illustrate the importance of antimicrobial peptide research in the development of future antibiotics. PMID:26184232

  20. Repeated administration of phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-THC or synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 induces tolerance to hypothermia but not locomotor suppression in mice, and reduces CB1 receptor expression and function in a brain region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Tai, S; Hyatt, W S; Gu, C; Franks, L N; Vasiljevik, T; Brents, L K; Prather, P L; Fantegrossi, W E

    2015-12-01

    These studies probed the relationship between intrinsic efficacy and tolerance/cross-tolerance between ∆(9)-THC and synthetic cannabinoid drugs of abuse (SCBs) by examining in vivo effects and cellular changes concomitant with their repeated administration in mice. Dose-effect relationships for hypothermic effects were determined in order to confirm that SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 are higher efficacy agonists than ∆(9)-THC in mice. Separate groups of mice were treated with saline, sub-maximal hypothermic doses of JWH-018 or JWH-073 (3.0mg/kg or 10.0mg/kg, respectively) or a maximally hypothermic dose of 30.0mg/kg ∆(9)-THC once per day for 5 consecutive days while core temperature and locomotor activity were monitored via biotelemetry. Repeated administration of all drugs resulted in tolerance to hypothermic effects, but not locomotor effects, and this tolerance was still evident 14 days after the last drug administration. Further studies treated mice with 30.0mg/kg ∆(9)-THC once per day for 4 days, then tested with SCBs on day 5. Mice with a ∆(9)-THC history were cross-tolerant to both SCBs, and this cross-tolerance also persisted 14 days after testing. Select brain regions from chronically treated mice were examined for changes in CB1 receptor expression and function. Expression and function of hypothalamic CB1Rs were reduced in mice receiving chronic drugs, but cortical CB1R expression and function were not altered. Collectively, these data demonstrate that repeated ∆(9)-THC, JWH-018 and JWH-073 can induce long-lasting tolerance to some in vivo effects, which is likely mediated by region-specific downregulation and desensitization of CB1Rs. PMID:26361728

  1. SOCS3 expression within leptin receptor-expressing cells regulates food intake and leptin sensitivity but does not affect weight gain in pregnant mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Thais Tessari; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; de Paula Romeu, Deborah; da Silva Torrão, Andréa; Donato, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces transitory metabolic changes including increases in food intake and body fat deposition, as well as leptin and insulin resistance. Recent findings have suggested that increased hypothalamic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) is a key mechanism responsible for triggering those metabolic adaptations. Because obesity is a risk factor for gestational metabolic imbalances, we aimed to study the role of SOCS3 during pregnancy in obese mice. Female mice carrying a deletion of SOCS3 in leptin receptor-expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice) were exposed to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), and we then studied their energy balance and glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. SOCS3 deletion did not prevent diet-induced obesity or changes in body weight and adiposity observed during pregnancy. However, the typical increase in food intake during mid- and late-pregnancy was blunted in SOCS3 KO females. We also observed a slight improvement in glucose homeostasis and increased leptin sensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in pregnant SOCS3 KO mice on HFD. Despite this, SOCS3 KO mice had an increased number of uterine reabsorptions and fewer fetuses compared to the controls. Compared to control animals, a reduction in proopiomelanocortin and an increase in oxytocin mRNA levels were observed in the hypothalamus of pregnant SOCS3 KO mice. In contrast to previous studies using lean animals, conditional SOCS3 ablation did not prevent major gestational metabolic changes in diet-induced obese mice. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of SOCS3 in mediating pregnancy-induced metabolic adaptations. PMID:26828039

  2. Etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC increase the GABA efficacy of recombinant alpha4beta3delta and alpha4beta3 GABA A receptors expressed in HEK cells.

    PubMed

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Wallner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    General anesthetics, once thought to exert their effects through non-specific membrane effects, have highly specific ion channel targets that can silence neuronal populations in the nervous system, thereby causing unconsciousness and immobility, characteristic of general anesthesia. Inhibitory GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), particularly highly GABA-sensitive extrasynaptic receptor subtypes that give rise to sustained inhibitory currents, are uniquely sensitive to GABA(A)R-active anesthetics. A prominent population of extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs is made up of alpha4, beta2 or beta3, and delta subunits. Considering the demonstrated importance of GABA receptor beta3 subunits for in vivo anesthetic effects of etomidate and propofol, we decided to investigate the effects of GABA anesthetics on "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta and also binary alpha4beta3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Consistent with previous work on similar receptor subtypes we show that maximal GABA currents through "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta receptors, receptors defined by sensitivity to EtOH (30mM) and the beta-carboline beta-CCE (1microM), are enhanced by the GABA(A)R-active anesthetics etomidate, propofol, and the neurosteroid anesthetic THDOC. Furthermore, we show that receptors formed by alpha4beta3 subunits alone also show high GABA sensitivity and that saturating GABA responses of alpha4beta3 receptors are increased to the same extent by etomidate, propofol, and THDOC as are alpha4beta3delta receptors. Therefore, both alpha4beta3 and alpha4beta3delta receptors show low GABA efficacy, and GABA is also a partial agonist on certain binary alphabeta receptor subtypes. Increasing GABA efficacy on alpha4/6beta3delta and alpha4beta3 receptors is likely to make an important contribution to the anesthetic effects of etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC. PMID:18778723

  3. Maternal exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke primes the lung for induction of phosphodiesterase-4D5 isozyme and exacerbated Th2 responses: rolipram attenuates the airway hyperreactivity and muscarinic receptor expression but not lung inflammation and atopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi P; Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-Sima-Ah, Jules; Campen, Mathew; Kurup, Viswanath; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Sopori, Mohan L

    2009-08-01

    Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), lung inflammation, and atopy are clinical signs of allergic asthma. Gestational exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) markedly increases the risk for childhood allergic asthma. Muscarinic receptors regulate airway smooth muscle tone, and asthmatics exhibit increased AHR to muscarinic agonists. We have previously reported that in a murine model of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, maternal exposure to mainstream CS increases AHR after acute intratracheal administration of Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, the mechanism by which gestational CS induces allergic asthma is unclear. We now show for the first time that, compared with controls, mice exposed prenatally to secondhand CS exhibit increased lung inflammation (predominant infiltration by eosinophils and polymorphs), atopy, and airway resistance, and produce proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13, but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma). These changes, which occur only after an allergen (A. fumigatus extract) treatment, are correlated with marked up-regulated lung expression of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptors and phosphodiesterase (PDE)4D5 isozyme. Interestingly, the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram attenuates the increase in AHR, muscarinic receptors, and PDE4D5, but fails to down-regulate lung inflammation, Th2 cytokines, or serum IgE levels. Thus, the fetus is extraordinarily sensitive to CS, inducing allergic asthma after postnatal exposure to allergens. Although the increased AHR might reflect increased PDE4D5 and muscarinic receptor expression, the mechanisms underlying atopy and lung inflammation are unrelated to the PDE4 activity. Thus, PDE4 inhibitors might ease AHR, but are unlikely to attenuate lung inflammation and atopy associated with childhood allergic asthma. PMID:19596983

  4. Effect of peptide conformation on membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, V; Hruby, V J; O'Brien, D F; Misicka, A; Lipkowski, A W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of peptide conformational constraint on the peptide permeation across the model membranes was examined by determining the permeability of pairs of cyclic and acyclic peptides related to c[d-Pen2, d-Pen5] enkephalin (DPDPE). The peptides were cyclized by formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge between the second and fifth residues composed of either d-penicillamine or cysteine. In each case the acyclic peptide was three to seven times more permeable than corresponding cyclic peptide. The possibility that the differences in permeability of cyclic and acyclic peptides is based on the greater conformational freedom of the acyclic peptides in the presence of membrane was examined in more detail by isothermal titration calorimetric studies of Trp6-DPDPE and its acyclic analog. The membrane binding of the acyclic peptide is a more exothermic process than binding of its cyclic Trp6-DPDPE. The transfer of acyclic peptide from water to membrane is an enthalpy driven process, whereas the transfer of the cyclic peptide is driven by entropy. PMID:12753376

  5. Peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Roskar, Irena; Molek, Peter; Vodnik, Miha; Stempelj, Mateja; Strukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Acute glucose fluctuations during the postprandial period pose great risk for cardiovascular complications and thus represent an important therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, screening of peptide libraries was used to select peptides with an affinity towards mammalian intestinal alpha-glucosidase as potential leads in antidiabetic agent development. Materials and Methods Three phage-displayed peptide libraries were used in independent selections with different elution strategies to isolate target-binding peptides. Selected peptides displayed on phage were tested to compete for an enzyme-binding site with known competitive inhibitors, acarbose and voglibose. The four best performing peptides were synthesized. Their binding to the mammalian alpha-glucosidase and their effect on enzyme activity were evaluated. Results Two linear and two cyclic heptapeptides with high affinity towards intestinal alpha-glucosidase were selected. Phage-displayed as well as synthetic peptides bind into or to the vicinity of the active site on the enzyme. Both cyclic peptides inhibited enzyme activity, whereas both linear peptides increased enzyme activity. Conclusions Although natural substrates of glycosidase are polysaccharides, in the present study we successfully isolated novel peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase. Modulatory activity of selected peptides could be further optimized through peptidomimetic design. They represent promising leads for development of efficient alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:26543535

  6. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  7. The First Salamander Defensin Antimicrobial Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been widely identified from amphibian skins except salamanders. A novel antimicrobial peptide (CFBD) was isolated and characterized from skin secretions of the salamander, Cynops fudingensis. The cDNA encoding CFBD precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library of C. fudingensis. The precursor was composed of three domains: signal peptide of 17 residues, mature peptide of 41 residues and intervening propeptide of 3 residues. There are six cysteines in the sequence of mature CFBD peptide, which possibly form three disulfide-bridges. CFBD showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. This peptide could be classified into family of β-defensin based on its seqeuence similarity with β-defensins from other vertebrates. Evolution analysis indicated that CFBD was close to fish β-defensin. As far as we know, CFBD is the first β-defensin antimicrobial peptide from salamanders. PMID:24386139

  8. Bioinformatic analysis of peptide precursor proteins.

    PubMed

    Baggerman, G; Liu, F; Wets, G; Schoofs, L

    2005-04-01

    Neuropeptides are among the most important signal molecules in animals. Traditional identification of peptide hormones through peptide purification is a tedious and time-consuming process. With the advent of the genome sequencing projects, putative peptide precursor can be mined from the genome. However, because bioactive peptides are usually quite short in length and because the active core of a peptide is often limited to only a few amino acids, using the BLAST search engine to identify neuropeptide precursors in the genome is difficult and sometimes impossible. To overcome these shortcomings, we subject the entire set of all known Drosophila melanogaster peptide precursor sequences to motif-finding algorithms in search of a motif that is common for all prepropeptides and that could be used in the search for new peptide precursors. PMID:15891006

  9. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:24757284

  10. Kinin receptor expression during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Sara H.; Phagoo, Stephen B.; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Påhlman, Lisa; Mörgelin, Matthias; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Leeb-Lundberg, L. M. Fredrik; Herwald, Heiko

    2006-01-01

    An inappropriate host response to invading bacteria is a critical parameter that often aggravates the outcome of an infection. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide array of community- and hospital-acquired diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe conditions such as staphylococcal toxic shock. Here we find that S aureus induces inflammatory reactions by modulating the expression and response of the B1 and B2 receptors, respectively. This process is initiated by a chain of events, involving staphylococcal-induced cytokine release from monocytes, bacteria-triggered contact activation, and conversion of bradykinin to its metabolite desArg9bradykinin. The data of the present study implicate an important and previously unknown role for kinin receptor regulation in S aureus infections. PMID:16735595

  11. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Reham William; El-Rifaie, Abdel-Aziz; Gohary, Yasser M; Rashed, Laila A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is a progressive depigmenting disorder characterized by loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The etiopathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear. Vitamin D has stimulatory effects on melanocytes and acts through its nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR) on target cells. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to declare the role of Vitamin D in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 30 vitiligo patients and 30 age, gender-matched healthy controls. Blood samples were withdrawn from the study subjects, and the serum 25(OH) D level was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Serum 25(OH) D levels were divided into: Normal or sufficient (≥30 ng/ml), insufficient (< 30-> 20ng/ml), and deficient (≤20 ng/ml) levels. Skin biopsies were obtained from the depigmented lesions and clinically normal skin of vitiligo patients and from the controls, and VDR gene expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Only 10 patients with vitiligo (33.3%) had sufficient serum 25(OH) D levels (≥30 ng/ml), 12 patients (40%) had insufficient levels, and 8 patients (26.7%) had deficient levels. On the other hand, most of the controls (96.7%) had sufficient levels. The mean serum 25(OH) D level in patients was significantly decreased compared to controls (P < 0.001). The VDR-mRNA expression was also significantly decreased in lesional and nonlesional skin of patients compared to controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency influences the extent of vitiligo and could contribute to the pathogenesis of vitiligo through its immunomodulatory role and its role in melanogenesis. PMID:26677265

  12. A novel ligand-independent peptide inhibitor of TREM-1 suppresses tumor growth in human lung cancer xenografts and prolongs survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Sigalov, Alexander B.

    2014-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) amplifies the inflammatory response and plays a role in cancer and sepsis. Inhibition of TREM-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in macrophages suppresses cancer cell invasion in vitro. In the clinical setting, high levels of TREM-1 expression on tumor-associated macrophages are associated with cancer recurrence and poor survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TREM-1 upregulation on peritoneal neutrophils has been found in human sepsis patients and in mice with experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. However, the precise function of TREM-1 and the nature of its ligand are not yet known. In this study, we used the signaling chain homooligomerization (SCHOOL) model of immune signaling to design a novel, ligand-independent peptide-based TREM-1 inhibitor and demonstrated that this peptide specifically silences TREM-1 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing two human lung tumor xenograft nude mouse models (H292 and A549) and mice with LPS-induced sepsis, we show for the first time that blockade of TREM-1 function using non-toxic and non-immunogenic SCHOOL peptide inhibitors: 1) delays tumor growth in xenograft models of human NSCLC, 2) prolongs survival of mice with LPS-induced septic shock, and 3) substantially decreases cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. In addition, targeted delivery of SCHOOL peptides to macrophages utilizing lipoprotein-mimicking nanoparticles significantly increased peptide half-life and dosage efficacy. Together, the results suggest that ligand-independent modulation of TREM-1 function using small synthetic peptides might be a suitable treatment for sepsis and NSCLC and possibly other types of inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24836682

  13. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution. PMID:26130238

  14. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes. PMID:27451165

  15. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J.; Falta, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1-3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1-3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1-3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1-3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1-11 (hLF 1-11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections. PMID

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1–3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1–3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1–3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1–3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1–11 (hLF 1–11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections

  18. [Imaging of thromboembolism by scintigraphy with the 99m-technetium-labelled synthetic peptide P280].

    PubMed

    Lastoria, S; Vergara, E; Varrella, P; Muto, P; Acampa, W; Caracò, C; Salvatore, M

    1995-12-01

    P280, a synthetic peptide composed of 26 aminoacids, has high affinity (Kd = 100 nM) and specificity for the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) receptor expressed on activated platelets. In this study we investigated the potential usefulness of imaging deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in humans with 99mTc-P280. In 15 patients (9 men and 6 women; mean age +/- s.d.: 49.2 +/- 14.1) with known DVT and/or PE, serial images were acquired within 24 hours of the injection of approximately 200 micrograms of P280 radiolabelled with 10-23 mCi of 99mTc. P280 was labelled with the ligand exchange method using 99mTc-glucoheptonate. Rapid blood clearance (< or = 5% ID was still circulating in 1 hour) enabled identification of thrombi as early as 60 minutes after the injection, with significant thrombi-to-background ratios (range: 2-4) in 11/15 patients (73%), in 7/9 with DVT, in 2/3 with PE and in 2/3 patients with both DVT and PE. Radiotracer uptake was clearly detectable also in late scans, which confirms that 99mTc-P280 specifically binds to the thrombi through a receptor-mediated mechanism. PE localizations were detectable 3-4 hours after peptide injection, and in 2 cases SPECT enabled the detection of thrombi missed on planar views. Conversely, the test was negative in 4 patients who had the onset of clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of DVT and/or PE more than 40 days before scintigraphy. The lack of 99mTc-P280 uptake in the latter patients suggested that the peptide does not bind to thrombi when thrombogenesis is not active. These preliminary results clearly indicate scintigraphy with 99mTc-P280 to be a suitable, noninvasive and highly specific tool to image fresh clots causing DVT and/or PE. Thus, this technique might overcome the limitations of the imaging procedures currently in use. PMID:8685469

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  20. Predicting protein-peptide interactions from scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chengfei; Xu, Xianjin; Zou, Xiaoqin; Zou lab Team

    Protein-peptide interactions play an important role in many cellular processes. The ability to predict protein-peptide complex structures is valuable for mechanistic investigation and therapeutic development. Due to the high flexibility of peptides and lack of templates for homologous modeling, predicting protein-peptide complex structures is extremely challenging. Recently, we have developed a novel docking framework for protein-peptide structure prediction. Specifically, given the sequence of a peptide and a 3D structure of the protein, initial conformations of the peptide are built through protein threading. Then, the peptide is globally and flexibly docked onto the protein using a novel iterative approach. Finally, the sampled modes are scored and ranked by a statistical potential-based energy scoring function that was derived for protein-peptide interactions from statistical mechanics principles. Our docking methodology has been tested on the Peptidb database and compared with other protein-peptide docking methods. Systematic analysis shows significantly improved results compared to the performances of the existing methods. Our method is computationally efficient and suitable for large-scale applications. Nsf CAREER Award 0953839 (XZ) NIH R01GM109980 (XZ).

  1. Stability of peptide drugs in the colon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yadav, Vipul; Smart, Alice L; Tajiri, Shinichiro; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-10-12

    This study was the first to investigate the colonic stability of 17 peptide molecules (insulin, calcitonin, glucagon, secretin, somatostatin, desmopressin, oxytocin, Arg-vasopressin, octreotide, ciclosporin, leuprolide, nafarelin, buserelin, histrelin, [D-Ser(4)]-gonadorelin, deslorelin, and goserelin) in a model of the large intestine using mixed human faecal bacteria. Of these, the larger peptides - insulin, calcitonin, somatostatin, glucagon and secretin - were metabolized rapidly, with complete degradation observed within 5 min. In contrast, a number of the smaller peptides - Arg-vasopressin, desmopressin, oxytocin, gonadorelin, goserelin, buserelin, leuprolide, nafarelin and deslorelin - degraded more slowly, while octreotide, histrelin and ciclosporin were seen to be more stable as compared to the other small peptides under the same conditions. Peptide degradation rate was directly correlated to peptide lipophilicity (logP); those peptides with a higher logP were more stable in the colonic model (R(2)=0.94). In the absence of human faecal bacteria, all peptides were stable. This study highlights the impact of the colonic environment - in particular, the gut microbiota - on the metabolism of peptide drugs, and identifies potential peptide candidates for drug delivery to the colon. PMID:26111980

  2. Construction of Lasso Peptide Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chuhan; Maksimov, Mikhail O; Link, A James

    2016-01-15

    Lasso peptides are a family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) typified by an isopeptide-bonded macrocycle between the peptide N-terminus and an aspartate or glutamate side chain. The C-terminal portion of the peptide threads through the N-terminal macrocycle to give the characteristic lasso fold. Because of the inherent stability, both proteolytic and often thermal, of lasso peptides, we became interested in whether proteins could be fused to the free C-terminus of lasso peptides. Here, we demonstrate fusion of two model proteins, the artificial leucine zipper A1 and the superfolder variant of GFP, to the C-terminus of the lasso peptide astexin-1. Successful lasso cyclization of the N-terminus of these fusion proteins requires a flexible linker in between the C-terminus of the lasso peptide and the N-terminus of the protein of interest. The ability to fuse lasso peptides to a protein of interest is an important step toward phage and bacterial display systems for the high-throughput screening of lasso peptide libraries for new functions. PMID:26492187

  3. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2014-01-01

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to

  4. Molecular imaging probes derived from natural peptides.

    PubMed

    Charron, C L; Hickey, J L; Nsiama, T K; Cruickshank, D R; Turnbull, W L; Luyt, L G

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to the end of 2015.Peptides are naturally occurring compounds that play an important role in all living systems and are responsible for a range of essential functions. Peptide receptors have been implicated in disease states such as oncology, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, natural peptides have been exploited as diagnostic and therapeutic agents due to the unique target specificity for their endogenous receptors. This review discusses a variety of natural peptides highlighting their discovery, endogenous receptors, as well as their derivatization to create molecular imaging agents, with an emphasis on the design of radiolabelled peptides. This review also highlights methods for discovering new and novel peptides when knowledge of specific targets and endogenous ligands are not available. PMID:26911790

  5. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  6. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  7. Regulation of pituitary MT1 melatonin receptor expression by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1): in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Eun; Wright, Ian K; Wyse, Cathy; Samson-Desvignes, Nathalie; Le Blanc, Pascale; Laroche, Serge; Hazlerigg, David G; Johnston, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin receptor expression exhibits profound developmental changes through poorly understood mechanisms. In mammals, a current model suggests that pubertal reactivation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion down-regulates MT1 melatonin receptors in pituitary gonadotroph cells, via the induction of early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1). Here we have examined this model by testing the hypotheses that inhibition of Mt1 expression by GnRH occurs directly in gonadotroph cells, can be reversed in adulthood by blockade of GnRH receptors, and requires EGR-1. We first confirmed the endogenous expression of Mt1 mRNA in the αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Stimulation of these cells with a GnRH agonist resulted in a rapid increase of Egr-1 mRNA expression, which peaked after 30-60 minutes, and a more prolonged elevation of nuclear EGR-1 immunoreactivity. Moreover, the GnRH agonist significantly decreased Mt1 mRNA. We then treated adult male rats with the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix or saline. After 4 weeks of daily injections, cetrorelix significantly reduced serum LH concentration and testis weight, with histological analysis confirming absence of spermatogenesis. Despite the successful inhibition of GnRH signalling, pituitary Mt1 expression was unchanged. Next we studied the proximal region of the rat Mt1 promoter. Consistent with previous work, over-expression of the transcription factor PITX-1 increased Mt1-luciferase reporter activity; this effect was dependent on the presence of consensus PITX-1 promoter binding regions. Over-expression of EGR-1 inhibited PITX-1-stimulated activity, even following mutation of the consensus EGR-1 binding site. Finally, we studied Egr1-/- mice and observed no difference in pituitary Mt1 expression between Egr1-/- and wild-type litter mates. This work demonstrates that GnRH receptor activation directly down-regulates Mt1 expression in gonadotroph cells. However, pituitary Mt1 expression in adults is unaltered by blockade of

  8. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    DOEpatents

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  9. Current scenario of peptide-based drugs: the key roles of cationic antitumor and antiviral peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Kelly C. L.; Lima, Loiane A.; Miranda, Vivian J.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and host defense peptides (HDPs) show vast potential as peptide-based drugs. Great effort has been made in order to exploit their mechanisms of action, aiming to identify their targets as well as to enhance their activity and bioavailability. In this review, we will focus on both naturally occurring and designed antiviral and antitumor cationic peptides, including those here called promiscuous, in which multiple targets are associated with a single peptide structure. Emphasis will be given to their biochemical features, selectivity against extra targets, and molecular mechanisms. Peptides which possess antitumor activity against different cancer cell lines will be discussed, as well as peptides which inhibit virus replication, focusing on their applications for human health, animal health and agriculture, and their potential as new therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the current scenario for production and the use of nanotechnology as delivery tool for both classes of cationic peptides, as well as the perspectives on improving them is considered. PMID:24198814

  10. Screening peptide array library for the identification of cancer cell-binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kamaljit; Ahmed, Sahar; Soudy, Rania; Azmi, Sarfuddin

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cancer cell-specific ligands is a key requirement for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Usually phage display system is employed to discover cancer-specific peptides through a biopanning process. Synthetic peptide array libraries can be used as a complementary method to phage display for screening and identifying cancer cell-specific ligands. Here, we describe a peptide array-whole cell binding assay to identify cancer cell-specific peptides. A peptide array library based on a lead dodecapeptide, p160, is synthesized on a functionalized cellulose membrane using solid phase chemistry and a robotic synthesizer. The relative binding affinity of the peptide library is evaluated by incubating the library with fluorescently labeled cancerous or non-cancerous cells. Thereby the assay allows picking peptides that show selective and high binding to cancerous cells. These peptides represent potential candidates for use in cancer-targeted drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis. PMID:25616337

  11. [Progress on parasiticidal activity of anitimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-hua; Zhao, Jun-long

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a kind of gene encoded, ribosome synthesized, small molecular polypeptides that have high efficiency, wide antibacterial spectrum, and low immunogenicity. Many studies have indicated that antimicrobial peptides can inhibit the growth of parasites or even kill them. This paper reviews the research progress on parasiticidal activity of the antimicrobial peptides in recent years, and presents the problems in the research. PMID:25726604

  12. Salt-resistant short antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for the development of antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, in vivo applications of AMPs remain obscure due to salt and serum mediated inactivation. The high cost of chemical synthesis of AMPs also impedes potential clinical application. Consequently, short AMPs resistant toward salt and serum inactivation are desirable for the development of peptide antibiotics. In this work, we designed a 12-residue amphipathic helical peptide RR12 (R-R-L-I-R-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide) and two Trp containing analogs of RR12 namely RR12Wpolar (R-R-L-I-W-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide), and RR12Whydro (R-R-L-I-R-L-W-L-R-L-L-R-amide). Designed peptides demonstrated potent antibacterial activity; MIC ranging from 2 to 8 μM, in the presence of sodium chloride (150 mM and 300 mM). Antibacterial activity of these peptides was also detected in the presence of human serum. Designed peptides, in particular RR12 and RR12Whydro, were only poorly hemolytic. As a mode of action; these peptides demonstrated efficient permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane and lysis of cell structure. We further investigated interactions of the designed peptides with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Designed peptides adopted helical conformations in complex with LPS. Binding of peptides with LPS has yielded dissociation the aggregated structures of LPS. Collectively, these designed peptides hold ability to be developed for salt-resistant antimicrobial compounds. Most importantly, current work provides insights for designing salt-resistant antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 345-356, 2016. PMID:26849911

  13. HPLC analysis and purification of peptides.

    PubMed

    Mant, Colin T; Chen, Yuxin; Yan, Zhe; Popa, Traian V; Kovacs, James M; Mills, Janine B; Tripet, Brian P; Hodges, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has proved extremely versatile over the past 25 yr for the isolation and purification of peptides varying widely in their sources, quantity and complexity. This article covers the major modes of HPLC utilized for peptides (size-exclusion, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase), as well as demonstrating the potential of a novel mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange approach developed in this laboratory. In addition to the value of these HPLC modes for peptide separations, the value of various HPLC techniques for structural characterization of peptides and proteins will be addressed, e.g., assessment of oligomerization state of peptides/proteins by size-exclusion chromatography and monitoring the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides, a vital precursor for the development of novel antimicrobial peptides. The value of capillary electrophoresis for peptide separations is also demonstrated. Preparative reversed-phase chromatography purification protocols for sample loads of up to 200 mg on analytical columns and instrumentation are introduced for both peptides and recombinant proteins. PMID:18604941

  14. Turning peptides in comb silicone polymers.

    PubMed

    Jebors, Said; Pinese, Coline; Nottelet, Benjamin; Parra, Karine; Amblard, Muriel; Mehdi, Ahmad; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    We have recently reported on a new class of silicone-peptide' biopolymers obtained by polymerization of di-functionalized chlorodimethylsilyl hybrid peptides. Herein, we describe a related strategy based on dichloromethylsilane-derived peptides, which yield novel polymers with a polysiloxane backbone, comparable with a silicone-bearing pendent peptide chains. Interestingly, polymerization is chemoselective toward amino acids side-chains and proceeds in a single step in very mild conditions (neutral pH, water, and room temperature). As potential application, a cationic sequence was polymerized and used for antibacterial coating. PMID:25688748

  15. APD2: the updated antimicrobial peptide database and its application in peptide design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Li, Xia; Wang, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide database (APD, http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) has been updated and expanded. It now hosts 1228 entries with 65 anticancer, 76 antiviral (53 anti-HIV), 327 antifungal and 944 antibacterial peptides. The second version of our database (APD2) allows users to search peptide families (e.g. bacteriocins, cyclotides, or defensins), peptide sources (e.g. fish, frogs or chicken), post-translationally modified peptides (e.g. amidation, oxidation, lipidation, glycosylation or d-amino acids), and peptide binding targets (e.g. membranes, proteins, DNA/RNA, LPS or sugars). Statistical analyses reveal that the frequently used amino acid residues (>10%) are Ala and Gly in bacterial peptides, Cys and Gly in plant peptides, Ala, Gly and Lys in insect peptides, and Leu, Ala, Gly and Lys in amphibian peptides. Using frequently occurring residues, we demonstrate database-aided peptide design in different ways. Among the three peptides designed, GLK-19 showed a higher activity against Escherichia coli than human LL-37. PMID:18957441

  16. Protein-templated peptide ligation.

    PubMed

    Brauckhoff, Nicolas; Hahne, Gernot; Yeh, Johannes T-H; Grossmann, Tom N

    2014-04-22

    Molecular templates bind particular reactants, thereby increasing their effective concentrations and accelerating the corresponding reaction. This concept has been successfully applied to a number of chemical problems with a strong focus on nucleic acid templated reactions. We present the first protein-templated reaction that allows N-terminal linkage of two peptides. In the presence of a protein template, ligation reactions were accelerated by more than three orders of magnitude. The templated reaction is highly selective and proved its robustness in a protein-labeling reaction that was performed in crude cell lysate. PMID:24644125

  17. PGx: Putting Peptides to BED

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Every molecular player in the cast of biology’s central dogma is being sequenced and quantified with increasing ease and coverage. To bring the resulting genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data sets into coherence, tools must be developed that do not constrain data acquisition and analytics in any way but rather provide simple links across previously acquired data sets with minimal preprocessing and hassle. Here we present such a tool: PGx, which supports proteogenomic integration of mass spectrometry proteomics data with next-generation sequencing by mapping identified peptides onto their putative genomic coordinates. PMID:26638927

  18. PGx: Putting Peptides to BED.

    PubMed

    Askenazi, Manor; Ruggles, Kelly V; Fenyö, David

    2016-03-01

    Every molecular player in the cast of biology's central dogma is being sequenced and quantified with increasing ease and coverage. To bring the resulting genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data sets into coherence, tools must be developed that do not constrain data acquisition and analytics in any way but rather provide simple links across previously acquired data sets with minimal preprocessing and hassle. Here we present such a tool: PGx, which supports proteogenomic integration of mass spectrometry proteomics data with next-generation sequencing by mapping identified peptides onto their putative genomic coordinates. PMID:26638927

  19. Peptide Membranes in Chemical Evolution*

    PubMed Central

    Childers, W. Seth; Ni, Rong; Mehta, Anil K.; Lynn, David G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Simple surfactants achieve remarkable long-range order in aqueous environments. This organizing potential is seen most dramatically in biological membranes where phospholipid assemblies both define cell boundaries and provide a ubiquitous structural scaffold for controlling cellular chemistry. Here we consider simple peptides that also spontaneously assemble into exceptionally ordered scaffolds, and review early data suggesting that these structures maintain the functional diversity of proteins. We argue that such scaffolds can achieve the required molecular order and catalytic agility for the emergence of chemical evolution. PMID:19879180

  20. Strain-specific Loss of Formyl Peptide Receptor 3 in the Murine Vomeronasal and Immune Systems.

    PubMed

    Stempel, Hendrik; Jung, Martin; Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Zufall, Frank; Bufe, Bernd

    2016-04-29

    Formyl peptide receptor 3 (Fpr3, also known as Fpr-rs1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in subsets of sensory neurons of the mouse vomeronasal organ, an olfactory substructure essential for social recognition. Fpr3 has been implicated in the sensing of infection-associated olfactory cues, but its expression pattern and function are incompletely understood. To facilitate visualization of Fpr3-expressing cells, we generated and validated two new anti-Fpr3 antibodies enabling us to analyze acute Fpr3 protein expression. Fpr3 is not only expressed in murine vomeronasal sensory neurons but also in bone marrow cells, the primary source for immune cell renewal, and in mature neutrophils. Consistent with the notion that Fpr3 functions as a pathogen sensor, Fpr3 expression in the immune system is up-regulated after stimulation with a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). These results strongly support a dual role for Fpr3 in both vomeronasal sensory neurons and immune cells. We also identify a large panel of mouse strains with severely altered expression and function of Fpr3, thus establishing the existence of natural Fpr3 knock-out strains. We attribute distinct Fpr3 expression in these strains to the presence or absence of a 12-nucleotide in-frame deletion (Fpr3Δ424-435). In vitro calcium imaging and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that the lack of four amino acids leads to an unstable, truncated, and non-functional receptor protein. The genome of at least 19 strains encodes a non-functional Fpr3 variant, whereas at least 13 other strains express an intact receptor. These results provide a foundation for understanding the in vivo function of Fpr3. PMID:26957543

  1. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. PMID:27101299

  2. Enzymatic mono-pegylation of glucagon-like peptide 1 towards long lasting treatment of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Selis, Fabio; Schrepfer, Rodolfo; Sanna, Riccardo; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Tonon, Giancarlo; Dedoni, Simona; Onali, Pierluigi; Orsini, Gaetano; Genovese, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a physiological gastrointestinal peptide with glucose-dependent insulinotropic effects which is therefore considered an interesting antidiabetic agent. However, after in vivo administration, exogenous GLP-1 does not exert its physiological action due to the combination of rapid proteolytic degradation by ubiquitous dipeptidyldipeptidase IV (DPP IV) enzyme and renal clearance resulting in an extremely short circulating half-life. In this work we describe the conjugation of GLP-1-(7-36)-amide derivatives with polyethylene glycol (PEG) by enzymatic site-specific transglutamination reaction as an approach to reduce both the proteolysis and the renal clearance rates. The compound GLP-1-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa monopegylated on the single glutamine residue naturally present in position 23 maintained the ability to activate the GLP-1 receptor expressed in the rat β-cell line RIN-m5F with nanomolar potency along with an increased in vitro resistance to DDP IV and a circulating half-life of about 12 h after subcutaneous administration in rats. These properties enabled GLP-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa to exert a glucose-stabilizing effect for a period as long as 8 h, as demonstrated by a single subcutaneous injection to diabetic mice concomitantly challenged with an oral glucose load. The results reported in this work indicate that GLP-(7-36)-amide-Q23-PEG 20 kDa could be a lead compound for the development of long-lasting anti-diabetic agents useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes affected patients. PMID:25755995

  3. Natriuretic peptides and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y; Somer, B G; Amatya, A

    1999-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides are a group of naturally occurring substances that act in the body to oppose the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. There are three major natriuretic peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is synthesized in the atria; brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is synthesized in the ventricles; and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which is synthesized in the brain. Both ANP and BNP are released in response to atrial and ventricular stretch, respectively, and will cause vasorelaxation, inhibition of aldosterone secretion in the adrenal cortex, and inhibition of renin secretion in the kidney. Both ANP and BNP will cause natriuresis and a reduction in intravascular volume, effects amplified by antagonism of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The physiologic effects of CNP are different from those of ANP and BNP. CNP has a hypotensive effect, but no significant diuretic or natriuretic actions. Three natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) have been described that have different binding capacities for ANP, BNP, and CNP. Removal of the natriuretic peptides from the circulation is affected mainly by binding to clearance receptors and enzymatic degradation in the circulation. Increased blood levels of natriuretic peptides have been found in certain disease states, suggesting a role in the pathophysiology of those diseases, including congestive heart failure (CHF), systemic hypertension, and acute myocardial infarction. The natriuretic peptides also serve as disease markers and indicators of prognosis in various cardiovascular conditions. The natriuretic peptides have been used in the treatment of disease, with the most experience with intravenous BNP in the treatment of CHF. Another pharmacologic approach being used is the inhibition of natriuretic peptide metabolism by neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor drugs. The NEP inhibitors are currently being investigated as treatments for CHF and systemic hypertension. PMID:11720638

  4. Combination Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guozhi; Baeder, Desiree Y.; Regoes, Roland R.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient and conserved across the tree of life. Their efficacy over evolutionary time has been largely attributed to their mechanisms of killing. Yet, the understanding of their pharmacodynamics both in vivo and in vitro is very limited. This is, however, crucial for applications of AMPs as drugs and also informs the understanding of the action of AMPs in natural immune systems. Here, we selected six different AMPs from different organisms to test their individual and combined effects in vitro. We analyzed their pharmacodynamics based on the Hill function and evaluated the interaction of combinations of two and three AMPs. Interactions of AMPs in our study were mostly synergistic, and three-AMP combinations displayed stronger synergism than two-AMP combinations. This suggests synergism to be a common phenomenon in AMP interaction. Additionally, AMPs displayed a sharp increase in killing within a narrow dose range, contrasting with those of antibiotics. We suggest that our results could lead a way toward better evaluation of AMP application in practice and shed some light on the evolutionary consequences of antimicrobial peptide interactions within the immune system of organisms. P