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Sample records for gastroenterology 46th annual

  1. Americans Put Teacher Quality on Center Stage: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    In this, the second installment of a two-part report of the 46th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, the report unveils what Americans are thinking about public schools--in particular their views of teachers and the classrooms where they work. Some findings were surprising, others were not. For example,…

  2. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in…

  3. A report from the 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (September 20-24, 2010 - Stockholm, Sweden).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2011-01-01

    Old and modern architecture go hand in hand along the many waterfronts in Stockholm, just as old (established) and new (investigational) drugs for treating diabetes shared time and space at the oral and poster sessions during the 2010 European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) meeting in Älfsjö. Old and new drugs shared the spotlight at the meeting, the main declared objective of which was to promote excellence in diabetes care through research and education. Although it is important to attend the EASD meeting in order to obtain information on what's new firsthand-new drugs, new indications, new treatment modalities... as well as news on negative aspects and limitations of drug therapy-not all healthcare professionals can attend so many annual meetings, and those who can, cannot attend many of the parallel sessions, and thus alternative sources of information are needed. Indeed, education has a major role in the management and prevention of diabetes, obesity and related disorders, all of which carry a high cardiovascular risk, but if educating patients and the general population is essential, so is informing healthcare professionals about new therapies and new findings related with the management of diabetes. In line with the previously stated attendance limitations and alternative sources of information-or education-this is the scope of the following report, which complements other information on subjects discussed during the EASD meeting in Stockholm available online through other channels. PMID:21373651

  4. American Gastroenterological Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... a 76-Year Old Woman — Gastroenterology and Pain Management Perspectives June 28, 2016 Enhance your recognition and ... 42-Year Old Woman — Primary Care and Plan Management Perspectives June 2, 2016 Enhance your recognition and ...

  5. [Gastroenterology towards 2020].

    PubMed

    Koch, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Research in gastroenterology and hepatology is booming. The spectrum of digestive diseases is very extensive, and growing. This issue of the journal focuses on the near future of gastreonterology, and announces what changes should we expect between now and 2020. The next number will be devoted to changes in hepatology. PMID:27362716

  6. [Virtual room of gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Osvaldo Mateo; Fittipaldi, Mónica Elsa; Henderson, Eduardo; Krabshuis, Justus Hendrik

    2010-12-01

    The amount of published information and its continuing growth can no longer be managed by an individual searcher. One of today's great challenges for the academic researcher and clinician is to find a relevant scientific article using bibliographic search strategies. We aimed to design and build a Virtual Room of Gastroenterology (VRG) generating real-time automated search strategies and producing bibliographic and full text search results. These results update and complement with the latest evidence the Clinical Guideline Program of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. The HTML driven interface provides a series of pre-formulated MeSH based search strategies for each Aula. For each topic between 10 and 20 specific terms, qualifiers and subheadings are identified. The functionality of the VRG is based on the PubMed's characteristic that allows a search strategy to be captured as a web address. The VRG is available in Spanish and English, and the access is free. There are 28 rooms currently available. All together these rooms provide an advanced bibliographic access using more than 900 pre-programmed MeSH driven strategies. In a further very recent development some of the topics of VRG now allow cascade based searches. These searches look at resource sensitive options and possible ethnic difference per topic. The VRG allows significant reductions in time required to design and carry out complex bibliographic searches in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. The system updates automatically in real-time thus ensuring the currency of the results. PMID:21381412

  7. Advances in gastroenterology and hepatology

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of some of the most important growing points in the specialties of gastroenterology and hepatology. It does not aim to be completely comprehensive but to pick out major areas of importance to examination candidates and doctors without special experience in the field.
Topics covered include: upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage; Barrett's oesophagus; carcinoma of the oesophagus; achalasia; Helicobacter pylori; duodenal ulcer prevention; coeliac disease; dermatitis herpetiformis; Crohn's disease; small bowel overgrowth; ulcerative colitis; carcinoma of the large bowel; obesity; endoscope sterilisation; gall stones; liver transplantation; autoimmune liver disease; viral hepatitis; metabolic liver diseases; and pancreatic insufficiency.


Keywords: gastroenterology; hepatology PMID:10824044

  8. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  9. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-05-14

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  10. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743

  11. Chronic Cough: A Gastroenterology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gawron, Andrew J.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work and provide recommendations on the approach for diagnosis and management of chronic cough in a gastroenterology clinic. Recent findings Chronic cough is a burdensome symptom affecting a large number of patients and contributes significant cost to the healthcare system. Recent work has shown that select patients may benefit from acid suppressive therapy and even surgery when there is true pathologic evidence of reflux disease with cough. However, judicious use and proper interpretation of diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux in the setting of cough is important to avoid unnecessary or inappropriate therapy. Summary Chronic cough remains a vexing problem for many physicians, including gastroenterologists. It is important that physicians approach refractory cough in a multi-disciplinary manner. Future research is needed to better understand the likely central hypersensitivity response mediating reflux related cough and potential alternative approaches to therapy. PMID:24240130

  12. 21 CFR 876.4530 - Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4530 Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic...

  13. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  15. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is...

  16. AHS, Annual Forum, 46th, Washington, DC, May 21-23, 1990, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on helicopter technologies discusses the application of chaos methods to higher harmonic control of rotors, a FEM model reduction application to rotorcraft structure applications, the numerical simulation of powered-lift flows, V/STOL concepts for special applications, advanced rotorcraft transmissions, advanced helicopter avionics, three-dimensional shock-fitting for transonic rotor acoustics, a model-based procedure for low vibration rotor design generation, and an integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic approach to optimum rotor blade design. Also discussed are numerical optimization for tiltrotor blade aerodynamic design, aging U.S. Army aircraft, mission/task analysis for weapon system cost and risk reduction, night vision goggle compatibility with color displays in Army aircraft, the structural evaluation of a composite fuselage structure, composite actuators for airborne systems, wake surveys of advanced rotor platforms, safe strength/damage-tolerance assessment, cargo rotorcraft in future Army operations, tests of the V-22 flight control system, heliport/vertiport development, advanced surface-hardening technologies, and main rotorblade bonding automation.

  17. [Gastroenterology in the former GDR (1975-1990) and the changes after German reunification].

    PubMed

    Nilius, R

    2014-06-01

    This short overview sketches the state of Gastroenterology in the GDR (1975 - 1990) from the point of view of an East-German contemporary witness. The "Society for Gastroenterology/GDR" (GfG) has played a decisive role for the development of the Gastroenterology in the GDR. The society promoted medical education and constitutions of gastroenterological centers, fostered gastroenterological research and controlled the standards for the recognition of Gastroenterology as a state-accepted medical sub-discipline. An extensive program of scientific and educative events included two-annual meetings of scientific congresses, the "Berka-Talks", endoscopic workshops" and featured special symposia such as for Hepatology, Pancreatology and gastro-intestinal Microbiology. Temporary working groups developed technical and professional legal advice. Although the GfG was a full member of the respective international organizations (OMGE, ASNEMGE, ESGE), it was almost impossible building up reliable international contacts in a mutual interest. Especially, contacts with colleagues representing the "German Society of Digestion and Metabolic Diseases" (DGVS) were impeded. With the political changes of 1989/1990, an association of the two German Societies for Gastroenterology seemed within reach. At a meeting in Halle (Saale) (March, 22nd, 1990), representatives of DGVS and GfG quickly agreed on modalities to merge the two societies. After the 45th meeting of the DGVS (October 3rd-6th, Essen) more than 600 GDR physicians could join the BRD society under accommodating conditions. The GfG had fulfilled its historical function as a "bridge" during the division of Germany with dignity and was suspended (November, 24nd,1990). PMID:24905110

  18. [Gastroenterology: recent advances and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Dobrilla, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    Among the significant current topics in gastroenterology, the endoscopic capsule, virtual colonography, and ischaemic colitis deserve special considerations. Main indications of the endoscopic capsule are the diagnosis of small intestinal (bleeding) angiodysplasias, Crohn's lesions and tumours. The main drawbacks are gastrointestinal blockage of the capsule due to stenosis and flat batteries before the capsule reaches the distal small intestine. Future advantages may stem from a wider pre-use of an auto-digestible capsule capable of pre-cautionary excluding stenotic gastrointestinal segments ant the pill-cam for the evaluation of the oesophagus. Virtual colonography is a promising and attractive non-invasive alternative for the detection of tumoral colonic lesions (polyps and cancers). Its specific role as a screening procedure or investigation of symptomatic patients has to be better established. In a near future development of patients-friendly bowel preparation, high standard level of the evaluators and advances in computed software should likely allow a better definition of its overall potential. Ischaemic colitis is still a very difficult proposition for gastroenterologists and surgeons from any point of view. Its prompt recognition is a very significant advantage for the therapy. In addition to the advances in diagnostics and therapy, recent data have been reported as far as the pathogenesis of ischaemic colitis is concerned. Useful information has paradoxically come from the side effects of the 5-HT3 antagonists and 5-HT4 agonists used in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome patients. PMID:17252732

  19. Ethical issues in gastroenterology research.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Gregory L

    2015-03-01

    Ethical issues have become increasingly important in gastroenterology research. This is for several reasons, including (i) an understanding of how conflicts of interest might affect research, (ii) the influence of the drug and device industries on research, (iii) ghostwriting (taking credit for something you did not write), (iv) the occurrence of ethically inappropriate research and scientific misconduct, and (v) respect for the rights of research subjects. These include the rights (i) to give informed consent to participate after understanding the purposes, risks, and benefits of the research; (ii) to ask questions; and (iii) to withdraw from participation at any time. Notions of doing good (beneficence), avoiding harm (non-maleficence), confidentiality, and, most important, the primacy of the welfare of the patient or research subject can be traced to antiquity. In the modern era, the Nuremburg Code (1947), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), the Belmont report (1979), and other events and reports have led to the refinement of ethical practices in both clinical and research domains, have reinforced those long observed principles, and have given rise to the newer principles of autonomy and justice. The ethical conduct of research not only promotes good research but also is in the best interests of research subjects, investigators, sponsors, patients, and the public. PMID:25827797

  20. Probiotics as Therapy in Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael D.; Ha, Christina Y.; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Goals The objective of this study was to determine how gastroenterologists perceive and use probiotic-based therapies in practice. Background In the United States, there has been a recent increase in research investigating the therapeutic capacities of probiotics in human disease and an accompanying increase in product availability and marketing. How medical care providers have interpreted the available literature and incorporated it into their practice has not been earlier assessed. Study A 16-question survey (see Survey, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JCG/A14) was distributed to practicing gastroenterologists and physicians with a specific interest in GI disorders within a large metropolitan area. Results All physicians responded that they believed probiotics to be safe for most patients and 98% responded that probiotics have a role in treating gastrointestinal illnesses or symptoms. Currently 93% of physicians have patients taking probiotics most often for irritable bowel syndrome. Commonly used probiotics included yogurt-based products, Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align), and VSL#3. Most surveyed physicians recommended probiotics for irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea because they believed that the literature supports their usage for these conditions. However, physician practice patterns did not consistently correlate with published, expert-panel-generated recommendations for evidence-based probiotic use. Conclusions This study suggests most gastrointestinal disease specialists recognize a role for and have used probiotics as part of their therapeutic armamentarium; however, the effective implementation of this practice will benefit from additional supporting studies and the eventual development of clinical practice guidelines supported by the major gastroenterology societies. PMID:20216432

  1. The short history of gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Sródka, A

    2003-12-01

    In this paper research on the stomach and bowel physiology is presented in a historical perspective. The author tries to show how digestive processes were interpreted by the ancients and how they tried to adjust them to the dominating humoral theory of disease. It is pointed out that the breakthrough which created a new way of understanding of the function of the digestive system was made by Andreas Vesalius and his modern model of anatomy. The meaning of acceptance of chemical processes in digestion by iatrochemics representatives in XVII century is shown. Physiological research in XIX century, which decided about a rapid development of physiology, especially the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, is discussed. Experiments were performed by all main representatives of this discipline: Claude Bernard, Jan Ewangelista Purkyne, Rudolph Heidenhain and especially Ivan Pavlov, who, thanks to the discoveries in the secretion physiology, explained basic functions of the central nervous system. The XX century was dominated by the research showing the important role of the endocrine system and biological agents in the regulation of secretion and motility of the digestive system. The following discoveries are discussed: Ernest Sterling (secretin), John Edkins (gastrin) and André Latarjet and Lester Dragstedt (acetylcholine). It is underlined that Polish scientists play an important role in the development of the gastroenterological science--among others, Walery Jaworski, who made a historical suggestion about the role of the spiral bacteria in etiopathogenesis of the peptic ulcer, Leon Popielski, who stated the stimulating influence of histamine on the stomach acid secretion, Julian Walawski, who discovered enterogastrons--hormones decreasing secretion. As a supplement, there is the list of achievements in the field of the physiology and pathology of the gastrointestinal tract awarded with Nobel Prize and the list of most important Polish papers in this field. PMID

  2. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation 2016 World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition The event will take place October 5-8, ...

  3. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  4. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is a... generic type of device includes the biopsy punch, gastrointestinal mechanical biopsy instrument,...

  5. Internet tools for gastroenterology nurses and associates.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S M

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is a worldwide network of computers with powerful communication capabilities. Electronic mail, World Wide Web, search engines, Usenet, listservs, and databases are tools to send, receive, and search for information via the Internet. This article defines common Internet terminology and describes the basic Internet tools that can enhance the practice of gastroenterology nurses and associates. PMID:10776110

  6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: implications for gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Bramble, M G; Ironside, J W

    2002-06-01

    The current clinical views regarding variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and in particular transmission via endoscopy, of those representing both gastroenterology and the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee are presented in an attempt to guide clinicians as to "best practice" given the current state of our knowledge. PMID:12010896

  7. [Chronic critically ill patients from a gastroenterological perspective].

    PubMed

    Bittinger, M; Messmann, H

    2013-05-01

    From a gastroenterological point of view, for chronic critically ill patients a differentiation has to be made between general gastroenterological problems, which are important in many or all chronic critically ill patients and patients with gastroenterological diseases which are the reason for the chronic critically ill status. General gastroenterological problems are, for example the nutrition of these patients and also considerations about ulcer prophylaxis or gastroenterological complications, such as antibiotic-associated colitis. Gastroenterological diseases as the reason for a chronic critically ill status are more in the minority. Diseases which should be taken into consideration are advanced liver cirrhosis and short bowel syndrome. This manuscript is intended to discuss gastroenterological problems in this selected group of patients and to show possible solutions and treatment options. PMID:23423578

  8. [Depressive syndrome in gastroenterology: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Tsimmerman, I Ia

    2007-01-01

    The article presents modern data on depressive syndrome, its prevalence and possible reasons for its growth, the role of psychoemotional stress in the development of anxiety depression (AD), as well as psychosomatic diseases and syndromes and modern views on the mechanisms of their formation. The authors discuss methods of revealing and diagnostic criteria of AD and psychosomatic diseases, including those that develop against the background of masked depression. Associations between depressive syndrome and the development of gastroenterological diseases and psychosomatic syndromes such as peptic ulcer, functional dyspepsia, irritated bowel syndromes, chronic cholecystitis, and chronic duodenal obstruction syndrome are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to treatment of AD in gastroenterological patients using psycho- and hypnotherapy as well as psychotropic drugs such as antidepressives, anxiolytics, neuroleptics, and nootropic agents. PMID:17665598

  9. The Bockus International Society of Gastroenterology: Historical review

    PubMed Central

    Chaun, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    The Bockus International Society of Gastroenterology was founded in 1958 in honour of Dr Henry L Bockus (1894–1982) by his former students, residents and fellows at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. It was a celebrated tribute to Dr Bockus’ outstanding leadership in the development and teaching of clinical gastroenterology as a subspecialty, which was in its infancy in the post-World War II era. He established the first formal training course in clinical gastroenterology in America. His department of gastroenterology became the leading graduate school of clinical gastroenterology in the world, training many clinical gastroenterologists in America and from many regions around the world. For many years, Dr Bockus was the most prominent American in world gastroenterology. The Bockus Society holds biennial scientific congresses in different continents, thus continuing to foster Dr Bockus’ lifelong interest and vision to promote international medical friendship, and excellence in education and research collaboration. PMID:22506261

  10. Guided Self-Education in the Undergraduate Teaching of Gastroenterology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworken, Harvey J.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study reported was to develop and to evaluate a multifaceted teaching program in gastroenterology for second-year students of medicine. Critical information is defined in a narrative, problem-oriented, pathophysiological core syllabus. (Editor)

  11. Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Gastroenterological Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nishiumi, Shin; Suzuki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Takashi; Matsubara, Atsuki; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The study of the omics cascade, which involves comprehensive investigations based on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc., has developed rapidly and now plays an important role in life science research. Among such analyses, metabolome analysis, in which the concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites are comprehensively analyzed, has rapidly developed along with improvements in analytical technology, and hence, has been applied to a variety of research fields including the clinical, cell biology, and plant/food science fields. The metabolome represents the endpoint of the omics cascade and is also the closest point in the cascade to the phenotype. Moreover, it is affected by variations in not only the expression but also the enzymatic activity of several proteins. Therefore, metabolome analysis can be a useful approach for finding effective diagnostic markers and examining unknown pathological conditions. The number of studies involving metabolome analysis has recently been increasing year-on-year. Here, we describe the findings of studies that used metabolome analysis to attempt to discover biomarker candidates for gastroenterological cancer and discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis. PMID:25003943

  12. Therapeutic benefits of budesonide in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sarah; O'Morain, Colm A

    2010-07-01

    Budesonide is a synthetic steroid of the glucocorticoid family with a high topical anti-inflammatory activity. Enteric-coated formulations resist gastric-acid degradation, delivering active drug to the small intestine and proximal colon. Budesonide has a high first-pass metabolism with minimal systemic absorption. It is therefore felt to cause fewer side effects than traditional glucocorticosteroids and to be generally well tolerated. The aim of this paper is to examine the utility of this medication in frequently encountered gastrointestinal conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis and eosinophilic oesophagitis. A Medline search was performed to find published original research and review articles relating to the use budesonide in common gastroenterological conditions. The results showed that budesonide is efficacious in the induction and short-term maintenance of Crohn's disease. Budesonide is the best-documented treatment for microscopic colitis. It is well proven to be effective in the induction of remission in collagenous colitis but its use in lymphocytic colitis remains less well documented. In conclusion, budesonide is an effective glucocorticosteroid therapy for many chronic gastrointestinal diseases. In combination with its efficacy, the low incidence of serious side effects associated with this drug should keep it at the forefront in the therapeutic arsenal of any gastroenterologist. PMID:23251737

  13. Current applications of transperineal ultrasound in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia; Pereira, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Transperineal ultrasound is an inexpensive, safe and painless technique that dynamically and non-invasively evaluates the anorectal area. It has multiple indications, mainly in urology, gynaecology, surgery and gastroenterology, with increased use in the last decade. It is performed with conventional probes, positioned directly above the anus, and may capture images of the anal canal, rectum, puborectalis muscle (posterior compartment), vagina, uterus, (central compartment), urethra and urinary bladder (anterior compartment). Evacuatory disorders and pelvic floor dysfunction, like rectoceles, enteroceles, rectoanal intussusception, pelvic floor dyssynergy can be diagnosed using this technique. It makes a dynamic evaluation of the interaction between pelvic viscera and pelvic floor musculature, with images obtained at rest, straining and sustained squeezing. This technique is an accurate examination for detecting, classifying and following of perianal inflammatory disease. It can also be used to sonographically guide drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, mainly in patients who cannot undergo conventional drainage. Transperineal ultrasound correctly evaluates sphincters in patients with fecal incontinence, postpartum and also following surgical repair of obstetric tears. There are also some studies referring to its role in anal stenosis, for the measurement of the anal cushions in haemorrhoids and in chronic anal pain. PMID:27158423

  14. Current applications of transperineal ultrasound in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Andreia; Pereira, Eduardo

    2016-04-28

    Transperineal ultrasound is an inexpensive, safe and painless technique that dynamically and non-invasively evaluates the anorectal area. It has multiple indications, mainly in urology, gynaecology, surgery and gastroenterology, with increased use in the last decade. It is performed with conventional probes, positioned directly above the anus, and may capture images of the anal canal, rectum, puborectalis muscle (posterior compartment), vagina, uterus, (central compartment), urethra and urinary bladder (anterior compartment). Evacuatory disorders and pelvic floor dysfunction, like rectoceles, enteroceles, rectoanal intussusception, pelvic floor dyssynergy can be diagnosed using this technique. It makes a dynamic evaluation of the interaction between pelvic viscera and pelvic floor musculature, with images obtained at rest, straining and sustained squeezing. This technique is an accurate examination for detecting, classifying and following of perianal inflammatory disease. It can also be used to sonographically guide drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, mainly in patients who cannot undergo conventional drainage. Transperineal ultrasound correctly evaluates sphincters in patients with fecal incontinence, postpartum and also following surgical repair of obstetric tears. There are also some studies referring to its role in anal stenosis, for the measurement of the anal cushions in haemorrhoids and in chronic anal pain. PMID:27158423

  15. View from the Top: Perspectives on Women in Gastroenterology from Society Leaders.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Colleen M; Allen, John I

    2016-06-01

    Women are making great strides at all levels of medicine, including gastroenterology. The proportion of women members in gastroenterology societies has increased nearly 2-fold and the percent of women trainees is 36%. Although there continue to be challenges for women in academic and community practice, the American Gastroenterological Association, American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, and other gastroenterology societies have dedicated substantial resources to foster careers of women in gastroenterology and develop women as leaders in our societies. This article outlines ongoing challenges for women in gastroenterology and some key initiatives addressing barriers to success. PMID:27261905

  16. 77 FR 46444 - Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of Therapeutics (GREAT); Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of... announcing a 4-day public workshop entitled ``Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of... endpoints that can support drug development in the following disease areas: Eosinophilic...

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND, INC. (46TH, MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Instructors of the Blind, St. Louis, MO.

    THE PUBLICATION REPORTS THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 46TH BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND (MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962). ADDRESSES, PAPERS, AND PANEL DISCUSSIONS COVER THE TOPICS OF MOBILITY, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, SELF CONCEPT IN BLIND CHILDREN, AND PHYSICAL FITNESS. ALSO INCLUDED ARE COMMITTEE…

  18. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4530 - Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor. 876.4530 Section 876.4530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... is a device that consists of a mechanical retractor with a fiberoptic light system that is used...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4530 - Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology fiberoptic retractor. 876.4530 Section 876.4530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... is a device that consists of a mechanical retractor with a fiberoptic light system that is used...

  2. [First online continuing tele-education in gastroenterology in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Pulanić, Roland; Iveković, Hrvoje; Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Ostojić, Rajko; Premuzić, Marina; Lepoglavec, Zeljko

    2003-01-01

    The expansion and popularity of the Internet created the expansion of tele-medicine, with tele-education as its important part. Such on-line distance learning is especially important for diseases being in the focus of public health interest, as diseases of the gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic system due to their frequency. Therefore, in this study is shown the "TIGEL project of tele-interventional gastroenterology" that was launched in May 2001 at the Center for Interventional Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, University Department of Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center. The project includes creation of a web site at the server of the Zagreb University School of Medicine (www.mef.hr/edumed/gastro/index.html), and among the most important goals of the project is continuous medical tele-education in gastroenterology. Beside description of the project, one of the founders of continuous on-line medical education in Croatia, this work describes many advantages but also some still unsolved questions considering medical tele-education, a very promising but still developing way of education. PMID:15038219

  3. Gastroenterology and Hepatology Training in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saberifiroozi, M; Abedian, S; Pourshams, A; Mohamadnejad, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Training in internal medicine has significantly evolved alongside the development of science, technology and new facilities during the past fifty years. After the specialty of internal medicine, there are multiple subspecialty training programs which have started since 1985 in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this manuscript we want to define the characteristics of the gastroenterology subspecialty training program in our country. METHODS The characteristics of approved gastroenterology training centers were gathered through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was consisted; the establishment date, the number and academic rank of trainers, the number of trainees, hospital beds, the number and types of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in a year, the characteristics of training programs and their curriculum composition. The collected data was discussed and revised in a focused group of gastroenterologists from training centers and the board members of Iranian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (IAGH). RESULTS There are 11 training centers with 94 trainers and 65 trainees, with a ratio of trainers to trainees of 1.36. Fifty four percent of trainers are assistant professor. Yearly, 36 new fellows are admitted. Four centers have adequate facilities for training in advanced gastroenterology, and in three centers there are facilities for liver transplantation. The duration of training in internal medicine is four years, whereas in gastroenterology it is two years. The admission for this subspecialty is not university based and with other subspecialty programs, there is a national entrance examination. CONCLUSION There are adequate well known training centers with a suitable ratio of trainer to trainee in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The duration of the GI fellowship is short and implementation of post subspecialty programs for completing the required capabilities of fellows is necessary. The capacity of fellowship admission should be revised

  4. 2015 American Journal of Gastroenterology Lecture: How Digital Health Will Transform Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Brennan

    2016-05-01

    Our patients spend most of their lives far away from an examination room. If we are truly going to capture our patients' attention and engage them in their care, then we must reach beyond the four walls of the clinic, hospital, or endoscopy suite. This is the vision of the digital health movement-an effort to monitor patients remotely and dynamically with mobile health ("mHealth") smartphone applications, electronic health record portals, social media, and wearable biosensors to improve health care outside of the clinical trenches. This article explores how advances in digital health may improve health-care delivery, focusing on gastroenterology and hepatology. It describes how technology can monitor patients remotely, improve face-to-face care, drive clinical decisions, and offer value to health-care organizations, their patients, and their staff. The article also describes pitfalls and shortcomings of digital technologies and concludes by describing a new model for how digital health can be deployed at scale to improve coordination and outcomes of care. PMID:27045930

  5. Signs and genetics of rare cancer syndromes with gastroenterological features.

    PubMed

    Bruno, William; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Ghiorzo, Paola

    2015-08-14

    Although the genetic bases of most hereditary cancer syndromes are known, and genetic tests are available for them, the incidence of the most rare of these syndromes is likely underestimated, partially because the clinical expression is neither fully understood nor easily diagnosed due to the variable and complex expressivity. The clinical features of a small pool of rare cancer syndromes include gastroenterological signs, though not necessarily tumors, that could require the intervention of a gastroenterologist during any of the phases of the clinical management. Herein we will attempt to spread the knowledge on these rare syndromes by summarizing the phenotype and genetic basis, and revising the peculiar gastroenterological signs whose underlying role in these rare hereditary cancer syndromes is often neglected. Close collaboration between geneticists and gastroenterologists could facilitate both the early identification of patients or relatives at-risk and the planning of multidisciplinary and tailored management of these subjects. PMID:26290627

  6. Signs and genetics of rare cancer syndromes with gastroenterological features

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, William; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Ghiorzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Although the genetic bases of most hereditary cancer syndromes are known, and genetic tests are available for them, the incidence of the most rare of these syndromes is likely underestimated, partially because the clinical expression is neither fully understood nor easily diagnosed due to the variable and complex expressivity. The clinical features of a small pool of rare cancer syndromes include gastroenterological signs, though not necessarily tumors, that could require the intervention of a gastroenterologist during any of the phases of the clinical management. Herein we will attempt to spread the knowledge on these rare syndromes by summarizing the phenotype and genetic basis, and revising the peculiar gastroenterological signs whose underlying role in these rare hereditary cancer syndromes is often neglected. Close collaboration between geneticists and gastroenterologists could facilitate both the early identification of patients or relatives at-risk and the planning of multidisciplinary and tailored management of these subjects. PMID:26290627

  7. [PROSPECTS FOR CLINICAL APPLICATION OF STATINS IN GASTROENTEROLOGY].

    PubMed

    Svistunov, A A; Osadchuk, M A; Kireeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytical review of non-cardial effects of statins used in gastroenterology with the data illustrating their high antibacterial activity as exemplified by combined therapy of conditions associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Special emphasis is laid on anti-inflammatory and oncoprotective mechanisms of statin action that are successfully made use of for the treatment of liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and biliary system diseases. Prophylactic aspects of statin application to overcome an addiction to fast food are discussed. PMID:27522720

  8. Gastric Varices: An Overview for the Gastroenterology Nurse.

    PubMed

    Dale, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Gastric varices can occur in as many as one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Within the nursing literature, however, articles focus on the management of esophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding with few publications about management of gastric varices. Given the advancement in therapies, it is prudent for gastroenterology nurses to have an understanding of its management and treatment options. This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, and management of patients with gastric varices and outlines the importance of the nurse's role in the education and ongoing care for this patient group. PMID:26825559

  9. 78 FR 49530 - Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of Therapeutics; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of... workshop entitled ``Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of Therapeutics (GREAT II... Health. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to consider issues related to endpoints...

  10. A Study of an Emerging Occupation: The Gastroenterology Assistant. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuritsky, Joel; Goldsmith, Katherine L.

    To determine the need, desirability, and training requirements for a gastroenterology assistant training program, interviews with gastroenterologists, a survey of 15 hospitals, and observations of gastroenterology laboratories were conducted. In addition, a questionnaire to ascertain which laboratory tests the assistant would perform was…

  11. Education and training in gastroenterology. Report from the OMGE symposia at the International Congress of Gastroenterology, Lisbon, Portugal, September 1984, and at the 8th World Congress of Gastroenterology, São Paulo, Brazil, September 1986.

    PubMed

    Myren, J; Hellers, G; Vilardell, F; Bouchier, I A

    1988-01-01

    Gastroenterology is recognized as a speciality in most countries, especially in Europe and North America. The requirements for being acknowledged as a specialist vary from 1 1/2 to 4 years of training and education in gastroenterology in addition to 1-6 years of training and education in internal medicine/surgery. The requirement of theoretical education varying from 40 to 300 h is practiced in some countries only. In some countries training in endoscopy is separated from gastroenterology. A formal examination and post-specialization training program is required in only some of the countries answering the questionnaire. The number of centres per million inhabitants recognized for training and education also varied greatly. The number of specialists per million inhabitants was 3.6 to 15. In the Middle and Far East the organisation of gastroenterology was much inferior to that in Europe and North America because of insufficient education and organization programs and lack of economic support to perform them. The answers from the gastroenterological associations and personal reporters agreed on the following: A speciality in medical and surgical gastroenterology should be established in all countries around the world. Programs for training and education should be agreed upon in recognized teaching and training institutions of gastroenterology, probably of 3 years' duration in combination with a speciality in internal medicine. A gastroenterologist will in most cases be dealing with other diseases as well. The number of specialists per million inhabitants may be estimated to 10, the exact number not being possible to determine at present. In most countries the post-specialization programs were not required but were offered, a problem that has to be clarified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2900548

  12. [Certification of an ambulatory gastroenterologic service fulfilling ISO Law 9001--criteria and national guidelines of the Gastroenterologic Association].

    PubMed

    Birkner, B

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of certification and accreditation are the deployment and examination of quality improvement measures in health care services. The quality management system of the ISO 9001 is created to install measures and tools leading to assured and improved quality in health care. Only some experiences with certification fulfilling ISO 9001 criteria exist in the German health care system. Evidence-based clinical guidelines can serve as references for the development of standards in quality measurement. Only little data exists on the implementation strategy of guidelines and evaluation, respectively. A pilot quality management system in consistence with ISO 9001 criteria was developed for ambulatory, gastroenterological services. National guidelines of the German Society of Gastroenterology and Metabolism and the recommendations of the German Association of Physicians for quality assurance of gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the documentation and internal auditing. This pilot quality management system is suitable for the first steps in the introduction of quality management in ambulatory health care. This system shows validity for accreditation and certification of gastrointestinal health care units as well. PMID:11084717

  13. The Bowker Annual: Library and Book Trade Almanac[TM], 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Dave, Ed.

    This 46th edition of the "Bowker Annual" chronicles another year of rapid evaluation as the library and book trade worlds adapt to the many changes wrought by new technologies. Electronic information is now key to virtually every aspect of both industries, and decisions on its best presentation and organization offer constant challenges and…

  14. White paper of Italian Gastroenterology: delivery of services for digestive diseases in Italy: weaknesses and strengths.

    PubMed

    Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; Cannizzaro, Renato; Bazzoli, Franco; De Boni, Michele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Farinati, Fabio; Ravelli, Paolo; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Lisiero, Manola; Spolaore, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    In 2011 the three major Italian gastroenterological scientific societies (AIGO, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists; SIED, the Italian Society of Endoscopy; SIGE, the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) prepared their official document aimed at analysing medical care for digestive diseases in Italy, on the basis of national and regional data (Health Ministry and Lombardia, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna databases) and to make proposals for planning of care. Digestive diseases were the first or second cause of hospitalizations in Italy in 1999-2009, with more than 1,500,000 admissions/year; however only 5-9% of these admissions was in specialized Gastroenterology units. Reported data show a better outcome in Gastroenterology Units than in non-specialized units: shorter average length of stay, in particular for admissions with ICD-9-CM codes proxying for emergency conditions (6.7 days versus 8.4 days); better case mix (higher average diagnosis-related groups weight in Gastroenterology Units: 1 vs 0.97 in Internal Medicine units and 0.76 in Surgery units); lower inappropriateness of admissions (16-25% versus 29-87%); lower in-hospital mortality in urgent admissions (2.2% versus 5.1%); for patients with urgent admissions due to gastrointestinnal haemorrhage, in-hospital mortality was 2.3% in Gastroenterology units versus 4.0% in others. The present document summarizes the scientific societies' official report, which constitutes the "White paper of Italian Gastroenterology". PMID:24913902

  15. Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology?

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Jimmy K; O’Neill, Catherine; McLaughlin, John

    2006-01-01

    Several hundred species of bacteria inhabit the gut, and affect its cell biology, morphology and homeostasis. Many bacteria are however potential pathogens, especially if the integrity of the epithelial barrier is physically or functionally breached. Conversely, the interaction between host and commensal microbes can confer important health benefits. This has led to commercial and public interest in 'probiotics', live microbes principally taken as food supplements. Might probiotics also be used in disease therapy Experimental evidence that probiotics modulate gut physiology, particularly barrier integrity and immunological function, underpins exciting new gastroenterological research. We discuss below the scientific basis for probiotic effects and present a critical perspective for their use in relation to gastrointestinal disease. PMID:17006980

  16. The promise of metabolic phenotyping in gastroenterology and hepatology.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Elaine; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk and treatment response are determined, at the individual level, by a complex history of genetic and environmental interactions, including those with our endogenous microbiomes. Personalized health care requires a deep understanding of patient biology that can now be measured using a range of '-omics' technologies. Patient stratification involves the identification of genetic and/or phenotypic disease subclasses that require different therapeutic strategies. Stratified medicine approaches to disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response monitoring herald a new dimension in patient care. Here, we explore the potential value of metabolic profiling as applied to unmet clinical needs in gastroenterology and hepatology. We describe potential applications in a number of diseases, with emphasis on large-scale population studies as well as metabolic profiling on the individual level, using spectrometric and imaging technologies that will leverage the discovery of mechanistic information and deliver novel health care solutions to improve clinical pathway management. PMID:26194948

  17. [Notes for the history of pediatric gastroenterology in Peru].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article. PMID:26397286

  18. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Turri, Jose Antonio; Leandro, Roseli; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. METHODS: We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: We identified 535 health economic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23 (57.5%) and 17 (42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four cost-consequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25 (62.5%) evaluated medications; 7 (17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3 (7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most (55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most (63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible. PMID:26855823

  19. [PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY: ORIGINS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS OF THE RESEARCH].

    PubMed

    Zaprudnov, A M; Kharitonova, L A; Grigoriev, K I; Bogomaz, L V

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclature of digestive diseases in children was supplemented by the "new" diseases: of esophagus--gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, Zenker's diverticulum; of stomach and duodenum--gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer disease, polyps, ectopic pancreas in the stomach wall; of the intestine--jejunitis, ileocolitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine; of biliary tract--cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, anomalies of the biliary tract; of pancreas--acute and chronic pancreatitis, annular pancreas (2). The features of gastrointestinal diseases in children experiencing the action of factors, not always positively affecting the growing organism, were established. These features include: presence of allergic background; high level of neuro-autonomous and psycho-emotional changes in modern children, not only in schoolchildren, but even in preschoolers; polymorbidity or a combination (syntropy) of lesions of the digestive system; adverse outcomes of certain diseases as chronization, complications development, and as a consequence--a high risk of disability in children; "rejuvenation" of certain diseases of the digestive system (cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, Crohn's disease), typical for adults. It is important to emphasize the clinical and social importance of gastroenterological diseases in childhood. Axiomatic is that the origins of many diseases of the digestive organs in adults lie in childhood. Early manifestation of certain diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gluten enteropathy, Crohn's disease, and others, significantly impact the quality of life of sick children and their parents. It is worth to emphasize high costs of medical and prophylactic (tertiary prevention) activities using the drugs of latest generations. All this causes problems in both applied and scientific pediatric gastroenterology. PMID:26281153

  20. SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF JUNIOR COLLEGES (46TH, ST. LOUIS, FEBRUARY 28-MARCH 4, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    THE TEXTS OF TEN PAPERS ARE INCLUDED--(1) REFLECTIONS FROM OUTSIDE, (2) DIVERSITY AND DIVISIVENESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION, (3) EDUCATION FOR THE NEXT GENERATION, (4) THE COMMUNITY CAMPUS, (5) THE JUNIOR COLLEGE AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION, (6) THE FLORIDA-COLOMBIA ALLIANCE PROGRAM, (7) THE JUNIOR COLLEGE TRUSTEE, (8) BOARD RELATIONSHIPS TO…

  1. First WGO regional meeting with the TSG: a template for future regional gastroenterology collaborations.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M; Yurdaydin, Cihan

    2012-04-01

    The World Gastroenterology Organization that, for decades, has organized a quadrennial world congress of gastroenterology in various parts of the world, recently collaborated, in conjunction with the Turkish Society of Gastroenterology, in its first regional meeting in Antalya, Turkey. This venture was embarked upon for several reasons: first, to collaborate with a major national gastroenterology organization; second, to address regional issues in digestive diseases; and third, to provide an accessible forum for education in the science and practice of gastroenterology to individuals from areas (e.g., Central Asia) where the specialty remains relatively under-developed. The success of the endeavor can be gauged, not only by an attendance of over 1000 individuals, but also by the level of interaction that took place between colleagues from Europe and North America, on the one hand, and Turkey and surrounding regions and the rest of the world, on the other. The emphasis was firmly on issues that are relevant to the area and on the development of education and training in gastroenterology in the region: approaches that must, ultimately, impact positively on the care of those afflicted by digestive disorders in these nations. PMID:22375519

  2. The placebo effect for gastroenterology: tool or torment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N

    2006-11-01

    Placebo generally has a negative connotation both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. In this report the nature of placebo is explored in general and in relation to gastrointestinal diseases. The goodness of placebo is highlighted. PubMed was searched for articles and commentaries on placebo and for systematic reviews on placebo. Selected placebo-controlled trials in gastroenterology were reviewed. There are 5 key components impacting the placebo response: patient characteristics, practitioner characteristics, practitioner-patient interaction, the nature of the illness being treated, and the treatment being applied and the setting in which it is applied. There are also a number of factors that constitute the placebo response and likely all apply to some extent. These include the natural history of the condition, a regression to the mean (accounting for fluctuation in measurements over time), other time effects (ie, patient learning to cope, practitioner gaining expertise), unidentified parallel interventions (ie, change in habits or exogenous stress), the placebo effect of the administered agent being compared with placebo, and the physiologic effects of the placebo. In summary, there are positive aspects to placebo. Clinicians treating patients with gastrointestinal diseases can harness aspects of the placebo response to improve patient outcomes. Clinical trial planners can harness aspects of the placebo response to design disease-specific trials that can minimize the placebo response. PMID:17081807

  3. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Giacomelli, Michael G; Potsaid, Benjamin M; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Figueiredo, Marisa; Huang, Qin; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We describe an ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for clinical gastroenterology using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and micromotor imaging catheter. The system had a 600 kHz axial scan rate and 8 µm axial resolution in tissue. Imaging was performed with a 3.2 mm diameter imaging catheter at 400 frames per second with a 12 µm spot size. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) imaging was performed in patients with a cross section of pathologies undergoing upper and lower endoscopy. The use of distally actuated imaging catheters enabled OCT imaging with more flexibility, such as volumetric imaging in the small intestine and the assessment of hiatal hernia using retroflex imaging. The high rotational scanning stability of the micromotor enabled 3D volumetric imaging with micron scale volumetric accuracy for both en face OCT and cross-sectional imaging, as well as OCT angiography (OCTA) for 3D visualization of subsurface microvasculature. The ability to perform both structural and functional 3D OCT imaging in the GI tract with microscopic accuracy should enable a wide range of studies and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of OCT for detecting pathology. PMID:25574446

  4. Polypectomy skills of gastroenterology fellows: can we improve them?

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Currently, most training programs for gastroenterology (GI) fellows lack systematic training in polypectomy. Systematic education and direct feedback with the direct observational polypectomy skills (DOPyS) method is a simple and inexpensive way to train GI fellows in practical endoscopy. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether a lecture-based training course could improve the polypectomy skills of GI fellows. As a secondary aim, the interobserver agreement among the three assessors was evaluated. Participants and methods: We invited GI fellows to record five polypectomies, after which they attended a training course consisting of three lectures on polyps and polypectomy methods given by expert endoscopists. After training, the fellows recorded five polypectomies again. All videos were blindly assessed by three expert endoscopists, who used the DOPyS method. Results: Eight GI fellows participated in this study. There was no significant difference in the median overall competency scores before and after training; before training, 25 % (10/40) of the polypectomies were scored as “pass,” compared with 37.5 % (15/40) after training (P = 0.56). The interobserver agreement among the experts was fair (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.34, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.14 – 0.52). Conclusions: Our lecture-based training course did not result in an improvement in overall competency scores for the polypectomy skills of GI fellows. Besides, the overall quality of the polypectomy techniques of the fellows was considered low. To optimize polypectomy training and competency, we believe that direct feedback in the endoscopy suite and hands-on training by dedicated teachers are essential. PMID:26878046

  5. 78 FR 41937 - Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the Radiological Devices Panel of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the... the public. Name of Committee: Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and Radiological Devices Panel of...

  6. Resident trainees do not affect patient satisfaction in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic: A prospective study conducted in a Canadian gastroenterology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Brahmania, Mayur; Young, Madison; Muthiah, Chetty; Ilnyckyj, Alexandra; Duerksen, Donald; Moffatt, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little literature regarding how a gastroenterology trainee affects a patient’s interpretation of care during outpatient clinic visits. Improving patient satisfaction is desirable and benefits may include enhanced patient compliance as well as providing trainees with areas for improvement. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patient satisfaction in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic when seen by a trainee and attending physician versus an attending physician alone. The secondary objective was to evaluate physician characteristics that play a role in creating a positive clinical experience. METHODS: A randomized prospective survey study was conducted over an 11-month period (July 2012 to June 2013) at St Boniface Hospital (Winnipeg, Manitoba). Two gastroenterology fellows (postgraduate year 4 and 5) and nine internal medicine residents (postgraduate year 1 to 3) comprised the ‘trainee’ role, while three academic clinicians comprised the ‘attending’ role. Patients included individuals seen for an initial consultation and were >18 years of age. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients comprised the final study group, with 118 in the attending group and 93 in the trainee group. In univariate analysis, patients more often had a very good experience when seen by an attending physician alone versus a trainee and attending physician (73% versus 56%; P=0.016); however, on multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in patient satisfaction (OR 0.89; P=0.931). Physician factors found to be associated with high patient satisfaction on multivariate analysis included: addressing all patient concerns (OR 27.56; P=0.021); giving the patient a preliminary diagnosis (OR 78.02; P=0.006); and feeling the physician was thorough (OR 72.53; P=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not reveal a difference in patient satisfaction if a patient sees an attending physician alone or with a trainee. Moreover, to improve patient satisfaction in a gastroenterology

  7. 76 FR 71983 - Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  8. Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

  9. 77 FR 18829 - Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical... Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... related to medical devices intended for obese patients. The committee will provide...

  10. The effect of Nazism on medical progress in gastroenterology: the inefficiency of evil.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2006-06-01

    While Nazism is almost universally recognized as a great evil, control of science and medicine by the totalitarian Nazi state might be viewed as increasing efficiency. Scientific methods are applied to semiquantitatively analyze the effects of Nazism on medical progress in gastroenterology to document its pernicious effects, and to honor outstanding gastroenterologists persecuted or murdered by the Nazis. This is a retrospective, quasi-case-controlled study. To disprove the null hypothesis that Nazism was efficient, retarded progress in gastroenterology is demonstrated by (1) enumerating the loss to Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1944 due to violent death, incarceration, or forced exile of key researchers in gastroenterology, defined by authorship of at least one book or 10 articles in peer-reviewed journals or other outstanding scholarship; (2) demonstrating a statistically significantly greater loss in Nazi Germany than in non-Nazi (Weimar German Republic from 1921 to 1932) or anti-Nazi (democratic America from 1933 to 1944) control groups; and (3) demonstrating that each loss was directly due to Nazism (murder, incarceration, or exile due to documented threat of violence/death or revocation of medical license). Sources of error in analyzing events from 70 years ago are described. Nazi Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe gained 0 and lost 53 key gastroenterology researchers, including 32 lost due to forced exile, 11 murdered by the Nazis, 5 lost due to suicide under threat of violence, 3 in hiding from the Gestapo, and 2 for other reasons. Fifty-two of the gastroenterologists were persecuted solely because they were Jewish or of Jewish descent and one because he was a Christian anti-Nazi Polish patriot. Particularly severe losses occurred in endoscopy. The loss in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1944 was significantly greater than that in non-Nazi Germany and Austria from 1921 to 1932 (53 versus 4; odds ratio = 25.27; 95% CI: 9.01-70.48; P < 0.0001) and was significantly

  11. Ordinary tales from endoscopic odysseys: fiction, ethics, and the gastroenterological journey.

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Frans; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2014-04-01

    Fiction (i.e. novels, short stories, and movies) provides an opportunity for imaginative moral reflection and can serve as a basis for moral argument. Narratives play a role in moral reasoning because they are exemplars as well as tests. Those who care for sick people, should be interested in patient's and literary stories. Exploring the representation of gastroenterological ailments in fiction gives insight in the experience of undergoing colonoscopy, farting, pain, the borders of intimacy, hygiene and the lack of it, taboos and the doctor-patient-relationship. Included authors are, among others: Michel Faber, Alan Bennett, Charles Bukowski, Charlotte Roche and James Joyce. Several movies are discussed as well. Though in general gastroenterological problems don't seem often at foreground in fiction, in some cases they are represented in a more symbolic way, and touch upon some fundamental aspects of the human condition. PMID:24810195

  12. Comparison of registered and published primary outcomes in randomized controlled trials of gastroenterology and hepatology.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Yang, Ge-Liang; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Hui-Qing; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVES. The need for trial registration as well as the benefits it has brought for the transparency of medical research has been recognized for years. Trial registration has turned from an exception to a mandatory guideline in recent years. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of registered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a sample of recently published gastroenterology RCTs, and to assess the consistency of registered and published primary outcome (PO) in RCTs. METHODS. Articles published in the top five "general and internal journals" and top five "gastroenterology and hepatology journals" categories between 2009 and 2012 were searched in PubMed. Basic characteristics and the registration information were identified and extracted from the included RCTs. PO consistency analysis was conducted to compare between the registered and published format. RESULTS. A total of 305 RCTs were included; among them 252 could be identified with a registration number. Nearly half of these RCTs were funded solely by industry (141/305, 46.3%). ClinicalTrials.gov was the most popular registry for these RCTs (214/252, 84.9%). A total of 155 RCTs were included in the PO consistency analysis. Among them, 22 (14.2%) RCTs had discrepancies between POs registered in the trial registry compared to the published article. CONCLUSIONS. Based on the results of the present study, selective outcome reporting of gastroenterology RCTs published in leading medical journals has been much improved over the past years. However, there might be a sampling bias to say that consistency of registered and published POs of gastroenterology RCTs has been better than before. PMID:24131272

  13. Undernutrition, risk of malnutrition and obesity in gastroenterological patients: A multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Massimiliano; Mazzuoli, Silvia; Regano, Nunzia; Inguaggiato, Rosa; Bianco, Margherita; Leandro, Gioacchino; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Noè, Donatella; Orzes, Nicoletta; Pallini, Paolo; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Testino, Gianni; Guglielmi, Francesco William

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of undernutrition, risk of malnutrition and obesity in the Italian gastroenterological population. METHODS: The Italian Hospital Gastroenterology Association conducted an observational, cross-sectional multicenter study. Weight, weight loss, and body mass index were evaluated. Undernutrition was defined as unintentional weight loss > 10% in the last three-six months. Values of Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) > 2, NRS-2002 > 3, and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) from 17 to 25 identified risk of malnutrition in outpatients, inpatients and elderly patients, respectively. A body mass index ≥ 30 indicated obesity. Gastrointestinal pathologies were categorized into acute, chronic and neoplastic diseases. RESULTS: A total of 513 patients participated in the study. The prevalence of undernutrition was 4.6% in outpatients and 19.6% in inpatients. Moreover, undernutrition was present in 4.3% of the gastrointestinal patients with chronic disease, 11.0% of those with acute disease, and 17.6% of those with cancer. The risk of malnutrition increased progressively and significantly in chronic, acute and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases in inpatients and the elderly population. Logistical regression analysis confirmed that cancer was a risk factor for undernutrition (OR = 2.7; 95%CI: 1.2-6.44, P = 0.02). Obesity and overweight were more frequent in outpatients. CONCLUSION: More than 63% of outpatients and 80% of inpatients in gastroenterological centers suffered from significant changes in body composition and required specific nutritional competence and treatment. PMID:27559436

  14. The professional lives of women in gastroenterology: a Canadian comparison study with men.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, J; Cauch-Dudek, K; Rhyne, D

    1997-08-01

    Women are underrepresented in gastroenterology. A questionnaire examined the training and career experiences of female members of the Canadian Association for Gastroenterology (CAG) and their male counterparts. A pretested questionnaire was mailed to the 50 female CAG and 100 age-matched male members. Descriptive analyses were performed with the SAS statistical program. Questionnaires were returned by 38 of the women (76%) and 70 of the men (70%). All held full-time positions. Whereas 21.6% of the women respondents were pediatricians, all but 2.9% of the men had adult practices. The women were more likely to never marry (21.1% vs. 8.6% of men), and their personal income was significantly less than that of men. The men reported more problems juggling their work and private life, whereas problems with childcare and free time were reported more often by the women with children. The women perceived they had greater problems than men in pursuing an academic career, but grant support, academic rank, and administrative responsibilities were actually similar for both. Gender equality of opportunity was found in Canadian gastroenterology through a willingness on the part of women to compromise. Fewer women married and had families, and they earned less money than the men. PMID:9247490

  15. Adherence to the 2011 American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement for the diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Menezes, A; Tierney, A; Yang, Y-X; Forde, K A; Bewtra, M; Metz, D; Ginsberg, G G; Falk, G W

    2015-01-01

    Considerable variability exists in adherence to practice guidelines for Barrett's esophagus (BE). Rapid advances in management approaches to BE led to a new American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) medical position statement in 2011. Our aim was to assess how well members of the AGA Clinical Practice section adhered to these guidelines. A self-administered survey incorporating questions on diagnostic criteria, cancer risk estimates, screening, surveillance, and therapeutics for BE was distributed electronically to 5850 North American members of the AGA Clinical Practice section. The response rate was 470 of 2040 opened e-mails (23%). Intestinal metaplasia was required for diagnosis of BE by 90%, but the Prague classification was used by only 53% of those aware of it. The annual risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma was reported as 0.1-0.5% by 76%. Screening practices were variable, with 35% screening all patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and 15% repeating endoscopy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease following a negative screening. Surveillance guidelines were followed by 79% for nondysplastic BE and 86% for low-grade dysplasia, with expert pathology confirmation of dysplasia reported by 86%. Proton pump inhibitor dosing was variable, with 18% administering twice-daily doses and 30% titrating dose to symptoms. Ablation therapy was recommended by 6% for nondysplastic BE, 38% for low-grade dysplasia, and 52% for high-grade dysplasia. There is satisfactory adherence to the new AGA guidelines with respect to diagnosis, cancer risk estimates, and surveillance intervals in a select group of respondents. However, adherence continues to be variable in the use of the Prague classification, screening, and dosing of antisecretory therapy. Use of ablation therapy increases with grade of dysplasia. The reason for continued variability in adherence to BE practice guidelines remains unclear, and more evidence-based guidance is

  16. [Zdeněk Mařatka and his share in the founding of the Czech Gastroenterological Society and its journal. Gastroenterological Society in Czech and Slovac republics].

    PubMed

    Kment, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Zdeněk Mařatka (1914-2010) was a leading person in a Czech and Slovak gastroenterology in spite of the infavourable approach of the official communist policy to him.. He was one of the founders of gastroenterology in Czechoslovakia. He had been habilitated in 1948 for thesis Ulcerative colitis. Mařatka stood at the first steps of foundation of Czech Gastroenterology Society very soon after the WW2 and followed with the preparation as a secretary ge-neral of the 8th ASNEMGE Congress in Prague 1968 and as a president the 1st Congress of Endoscopy in the very optimistic atmosphere of ,,Prague Spring". He was nominated or elected by several international gastroenterology organisations, during 1976-1980 had been President of ESGE. He started with editoring of Czech gastroenterology Association journal as a member of editorial board and had been its main editor between 1969-1999. His well appreciated novelty in the magazine was a short remarks in one or two sentences from the world scientific literature which appeared in every copy. As an editor emeritus he supported the quality of the journal by many advices and contributions including articles. PMID:25130638

  17. Gastroenterology training in a resource-limited setting: Zambia, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Seetharam, Anil; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate need for and efficacy of a structured gastroenterology didactic session in expanding awareness and understanding of digestive disorders. METHODS: A four-day symposium was developed with didactic sessions (days 1, 2) and practical endoscopy (days 3, 4). Didactic sessions included case presentations highlighting pathophysiology and management. One nurse and four practicing gastroenterologists from the United Kingdom led lectures and supervised workshops with audience participation. Practical endoscopy focused on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and their application to diagnosis and treatment of ailments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were distributed to participants during didactic sessions. A pre-workshop questionnaire gauged expectations and identified objectives to be met at the symposium. Post-workshop questionnaires were administered to assess efficacy of each session. Participants graded sessions from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) on quality of case presentations, knowledge, clarity and mode of presentation. We assessed if time allotted to each topic was sufficient, value of sessions, impact on practice and interest in future symposiums. RESULTS: There were 46 attendees on day 1: 41% undergraduates, 41% residents, 11% consultants and 4% unspecified. Day 2 (a Saturday) had 24 participants: 17% undergraduates, 71% residents, 9% consultants, 4% unspecified. Primary pre-workshop symposium expectation was to gain knowledge in: general gastroenterology (55.5%), practical endoscopy (13.8%), pediatric gastroenterology (5%), epidemiology of gastrointestinal disorders specific to Zambia (6%), and interaction with international speakers (6%). The post-symposium questionnaire was answered by 19 participants, of whom 95% felt specific aims were met; all would attend future conferences and recommend to others. CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of a structured symposium in developing countries warrants further attention

  18. [Character of changes in indicators of proteinase and proteinase inhibitor activity in gastroenterological pathology in children].

    PubMed

    Dovgun, O B; Tebloeva, L T; Shumeĭko, N K; Rudenskaia, G N

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine trypsin-lake proteinase activity, chymotrypsin-like proteinase activity, trypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in blood serum at the children with gastroenterological pathology. These parameters did not chang at the children with functional disorder of stomach and duodenum. The stable balance between proteinases and inhibitors was determined only at the duration of the disease not more 5 years. The absence of normal levels these enzymes after traditional treatment was explain the necessity to continue the therapy at home with control of enzymes' levels. PMID:9703629

  19. Diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease: guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Bai, Julio C; Biagi, Federico; Card, Timothy R; Ciacci, Carolina; Ciclitira, Paul J; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Holdoway, Anne; van Heel, David A; Kaukinen, Katri; Leffler, Daniel A; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E A; McGough, Norma; Davidson, Mike; Murray, Joseph A; Swift, Gillian L; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary panel of 18 physicians and 3 non-physicians from eight countries (Sweden, UK, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Finland, Norway and the USA) reviewed the literature on diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease (CD). This paper presents the recommendations of the British Society of Gastroenterology. Areas of controversies were explored through phone meetings and web surveys. Nine working groups examined the following areas of CD diagnosis and management: classification of CD; genetics and immunology; diagnostics; serology and endoscopy; follow-up; gluten-free diet; refractory CD and malignancies; quality of life; novel treatments; patient support; and screening for CD. PMID:24917550

  20. [MODERN PROKINETICS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE TREATMENT OF GASTROENTEROLOGICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Sheptulin, A A; Belousova, I B

    2016-01-01

    The importance of prokinetics (drugs stimulating motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) arises from the high prevalence of gastroenterological pathology associated with primary or secondary disturbances of this function in esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The main groups of prokinetics are beta-blockers of dopamine receptors, inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (or their combination with dopamine receptor blockers), 5-HT4-receptor agonists. They find wide application for the treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and constipation, obstipational form of irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions accompanied by motor function disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27522721

  1. Hypothyroidism is a rare cause of isolated constipation: 5-year review of all thyroid tests in a pediatric gastroenterology office

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, William E.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation in children is high and accounts for a large percentage of pediatric and pediatric gastroenterology visits. Thyroid testing is frequently ordered to evaluate constipation and other gastrointestinal complaints in children. We reviewed all patients with thyroid testing ordered by our pediatric gastroenterology division over a five-year period. We found 873 patients on whom thyroid testing was performed, and 56 had evidence of hypothyroidism. Nine patients had constipation and clinically significant hypothyroidism in this group. However, only one child had constipation as their sole presenting symptom. The contribution of occult hypothyroidism to isolated constipation in children may have been previously overestimated. PMID:21975961

  2. Single port laparoscopy in gastroenterology and hepatology: a fine step forward.

    PubMed

    Mittermair, Christof; Schirnhofer, Jan; Brunner, Eberhard; Pimpl, Katharina; Obrist, Christian; Weiss, Michael; Weiss, Helmut G

    2014-11-14

    Single incision laparoscopy (SIL) has become an emerging technology aiming at a further reduction of abdominal wall trauma in minimally invasive surgery. Available data is encouraging for the safe application of standardized SIL in a wide range of procedures in gastroenterology and hepatology. Compared to technically simple SIL procedures, the merit of SIL in advanced surgeries, such as liver or colorectal interventions, compared to conventional laparsocopy is self-evident without any doubt. SIL has already passed the learning curve and is routinely utilized in expert centers. This minimized approach has allowed to enter a new era of surgical management that can not be acceded without a fruitful combination of prudent training, consistent day-to-day work and enthusiastic motivation for technical innovations. Both, basic and novel technical specifics as well as particular procedures are described herein. The focus is on the most important surgical interventions in gastroenterology and aims at reviewing the current literature and shares our experience in a high volume center. PMID:25400443

  3. Single port laparoscopy in gastroenterology and hepatology: A fine step forward

    PubMed Central

    Mittermair, Christof; Schirnhofer, Jan; Brunner, Eberhard; Pimpl, Katharina; Obrist, Christian; Weiss, Michael; Weiss, Helmut G

    2014-01-01

    Single incision laparoscopy (SIL) has become an emerging technology aiming at a further reduction of abdominal wall trauma in minimally invasive surgery. Available data is encouraging for the safe application of standardized SIL in a wide range of procedures in gastroenterology and hepatology. Compared to technically simple SIL procedures, the merit of SIL in advanced surgeries, such as liver or colorectal interventions, compared to conventional laparsocopy is self-evident without any doubt. SIL has already passed the learning curve and is routinely utilized in expert centers. This minimized approach has allowed to enter a new era of surgical management that can not be acceded without a fruitful combination of prudent training, consistent day-to-day work and enthusiastic motivation for technical innovations. Both, basic and novel technical specifics as well as particular procedures are described herein. The focus is on the most important surgical interventions in gastroenterology and aims at reviewing the current literature and shares our experience in a high volume center. PMID:25400443

  4. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    PubMed

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    A survey sponsored by the Interamerican Association of Gastroenterology (AIGE) related to decision making in conflictive ethical situations in the setting of gastroenterological practice was designed (AJ-JCG). Seven problem-cases with 3 to 5 pre-established and not-excluding answers each, demographic and occupational data were included, by public invitation during 1996-97 AIGE educational activities in La Plata (Argentina), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Data were inserted in a computerised data base, and chi square, Fischer and Maentel-Henzel tests were used for statistical studies. 118 out of 460 doctors registered to educational activities answered at the survey (25.6%). Mean age was 42 +/- 15 years and 57.6% were male; 48.5% were under 10 years of professional practice and 19.5% were over 20 years. Gastroenterology was the main specialty in 89.8%. Although only 15.2% of participants reported as not having Ethical Committee (EC) in their institutions, the option of consulting was not very frequently selected, except in cases of request about pregnancy interruption in the HCV infected mother (22.9%), inclusion of the young alcoholic cirrhotic man in the waiting list for liver trasplant (17.8%), and the Jehova's Witness conscious patient with bleeding esophageal varices (13.5%). Cases of direct communication to the patient of early colon cancer diagnosis (66.1%), and inclusion of the young end stage alcoholic cirrhotic patient in the waiting list for liver trasplantation (65.2%), had the higher consensus. On the other hand, lower consensus (39%) was seen in the case of variceal bleeding in the encephalopathic Witness of Jehova patient. Differential criterla were observed related to sex: 38% of women versus 14.7% of men (p < 0.01) refuse the interruption of pregnancy to the infected HCV patient because of personal convictions against abortion. In the case of suspected HIV co-infection in the IVD HBsAG + carrier, 46% of women vs. 27

  5. Nuclear gastroenterology

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Scintigraphy of the oesopohagus; Gastric emptying; Bile dynamics; Scintigraphy in diffuse liver disease; Scintigraphic diagnosis of liver tumors; Acute cholecystitis; Radiolabelled white cells in inflammatory disease; Scintigraphy in gastrointestinal bleeding; Radiolabelled antibodies for imaging of gastrointestinal tumors; Assessment of the small intestine; and Gastrointestinal scintigraphy in pediatrics.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of the top-cited gastroenterology and hepatology articles

    PubMed Central

    Azer, Samy A; Azer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the top-cited articles in gastroenterology and hepatology, and analyse their characteristics. Methods Two searches were conducted in the Science Citation Index Expanded database; a search of 69 journals under the category ‘Gastroenterology and Hepatology’ (list A) and a keyword search of all journals (list B). The search results were analysed and the inter-rater coefficient of agreement between evaluators was measured using Cohen κ. Results The number of citations varied from 1049 to 2959 in list A and from 1929 to 5500 in list B. In both lists, the majority of articles were research papers. No significant correlations were found between the number of citations and the number of years since publication (R2=0.00992, p=0.473 and R2=0.00202, p=0.757, respectively). However, the mean number of citations of papers published before the year 2000 was lower than those published after 2000 (36.70±19.31 vs 106.03±39.22). No correlation was found between number of authors and the number of citations (R2=0.04352, p=0.130), but strong correlations were found between the number of institutes involved or number of countries and the number of citations (R2=0.275, p<0.001 and R2=0.16181, p=0.003, respectively). Females were under-represented in authorship (45 vs 254, p=0.004). Only 21 papers (of 54) in list A were supported by grants. No correlation was found between number of grants received and the number of citations (R2=0.02573, p=0.247). The inter-rater agreement between evaluators had a Cohen κ coefficient 0.76–0.84. Conclusions Top-cited articles were not only published in highly ranked journals specialising in Gastroenterology and Hepatology but also in 14 journals not specialised in this field. The number of citations correlated with the number of institutes and the number of countries involved but not with the number of grants received or the number of authors. Females were under-represented in the authorship. PMID:26857105

  7. Kinematic analysis of wrist motion during simulated colonoscopy in first-year gastroenterology fellows

    PubMed Central

    Ratuapli, Shiva K; Ruff, Kevin C; Ramirez, Francisco C; Wu, Qing; Mohankumar, Deepika; Santello, Marco; Fleischer, David E

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastroenterology trainees acquire skill and proficiency in performing colonoscopies at different rates. The cause for heterogeneous competency among the trainees is unclear. Kinematic analysis of the wrist joint while performing colonoscopy can objectively assess the variation in wrist motion. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the time spent by the trainees in extreme ranges of wrist motion will decrease as the trainees advance through the fellowship year. Subjects and methods: Five first-year gastroenterology fellows were prospectively studied at four intervals while performing simulated colonoscopies. The setting was an endoscopy simulation laboratory at a tertiary care center. Kinematic assessment of wrist motion was done using a magnetic position/orientation tracker held in place by a custom-made arm sleeve and hand glove. The main outcome measure was time spent performing each of four ranges of wrist motion (mid, center, extreme, and out) for each wrist degree of freedom (pronation/supination, flexion/extension, and adduction/abduction). Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the time spent for wrist movements across the three degrees of freedom throughout the study period. However, fellows spent significantly less time in extreme range (1.47 ± 0.34 min vs. 2.44 ± 0.34 min, P = 0.004) and center range (1.02 ± 0.34 min vs 1.9 ± 0.34 min, P = 0.01) at the end of the study compared to the baseline evaluation. The study was limited by the small number of subjects and performance of colonoscopies on a simulator rather than live patients. Conclusions: Gastroenterology trainees alter the time spent at the extreme range of wrist motion as they advance through training. Endoscopy training during the first 10 months of fellowship may have beneficial effects on learning ergonomically correct motion patterns. PMID:26716123

  8. [Gastroenterology 2.0: useful resources for the gastroenterologist available on the Web 2.0].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F

    2011-01-01

    The term Web 2.0 refers to the use of Internet applications which enable the users to share, participate and collaborate together on information. The objective of this study is to check different applications that use Web 2.0, which could help the gastroenterologist in his daily practice. The applications that will be checked include: blogs, microblogging, RSS, podcasts, wikis and social networks. "Gastroenterology 2.0" represents the applications, services, and tools based on Web 2.0, which are of easy use and easily accessible - to consumers, patients, gastroenterologists and other health professionals, as well as researchers. Although several studies have shown the benefits these technologies have on the medical practice, it is necessary to conduct further studies to demonstrate the use of these applications on improving health. PMID:22086320

  9. Patient Electronic Health Records as a Means to Approach Genetic Research in Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Lieberman, David

    2015-10-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are being increasingly utilized and form a unique source of extensive data gathered during routine clinical care. Through use of codified and free text concepts identified using clinical informatics tools, disease labels can be assigned with a high degree of accuracy. Analysis linking such EHR-assigned disease labels to a biospecimen repository has demonstrated that genetic associations identified in prospective cohorts can be replicated with adequate statistical power and novel phenotypic associations identified. In addition, genetic discovery research can be performed utilizing clinical, laboratory, and procedure data obtained during care. Challenges with such research include the need to tackle variability in quality and quantity of EHR data and importance of maintaining patient privacy and data security. With appropriate safeguards, this novel and emerging field of research offers considerable promise and potential to further scientific research in gastroenterology efficiently, cost-effectively, and with engagement of patients and communities. PMID:26073373

  10. Establishing an integrated gastroenterology service between a medical center and the community

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram; Levi, Zohar; Neumann, Gadi; Ehrlich, Dorit; Bitterman, Haim; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon; Comaneshter, Doron; Halpern, Eyran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To combine community and hospital services in order to enable improvements in patient management, an integrated gastroenterology service (IGS) was established. METHODS: Referral patterns to specialist clinics were optimized; open access route for endoscopic procedures (including esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy) was established; family physicians’ knowledge and confidence were enhanced; direct communication lines between experts and primary care physicians were opened. Continuing education, guidelines and agreed instructions for referral were promoted by the IGS. Six quality indicators were developed by the Delphi method, rigorously designed and regularly monitored. Improvement was assessed by comparing 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicators. RESULTS: An integrated delivery system in a specific medical field may provide a solution to a fragmented healthcare system impaired by a lack of coordination. In this paper we describe a new integrated gastroenterology service established in April 2010. Waiting time for procedures decreased: 3 mo in April 30th 2010 to 3 wk in April 30th 2011 and stayed between 1-3 wk till December 30th 2012. Average cost for patient’s visit decreased from 691 to 638 NIS (a decrease of 7.6%). Six health indicators were improved significantly comparing 2010 to 2012, 2.5% to 67.5%: Bone densitometry for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, preventive medications for high risk patients on aspirin/NSAIDs, colonoscopy following positive fecal occult blood test, gastroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus, documentation of family history of colorectal cancer, and colonoscopy in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Establishment of an IGS was found to effectively improve quality of care, while being cost-effective. PMID:25717251

  11. Shifting Away From Fee-For-Service: Alternative Approaches to Payment in Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kavita; Presser, Elise; George, Meaghan; McClellan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Fee-for-service payments encourage high-volume services rather than high-quality care. Alternative payment models (APMs) aim to realign financing to support high-value services. The 2 main components of gastroenterologic care, procedures and chronic care management, call for a range of APMs. The first step for gastroenterologists is to identify the most important conditions and opportunities to improve care and reduce waste that do not require financial support. We describe examples of delivery reforms and emerging APMs to accomplish these care improvements. A bundled payment for an episode of care, in which a provider is given a lump sum payment to cover the cost of services provided during the defined episode, can support better care for a discrete procedure such as a colonoscopy. Improved management of chronic conditions can be supported through a per-member, per-month (PMPM) payment to offer extended services and care coordination. For complex chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, in which the gastroenterologist is the principal care coordinator, the PMPM payment could be given to a gastroenterology medical home. For conditions in which the gastroenterologist acts primarily as a consultant for primary care, such as noncomplex gastroesophageal reflux or hepatitis C, a PMPM payment can support effective care coordination in a medical neighborhood delivery model. Each APM can be supplemented with a shared savings component. Gastroenterologists must engage with and be early leaders of these redesign discussions to be prepared for a time when APMs may be more prevalent and no longer voluntary. PMID:26122765

  12. [Evolution of biologicals in inflammation medicine--biosimilars in gastroenterology, rheumatology and dermatology].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, S; Luger, T; Mittendorf, T; Mrowietz, U; Müller-Ladner, U; Schröder, J; Stallmach, A; Bokemeyer, B

    2014-11-01

    Biologicals revolutionized the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases in gastroenterology, rheumatology and dermatology in the last decade. The first generation biologicals mainly targeted against the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The evolution of these therapies in the last years led to the development of new antibodies and to the admission of first generation "generic" biologics - the biosimilars. Biosimilars are not a fundamental new pharmacological development for existing substances, however they have the potential to lead to enormous cost savings in healthcare without reducing the level of care for patients. Biosimilars are not identical with the originator, but in an extensive biosimilarity exercise including analytical, preclinical and comparative clinical studies it was shown that the biosimilars could demonstrate comparability in all relevant aspects with the originator.In September 2013, the Infliximab biosimilars (Inflectra(®), Remsina(®)) were the first biosimilars for monoclonal antibodies to be authorized by the EMA for use in the European Union. By demonstrating the therapeutic similarity only in one indication (rheumatoid arthritis) the EMA agreed with an extrapolation also to all approved indications of the originator. This could be a relevant problem in clinical practice. Therefore, comparative studies with the originator are required in all approved indications.After expiration of the national patent protection in beginning of 2015, the infliximab biosimilars will be launched on the market in Germany and will be part of the therapeutic arsenal in gastroenterology, rheumatology and dermatology. Interchangeability (Switching) of biosimilars with the originator will be subject of an important discussion with the health care providers. Regardless of the biosimilars EMA-approval, several potential problems (efficacy, extrapolation, switching, long-term safety) should be the topic of intensive long-term registries in the future. PMID:25390629

  13. Improvement analysis of article quality in World Journal of Gastroenterology during 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Chen, Yun-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To understand the changes and development of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG) in recent years. METHODS: The Journal Citation Report (JCR) and SCI-E database of the ISI Web of Knowledge were used to search the articles and data of related indices in WJG during 2008-2012. Bibliometric methods were used for statistical analysis of the author’s degree of collaboration, collaboration rate, the first author’s publications, high-productivity authors, the authors’ origins in each year; the distribution of the countries and journals of the authors citing WJG papers was also analyzed. In addition, the indices related to this journal in each year were compared with the data from 6 SCI journals in the field of gastroenterology in the 2012 volume. RESULTS: A total of 4409 papers in WJG were examined in this study. For the period 2008-2012, the self-citation rate was 8.59%, 6.02%, 5.50%, 4.47% and 5.21%. Of a total of 3898 first authors, 3526 published 1 paper, 291 published 2 papers, 59 published 3 papers, and 22 published 4 or more papers. The origin of WJG authors covered the six continents, and the majority came from Asia, Europe and North America. The number of countries of origin of WJG authors was 65, 66, 61, 65 an 60 for the period 2008-2012. Authors from 66 countries cited a total of 3194 of the 4409 papers, and these citations were found in 1140 journals. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that WJG has stayed on the track of normal international publication and all the indices of this journal are stable and reasonable. PMID:24307776

  14. Practice Audit in Gastroenterology (PAGE) program: A novel approach to continuing professional development

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, David; Hollingworth, Roger; Gardiner, Tara; Klassen, Michael; Smith, Wendy; Hunt, Richard H; Barkun, Alan; Gould, Michael; Leddin, Desmond

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice audit is an important component of continuing professional development that may more readily be undertaken if it were less complex. This qualitative study assessed the use of personal digital assistants to facilitate data collection and review. METHODS: Personal digital assistants programmed with standard questionnaires related to upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (Practice Audit in Gastroenterology-Endoscopy [‘PAGE-Endo’]) and colonoscopies (PAGE-Colonoscopy [‘PAGE-Colo’]) were provided to Canadian gastroenterologists, surgeons and internists. Over a three-week audit period, participants recorded indications, and the expected (E) and reported (R) findings for each procedure. Thereafter, participants recorded compliance with reporting, the ease of use and value of the PAGE program, and their willingness to perform another audit. RESULTS: Over 15 to 18 months, 173 participants completed PAGE-Endo (6168 procedures) and 111 completed PAGE-Colo (4776 procedures). Most respondents noted that PAGE was easy to use (99%), beneficial (88% to 95%), and that they were willing undertake another audit (92% to 95%). In PAGE-Endo, alarm features were prevalent (55%), but major reported findings were less common than expected: esophagitis (E 29.9%, R 14.8%), esophageal stricture (E 8.3%, R 3.6%), gastric ulcer (E 17.0%, R 4.7%), gastric cancer (E 4.3%, R 1.0%) and duodenal ulcer (E 11.5%, R 5.7%). In PAGE-Colo, more colonoscopies were performed for symptom investigation (55%) than for screening (25%) or surveillance (20%). There were marked interprovincial variations with respect to sedation, biopsies and technical aspects of colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Secure, real-time data entry with review of aggregate and individual data in the PAGE program provided an acceptable, straightforward methodology for accredited practice audit activities. PAGE has considerable potential for continuing professional development in gastroenterology and other specialties

  15. Download Alert: Understanding Gastroenterology Patients' Perspectives on Health-Related Smartphone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Jasmine K; Le, Thai; Munson, Sean; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to understand patients' willingness to use different types of health-related smartphone apps and to explore their attitudes on the overall value, usability, feasibility, credibility, intrusiveness, and obtrusiveness of these apps. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to adult patients presenting to gastroenterology clinics at an academic medical center. The 25-question survey consisted of 5-point Likert-type scale statements, multiple-choice questions, and open-ended questions. Results: Participants were mainly White (N=94, 78%) and smartphone owners (N=125, 93%). The mean age was 40.8 years (N=121, s.d.=13.2). Participants were willing to use most types of apps unless it monitored their location or social networking activity. Half were less willing to use an app if it required a visible accessory. Most participants were willing to use a health-related app up to 5 min a day indefinitely but unwilling to pay out-of-pocket for it. Participants generally disagreed that an app would be hard to learn how to use, interfere with their daily routine, or be embarrassing to use in public. Overall, participants felt that health-related apps could help them and their doctors better manage their medical problems, but were neutral in trusting their quality. Most worried that personal information used for an app would fall into the wrong hands. Conclusion: Gastroenterology patients were willing to use and valued most types of health-related apps. They perceived this technology as feasible, usable, and relatively unobtrusive unless a visible accessory was required. However, many were concerned about their privacy. PMID:26133109

  16. Specific 13C functional pathways as diagnostic targets in gastroenterology breath-tests: tricks for a correct interpretation.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, M; Del Zompo, F; Mangiola, F; Lopetuso, L R; Petito, V; Cammarota, G; Gasbarrini, A; Scaldaferri, F

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive, non-radioactive, safe, simple and effective tests able to determine significant metabolic alterations due to specific diseases or lack of specific enzymes. Carbon isotope (13)C, the stable-non radioactive isotope of carbon, is the most used substrate in breath testing, in which (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured and expressed as a delta value, a differences between readings and a fixed standard. (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured with isotope ratio mass spectrometry or non-dispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer and generally there is a good agreement between these techniques in the isotope ratio estimation. (13)C/(12)C ratio can be expressed as static measurement (like delta over baseline in urea breath test) or as dynamic measurement as percent dose recovery, but more dosages are necessary. (13)C Breath-tests are involved in many fields of interest within gastroenterology, such as detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, study of gastric emptying, assessment of liver and exocrine pancreatic functions, determination of oro-caecal transit time, evaluation of absorption and to a lesser extend detection of bacterial overgrowth. The use of every single test in a clinical setting is vary depending on accuracy and substrate costs. This review is meant to present (13)C the meaning of (13)C/(12)C ratio and static and dynamic measure and, finally, the instruments dedicated to its use in gastroenterology. A brief presentation of (13)C breath tests in gastroenterology is also provided. PMID:24443068

  17. New European initiatives in colorectal cancer screening: Budapest Declaration. Official appeal during the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union under the Auspices of the United European Gastroenterology Federation, the European Association for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy and the Hungarian Society of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Tibor; Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Herszényi, László; Jonkers, Daisy; Molnár, Béla; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Regula, Jaroslaw; Malesci, Alberto; Laghi, Luigi; Pintér, Tamás; Teleky, Béla; Dítě, Petr; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of death in the European Union (EU). CRC is an enormous health and economic burden. Early detection and prevention have the possibility of reducing this burden significantly. Many cancer-associated deaths can be avoided through early detection by high-quality colorectal screening programs followed by appropriate treatment. Under the auspices of the United European Gastroenterology Federation (UEGF), the European Association for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, the Hungarian Society of Gastroenterology and the Hungarian College of Gastroenterology, the 'Budapest Declaration' (2011) was an accepted official scientific program during the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Budapest Declaration follows the Munich Declaration (2001), the Brussels Declaration (2007), the Transatlantic Declaration (2009), the Barcelona Declaration (2010), the written declaration of CRC screening, a joint initiative with European Parliamentarians coordinated by the UEGF, and finally, the 'European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Colorectal Cancer Screening and Diagnosis'. The 'Budapest Declaration' together with previous declarations aims to urge the national and supranational healthcare decision makers to launch new Europe-wide initiatives to establish high-quality CRC programs to achieve optimal efficiency in CRC screening. In case of implementation of the proposals, actions and conditions recommended, we can achieve that one of the basic principles of the EU - the chance of equal access - be realized in member states with respect to the prevention of CRC and reduction of cancer-related mortality. To better achieve this goal, we propose to establish an UEGF joint committee, with one participant representing each EU member state to coordinate and supervise the implementation of CRC screening. PMID:22722559

  18. Genomic medicine in gastroenterology: A new approach or a new specialty?

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-07-21

    Throughout history, many medical milestones have been achieved to prevent and treat human diseases. Man's early conception of illness was naturally holistic or integrative. However, scientific knowledge was atomized into quantitative and qualitative research. In the field of medicine, the main trade-off was the creation of many medical specialties that commonly treat patients in advanced stages of disease. However, now that we are immersed in the post-genomic era, how should we reevaluate medicine? Genomic medicine has evoked a medical paradigm shift based on the plausibility to predict the genetic susceptibility to disease. Additionally, the development of chronic diseases should be viewed as a continuum of interactions between the individual's genetic make-up and environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, and emotions. Thus, personalized medicine is aimed at preventing or reversing clinical symptoms, and providing a better quality of life by integrating the genetic, environmental and cultural factors of diseases. Whether using genomic medicine in the field of gastroenterology is a new approach or a new medical specialty remains an open question. To address this issue, it will require the mutual work of educational and governmental authorities with public health professionals, with the goal of translating genomic medicine into better health policies. PMID:26217074

  19. [Palliative surgery for malignant bowel obstruction in patients with advanced and recurrent gastroenterological cancer].

    PubMed

    Kitani, Kotaro; Yukawa, Masao; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tsujie, Masanori; Hara, Joji; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Sato, Katsuaki; Isono, Sayuri; Kawai, Kenji; Miura, Ken; Watatani, Masahiro; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2013-11-01

    We report the outcomes of palliative surgery for the treatment of malignant bowel obstruction in patients with advanced gastroenterological cancer. We studied 20 patients who had undergone palliative surgery over 3 years. We analyzed the clinical findings, surgical procedure, postoperative clinical course, and prognosis. The origin of the patients was colorectal cancer( 9 cases), gastric cancer( 4 cases), uterine cancer( 3 cases), pancreatic cancer( 2 cases), bladder( 1 case), and anal cancer (1 case). Small bowel obstruction was noted in 8 cases and colorectal obstruction was noted in 14 cases. Colostomy was performed in 13 cases, resection and reconstruction were performed in 6 cases, and bypass was performed in 4 cases. Ninety percent of the patients were able to eat solid food following the surgery, but 20% of the patients were forced to have bowel obstruction. The median survival time after palliative surgery was 3 (range, 0-15) months, and 6 patients (30%) died within 2 months. We concluded that palliative surgery for the treatment of malignant bowel obstruction could improve the patients' quality of life. The decision for performing palliative surgery should be made while considering the patient's prognosis, wishes, and potential for symptom improvement. PMID:24393893

  20. Pelvic floor complaints in gastroenterology practice: results of a survey in the netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Melianthe P J; Fidder, Herma H; Bekker, Milou D; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C M; Elzevier, Henk W

    2012-01-01

    Objective The pelvic floor is an integrated structure; dysfunctions may lead to a wide range of symptoms, involving voiding, defecation and sexual functioning (SF). Functional symptoms such as constipation and lower abdominal pain are often caused by pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), and they highly impact the quality of life. Multiple specialists are responsible for a specific part of the pelvic floor, but its treatment asks for a holistic approach. The authors are still unaware of gastroenterologists' knowledge on PFD or whether they are addressing pelvic floor complaints in their daily practice. Design A 42-itemed anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all 402 members of the Dutch Society of Gastroenterology (gastroenterologists and residents-in-training). Results 169 (42%) questionnaires were analysed. Most gastroenterologists address lower urinary tract symptoms in their history-taking, 92% in female patients and 84% in male patients. When patients indicate irritable bowel syndrome-like complaints, more than 60% of the physicians inquire about SF to their female patients, compared with 38% inquiries to male patients (p<0.001). A reason not to inquire about SF is a lack of knowledge about female and male sexuality (19% and 23%, respectively). Forty-six per cent of the respondents regard it rather important to receive more training on PFD in male patients versus 61% in female patients. Conclusion Awareness of PFD is not yet routinely integrated into the history taken by gastroenterologists. PMID:24124626

  1. Improving access in gastroenterology: The single point of entry model for referrals

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Kerri L; Van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, a group of academic gastroenterologists in Calgary (Alberta) adopted a centralized referral intake system known as central triage. This system provided a single point of entry model (SEM) for referrals rather than the traditional system of individual practitioners managing their own referrals and queues. The goal of central triage was to improve wait times and referral management. In 2008, a similar system was developed in Edmonton at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). SEMs have subsequently been adopted by numerous subspecialties throughout Alberta. There are many benefits of SEMs including improved access and reduced wait times. Understanding and measuring complex patient flow systems is key to improving access, and centralized intake systems provide an opportunity to better understand total demand and system bottlenecks. This knowledge is particularly important for specialties such as gastroenterology (GI), in which demand exceeds supply. While it is anticipated that SEMs will reduce wait times for GI care in Canada, the lack of sufficient resources to meet the demand for GI care necessitates additional strategies. PMID:24040629

  2. Genomic medicine in gastroenterology: A new approach or a new specialty?

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, many medical milestones have been achieved to prevent and treat human diseases. Man’s early conception of illness was naturally holistic or integrative. However, scientific knowledge was atomized into quantitative and qualitative research. In the field of medicine, the main trade-off was the creation of many medical specialties that commonly treat patients in advanced stages of disease. However, now that we are immersed in the post-genomic era, how should we reevaluate medicine? Genomic medicine has evoked a medical paradigm shift based on the plausibility to predict the genetic susceptibility to disease. Additionally, the development of chronic diseases should be viewed as a continuum of interactions between the individual’s genetic make-up and environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, and emotions. Thus, personalized medicine is aimed at preventing or reversing clinical symptoms, and providing a better quality of life by integrating the genetic, environmental and cultural factors of diseases. Whether using genomic medicine in the field of gastroenterology is a new approach or a new medical specialty remains an open question. To address this issue, it will require the mutual work of educational and governmental authorities with public health professionals, with the goal of translating genomic medicine into better health policies. PMID:26217074

  3. Molecular imaging for theranostics in gastroenterology: one stone to kill two birds.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Kown, Chang-Il; Park, Jong Min; Lee, Hoo Geun; Han, Na Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-09-01

    Molecular imaging in gastroenterology has become more feasible with recent advances in imaging technology, molecular genetics, and next-generation biochemistry, in addition to advances in endoscopic imaging techniques including magnified high-resolution endoscopy, narrow band imaging or autofluorescence imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. These developments have the potential to serve as "red flag" techniques enabling the earlier and accurate detection of mucosal abnormalities (such as precancerous lesions) beyond biomarkers, virtual histology of detected lesions, and molecular targeted therapy-the strategy of "one stone to kill two or three birds"; however, more effort should be done to be "blue ocean" benefit. This review deals with the introduction of Raman spectroscopy endoscopy, imaging mass spectroscopy, and nanomolecule development for theranostics. Imaging of molecular pathological changes in cells/tissues/organs might open the "royal road" to either convincing diagnosis of diseases that otherwise would only be detected in the advanced stages or novel therapeutic methods targeted to personalized medicine. PMID:25324995

  4. Targeting the Human Microbiome With Antibiotics, Probiotics, and Prebiotics: Gastroenterology Enters the Metagenomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Preidis, Geoffrey A.; Versalovic, James

    2014-01-01

    Studies of metagenomics and the human microbiome will tremendously expand our knowledge of the composition of microbial communities in the human body. As our understanding of microbial variation and corresponding genetic parameters is refined, this information can be applied to rational remodeling or “tailoring” of human-associated microbial communities and their associated functions. Physiologic features such as the development of innate and adaptive immunity, relative susceptibilities to infections, immune tolerance, bioavailability of nutrients, and intestinal barrier function may be modified by changing the composition and functions of the microbial communities. The specialty of gastroenterology will be affected profoundly by the ability to modify the gastrointestinal microbiota through the rational deployment of antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. Antibiotics might be used to remove or suppress undesirable components of the human microbiome. Probiotics can introduce missing microbial components with known beneficial functions for the human host. Prebiotics can enhance the proliferation of beneficial microbes or probiotics, to maximize sustainable changes in the human microbiome. Combinations of these approaches might provide synergistic and effective therapies for specific disorders. The human microbiome could be manipulated by such “smart” strategies to prevent and treat acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and a variety of other disorders. PMID:19462507

  5. The Technical Quality of Delivered Care for People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Tabriz Gastroenterology Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari, Sima; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gharibi, Farid; Alidoost, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is considered as one of the chronic diseasesre-quiring complicated treatment. This study aimed to assess technical quality of providing care for pa-tients with IBD. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 94 people with IBD using interviews and simple random sampling methods in Gastroenterology, Endoscopy and clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and Golgasht Clinic in Tabriz in 2012. The data collection tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been confirmed. In order to investigate the statistical relationship between the background variables and compliance with the standards the Chi-square test was applied using SPSS 17 Software. Results: "visit by the physician" and "diet advice by the dietitian" have had the highest and the lowest levels of compliance with the standard respectively, and "the care related to the disease exacerbation" and "the care provided by the other physicians" were not compatible with the standards in 80% of the cases. Data analyses also showed that there was a significant relationship between participant’s age, job, education and the smoking status and compliance of some care with the relevant standards (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate a substantial gap between provided care for the people with IBD and the relevant standards. This indicates the areas that need of improvement and requires the serious attention of the authorities. PMID:26634198

  6. Multisensor fusion in gastroenterology domain through video and echo endoscopic image combination: a challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debon, Renaud; Le Guillou, Clara; Cauvin, Jean-Michel; Solaiman, Basel; Roux, Christian

    2001-08-01

    Medical domain makes intensive use of information fusion. In particular, the gastro-enterology is a discipline where physicians have the choice between several imagery modalities that offer complementary advantages. Among all existing systems, videoendoscopy (based on a CCD sensor) and echoendoscopy (based on an ultrasound sensor) are the most efficient. The use of each system corresponds to a given step in the physician diagnostic elaboration. Nowadays, several works aim to achieve automatic interpretation of videoendoscopic sequences. These systems can quantify color and superficial textures of the digestive tube. Unfortunately the relief information, which is important for the diagnostic, is very difficult to retrieve. On the other hand, some studies have proved that 3D information can be easily quantified using echoendoscopy image sequences. That is why the idea to combine these information, acquired from two very different points of view, can be considered as a real challenge for the medical image fusion topic. In this paper, after a review of actual works concerning numerical exploitation of videoendoscopy and echoendoscopy, the following question will be discussed: how can the use of complementary aspects of the different systems ease the automatic exploitation of videoendoscopy ? In a second time, we will evaluate the feasibility of the achievement of a realistic 3D reconstruction based both on information given by echoendoscopy (relief) and videoendoscopy (texture). Enumeration of potential applications of such a fusion system will then follow. Further discussions and perspectives will conclude this first study.

  7. Anal lesions presenting in a cohort of child gastroenterological examinations. Implications for sexual traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Houdu, Sora; Darviot, Estelle; Buchaillet, Céline; Baron, Céline

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anal lesions found in children during a pediatric gastroenterology consultation when the reason for the complaint was related to a digestive disease. This prospective descriptive study included 100 children under 15 years of age over a 13-month period, consulting due to digestive symptoms. The children were under 8 years old (90%) and 25% were under 3.1 years old. Constipation was the most frequent reason for consultation (69%). Fifty-one anal lesions were observed, of which 58.8% were anal fissures, 15.7% were skin tags and 5.8% were venous congestions related to straining. Anal fissures and skin tags were located at the median line, according to the clock-face method in supine position. No child had more than two anal lesions. No anal dilatation, sphincter hypotonia, anal scars, anal lacerations or bruises were found. The two most common anal lesions were anal fissures and skin tags. These anal lesions were mainly observed at the median line and were due to constipation. No cases of multiple anal lesions were found in terms of common digestive diseases. PMID:25882145

  8. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Indicators of Safety Compromise following Colonoscopy in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Borgaonkar, Mark R; Pace, David; Lougheed, Muna; Marcoux, Curtis; Evans, Bradley; Hickey, Nikita; O'Leary, Meghan; McGrath, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology published 19 indicators of safety compromise. We studied the incidence of these indicators by reviewing all colonoscopies performed in St. John's, NL, between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2012. Results. A total of 3235 colonoscopies were included. Adverse events are as follows. Medication-related includes use of reversal agents 0.1%, hypoxia 9.9%, hypotension 15.4%, and hypertension 0.9%. No patients required CPR or experienced allergic reactions or laryngospasm/bronchospasm. The indicator, "sedation dosages in patients older than 70," showed lower usage of fentanyl and midazolam in elderly patients. Procedure-related immediate includes perforation 0.2%, immediate postpolypectomy bleeding 0.3%, need for hospital admission or transfer to the emergency department 0.1%, and severe persistent abdominal pain proven not to be perforation 0.4%. Instrument impaction was not seen. Procedure-related delayed includes death within 14 days 0.1%, unplanned health care visit within 14 days of the colonoscopy 1.8%, unplanned hospitalization within 14 days of the colonoscopy 0.6%, bleeding within 14 days of colonoscopy 0.2%, infection 0.03%, and metabolic complication 0.03%. Conclusions. The most common adverse events were mild and sedation related. Rates of serious adverse events were in keeping with published reports. PMID:27446832

  9. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Indicators of Safety Compromise following Colonoscopy in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Borgaonkar, Mark R.; Pace, David; Lougheed, Muna; Marcoux, Curtis; Evans, Bradley; Hickey, Nikita; O'Leary, Meghan; McGrath, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology published 19 indicators of safety compromise. We studied the incidence of these indicators by reviewing all colonoscopies performed in St. John's, NL, between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2012. Results. A total of 3235 colonoscopies were included. Adverse events are as follows. Medication-related includes use of reversal agents 0.1%, hypoxia 9.9%, hypotension 15.4%, and hypertension 0.9%. No patients required CPR or experienced allergic reactions or laryngospasm/bronchospasm. The indicator, “sedation dosages in patients older than 70,” showed lower usage of fentanyl and midazolam in elderly patients. Procedure-related immediate includes perforation 0.2%, immediate postpolypectomy bleeding 0.3%, need for hospital admission or transfer to the emergency department 0.1%, and severe persistent abdominal pain proven not to be perforation 0.4%. Instrument impaction was not seen. Procedure-related delayed includes death within 14 days 0.1%, unplanned health care visit within 14 days of the colonoscopy 1.8%, unplanned hospitalization within 14 days of the colonoscopy 0.6%, bleeding within 14 days of colonoscopy 0.2%, infection 0.03%, and metabolic complication 0.03%. Conclusions. The most common adverse events were mild and sedation related. Rates of serious adverse events were in keeping with published reports. PMID:27446832

  10. Why do patients not keep their appointments? Prospective study in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Murdock, A; Rodgers, C; Lindsay, H; Tham, T C K

    2002-06-01

    Unkept outpatient appointments are a drain on resources. In a prospective study we asked non-attenders at a gastroenterology clinic why they had missed their appointment. 103 patients missed their appointment (14% of the total invited); 3 had died. The remaining 100 were asked to complete questionnaires, 68 by mail (43 returned) and 32 by telephone (30 successful); the response rate was thus 73%. 49 of the respondents were new patients, 6 of them with urgent referrals. The explanations for non-attendance by the 73 patients were: forgot to attend or to cancel (30%); no reason (26%); clerical errors (10%); felt better (8%), fearful of being seen by junior doctor (3%); inpatient in another hospital (3%); miscellaneous other (20%). 13 (27%) of the review patients had not kept one or more previous appointments. The non-attendance rates for different clinics ranged from 10% to 25% (average 14%). A substantial number of non-attenders claimed to have forgotten their appointment or to cancel it. If, as we surmise, this reflects apathy, no strategy to improve attendance is likely to have great impact. Since the non-attendance rate is reasonably constant, it can be taken into account when patients are booked. PMID:12042374

  11. Foreign Bodies Ingestion in Children: Experience of 61 Cases in a Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Diaconescu, Smaranda; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Sarbu, Ioan; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Olaru, Claudia; Ioniuc, Ileana; Ciongradi, Iulia; Burlea, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is a worldwide pediatric pathology. We assessed the clinical, endoscopic, and therapeutic aspects of this condition in a pediatric gastroenterology unit. We reviewed 61 patients (median age of 3.25 ± 4.7 years). The most frequently ingested objects were coins (26.23%), unidentified metal objects (13.11%), bones (8.19%), batteries, and buttons (6.55%). The clinical features we encountered included abdominal pain (55.73%), vomiting (34.42%), and asymptomatic children (29.5%). Routine X-ray examination enabled finding the foreign body in 42 of the cases. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed within 24–72 hours. 25 cases resulted in a negative endoscopy (40.98%), 19 objects (31.14%) were removed using a polypectomy snare, and extraction failure occurred in 17 patients (27.86%). 28 foreign bodies were passed without incidents; in 14 cases, the swallowed objects were never found. In one case, a battery was stuck in the esophageal folds and led to tracheal-esophageal fistula and bronchopneumonia and later to esophageal stenosis. We report a large proportion of foreign bodies that could not be identified or removed due to lack of early endoscopy and poor technical settings. Batteries and sharp objects lead to severe complications and preschool-age children are at high risk for such events. PMID:26949384

  12. Invited Review: The preterm pig as a model in pediatric gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Sangild, P. T.; Thymann, T.; Schmidt, M.; Stoll, B.; Burrin, D. G.; Buddington, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal undergoes a transition from a sterile uterine environment with a constant nutrient supply, to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent oral intake of complex milk nutrients via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These functional challenges partly explain the relatively high morbidity and mortality of neonates. Preterm birth interrupts prenatal organ maturation, including that of the GIT, and increases disease risk. Exemplary is necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is associated closely with GIT immaturity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization. Infants with NEC may require resection of the necrotic parts of the intestine, leading to short bowel syndrome (SBS), characterized by reduced digestive capacity, fluid loss, and dependency on parenteral nutrition. This review presents the preterm pig as a translational model in pediatric gastroenterology that has provided new insights into important pediatric diseases such as NEC and SBS. We describe protocols for delivery, care, and handling of preterm pigs, and show how the immature GIT responds to delivery method and different nutritional and therapeutic interventions. The preterm pig may also provide a sensitive model for postnatal adaptation of weak term piglets showing high mortality. Attributes of the preterm pig model include close similarities with preterm infants in body size, organ development, and many clinical features, thereby providing a translational advantage relative to rodent models of GIT immaturity. On the other hand, the need for a sow surgical facility, a piglet intensive care unit, and clinically trained personnel may limit widespread use of preterm pigs. Studies on organ adaptation in preterm pigs help to identify the physiological basis of neonatal survival for hypersensitive newborns and aid in defining the optimal diet and rearing conditions during the critical neonatal period. PMID:23942716

  13. Comparison of National Operative Mortality in Gastroenterological Surgery Using Web-based Prospective Data Entry Systems.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Takayuki; Paruch, Jennifer L; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Ko, Clifford Y; Cohen, Mark E; Hirahara, Norimichi; Zhou, Lynn; Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Go; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    International collaboration is important in healthcare quality evaluation; however, few international comparisons of general surgery outcomes have been accomplished. Furthermore, predictive model application for risk stratification has not been internationally evaluated. The National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan was developed in collaboration with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), with a goal of creating a standardized surgery database for quality improvement. The study aimed to compare the consistency and impact of risk factors of 3 major gastroenterological surgical procedures in Japan and the United States (US) using web-based prospective data entry systems: right hemicolectomy (RH), low anterior resection (LAR), and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Data from NCD and ACS-NSQIP, collected over 2 years, were examined. Logistic regression models were used for predicting 30-day mortality for both countries. Models were exchanged and evaluated to determine whether the models built for one population were accurate for the other population.We obtained data for 113,980 patients; 50,501 (Japan: 34,638; US: 15,863), 42,770 (Japan: 35,445; US: 7325), and 20,709 (Japan: 15,527; US: 5182) underwent RH, LAR, and, PD, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rates for RH were 0.76% (Japan) and 1.88% (US); rates for LAR were 0.43% versus 1.08%; and rates for PD were 1.35% versus 2.57%. Patient background, comorbidities, and practice style were different between Japan and the US. In the models, the odds ratio for each variable was similar between NCD and ACS-NSQIP. Local risk models could predict mortality using local data, but could not accurately predict mortality using data from other countries.We demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of the international collaborative research between Japan and the US, but found that local risk models remain essential for quality improvement. PMID:26656350

  14. Effective teaching of endoscopy: a qualitative study of the perceptions of gastroenterology fellows and attending gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Zanchetti, Daniel J.; Schueler, Samuel A.; Jacobson, Brian C.; Lowe, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is little information describing the perceptions of gastroenterology fellows and attending gastroenterologists of what constitutes effective teaching of endoscopy. We sought to identify common themes regarding endoscopy training methods and their impact among fellows and attendings. Methods: Focus group exercises and surveys were conducted among fellows, about educational resources, teaching techniques and ways of improving the teaching of endoscopy. The fellows identified the ‘best' teachers of endoscopy, who were interviewed regarding their training in endoscopy, their teaching methods, key points of information, and opinions on endoscopy curriculum. Results: Nineteen fellows (68%) had attended the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy First Year Fellows’ Endoscopy course and found it very helpful. Thirteen fellows(46%) had exposure to an endoscopy simulator, but their median duration of use was only 1 hour. Only two out of five fellowship programs used a formal endoscopic skill assessment tool and none of the programs had an endoscopy curriculum of which the fellows were aware. Fellows reported that they learned endoscopy best by performing procedures. They also volunteered that attending gastroenterologists used variable teaching methods, and might benefit from instruction on how to teach endoscopy. Ten attending gastroenterologists (77%) had received training in advanced procedures; none received formal training on teaching endoscopy: they all felt that such training would be beneficial. Conclusions: A standardized endoscopy curriculum may be beneficial to fellows, who prefer to learn endoscopy by performing procedures—but they want explicit and specific instruction. Both those attending and the fellows thought that formal instruction for attending gastroenterologists on how to teach endoscopy would be beneficial, indicating a role for a ‘teach-the-teacher' curriculum. PMID:27005761

  15. Advice for a career in academic gastroenterology: from fellowship application through job selection and contract negotiations to research and promotion.

    PubMed

    Cappell, M S

    2009-03-01

    This study aims to describe a comprehensive strategy for success in academic gastroenterology by reporting common sense, but mostly previously unpublished, recommendations. The recommendation are based on expert opinion from personal experience mentoring 125 gastroenterology fellows and residents as a program director for nine years and from mentoring research while publishing more than 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals and editing 11 books during a 23-year academic career. Primary criteria for fellowship applicant selection include board scores, clinical performance, interview performance, clinical training, and research productivity. For optimal chances, select the subspecialty of gastroenterology early during residency, consult a mentor, and develop a well-planned strategy. Faculty advancement depends upon publications, grants, national recognition, interpersonal skills, and recommendations. Article categories from highest-to-lowest in prestige are original investigations, review articles, book chapters, case reports, and letters/abstracts. Articles are judged by the prestige of the journal of publication. Resubmit rejected articles to successively less prestigious journals until accepted for publication. Articles in journals without peer-review have negligible career impact. Grant support creates protected time. Institutional reputation is important in academics. Do not accept a job without a written contract. Have a lawyer review your contract. An outside offer strengthens a negotiating position. Be sociable and nonconfrontational at work. Network with colleagues. Seek a mentor. Meet your supervisor regularly for feedback. Never express anger at your boss or patients. Avoid litigation with employers. Sub-subspecialize to develop expertise in one area. Focus on this area in your research and clinical practice. In conclusion, a well-planned strategy can help you achieve a senior academic position early and efficiently. PMID:19212312

  16. Endoscopy nurse as a patient care coordinator: the expanded role of the competent nurse in the gastroenterology setting.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Riitta; Heino, Eila; Meretoja, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Several methods are used to describe and evaluate competence profiles of registered nurses. A clinical ladder program based on P. Benner's (1984; P. Benner et al., 1996) competency framework has been used for 20 years in a Finnish university hospital; to ensure the nurses' strategic competencies and capability profiles, the Nurse Competence Scale (NCS) was developed for the self-assessment and the superiors' review purposes (R. Meretoja, H. Isoaho, & H. Leino-Kilpi, 2004; R. Meretoja, H. Leino-Kilpi, & A. M. Kaira, 2004). In the gastroenterological endoscopy unit, competent nurses' work role has been expanded to the proficient level. These nurses are working as patient care coordinators in multiprofessional groups. This expanded work role requires mastery of nursing care for the gastroenterological patients and also familiarity of the endoscopy processes and the clinical pathways. These endoscopy nurse coordinators' most important work role is the effective management of situations, and they are also remarkable resources as preceptors and mentors to less experienced nurses and nursing students. This article describes endoscopy nurse coordinators' expanded work role and competence profile in the frame of the clinical ladder program. PMID:20010234

  17. [Anaemia and iron deficiency in clinical practice:from cardiology to gastroenterology and beyond].

    PubMed

    Češka, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Anaemia is one of the most common diseases. Worldwide affects up to 25% of the population. Anaemia with iron deficiency (Fe) is the leading one. It is not surprising that iron deficiency mainly affects women. Generally, anaemia is one of the major problems in every department of internal medicine. There is no ambition to provide a comprehensive review of the diagnosis and treatment of anaemia. The aim is to point out the common (but sometimes neglected) facts from daily practice in internal department and on the other hand, to highlight the news in the treatment focusing on parenteral Fe.The importance of anaemia at the department of internal medicine. Mentioned above, anaemia is very frequent in internal medicine. Especially, it is anaemia of Fe deficiency and anaemia of chronic disease. Mostly elderly and polymorbid patients (often with one dominant, sometimes cryptogenic disease) suffer from anaemia. I am concern about the fact that anaemia is often seen only as a sign of other disease and usually is not the target of diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.Diagnosis and treatment. The internal department physician is responsible for patient care, but cooperates with haematologist in case of severe anaemia in diagnostic and therapeutic process. Basic examination contains analysis of Fe, ferritin, transferrin, circulating serum transferrin receptors or other parameters. Of course, the focus in iron deficiency anaemia is on its possible loss or in case of chronic disease anaemia on primary disease.Notes to Fe treatment. If the patient has iron deficiency the Fe treatment is often indicated (after finding the cause). Iron is administered orally in most cases. There are several situations when parenteral Fe is not only preferable, but also represents the only therapeutic option. Currently, the best evidence for the positive effects is observed in parenterally administered Fe ferric carboxymaltose, Ferinject.Parenteral administration of Fe in gastroenterology

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease nurses in Canada: An examination of Canadian gastroenterology nurses and their role in inflammatory bowel disease care

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, Jennifer G; Currie, Barbara K; Chauhan, Usha K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing illness primarily including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The disease course often fluctuates over time, and requires maintenance therapy and acute interventions to target disease flares. IBD management requires a multidisciplinary approach, with care from physicians, nurses, dieticians, social workers and psychologists. Because nurses play a pivotal role in managing chronic disease, the aim of the present study was to assess and determine how many nurses work primarily with IBD patients in Canada. METHODS: A 29-question survey was developed using an Internet-based survey tool (www.surveymonkey.com) to investigate nursing demographics, IBD nursing roles and nursing services provided across Canada. Distribution included the Canadian Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology, Progress (AbbVie Corporation, USA) and BioAdvance (Janssen Inc, USA) coordinators (via e-mail), and online availability for 15 weeks. RESULTS: Of 275 survey respondents, 98.2% were female nurses, with 68.7% employed in full-time positions. Among them, 42.5% were between 51 and 60 years of age, and 32.4% were between 41 and 50 years of age. In addition, 53.8% were diploma-prepared registered nurses, 35.3% were Baccalaureate-prepared nurses and 4.4% were Masters-prepared nurses. Almost one-half (44% [n=121]) were employed in Ontario, followed by 19.6% (n=54) in Alberta and 9.1% (n=25) in British Columbia. All provinces were represented with the exception of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Forty-three per cent (n=119) of nurses identified as working in endoscopy units. Of the 90% who responded as working with IBD patients, only 30% (n=79) had a primary role in IBD care. Among these 79 nurses with a primary role in IBD care, 79.7% worked with the adult population, 10.1% with the pediatric population, and 10.1% worked with both adult and pediatric patients

  19. Association between Gastroenterological Malignancy and Diabetes Mellitus and Anti-Diabetic Therapy: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ming; Huang, Hui-Ling; Chu, Fang-Ying; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chen, Hung-An; Chu, Der-Ming; Wu, Li-Wei; Wang, Chung-Ching; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer incidence has been evaluated in limited kinds of cancer. The effect of anti-diabetic therapy (ADT) on carcinogenesis among diabetic patients is also unclear. Materials and Methods Using population-based representative insurance claims data in Taiwan, 36,270 DM patients and 145,080 comparison subjects without DM were identified from claims from 2005 to 2010. The association between the top ten leading causes of cancer-related death in Taiwan and DM was evaluated. Whether ADT altered the risk of developing cancer was also investigated. Results Incidence of cancer at any site was significantly higher in patients with DM than in those without (p<0.001). The risk of carcinogenesis imparted by DM was greatest in gastroenterological malignancies (liver, pancreas, and colorectal cancer) as well as lung, breast and oral cancer (p<0.001). Among the oral types of ADT, metformin decreased the risk of lung and liver cancer, but had less effect on reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. α-glucosidase inhibitor decreased the risk of developing liver, colorectal, and breast cancer. Apart from intermediate-acting insulin, rapid-acting, long-acting, and combination insulin treatment significantly reduced the overall cancer risk among all DM patients. In subgroup analysis, long-acting insulin treatment significantly decreased the risk of lung, liver, and colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our results supported the notion that pre-existing DM increases the incidence of gastroenterological cancer. ADT, especially metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitor, and long-acting insulin treatment, may protect patients with DM against these malignancies. It is crucial that oncologists should closely collaborate with endocrinologists to provide an optimal cancer-specific therapy and diabetic treatment to patients simultaneously with cancer and DM. PMID:25978841

  20. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and the multidimensional approach. A new look at the older patient with gastroenterological disorders.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Alberto; Addante, Filomena; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional, usually interdisciplinary, diagnostic process intended to determine an elderly person's medical, psychosocial, and functional capacity and problems with the objective of developing an overall plan for treatment and short- and long-term follow-up. The potential usefulness of the CGA in evaluating treatment and follow-up of older patients with gastroenterological disorders is unknown. In the paper we reported the efficacy of a Multidimensional-Prognostic Index (MPI), calculated from information collected by a standardized CGA, in predicting mortality risk in older patients hospitalized with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and liver cirrhosis. Patients underwent a CGA that included six standardized scales, i.e. Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Short-Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Score (ESS) and Comorbity Index Rating Scale (CIRS), as well as information on medication history and cohabitation, for a total of 63 items. The MPI was calculated from the integrated total scores and expressed as MPI 1=low risk, MPI 2=moderate risk and MPI 3=severe risk of mortality. Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher short- and long-term mortality in older patients with both upper gastrointestinal bleeding and liver cirrhosis. A close agreement was found between the estimated mortality by MPI and the observed mortality. Moreover, MPI seems to have a greater discriminatory power than organ-specific prognostic indices such as Rockall and Blatchford scores (in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients) and Child-Plugh score (in liver cirrhosis patients). All these findings support the concept that a multidimensional approach may be appropriate for the evaluation of older patients with gastroenterological disorders, like it has been reported for patients with other pathological conditions. PMID

  1. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and the multidimensional approach. A new look at the older patient with gastroenterological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Addante, Filomena; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional, usually interdisciplinary, diagnostic process intended to determine an elderly person's medical, psychosocial, and functional capacity and problems with the objective of developing an overall plan for treatment and short- and long-term follow-up. The potential usefulness of the CGA in evaluating treatment and follow-up of older patients with gastroenterological disorders is unknown. In the paper we reported the efficacy of a Multidimensional-Prognostic Index (MPI), calculated from information collected by a standardized CGA, in predicting mortality risk in older patients hospitalized with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and liver cirrhosis. Patients underwent a CGA that included six standardized scales, i.e. Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Short-Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Score (ESS) and Comorbity Index Rating Scale (CIRS), as well as information on medication history and cohabitation, for a total of 63 items. The MPI was calculated from the integrated total scores and expressed as MPI 1 = low risk, MPI 2 = moderate risk and MPI 3 = severe risk of mortality. Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher short- and long-term mortality in older patients with both upper gastrointestinal bleeding and liver cirrhosis. A close agreement was found between the estimated mortality by MPI and the observed mortality. Moreover, MPI seems to have a greater discriminatory power than organ-specific prognostic indices such as Rockall and Blatchford scores (in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients) and Child-Plugh score (in liver cirrhosis patients). All these findings support the concept that a multidimensional approach may be appropriate for the evaluation of older patients with gastroenterological disorders, like it has been reported for patients with other pathological conditions

  2. Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, C; Buonocore, G; Carnielli, V P; De Curtis, M; Darmaun, D; Decsi, T; Domellöf, M; Embleton, N D; Fusch, C; Genzel-Boroviczeny, O; Goulet, O; Kalhan, S C; Kolacek, S; Koletzko, B; Lapillonne, A; Mihatsch, W; Moreno, L; Neu, J; Poindexter, B; Puntis, J; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Riskin, A; Salle, B; Sauer, P; Shamir, R; Szajewska, H; Thureen, P; Turck, D; van Goudoever, J B; Ziegler, E E

    2010-01-01

    The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the previous guideline on nutrition of preterm infants from the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in 1987 has made a new guideline necessary. Thus, an ad hoc expert panel was convened by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition in 2007 to make appropriate recommendations. The present guideline, of which the major recommendations are summarised here (for the full report, see http://links.lww.com/A1480), is consistent with, but not identical to, recent guidelines from the Life Sciences Research Office of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences published in 2002 and recommendations from the handbook Nutrition of the Preterm Infant. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed, edited by Tsang et al, and published in 2005. The preferred food for premature infants is fortified human milk from the infant's own mother, or, alternatively, formula designed for premature infants. This guideline aims to provide proposed advisable ranges for nutrient intakes for stable-growing preterm infants up to a weight of approximately 1800 g, because most data are available for these infants. These recommendations are based on a considered review of available scientific reports on the subject, and on expert consensus for which the available scientific data are considered inadequate. PMID:19881390

  3. Commonly used preparations for colonoscopy: Efficacy, tolerability and safety – A Canadian Association of Gastroenterology position paper

    PubMed Central

    Barkun, Alan; Chiba, Naoki; Enns, Robert; Marcon, Margaret; Natsheh, Susan; Pham, Co; Sadowski, Dan; Vanner, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased demand for colonoscopy, coupled with the introduction of new bowel cleansing preparations and recent caution advisories in Canada, has prompted a review of bowel preparations by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. METHODS: The present review was conducted by the Clinical Affairs group of committees including the endoscopy, hepatobiliary/transplant, liaison, pediatrics, practice affairs and regional representation committees, along with the assistance of Canadian experts in the field. An effort was made to systematically assess randomized prospective trials evaluating commonly used bowel cleansing preparations in Canada. RESULTS: Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-; sodium phosphate (NaP)-; magnesium citrate (Mg-citrate)-; and sodium picosulphate, citric acid and magnesium oxide (PSMC)-containing preparations were reviewed. Regimens of PEG 2 L with bisacodyl (10 mg to 20 mg) or Mg-citrate (296 mL) are as effective as standard PEG 4 L regimens, but are better tolerated. NaP preparations appear more effective and better tolerated than standard PEG solutions. PSMC has good efficacy and tolerability but head-to-head trials with NaP solutions remain few, and conclusions equivocal. Adequate hydration during preparation and up to the time of colonoscopy is critical in minimizing side effects and improving bowel cleansing in patients receiving NaP and PSMC preparations. All preparations may cause adverse events, including rare, serious outcomes. NaP should not be used in patients with cardiac or renal dysfunction (PEG solution is preferable in these patients), bowel obstruction or ascites, and caution should be exercised when used in patients with pre-existing electrolyte disturbances, those taking medications that may affect electrolyte levels and elderly or debilitated patients. Health Canada’s recommended NaP dosing for most patients is two 45 mL doses 24 h apart. However, both safety and efficacy data on this dosing schedule are lacking

  4. A Saudi Gastroenterology Association Position Statement on the Use of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa Antagonists for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Al-Harbi, Othman; Feagan, Brian G.; Almadi, Majid A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this position statement from the Saudi Gastroenterology Association is to guide gastroenterologists on the use of tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) antagonists for the treatment of the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. In this article, we summarize the relevant literature regarding the safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists, highlight relevant safety concerns specific to the environment in Saudi Arabia, and provide specific recommendations for the use of these agents. PMID:26228361

  5. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections. PMID:25015124

  6. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  7. [Uses in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Díaz Martín, Juan J; González Jiménez, David

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, publications on probiotics have increased exponentially. However they usually are heterogeneous, use diverse strains and doses, and different outcomes, making it difficult to generalize their results. On the basis of the currently available literature, the use of probiotics is supported in the following diseases: acute diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel disease (particularly pouchitis). This paper provides an update of the potential role of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases, in both pediatric and adult patients. PMID:25659050

  8. American College of Gastroenterology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Website Patient Assistance Programs Practice Management Practice Management From articles to educational programs, ACG provides you ... Navigating, Networking and Negotiating Your First Job Practice Management Insights Ralph McKibbin, MD, FACG on Opportunities in ...

  9. Elementary School Technology Education. 46th Yearbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J., Ed.; Foster, Patrick N., Ed.

    This yearbook explores the relationship between elementary school technology education (ESTE) and the traditional subjects of the curriculum, reports on methods of ESTE implementation, and describes roles of teacher preparation and inservice professional development activities for promoting ESTE. Contents include an introductory chapter; 11…

  10. Biosimilar medicines – their use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Position statement of the Working Group of the Polish National Consultant in Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Mularczyk, Aldona; Gonciarz, Maciej; Bartnik, Witold; Durlik, Marek; Eder, Piotr; Gąsiorowska, Anita; Linke, Krzysztof; Łodyga, Michał; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Pawlik, Magdalena; Radwan, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Biological medical products are drugs whose active components are produced only by living, genetically modified organisms or live cell cultures. Patents and exclusivity for most biopharmaceuticals has either expired or will expire soon, which enables biotechnological companies to introduce similar biological products. The problem of replacing a biological medicine with a biosimilar in the course of therapy remains open. In this statement, the Working Group of the Polish National Consultant in Gastroenterology, in the absence of data regarding bioequivalence in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, does not recommend switching from original biological medicine to its biosimilar analogue in the course of treatment in inflammatory disease patients; however, this may change after receiving the results of controlled studies regarding bioequivalence in this group. PMID:24868291

  11. Biosimilar medicines - their use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Position statement of the Working Group of the Polish National Consultant in Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Mularczyk, Aldona; Gonciarz, Maciej; Bartnik, Witold; Durlik, Marek; Eder, Piotr; Gąsiorowska, Anita; Linke, Krzysztof; Lodyga, Michał; Lykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Pawlik, Magdalena; Radwan, Piotr; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Biological medical products are drugs whose active components are produced only by living, genetically modified organisms or live cell cultures. Patents and exclusivity for most biopharmaceuticals has either expired or will expire soon, which enables biotechnological companies to introduce similar biological products. The problem of replacing a biological medicine with a biosimilar in the course of therapy remains open. In this statement, the Working Group of the Polish National Consultant in Gastroenterology, in the absence of data regarding bioequivalence in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, does not recommend switching from original biological medicine to its biosimilar analogue in the course of treatment in inflammatory disease patients; however, this may change after receiving the results of controlled studies regarding bioequivalence in this group. PMID:24868291

  12. Quality indicators for the management of Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma: international consensus recommendations from the American Gastroenterological Association Symposium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prateek; Katzka, David A; Gupta, Neil; Ajani, Jaffer; Buttar, Navtej; Chak, Amitabh; Corley, Douglas; El-Serag, Hashem; Falk, Gary W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Goldblum, John; Gress, Frank; Ilson, David H; Inadomi, John M; Kuipers, Ernest J; Lynch, John P; McKeon, Frank; Metz, David; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Pech, Oliver; Peek, Richard; Peters, Jeffrey H; Repici, Alessandro; Seewald, Stefan; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart J; Vennalaganti, Prashanth; Wang, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The development of and adherence to quality indicators in gastroenterology, as in all of medicine, is increasing in importance to ensure that patients receive consistent high-quality care. In addition, government-based and private insurers will be expecting documentation of the parameters by which we measure quality, which will likely affect reimbursements. Barrett's esophagus remains a particularly important disease entity for which we should maintain up-to-date guidelines, given its commonality, potentially lethal outcomes, and controversies regarding screening and surveillance. To achieve this goal, a relatively large group of international experts was assembled and, using the modified Delphi method, evaluated the validity of multiple candidate quality indicators for the diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus. Several candidate quality indicators achieved >80% agreement. These statements are intended to serve as a consensus on candidate quality indicators for those who treat patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:26296479

  13. Quality Indicators for the Management of Barrett’s Esophagus, Dysplasia, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: International Consensus Recommendations from the American Gastroenterological Association Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prateek; Katzka, David A.; Gupta, Neil; Ajani, Jaffer; Buttar, Navtej; Chak, Amitabh; Corley, Douglas; El-Serag, Hashem; Falk, Gary W.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Goldblum, John; Gress, Frank; Ilson, David H.; Inadomi, John M.; Kuipers, Ernest J.; Lynch, John P.; McKeon, Frank; Metz, David; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Pech, Oliver; Peek, Richard; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Repici, Alessandro; Seewald, Stefan; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart J.; Vennalaganti, Prashanth; Wang, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The development of and adherence to quality indicators in gastroenterology, as in all of medicine, is increasing in importance to ensure that patients receive consistent high-quality care. In addition, government-based and private insurers will be expecting documentation of the parameters by which we measure quality, which will likely affect reimbursements. Barrett’s esophagus remains a particularly important disease entity for which we should maintain up-to-date guidelines, given its commonality, potentially lethal outcomes, and controversies regarding screening and surveillance. To achieve this goal, a relatively large group of international experts was assembled and, using the modified Delphi method, evaluated the validity of multiple candidate quality indicators for the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Several candidate quality indicators achieved >80% agreement. These statements are intended to serve as a consensus on candidate quality indicators for those who treat patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:26296479

  14. British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctologists of Great Britain and Ireland guidelines for the management of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Matthew D; Chattree, Amit; Barbour, Jamie A; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Bhandari, Pradeep; Saunders, Brian P; Veitch, Andrew M; Anderson, John; Rembacken, Bjorn J; Loughrey, Maurice B; Pullan, Rupert; Garrett, William V; Lewis, Gethin; Dolwani, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide an evidence-based framework for the management of patients with large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs), in addition to identifying key performance indicators (KPIs) that permit the audit of quality outcomes. These are areas not previously covered by British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) Guidelines. A National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) compliant BSG guideline development process was used throughout and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool was used to structure the guideline development process. A systematic review of literature was conducted for English language articles up to May 2014 concerning the assessment and management of LNPCPs. Quality of evaluated studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist System. Proposed recommendation statements were evaluated by each member of the Guideline Development Group (GDG) on a scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) with >80% agreement required for consensus to be reached. Where consensus was not reached a modified Delphi process was used to re-evaluate and modify proposed statements until consensus was reached or the statement discarded. A round table meeting was subsequently held to finalise recommendations and to evaluate the strength of evidence discussed. The GRADE tool was used to assess the strength of evidence and strength of recommendation for finalised statements. KPIs, a training framework and potential research questions for the management of LNPCPs were also developed. It is hoped that these guidelines will improve the assessment and management of LNPCPs. PMID:26104751

  15. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  16. British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctologists of Great Britain and Ireland guidelines for the management of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Matthew D; Chattree, Amit; Barbour, Jamie A; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Bhandari, Pradeep; Saunders, Brian P; Veitch, Andrew M; Anderson, John; Rembacken, Bjorn J; Loughrey, Maurice B; Pullan, Rupert; Garrett, William V; Lewis, Gethin; Dolwani, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide an evidence-based framework for the management of patients with large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs), in addition to identifying key performance indicators (KPIs) that permit the audit of quality outcomes. These are areas not previously covered by British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) Guidelines.A National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) compliant BSG guideline development process was used throughout and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool was used to structure the guideline development process. A systematic review of literature was conducted for English language articles up to May 2014 concerning the assessment and management of LNPCPs. Quality of evaluated studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist System. Proposed recommendation statements were evaluated by each member of the Guideline Development Group (GDG) on a scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) with >80% agreement required for consensus to be reached. Where consensus was not reached a modified Delphi process was used to re-evaluate and modify proposed statements until consensus was reached or the statement discarded. A round table meeting was subsequently held to finalise recommendations and to evaluate the strength of evidence discussed. The GRADE tool was used to assess the strength of evidence and strength of recommendation for finalised statements.KPIs, a training framework and potential research questions for the management of LNPCPs were also developed. It is hoped that these guidelines will improve the assessment and management of LNPCPs. PMID:26104751

  17. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies. PMID:26518317

  18. Endoscopy in patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, including direct oral anticoagulants: British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Veitch, Andrew M; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Gershlick, Anthony H; Boustiere, Christian; Baglin, Trevor P; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Radaelli, Franco; Knight, Evelyn; Gralnek, Ian M; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The risk of endoscopy in patients on antithrombotics depends on the risks of procedural haemorrhage versus thrombosis due to discontinuation of therapy. P2Y12 receptor antagonists (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we recommend continuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists as single or dual antiplatelet therapy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at low thrombotic risk, we recommend discontinuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists five days before the procedure (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). In patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, we suggest continuing aspirin (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at high thrombotic risk, we recommend continuing aspirin and liaising with a cardiologist about the risk/benefit of discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (high quality evidence, strong recommendation). Warfarin The advice for warfarin is fundamentally unchanged from British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) 2008 guidance. Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we suggest omitting the morning dose of DOAC on the day of the procedure (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures, we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken ≥48 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). For patients on dabigatran with CrCl (or estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of 30–50 mL/min we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken 72 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). In any patient with rapidly deteriorating renal function a haematologist should be consulted (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). PMID:26873868

  19. Celiac Disease in Patients Fulfilling the Rome III Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Attending Gastroenterology Department of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M K; Chakraborty, R; Gope, S; Rahman, M A; Miah, A R; Raihan, A S; Sarkar, S; Paul, B K; Ferdousi, K R

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that substantially affects patients' quality of life and is associated with a considerable drain of health-care resources and economic burden. But some IBS patients may have celiac disease that could be treated by gluten-free diet which will subsequently improve their quality of life. This study was done to see the prevalence of celiac disease among the IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at BSMMU, Dhaka from July 2010 to September 2011. A total of 107 patients aged ranging between 16-60 years clinically labeled as IBS and fulfilled Rome III criteria were included as study sample. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics. The mean age of the patients was 31.5±10.3 years and male to female ratio was roughly 6:1. The mean duration of IBS was 32.0±2.1 months. All of the patients had abdominal discomfort or pain in the preceding 6 months and had a history of loose (mushy) or watery stool, 99.1% had pain or discomfort relieved with defaecation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was found in 78.5% and mixed 21.5% of the patients. About 5% of the patients had raised ESR and majority (86.9%) of the patients had normal level of hemoglobin. Ten (9%) of 107 patients were found positive for anti-t TG (IgA). These findings suggest that an around one-tenth of IBS especially diarrhoea predominant patients may have celiac disease who will respond to simple gluten-free diet thus minimizing the morbidity and mortality. So, all clinically diagnosed IBS patients especially diarrhoea predominant cases should be suggested for the screening for celiac disease. PMID:26931258

  20. Consensus on the Prevention, Screening, Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Tumors in China: Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, October 14-15, 2011, Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing-Yuan; Zheng, Shu; Jiang, Bo; Lai, Mao-De; Fang, Dian-Chun; Han, Ying; Sheng, Qian-Jiu; Li, Jing-Nan; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Gao, Qin-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is steadily increasing in China. Colorectal adenoma (CRA) is the most important precancerous disease of CRC. Screening for colorectal tumors can aid early diagnosis. Advances in endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection can aid the early treatment of colorectal tumors. Furthermore, because of high risk of recurrence after removal of adenomas under endoscopy, factors contributing to recurrence, the follow-up mode and the interval established, and the feasibility of application and the time of various chemical preventions should be concerned. However, a relevant consensus on the screening, early diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of colorectal tumors in China is lacking. Summary The consensus recommendations include epidemiology, pathology, screening, early diagnosis, endoscopic treatment, monitoring and follow-up, and chemoprevention of colorectal tumors in China. Key Message This is the first consensus on the prevention, screening, early diagnosis and treatment of CRA and CRC in China based on evidence in the literature and on local data. Practical Implications Through reviewing the literature, regional data and passing the consensus by an anonymous vote, gastroenterology experts from all over China launch the consensus recommendations in Shanghai. The incidence and mortality of CRC in China has increased, and the incidence or detection rate of CRA has increased rapidly. Screening for colorectal tumors should be performed at age 50-74 years. Preliminary screening should be undertaken to find persons at high risk, followed by colonoscopy. A screening cycle of 3 years is recommended for persistent interventions. Opportunistic screening is a mode suitable for the current healthcare system and national situation. Colonoscopy combined with pathological examination is the standard method for the diagnosis of colorectal tumors. CRA removal under endoscopy can prevent CRC to some extent, but CRA has an obvious

  1. Clinical Genetic Testing in Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Russell P; Chung, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in genetics have led to an increased understanding of the genetic determinants of human disease, including many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Coupled with a proliferation of genetic testing services, this has resulted in a clinical landscape where commercially available genetic tests for GI disorders are now widely available. In this review, we discuss the current status of clinical genetic testing for GI illnesses, review the available testing options, and briefly discuss indications for and practical aspects of such testing. Our goal is to familiarize the practicing gastroenterologist with this rapidly changing and important aspect of clinical care. PMID:27124700

  2. Cytokeratins in gastroenterology. Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Marek; Groszewski, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Małgorzata; Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Keratins are proteins that form intermediate filaments of epithelial cell cytoskeleton. The utility of keratin expression determination is based on the fact that epithelial cells acquire a specific pattern of keratin expression during differentiation and maturation, which reflects the specificity of the tissue and the degree of maturation, and generally remains stable during carcinogenesis. Determination of the pattern makes it possible to identify the origin of cells in diagnosing neoplastic lesions as well as in research on pathophysiology or the possibility to apply keratin-positive cell detection in the process of cancer staging and treatment planning. As keratins undergo degradation during apoptosis as caspase substrate the identification of the caspase-derived K18 fragment by the use of specific monoclonal antibody allows us to estimate the apoptosis/necrosis ratio, especially in liver pathology, e.g. nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic hepatitis or graft-versus-host disease or in assessing response to antiviral or antitumour therapy. PMID:26557935

  3. Cytokeratins in gastroenterology. Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Groszewski, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Małgorzata; Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Keratins are proteins that form intermediate filaments of epithelial cell cytoskeleton. The utility of keratin expression determination is based on the fact that epithelial cells acquire a specific pattern of keratin expression during differentiation and maturation, which reflects the specificity of the tissue and the degree of maturation, and generally remains stable during carcinogenesis. Determination of the pattern makes it possible to identify the origin of cells in diagnosing neoplastic lesions as well as in research on pathophysiology or the possibility to apply keratin-positive cell detection in the process of cancer staging and treatment planning. As keratins undergo degradation during apoptosis as caspase substrate the identification of the caspase-derived K18 fragment by the use of specific monoclonal antibody allows us to estimate the apoptosis/necrosis ratio, especially in liver pathology, e.g. nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic hepatitis or graft-versus-host disease or in assessing response to antiviral or antitumour therapy. PMID:26557935

  4. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  5. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  6. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome—Position Paper of the Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver, Endocrine Society of India, Indian College of Cardiology and Indian Society of Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Duseja, Ajay; Singh, Shivaram P.; Saraswat, Vivek A.; Acharya, Subrat K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Dhiman, Radha K.; Jayakumar, Rohinivilasam V.; Madan, Kaushal; Misra, Sri P.; Mishra, Hrudananda; Modi, Sunil K.; Muruganathan, Arumugam; Saboo, Banshi; Sahay, Rakesh; Upadhyay, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. is rapidly increasing in India putting this population at risk for NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD are at increased risk for liver-related morbidity and mortality and also cardiovascular disease risk and increased incidence of diabetes mellitus on long-term follow-up. Management of patients with NAFLD may require a multi-disciplinary approach involving not only the hepatologists but also the internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists. This position paper which is a combined effort of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver (INASL), Endocrine Society of India (ESI), Indian College of Cardiology (ICC) and the Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) defines the spectrum of NAFLD and the association of NAFLD with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome besides suggesting preferred approaches for the diagnosis and management of patients with NAFLD in the Indian context. PMID:25941433

  7. 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  8. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  9. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  10. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  11. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. For the first time, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) is presented as a shorter edition under a newly adopted two-year release cycle. With this approach, full editions and shorter editions of the AEO will be produced in alternating years. This approach will allow EIA to focus more resources on rapidly changing energy markets both in the United States and internationally, and to consider how they might evolve over the next few years.

  12. Provision of gastrointestinal endoscopy and related services for a district general hospital. Working Party of the Clinical Services Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    (1) The number of endoscopic examinations performed is rising. Epidemiological data and the workload of well developed units show that annual requirements per head of population are approaching: Upper gastrointestinal 1 in 100 Flexible sigmoidoscopy 1 in 500 Colonoscopy 1 in 500 ERCP 1 in 2000 (2) Open access endoscopy to general practitioners is desirable and increasingly sought. For a district general hospital serving a population of 250,000, this workload entails about 3500 procedures annually, performed during 10 half day routine sessions plus emergency work. (3) High standards of training and experience are needed by all staff, who must work in purpose built accommodation designed to promote efficient and safe practice. (4) The endoscopy unit should be adjacent to day care facilities and near the x ray department. There should be easy access to wards. (5) An endoscopy unit needs at least two endoscopy rooms; a fully ventilated cleaning/disinfection area; rooms for patient reception, preparation, and recovery; and accommodation for administration, storage, and staff amenities. (6) The service should be consultant based. At least 10 clinical sessions are required, made up of six or more consultant sessions and two to four clinical assistant, hospital practitioner, or staff specialist sessions. Each consultant should be expected to commit at least two sessions weekly to endoscopy. Extra consultant sessions may be needed to provide an efficient service. (7) A specially trained nursing sister (grade G or H) and five other endoscopy nurses are needed to care for the patients; their work may be supplemented by care assistants. (8) A new post of endoscopy department assistant (analogous to an operating department assistant) is proposed to maintain and prepare instruments, and to give technical assistance during procedures. (9) A full time secretary should be employed. Records, appointments, and audit should be computer based. (10) ERCP needs the collaboration of an

  13. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Sandra C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual guide to income tax for parents of children with disabilities covers organizing records; avoiding audits; deducting medical expenses; and considering the impact of recent changes in medical expenses, Social Security numbers for children, child care, earned income credit, and deduction for dependents. (DB)

  14. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  15. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  16. Annual Research Briefs - 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the 1996 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research. Last year, CTR hosted twelve resident Postdoctoral Fellows, three Research Associates, four Senior Research Fellows, and supported one doctoral student and ten short term visitors.

  17. UNICEF Annual Report, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, N.Y.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) details the programs and services provided by this organization in 1994. Following an overview of the year and a remembrance of former UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant, the report describes developments in seven world regions and in specific emergency countries. The report…

  18. UNICEF Annual Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) details the programs and services provided by this organization in 1992-93. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report briefly reviews UNICEF activities for 1992, then describes specific projects in the following areas: (1) child survival and development;…

  19. UNICEF Annual Report, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) describes the programs and services provided by this organization in 1993. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report reviews regional developments in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Latin…

  20. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  1. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1999-01-01

    This 1999 issue of the "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "The Unmade Analogy: Alcohol and Abortion" (Richard W. Leeman); "Say, You Want a Revolution" (Roy Schwartzman and Constance Y. Green); "Exploring the Relationship between Perceived Narrativity and Persuasiveness" (Richard Olsen and Rodney A. Reynolds); "In…

  2. UNICEF Annual Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    At this time, the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) is commemorating its 50th anniversary, under the slogan "children first." This annual UNICEF report reviews the organization's activities during 1995. An introduction by the executive director states that the report will give readers a sense of what UNICEF is doing with partners to rise to…

  3. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  4. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  5. UNICEF Annual Report 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In introducing this annual report, the executive director of UNICEF delineates the four techniques for primary health care and basic services reported in the publication "State of the World's Children, 1982-1983." The ensuing review of UNICEF's activities illustrates highlights of the year's program cooperation, including trends and key events, by…

  6. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  7. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  8. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  9. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  10. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

  11. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  12. NRCC annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer.

  13. UNICEF Annual Report. 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report reviews the work UNICEF has been doing to help transform the "Child Survival Revolution" from a dream into a reality. Discussion focuses primarily on child health and nutrition and other basic services for children. Throughout, the review is supplemented with profiles of program initiatives made to improve the conditions of the…

  14. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  15. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The annual income tax guide is designed to familiarize parents with the tax laws that specifically affect persons with disabilities and their families. Summarized are the changes for 1988 as well as guidelines for itemized deductions, tax credits, and the deduction for dependents. (DB)

  16. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hules , John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  17. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  18. Annual Energy Review 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  19. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  20. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  1. NERSC 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  2. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) focus on the factors expected to shape U.S. energy markets through 2040. The projections provide a basis for examination and discussion of energy market trends and serve as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in U.S. energy policies, rules, and regulations, as well as the potential role of advanced technologies.

  4. 2008 annual merit review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  5. NSLS annual report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  6. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  7. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  8. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap. PMID:24399212

  9. Annual research briefs, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the 1989 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows of the Center for Turbulence Research. It is intended as a year end report to NASA, Ames Research Center which supports this group through core funding and by making available physical and intellectual resources. The Center for Turbulence Research is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flows; its objectives are to simulate advances in the physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control. The reports appearing in the following pages are grouped in the general areas of modeling, experimental research, theory, simulation and numerical methods, and compressible and reacting flows.

  10. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  12. Annual Research Briefs, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulent Research (CTR) are included. It is intended primarily as a contractor report to NASA, Ames Research Center. In addition, numerous CTR Manuscript Reports were published last year. The purpose of the CTR Manuscript Series is to expedite the dissemination of research results by the CTR staff. The CTR is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flow; its objectives are to produce advances in physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  14. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  15. Annual Energy Review 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  16. Annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This is the eighth annual report submitted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to Congress. It covers activities and expenditures during Fiscal Year 1991, which ended September 30, 1991. Chapter 1 of this report describes OCRWM`s mission and objectives. Chapters 2 through 8 cover the following topics: earning public trust and confidence; geological disposal; monitored retrieval storage; transportation; systems integration and regulatory compliance; international programs; and program management. Financial statements for the Nuclear Waste Fund are presented in Chapter 9.

  17. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  18. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  19. 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2006 Annual Merit Review, held May 16-19, 2006 in Arlington, Va., showcased approximately 250 projects. Principal investigators presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations, which are available in the 2006 Annual Merit Review Proceedings. A panel of more than 150 community experts peer reviewed two-t

  20. CMS Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rubia, T D; Shang, S P; Rennie, G; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C

    2005-07-29

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes.

  1. Annual Energy Review 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  2. Annual Energy Review 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  3. Annual Energy Review 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  4. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  5. Annual Energy Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  7. Annual Energy Review 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  8. Annual Energy Review 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  9. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Annual energy review 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  11. Annual Research Briefs, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the 1992 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research. Considerable effort was focused on the large eddy simulation technique for computing turbulent flows. This increased activity has been inspired by the recent predictive successes of the dynamic subgrid scale modeling procedure which was introduced during the 1990 Summer Program. Several Research Fellows and students are presently engaged in both the development of subgrid scale models and their applications to complex flows. The first group of papers in this report contain the findings of these studies. They are followed by reports grouped in the general areas of modeling, turbulence physics, and turbulent reacting flows. The last contribution in this report outlines the progress made on the development of the CTR post-processing facility.

  12. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  13. Annual energy review 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as 'electric power industry' data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA's International Energy Annual).

  14. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  15. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  16. 2005 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2005 Annual Merit Review was held May 23-25, 2005 in Arlington, VA

  17. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  18. 1994 MCAP annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, S.C.; Boyack, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report.

  19. Annual Energy Review 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  20. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  1. Annual Energy Review 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  2. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  3. Annual Research Briefs: 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the 1995 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR). In 1995 CTR continued its concentration on the development and application of large-eddy simulation to complex flows, development of novel modeling concepts for engineering computations in the Reynolds averaged framework, and turbulent combustion. In large-eddy simulation, a number of numerical and experimental issues have surfaced which are being addressed. The first group of reports in this volume are on large-eddy simulation. A key finding in this area was the revelation of possibly significant numerical errors that may overwhelm the effects of the subgrid-scale model. We also commissioned a new experiment to support the LES validation studies. The remaining articles in this report are concerned with Reynolds averaged modeling, studies of turbulence physics and flow generated sound, combustion, and simulation techniques. Fundamental studies of turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations which started at CTR will continue to be emphasized. These studies and their counterparts carried out during the summer programs have had a noticeable impact on combustion research world wide.

  4. Annual Energy Review 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  5. LLNL NESHAPs 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K R

    2005-06-27

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  6. 2007 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2007 Annual Merit Review, held May 15-18, 2007 in Washington, D.C., showcased approximately 300 projects. Hydrogen and fuel cell principal investigators representing the offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science presented their project status and results in oral and poster presen

  7. 2008 Annual Merit Review Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Each year hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. The 2008 Annual Merit Review, held June 9-13, 2008 in Arlington, Va., showcased nearly 300 projects. Hydrogen and fuel cell principal investigators representing the offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science presented their project status and results in oral and poster presentations,

  8. Annual energy review 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherin E.

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  9. 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P; Walter, K

    2006-03-31

    As the cover of our ''2005 Annual Report'' highlights, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory joined the international science community in celebrating the World Year of Physics in 2005, with special events and science outreach and education programs. Einstein's remarkable discoveries in 1905 provided an opportunity to reflect on how physics has changed the world during the last century and on the promise of future beneficial discoveries. For half of the past century, Lawrence Livermore, which was established to meet an urgent national security need, has been contributing to the advancement of science and technology in a very special way. Co-founder Ernest O. Lawrence was the leading proponent in his generation of large-scale, multidisciplinary science and technology teams. That's Livermore's distinctive heritage and our continuing approach as a national laboratory managed and operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). We focus on important problems that affect our nation's security and seek breakthrough advances in science and technology to achieve mission goals. An event in 2005 exemplifies our focus on science and technology advances in support of mission goals. In October, distinguished visitors came to Livermore to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, or ASC). ASC was launched in 1995 by DOE/NNSA to achieve a million-fold increase in computing power in a decade. The goal was motivated by the need to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a nuclear weapon in sufficient resolution and with the appropriately detailed physics models included. This mission-driven goal is a key part of fulfilling Livermore's foremost responsibility to ensure that the nuclear weapons in the nation's smaller 21st-century stockpile remain safe, reliable, and secure.

  10. Annual Research Briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the 1997 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR). Titles include: Invariant modeling in large-eddy simulation of turbulence; Validation of large-eddy simulation in a plain asymmetric diffuser; Progress in large-eddy simulation of trailing-edge turbulence and aeronautics; Resolution requirements in large-eddy simulations of shear flows; A general theory of discrete filtering for LES in complex geometry; On the use of discrete filters for large eddy simulation; Wall models in large eddy simulation of separated flow; Perspectives for ensemble average LES; Anisotropic grid-based formulas for subgrid-scale models; Some modeling requirements for wall models in large eddy simulation; Numerical simulation of 3D turbulent boundary layers using the V2F model; Accurate modeling of impinging jet heat transfer; Application of turbulence models to high-lift airfoils; Advances in structure-based turbulence modeling; Incorporating realistic chemistry into direct numerical simulations of turbulent non-premixed combustion; Effects of small-scale structure on turbulent mixing; Turbulent premixed combustion in the laminar flamelet and the thin reaction zone regime; Large eddy simulation of combustion instabilities in turbulent premixed burners; On the generation of vorticity at a free-surface; Active control of turbulent channel flow; A generalized framework for robust control in fluid mechanics; Combined immersed-boundary/B-spline methods for simulations of flow in complex geometries; and DNS of shock boundary-layer interaction - preliminary results for compression ramp flow.

  11. Annual energy review 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a historical data report that tells many stories. It describes, in numbers, the changes that have occurred in US energy markets since the midpoint of the 20th century. In many cases, those markets differ vastly from those of a half-century ago. By studying the graphs and data tables presented in this report, readers can learn about past energy supply and usage in the United States and gain an understanding of the issues in energy and the environment now before use. While most of this year`s report content is similar to last year`s, there are some noteworthy developments. Table 1.1 has been restructured into more summarized groupings -- fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy -- to aid analysts in their examination of the basic trends in those broad categories. Readers` attention is also directed to the electricity section, where considerable reformatting of the tables and graphs has been carried out to help clarify past and recent trends in the electric power industry as it enters a period of radical restructuring. Table 9.1, which summarizes US nuclear generating units, has been redeveloped to cover the entire history of the industry in this country and to provide categories relevant in assessing the future of the industry, such as the numbers of ordered generating units that have been canceled and those that were built and later shut down. In general, the AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics. Sections 1 through 10 and Section 12 are devoted mostly to US data; Section 11 reports on international statistics and world totals. 140 figs., 141 tabs.

  12. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed operating expenses,...

  13. 75 FR 63804 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to... classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses,...

  14. 78 FR 64912 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. NERI 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 in response to recommendations provided by the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. The purpose of NERI is to sponsor research and development (R&D) in the nuclear energy sciences to address the principal barriers to the future use of nuclear energy in the United States. NERI is helping to preserve the nuclear science and engineering infrastructure within the Nation's universities, laboratories, and industry, and is advancing the development of nuclear energy technology, enabling the United States to maintain a competitive position in nuclear science and technology. Research under this initiative also addresses issues associated with the maintenance of existing U.S. nuclear plants. The NERI program is managed and funded by DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. ''The Nuclear Energy Research Initiative 2004 Annual Report'' serves to inform interested parties of progress made in NERI on a programmatic level as well as research progress made on individual NERI projects. Section 2 of this report provides background on the creation and implementation of NERI and on the focus areas for NERI research. Section 3 provides a discussion on NERI's mission, goals and objectives, and work scope. Section 4 highlights the major accomplishments of the NERI projects and provides brief summaries of the NERI research efforts that were completed in 2004. Section 5 provides a discussion on the impact NERI has had on U.S. university nuclear programs. Sections 6 through 8 provide project status reports by research area for each of the fiscal year (FY) 2001 and 2002 projects that were active in FY 2004. Research objectives, progress made over the last year, and activities planned for the next year are described for each project. Sections 9 through 11 present each of the newly awarded 2005 NERI projects in their corresponding

  16. [Information programs for patients during gastroenterological rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Ikas, G

    2002-04-01

    Patient education especially groups for patients with inflammatory bowel disease belong to the typical tasks of Reha-medicine. In the Reha-Clinic "Ob der Tauber", Bad Mergentheim these patients are informed in special Colitis/Crohn-groups for eleven years now. Normally approximately ten patients with IBD are treated in our house at the same time. These patients participate in a nearly closed group in which they are taught in three weeks blocks. Three hours a week the patients are informed by doctors, one hour a week a diet assistant teaches the participants. The psychotherapeutic group takes place regularly once a week. The aim of the patient information or health education is to reach a mostly complete information of the patients about inflammatory bowel disease, that means to inform them about all diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. Another important purpose of team work is the support of dynamic group processes like reduction of anxiety and the influence on the patients for developing an active positive attitude towards their disease. The participating therapist (doctors, psychotherapist, diet-assistant) have created a structured concept which was modified during the last years. Resulting from the interactive work between therapist and patients this concept is improved continuously. This development however is delayed by the shortcomming of bad personal capacities and the lack of possibilities for the therapist to improve their pedagogic and psychotherapeutic abilities. At the moment their education is based on autodidactic methods and empathy. For a standardization of the program including all hospitals the extended curriculum of the GRVS is useful. An evaluation concerning the therapeutic benefit of patient information has not been done yet. PMID:11930302

  17. PERSPECTIVES IN CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Shaib, Yasser H.; Rugge, Massimo; Graham, David Y.; Genta, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    The endoscopic finding of a gastric polyp and the histopathologic report that follows may leave clinicians with questions that have not been addressed in formal guidelines: do all polyps need to be excised, or can they just be sampled for biopsy? If so, which ones and how many should be sampled? What follow-up evaluation is needed, if any? This review relies on the existing literature and our collective experience to provide practical answers to these questions. Fundic gland polyps, now the most frequent gastric polyps in Western countries because of widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, and hyperplastic polyps, the second most common polyps notable for their association with gastritis and their low but important potential for harboring dysplastic or neoplastic foci, are discussed in greater detail. Adenomas have had their name changed to raised intraepithelial neoplasia and are decreasing in parallel with Helicobacter pylori infection; however, they do retain their importance as harbingers of gastric cancer, particularly in East Asia. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors have low incidence and no known associations, but their malignant potential is high; early diagnosis and proper management are crucial. Although rare and benign, inflammatory fibroid polyps need to recognized, particularly by pathologists, to avoid misdiagnosis. Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are important because of their association with either atrophic gastritis or the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; those that do not arise in these backgrounds have high malignant potential and require aggressive management. The review concludes with some practical suggestions on how to approach gastric polyps detected at endoscopy. PMID:23583466

  18. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging technique that is similar in principle to ultrasonography, but employs light instead of sound waves and allows depth-resolved images with near-microscopic resolution. Endoscopic OCT allows the evaluation of broad-field and subsurface areas and can be used ancillary to standard endoscopy, narrow band imaging, chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and confocal endomicroscopy. This review article will provide an overview of the clinical utility of endoscopic OCT in the gastrointestinal tract and of recent achievements using state-of-the-art endoscopic 3D-OCT imaging systems. PMID:26852678

  19. Interventional gastroenterology: esophageal and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey H

    2005-12-01

    The development and refinement of endoscopic procedures have greatly improved the diagnosis and management of esophageal and pancreatic cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a highly accurate technique for TNM staging in esophageal cancer, and allows a tissue diagnosis of lymph nodes via fine-needle aspiration with low risk of complications. Endoscopic mucosal resection is a treatment option in patients with early esophageal cancer who are poor surgical candidates. Similarly, EUS fine-needle aspiration is helpful in establishing a diagnosis in cystic lesions, exocrine tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and other lesions in the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography provides diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for various pancreaticobiliary problems. A number of promising EUS-guided therapies for pancreatic cancers are under investigation. PMID:16360009

  20. Metabolomics as a diagnostic tool in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    De Preter, Vicky; Verbeke, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics has increasingly been applied in addition to other “omic” approaches in the study of the pathophysiology of different gastrointestinal diseases. Metabolites represent molecular readouts of the cell status reflecting a physiological phenotype. In addition, changes in metabolite concentrations induced by exogenous factors such as environmental and dietary factors which do not affect the genome, are taken into account. Metabolic reactions initiated by the host or gut microbiota can lead to “marker” metabolites present in different biological fluids that allow differentiation between health and disease. Several lines of evidence implicated the involvement of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Also in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a role of an abnormal microbiota composition, so-called dysbiosis, is supported by experimental data. These compositional alterations could play a role in the aetiology of both diseases by altering the metabolic activities of the gut bacteria. Several studies have applied a metabolomic approach to identify these metabolite signatures. However, before translating a potential metabolite biomarker into clinical use, additional validation studies are required. This review summarizes contributions that metabolomics has made in IBD and IBS and presents potential future directions within the field. PMID:24199025

  1. Metabolomics as a diagnostic tool in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    De Preter, Vicky; Verbeke, Kristin

    2013-11-01

    Metabolomics has increasingly been applied in addition to other "omic" approaches in the study of the pathophysiology of different gastrointestinal diseases. Metabolites represent molecular readouts of the cell status reflecting a physiological phenotype. In addition, changes in metabolite concentrations induced by exogenous factors such as environmental and dietary factors which do not affect the genome, are taken into account. Metabolic reactions initiated by the host or gut microbiota can lead to "marker" metabolites present in different biological fluids that allow differentiation between health and disease. Several lines of evidence implicated the involvement of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Also in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a role of an abnormal microbiota composition, so-called dysbiosis, is supported by experimental data. These compositional alterations could play a role in the aetiology of both diseases by altering the metabolic activities of the gut bacteria. Several studies have applied a metabolomic approach to identify these metabolite signatures. However, before translating a potential metabolite biomarker into clinical use, additional validation studies are required. This review summarizes contributions that metabolomics has made in IBD and IBS and presents potential future directions within the field. PMID:24199025

  2. [The application of laser rays in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Platteborse, R

    1990-01-01

    After reminding the difference between the surface electro-coagulation-section and the photo-coagulation "at distance" by Laser-ray, the author underlines that the most interesting indications of the Laser-ray introduced into the digestive endoscopes are the destruction of esophageal and colonic tumors for inoperable patients or patients with operative risks. The palliative destructions avoid mutilating operations which won't increase the survival time of the patients. PMID:1701104

  3. Engineering Annual Summary 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Dimolitsas, S

    1999-05-01

    Unlike most research and development laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for delivering production-ready designs. Unlike most industry, LLNL is responsible for R and D that must significantly increase the nation's security. This rare combination of production engineering expertise and national R and D agenda identifies LLNL as one of the few organizations today that conducts cutting-edge engineering on grand-scale problems, while facing enormous technical risk and undergoing diligent scrutiny of its budget, schedule, and performance. On the grand scale, cutting-edge technologies are emerging from our recent ventures into ''Xtreme Engineering{trademark}.'' Basically, we must integrate and extend technologies concurrently and then push them to their extreme, such as building very large structures but aligning them with extreme precision. As we extend these technologies, we push the boundaries of engineering capabilities at both poles: microscale and ultrascale. Today, in the ultrascale realm, we are building NIF, the world's largest laser, which demands one of the world's most complex operating systems with 9000 motors integrated through over 500 computers to control 60,000 points for every laser shot. On the other pole, we have fabricated the world's smallest surgical tools and the smallest instruments for detecting biological and chemical agents used by antiterrorists. Later in this Annual Summary, we highlight some of our recent innovations in the area of Xtreme Engineering, including large-scale computer simulations of massive structures such as major bridges to prepare retrofitting designs to withstand earthquakes. Another feature is our conceptual breakthrough in developing the world's fastest airplane, HyperSoar, which can reach anywhere in the planet in two hours at speeds of 6700 mph. In the last few years, Engineering has significantly pushed the technology in structural mechanics and micro-instrumentation. For example

  4. FY 1994 Annual Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    In accordance with the Inspector General`s Strategic Planning Policy directive, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) annually updates its Strategic Plan with budgetary and program guidance for the next fiscal year. The program guidance identifies and establishes priorities for OIG coverage of important DOE issues and operations, provides the basis for assigning OIG resources, and is the source for issues covered in Assistant Inspectors General annual work plans. The Office of the Assistant Inspector General for Audits (AIGA) publishes an Annual Work Plan in September of each year. The plan includes the OIG program guidance and shows the commitment of resources necessary to accomplish the assigned work and meet our goals. The program guidance provides the framework within which the AIGA work will be planned and accomplished. Audits included in this plan are designed to help insure that the requirements of our stakeholders have been considered and blended into a well balanced audit program.

  5. LLNL NESHAP's 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.; Biermann, A.H.; Harrach, R.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Berger, R.L.; Surano,K.A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1999 operations are summarized.

  6. USGS Annual Water Data Reports

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System (NWIS). Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. Data provided include extreme and mean discharge rates.

  7. 1982 laser program annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R.

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications. (MOW)

  8. Facing Facts. Annual Report, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report highlights the work of some grantees who are finding innovative ways to respond to today's new challenges based on a rigorous commitment by their leadership to gathering pertinent facts. These include cities that are planning wide-scale, lasting improvements in arts learning or out-of-school opportunities, basing their choices…

  9. 2014 Fordham Sponsorship Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Fordham Sponsorship Annual Report is our opportunity to share the Fordham Foundation's work as the sponsor of eleven schools serving 3,200 students, and our related policy work in Ohio and nationally. We are fortunate as an organization that our policy work benefits our sponsorship efforts; and, that our lessons from sponsorship inform…

  10. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.