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1

National ASGE survey on upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data about the risks of upper endoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding was gathered as part of a prospective national survey of the ASGE membership. Endoscopic complications occurred in 21 of 2320 endoscopies (0.9%). These included 12 major (perforation, aspiration, bleeding) and 9 minor (mucosal tear, medication reaction, transient cardiac or pulmonary episode) complications. There were 3 deaths attributable

David A. Gilbert; Fred E. Silverstein; Francis J. Tedesco

1981-01-01

2

Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

Savas, Nurten

2014-01-01

3

Performance of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines for dyspepsia in Saudi population: Prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate adherence of primary care physicians (PCPs) to international guidelines when referring patients for upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), evaluate the importance of alarm symptoms and the performance of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines in a Saudi population. METHODS: A prospective, observational cross-sectional study on dyspeptic patients undergoing UGE who were referred by PCPs over a 4 mo period. Referrals were classified as appropriate or inappropriate according to adherence to ASGE guidelines. RESULTS: Total of 221 dyspeptic patients was enrolled; 161 patients met our inclusion criteria. Mean age was 40.3 years (SD ± 18.1). Females comprised 70.1%. Alarm symptoms included low hemoglobin level (39%), weight loss (18%), vomiting (16%), loss of appetite (16%), difficulty swallowing (3%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3%). Abnormal endoscopy findings included gastritis (52%), duodenitis (10%), hiatus hernia (7.8%), features suggestive of celiac disease (6.5%), ulcers (3.9%), malignancy (2.6%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD: 17%). Among patients who underwent UGE, 63% met ASGE guidelines, and 50% had abnormal endoscopic findings. Endoscopy was not indicated in remaining 37% of patients. Among the latter group, endoscopy was normal in 54% of patients. There was no difference in proportion of abnormal endoscopic findings between two groups (P = 0.639). CONCLUSION: Dyspeptic patients had a low prevalence of important endoscopic lesions, and none of the alarm symptoms could significantly predict abnormal endoscopic findings. PMID:25605988

Azzam, Nahla A; Almadi, Majid A; Alamar, Hessah Hamad; Almalki, Lamis Atyah; Alrashedi, Rehab Nawaf; Alghamdi, Rawabi Saleh; Al-hamoudi, Waleed

2015-01-01

4

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

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5

Magnetic manipulation with several mobile coils towards gastrointestinal capsular endoscopy.  

E-print Network

patients with gastrointestinal bleeding [10]; and lesions in the small bowel have been found for 27% of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding [3]. Although capsule endoscopy has permitted greatMagnetic manipulation with several mobile coils towards gastrointestinal capsular endoscopy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Therapeutic endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopy is the primary diagnostic and therapeutic tool for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The performance of endoscopic therapy depends on findings of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). For peptic ulcer disease—the most common etiology of UGIB—endoscopic therapy is indicated for findings of major SRH, such as active bleeding, oozing, or the presence of a nonbleeding visible vessel, but not indicated

Mitchell S. Cappell

2010-01-01

7

Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman  

PubMed Central

About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, or dilated choledochus. ERCP should be performed by an expert endoscopist, with informed consent about fetal radiation risks, minimizing fetal radiation exposure, and using an attending anesthesiologist. Endoscopy is likely most safe during the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24891928

Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

2014-01-01

8

Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

Defining the risk of procedural sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures remains a vexing challenge. The definitions as to what constitutes a cardiopulmonary unplanned event are beginning to take focus but the existing literature is an amalgam of various definitions and subjective outcomes, providing a challenge to patient, practitioner, and researcher. Gastrointestinal endoscopy when undertaken by trained personnel after the appropriate preprocedural evaluation and in the right setting is a safe experience. However, significant challenges exist in further quantifying the sedation risks to patients, optimizing physiologic monitoring, and sublimating the pharmacoeconomic and regulatory embroglios that limit the scope of practice and the quality of services delivered to patients. PMID:25442964

Vargo, John J

2015-01-01

9

Guidelines for Safety in the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit  

PubMed Central

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Historically, safety in the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy unit has focused on infection control, particularly around the reprocessing of endoscopes. Two highly publicized outbreaks where the transmission of infectious agents were related to GI endoscopy have highlighted the need to address potential gaps along the endoscopy care continuum that could impact patient safety. PMID:24485393

Calderwood, Audrey H.; Chapman, Frank J.; Cohen, Jonathan; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Collins, James; Day, Lukejohn W.; Early, Dayna S.

2014-01-01

10

Inhaled sevoflurane for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy with possible propofol anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Sedation with propofol is widely used for the outpatient examination. Although anaphylaxis to propofol is rare, there were some reports of anaphylaxis following propofol administration. We present a case of female patient under sedation for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy with possible propofol anaphylaxis. Then sevoflurane was successfully used for the examination and the following surgery. We discussed the possible feasibility of sevoflurane for the examination of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Propofol is widely used for the sedation of outpatient with lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. But it may cause some allergic reaction. Inhaled sevoflurane may provide a satisfactory and safe alternative for adult outpatients’ endoscopy. PMID:25419408

Ye, Ling; Liu, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Tao

2014-01-01

11

Use of Sedation for Routine Diagnostic Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Survey of National Endoscopy Society Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Sedation rates may vary among countries, depending on patients’ and endoscopists’ preferences. The aim of this survey was to investigate the rate of using premedication for routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy in endoscopy societies, members of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). Methods: We evaluated a multiple-choice questionnaire which was e-mailed to representatives of national endoscopy societies,

S. D. Ladas; L. Aabakken; J.-F. Rey; A. Nowak; S. Zakaria; K. Adamonis; N. Amrani; J. J. G. H. M. Bergman; J. Boix Valverde; S. Boyacioglu; I. Cremers; J. Crowe; P. Deprez; P. Díte; M. Eisen; R. Eliakim; E. D. Fedorov; Z. Galkova; T. Gyokeres; L. T. Heuss; A. Husic-Selimovic; F. Khediri; K. Kuznetsov; T. Marek; M. Munoz-Navas; B. Napoleon; S. Niemela; O. Pascu; N. Perisic; R. Pulanic; E. Ricci; F. Schreiber; L. B. Svendsen; W. Sweidan; A. Sylvan; R. Teague; M. Tryfonos; D. Urbain; J. Weber; M. Zavoral

2006-01-01

12

Propofol alternatives in gastrointestinal endoscopy anesthesia.  

PubMed

Although propofol has been the backbone for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy, both anesthesiologists and endoscopists are faced with situations where an alternative is needed. Recent national shortages forced many physicians to explore these options. A midazolam and fentanyl combination is the mainstay in this area. However, there are other options. The aim of this review is to explore these options. The future would be, invariably, to move away from propofol. The reason is not in any way related to the drawbacks of propofol as a sedative. The mandate that requires an anesthesia provider to administer propofol has been a setback in many countries. New sedative drugs like Remimazolam might fill this void in the future. In the meantime, it is important to keep an open eye to the existing alternatives. PMID:25422614

Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder

2014-10-01

13

Observable Laryngopharyngeal Lesions during the Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Regardless of outstanding developments in the endoscopic field, laryngopharyngeal lesions are generally considered as a field of otolaryngology, and thus it is thought that not a lot of gastrointestinal endoscopists commonly take interest in these lesions during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. Therefore, here in this thesis, I reviewed the availability of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in laryngopharyngeal area, normal structures of laryngopharynx, and the lesions that can be observed with the standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure. PMID:23767030

2013-01-01

14

Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

2014-01-01

15

Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology  

PubMed Central

Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

2015-01-01

16

Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology.  

PubMed

Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

2015-03-16

17

[Future perspective of gastrointestinal 'intelligent' endoscopy].  

PubMed

Although the flexible endoscopy has been widely used in the medical field for many years, there is still great potential in improving the endoscopist's capability to perform therapeutic tasks. The application of flexible endoscopy tools for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is constrained due to limitations in dexterity, instrument insertion, navigation, visualization, and retraction. Miniature endolumenal robots can mitigate these constraints by providing a stable platform for visualization and dexterous manipulation. In this paper, we describe the high-functioned 'intelligent' endoscopic surgery system with navigation. This system has equipped with accurate master-slave manipulation micro arms which can be used in tandem with a conventional flexible endoscope. The system also has an integrated ultrasound probe and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applicator. With the continued development of the techniques and technology of intelligent endoscopy, innovative minimally invasive personalized therapy may realize. PMID:20662207

Konishi, Kozo; Hashizume, Makoto

2010-07-01

18

Omeprazole before Endoscopy in Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r ac t Background A neutral gastric pH is critical for the stability of clots over bleeding arteries. We in- vestigated the effect of preemptive infusion of omeprazole before endoscopy on the need for endoscopic therapy. Methods Consecutive patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding underwent sta- bilization and were then randomly assigned to receive either omeprazole

James Y. Lau; Wai K. Leung; Justin C. Y. Wu; Francis K. L. Chan; Vincent W. S. Wong; Philip W. Y. Chiu; Vivian W. Y. Lee; Kenneth K. C. Lee; Frances K. Y. Cheung; Priscilla Siu; Enders K. W. Ng; Joseph J. Y. Sung

2007-01-01

19

General considerations and updates in pediatric gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal and colonic endoscopic examinations have been performed in pediatric patients in Korea for 3 decades. Endoscopic procedures are complex and may be unsafe if special concerns are not considered. Many things have to be kept in mind before, during, and after the procedure. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the most frequently performed procedure in children nowadays, Since the dimension size of the endoscopy was modified for pediatric patients 15 years ago, endoscopic procedures are almost performed routinely in pediatric gastrointestinal patients. The smaller size of the scope let the physicians approach the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. But this is an invasive procedure, so the procedure itself may provoke an emergence state. The procedure-related complications can more easily occur in pediatric patients. Sedation-related or procedure-related respiratory, cardiovascular complications are mostly important and critical in the care. The endoscopists are required to consider diverse aspects of the procedure - patient preparation, indications and contraindications, infection controls, sedation methods, sedative medicines and the side effects of each medicine, monitoring during and after the procedure, and complications related with the procedure and medicines - to perform the procedure successfully and safely. This article presents some important guidelines and recommendations for gastrointestinal endoscopy through literature review. PMID:21189965

2010-01-01

20

The role of capsule endoscopy in acute gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization, resulting in about 400,000 hospital admissions annually, with a mortality rate of 5–10%. It is estimated that 5% of acute GI bleedings are of obscure origin with a normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Capsule endoscopy is the state-of-the-art procedure for inspection of the entire small bowel with a high sensitivity for the detection of causes of bleeding. In recent years, many studies have addressed the sensitivity and outcome of capsule-endoscopy procedures in patients with acute GI bleeding. This review looks at the role of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with acute GI bleeding from either the upper GI tract or small bowel. PMID:24587821

Nadler, Moshe

2014-01-01

21

Tension Pneumoperitoneum: A Rare Complication of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Tension pneumoperitoneum is defined as the massive accumulation of air in the peritoneal cavity, which results in a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure. Various iatrogenic procedures are responsible for this complication. We herein report a case of tension pneumoperitoneum resulting from upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Case Description: A 45-y-old man was referred to our department because of melena. Esophagogastroscopy was unsuccessful because of failure to inflate the stomach, and sudden abdominal distension was noted immediately after the procedure. The hemodynamic status of the patient was compromised, and the imminent collapse was prevented with emergent needle paracentesis. Decompression of the abdominal cavity restored vital signs to normal allowing definitive surgical treatment. Discussion: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare cause of this life-threatening complication. The combination of acute abdominal distension with hemodynamic instability following endoscopic procedures should raise suspicion of tension pneumoperitoneum. Needle decompression is life-saving and should be performed instantly upon recognition of this condition. PMID:23318083

Ballas, Konstantinos; Pavlidis, Efstathios; Psarras, Kyriakos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Sakantamis, Athanasios

2012-01-01

22

Summary of guidelines for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: High-quality processes to ensure infection prevention and control in the delivery of safe endoscopy services are essential. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) developed a Canadian guideline for the reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment. METHODS: The CAG Endoscopy Committee carefully reviewed the 2010 guidelines and prepared an executive summary. RESULTS: Key elements relevant to infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy were highlighted for each of the recommendations included in the 2010 document. The 2010 guidelines consist of seven sections, including administrative recommendations, as well as recommendations for endoscopy and endoscopy decontamination equipment, reprocessing endoscopes and accessories, endoscopy unit design, quality management, outbreak investigation and management, and classic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. DISCUSSION: The recommendations for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy are intended for all individuals with responsibility for endoscopes in all settings where endoscopy is performed. PMID:23781518

Hookey, Lawrence; Armstrong, David; Enns, Rob; Matlow, Anne; Singh, Harminder; Love, Jonathan

2013-01-01

23

Validation of a realistic simulator for veterinary gastrointestinal endoscopy training.  

PubMed

This article reports on the face, content, and construct validity of a new realistic composite simulator (Simuldog) used to provide training in canine gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy. The basic endoscopic procedures performed on the simulator were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), gastric biopsy (GB), and gastric foreign body removal (FBR). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the performance of novices (final-year veterinary students and recent graduates without endoscopic experience, n=30) versus experienced subjects (doctors in veterinary medicine who had performed more than 50 clinical upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as a surgeon, n=15). Tasks were scored based on completion time, and specific rating scales were developed to assess performance. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were assessed. Face and content validity were determined using a 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire. The novices needed considerably more time than the experts to perform EGD, GB, and FBR, and their performance scores were significantly lower (p<.010). Inter-rater agreement and the internal validity of the rating scales were good. Face validity was excellent, and both groups agreed that the endoscopy scenarios were very realistic. The experts highly valued the usefulness of Simuldog for veterinary training and as a tool for assessing endoscopic skills. Simuldog is the first validated model specifically developed to be used as a training tool for endoscopy techniques in small animals. PMID:24947679

Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Usón-Casaús, Jesús M; Pérez-Merino, Eva M; Soria-Gálvez, Federico; Morcillo, Esther; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M

2014-01-01

24

Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

2013-01-01

25

Self-expandable metal stents for obstructing colonic and extracolonic cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.  

PubMed

This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). This Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the Governing Board of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations The following recommendations should only be applied after a thorough diagnostic evaluation including a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. 1 Prophylactic colonic stent placement is not recommended. Colonic stenting should be reserved for patients with clinical symptoms and imaging evidence of malignant large-bowel obstruction, without signs of perforation (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 Colonic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement as a bridge to elective surgery is not recommended as a standard treatment of symptomatic left-sided malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 3 For patients with potentially curable but obstructing left-sided colonic cancer, stent placement may be considered as an alternative to emergency surgery in those who have an increased risk of postoperative mortality, I. e. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status ? III and/or age > 70 years (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 SEMS placement is recommended as the preferred treatment for palliation of malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence), except in patients treated or considered for treatment with antiangiogenic drugs (e. g. bevacizumab) (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). PMID:25325682

van Hooft, Jeanin E; van Halsema, Emo E; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; DeWitt, John M; Donnellan, Fergal; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Glynne-Jones, Robert G T; Hassan, Cesare; Jiménez-Perez, Javier; Meisner, Søren; Muthusamy, V Raman; Parker, Michael C; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sabbagh, Charles; Sagar, Jayesh; Tanis, Pieter J; Vandervoort, Jo; Webster, George J; Manes, Gianpiero; Barthet, Marc A; Repici, Alessandro

2014-11-01

26

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Where are we at in 2014?  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal endoscopies are invasive and unpleasant procedures that are increasingly being used worldwide. The importance of high quality procedures (especially in colorectal cancer screening), the increasing patient awareness and the expectation of painless examination, increase the need for procedural sedation. The best single sedation agent for endoscopy is propofol which, due to its' pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile allows for a higher patient satisfaction and procedural quality and lower induction and recovery times, while maintaining the safety of traditional sedation. Propofol is an anesthetic agent when used in higher doses than those needed for endoscopy. Because of this important feature it may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory depression and, ultimately, to cardiac arrest and death. Fueled by this argument, concern over the safety of its administration by personnel without general anesthesia training has arisen. Propofol usage seems to be increasing but it's still underused. It is a safe alternative for simple endoscopic procedures in low risk patients even if administered by non-anesthesiologists. Evidence on propofol safety in complex procedures and high risk patients is less robust and in these cases, the presence of an anesthetist should be considered. We review the existing evidence on the topic and evaluate the regional differences on sedation practices. PMID:25685266

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Cravo, Marília

2015-02-16

27

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Where are we at in 2014?  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal endoscopies are invasive and unpleasant procedures that are increasingly being used worldwide. The importance of high quality procedures (especially in colorectal cancer screening), the increasing patient awareness and the expectation of painless examination, increase the need for procedural sedation. The best single sedation agent for endoscopy is propofol which, due to its’ pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile allows for a higher patient satisfaction and procedural quality and lower induction and recovery times, while maintaining the safety of traditional sedation. Propofol is an anesthetic agent when used in higher doses than those needed for endoscopy. Because of this important feature it may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory depression and, ultimately, to cardiac arrest and death. Fueled by this argument, concern over the safety of its administration by personnel without general anesthesia training has arisen. Propofol usage seems to be increasing but it’s still underused. It is a safe alternative for simple endoscopic procedures in low risk patients even if administered by non-anesthesiologists. Evidence on propofol safety in complex procedures and high risk patients is less robust and in these cases, the presence of an anesthetist should be considered. We review the existing evidence on the topic and evaluate the regional differences on sedation practices. PMID:25685266

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Cravo, Marília

2015-01-01

28

Outcome of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after capsule endoscopy: Report of 100 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a promising diagnostic tool for the study of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the diagnostic yield of this technique has not been adequately studied. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of CE and the outcome after CE in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods:One hundred consecutive patients (all with recent negative upper and

Marco Pennazio; Renato Santucci; Emanuele Rondonotti; Carla Abbiati; Gizela Beccari; Francesco P. Rossini; Roberto De Franchis

2004-01-01

29

Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho

2014-01-01

30

Highlights from the 50th seminar of the korean society of gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho; Hahm, Ki Baik

2014-07-01

31

Comparison of a novel bedside portable endoscopy device with nasogastric aspiration for identifying upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare outcomes using the novel portable endoscopy with that of nasogastric (NG) aspiration in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Patients who underwent NG aspiration for the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding were eligible for the study. After NG aspiration, we performed the portable endoscopy to identify bleeding evidence in the UGI tract. Then, all patients underwent conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as the gold-standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the portable endoscopy for confirming UGI bleeding were compared with those of NG aspiration. RESULTS: In total, 129 patients who had GI bleeding signs or symptoms were included in the study (age 64.46 ± 13.79, 91 males). The UGI tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) was the most common site of bleeding (81, 62.8%) and the cause of bleeding was not identified in 12 patients (9.3%). Specificity for identifying UGI bleeding was higher with the portable endoscopy than NG aspiration (85.4% vs 68.8%, P = 0.008) while accuracy was comparable. The accuracy of the portable endoscopy was significantly higher than that of NG in the subgroup analysis of patients with esophageal bleeding (88.2% vs 75%, P = 0.004). Food material could be detected more readily by the portable endoscopy than NG tube aspiration (20.9% vs 9.3%, P = 0.014). No serious adverse effect was observed during the portable endoscopy. CONCLUSION: The portable endoscopy was not superior to NG aspiration for confirming UGI bleeding site. However, this novel portable endoscopy device might provide a benefit over NG aspiration in patients with esophageal bleeding. PMID:25009396

Choi, Jong Hwan; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hyung Ki; Choi, Wang Yong; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

2014-01-01

32

Highlights of the 48th Seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

This special May issue of Clinical Endoscopy discusses the tutorial contents dealing with either the diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy that contain very fundamental and essential points in this filed. The seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) had positioned as one of prime educational seminars covering the very beginner to advanced experts of GI endoscopy. Besides of four rooms allocated for each lecture, two additional rooms were open for either live demonstration or hands-on course, covering totally 20 sessions including one special lecture. Among these prestigious lectures, 12 lectures were selected for the current review articles in this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy journal. Basic course for beginner to advanced tips to expert were all covered in this seminar. This introductory review prepared by four associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy contained core contents divided into four sessions-upper gut, lower gut, pancreaticobiliary, and specialized topic session part-to enhance understandings not covered by enlisted review articles in this issue. PMID:23767027

Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Eun Young; Dong, Seok Ho

2013-01-01

33

[Videocapsule endoscopy used for diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura with gastrointestinal complications.  

PubMed

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is primarily a childhood disease and is less common in adults where the incidence varies from 3.4 to 14.3 cases per million. We describe a case of adult HSP and discuss the role of videocapsule endoscopy, which is a non-invasive and safe method to evaluate the typical mucosa changes in especially small bowel. Medical doctors should be aware of HSP in adults and pay attention to the fact that in an unusual presentation with gastrointestinal manifestation videocapsule endoscopy may play a safe diagnostic role. PMID:24044543

Sivayogajeyam, Sivakaran; Christensen, Kent Dencker

2013-09-16

34

Management of Anticoagulation Before and After Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures is a common clinical problem. Although guidelines have been published, they are supported by little prospective or randomized trial data, but are primarily based on observational studies, expert opinion, and best clinical practices. As a general principle, the risks of thromboembolism need to be balanced against the

Avelyn Kwok; Douglas O Faigel

2009-01-01

35

Role of endoscopy in management of gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension is often complex and challenging. The endoscopy plays an important role in the management of these patients. The role of endoscopy is both diagnostic and interventional and in the last years the techniques have undergone a rapid expansion with the advent of different and novel endoscopic modalities, with consequent improvement of investigation and treatment of these patients. The choice of best therapeutic strategy depends on many factors: baseline disease, patient’s clinical performance and the timing when it is done if in emergency or a prophylactic approaches. In this review we evaluate the endoscopic management of patients with the gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension. PMID:25610530

Luigiano, Carmelo; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Judica, Antonino; Virgilio, Clara; Peta, Valentina; Abenavoli, Ludovico

2015-01-01

36

Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions  

PubMed Central

Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is an optical image enhancing technology that allows a detailed inspection of vascular and mucosal patterns, providing the ability to predict histology during real-time endoscopy. By combining NBI with magnification endoscopy (NBI-ME), the accurate assessment of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be achieved, as well as the early detection of neoplasia by emphasizing neovascularization. Promising results of the method in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract have been reported in clinical studies. The usefulness of NBI-ME as an adjunct to endoscopic therapy in clinical practice, the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, surveillance strategies and cost-saving strategies based on this method are summarized in this review. Various classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns used to differentiate preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions have been reviewed. We concluded that the clinical applicability of NBI-ME has increased, but standardization of endoscopic criteria and classification systems, validation in randomized multicenter trials and training programs to improve the diagnostic performance are all needed before the widespread acceptance of the method in routine practice. However, published data regarding the usefulness of NBI endoscopy are relevant in order to recommend the method as a reliable tool in diagnostic and therapy, even for less experienced endoscopists. PMID:25685267

Boeriu, Alina; Boeriu, Cristian; Drasovean, Silvia; Pascarenco, Ofelia; Mocan, Simona; Stoian, Mircea; Dobru, Daniela

2015-01-01

37

Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions.  

PubMed

Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is an optical image enhancing technology that allows a detailed inspection of vascular and mucosal patterns, providing the ability to predict histology during real-time endoscopy. By combining NBI with magnification endoscopy (NBI-ME), the accurate assessment of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be achieved, as well as the early detection of neoplasia by emphasizing neovascularization. Promising results of the method in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract have been reported in clinical studies. The usefulness of NBI-ME as an adjunct to endoscopic therapy in clinical practice, the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, surveillance strategies and cost-saving strategies based on this method are summarized in this review. Various classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns used to differentiate preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions have been reviewed. We concluded that the clinical applicability of NBI-ME has increased, but standardization of endoscopic criteria and classification systems, validation in randomized multicenter trials and training programs to improve the diagnostic performance are all needed before the widespread acceptance of the method in routine practice. However, published data regarding the usefulness of NBI endoscopy are relevant in order to recommend the method as a reliable tool in diagnostic and therapy, even for less experienced endoscopists. PMID:25685267

Boeriu, Alina; Boeriu, Cristian; Drasovean, Silvia; Pascarenco, Ofelia; Mocan, Simona; Stoian, Mircea; Dobru, Daniela

2015-02-16

38

Prevalence of celiac disease and its endoscopic markers among patients having routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of duodenal villous atrophy (VA) among patients undergoing routine upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and the value of endoscopic markers for VA in selecting patients for duodenal biopsy.METHODS:One hundred and fifty adult patients with upper GI symptoms or iron-deficiency anemia had inspection and biopsy of the second part of the duodenum

William Dickey; Dermot Hughes

1999-01-01

39

Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding After Negative Capsule Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Capsule endoscopy (CE) is one of the widely accepted investigations for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), but little is known about the impact of CE on the long-term outcome of patients with OGIB. We studied the long-term outcome of patients with OGIB after CE examination.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Forty-nine consecutive patients (45% men, mean age 58.3 yr) who underwent CE for

Larry H. Lai; Grace L. H. Wong; Dorothy K. L. Chow; James Y. W. Lau; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Wai K. Leung

2006-01-01

40

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Block versus Lidocaine Spray to Improve Tolerance in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study. To compare the effect of glossopharyngeal nerve block with topical anesthesia on the tolerance of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods. We performed a clinical trial in one hundred patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: (1) treatment with bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block (GFNB) and intravenous midazolam or (2) treatment with topical anesthetic (TASS) and intravenous midazolam. We evaluated sedation, tolerance to the procedure, hemodynamic stability, and adverse symptoms. Results. We studied 46 men and 54 women, from 17 to 78 years of age. The procedure was reported without discomfort in 48 patients (88%) in the GFNB group and 32 (64%) in the TAAS group; 6 patients (12%) in GFNB group and 18 (36%) in TAAS group reported the procedure as little discomfort (?2 = 3.95, P = 0.04). There was no difference in frequency of nausea (4% in both groups) and retching, 4% versus 8% for GFNB and TASS group, respectively (P = 0.55). Conclusions. The use of glossopharyngeal nerve block provides greater comfort and tolerance to the patient undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It also reduces the need for sedation. PMID:23533386

Ortega Ramírez, Moisés; Linares Segovia, Benigno; García Cuevas, Marco Antonio; Sánchez Romero, Jorge Luis; Botello Buenrostro, Illich; Amador Licona, Norma; Guízar Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Guerrero Romero, Jesús Francisco; Vázquez Zárate, Víctor Manuel

2013-01-01

41

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Block versus Lidocaine Spray to Improve Tolerance in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.  

PubMed

Aim of the Study. To compare the effect of glossopharyngeal nerve block with topical anesthesia on the tolerance of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods. We performed a clinical trial in one hundred patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: (1) treatment with bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block (GFNB) and intravenous midazolam or (2) treatment with topical anesthetic (TASS) and intravenous midazolam. We evaluated sedation, tolerance to the procedure, hemodynamic stability, and adverse symptoms. Results. We studied 46 men and 54 women, from 17 to 78 years of age. The procedure was reported without discomfort in 48 patients (88%) in the GFNB group and 32 (64%) in the TAAS group; 6 patients (12%) in GFNB group and 18 (36%) in TAAS group reported the procedure as little discomfort (? (2) = 3.95, P = 0.04). There was no difference in frequency of nausea (4% in both groups) and retching, 4% versus 8% for GFNB and TASS group, respectively (P = 0.55). Conclusions. The use of glossopharyngeal nerve block provides greater comfort and tolerance to the patient undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It also reduces the need for sedation. PMID:23533386

Ortega Ramírez, Moisés; Linares Segovia, Benigno; García Cuevas, Marco Antonio; Sánchez Romero, Jorge Luis; Botello Buenrostro, Illich; Amador Licona, Norma; Guízar Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Guerrero Romero, Jesús Francisco; Vázquez Zárate, Víctor Manuel

2013-01-01

42

Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.  

PubMed

This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule prior to capsule endoscopy in these patients (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In the presence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis, ESGE recommends that dedicated small bowel cross-sectional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance enterography/enteroclysis or computed tomography enterography/enteroclysis should be used first (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 In patients with established Crohn's disease, based on ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends dedicated cross-sectional imaging for small-bowel evaluation since this has the potential to assess extent and location of any Crohn's disease lesions, to identify strictures, and to assess for extraluminal disease (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In patients with unremarkable or nondiagnostic findings from such cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as a subsequent investigation, if deemed to influence patient management (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). When capsule endoscopy is indicated, ESGE recommends use of the PillCam patency capsule to confirm functional patency of the small bowel (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 7 ESGE strongly recommends against the use of small-bowel capsule endoscopy for suspected coeliac disease but suggests that capsule endoscopy could be used in patients unwilling or unable to undergo conventional endoscopy (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). PMID:25826168

Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M

2015-04-01

43

Out-of-hours endoscopy for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Most countries lack a well-coordinated approach to out-of-hours endoscopy. Economic constraints and lack of resources have been identified as important barriers. Objective.To assess the performance evaluation of an out-of-hours emergency endoscopy model of care. Design. During a 3 year period (January 2010 to December 2012), data from consecutive outpatients (n = 332) with non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted or transferred to a single referral hospital were prospectively collected. Results. 34% (n = 113) were direct admissions whereas 66% (n = 219) were transferred from other hospitals. Median time to upper endoscopy esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was 6 h and 7.7 h for direct admissions and transferred, respectively. EGD was performed within 24 h in 90% of the patients. Rebleeding, in-hospital mortality, 30 day mortality and need for surgery were respectively 9.8%, 5.8%, 7.4%, and 6.6% and were not significantly different between the two groups. Age, malignancy, and moderate to high clinical Rockall risk score were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in both groups. Age remained as an important predictor of main outcomes in transferred patients, while comorbidities differed according to admission status and predictable outcomes. Conclusion.This gastroenterology emergency model improved access and equity to out-of-hours endoscopy in an effective, safe, and timely way, recognized by the rates and the homogeneity observed in the outcomes, between transferred patients and direct admissions. PMID:25631327

de Carvalho Pedroto, Isabel Maria Teixeira; Maia, Luís Araújo Azevedo; Salgueiro, Paulo Sérgio Durão; de Sampaio, Elvira Manuela Costa Moreira Teles; Küttner de Magalhães, Ricardo Sigalho; Magalhães, Maria João de Sousa Barbosa; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo Jorge; Dias, Cláudia Camila Rodrigues Pereira; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

2015-04-01

44

INTEGRATED OPTICAL TOOLS FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT AT GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, the bulk of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures has shifted away from diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for symptomatic disease toward cancer prevention in asymptomatic patients. This shift has resulted largely from a decrease in the incidence of peptic ulcer disease in the era of antisecretory medications coupled with emerging evidence for the efficacy of endoscopic detection and eradication of dysplasia, a histopathological biomarker widely accepted as a precursor to cancer. This shift has been accompanied by a drive toward minimally-invasive, in situ optical diagnostic technologies that help assess the mucosa for cellular changes that relate to dysplasia. Two competing but complementary approaches have been pursued. The first approach is based on broad-view targeting of “areas of interest” or “red flags.” These broad-view technologies include standard white light endoscopy (WLE), high-definition endoscopy (HD), and “electronic” chromoendoscopy (narrow-band-type imaging). The second approach is based on multiple small area or point-source (meso/micro) measurements, which can be either machine (spectroscopy) or human-interpreted (endomicroscopy, magnification endoscopy), much as histopatholgy slides are. In this paper we present our experience with the development and testing of a set of familiar but “smarter” standard tissue-sampling tools that can be routinely employed during screening/surveillance endoscopy. These tools have been designed to incorporate fiberoptic probes that can mediate spectroscopy or endomicroscopy. We demonstrate the value of such tools by assessing their preliminary performance from several ongoing clinical studies. Our results have shown promise for a new generation of integrated optical tools for a variety of screening/surveillance applications during GI endoscopy. Integrated devices should prove invaluable for dysplasia surveillance strategies that currently result in large numbers of benign biopsies, which are of little clinical consequence, including screening for colorectal polyps and surveillance of “flat” dysplasia such as Barrett’s esophagus and chronic colitis due to inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21152112

Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; Bigio, Irving J.; Singh, Satish K.

2010-01-01

45

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Sampling in Gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Technical Guidelines  

PubMed Central

At present, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines on endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling are almost complete and express state of the art developments. However, future developments are anticipated. This editorial focuses on a few recently published papers with some additional information and on two important additional techniques, elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which are mentioned, but not explained in detail in the current ESGE guidelines. Elastography and CEUS might be of importance in the near future to improve the biopsy techniques. PMID:24949378

Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, C.

2013-01-01

46

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European society of gastrointestinal endoscopy technical guidelines.  

PubMed

At present, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines on endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling are almost complete and express state of the art developments. However, future developments are anticipated. This editorial focuses on a few recently published papers with some additional information and on two important additional techniques, elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which are mentioned, but not explained in detail in the current ESGE guidelines. Elastography and CEUS might be of importance in the near future to improve the biopsy techniques. PMID:24949378

Dietrich, Christoph F; Jenssen, C

2013-07-01

47

International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2014: Turnpike to the Future  

PubMed Central

Social networks are useful in the study of relationships between individuals or entire populations, and the ties through which any given social unit connects. Those represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. Consequently, the term "social networking service" (SNS) became extremely familiar. Similar to familiar SNSs, International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2014 was based on an international network composed of an impressive 2-day scientific program dealing with a variety of topics for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, which connects physicians and researchers from all over the world. The scientific programs included live endoscopic demonstrations and provided cutting-edge information and practice tips as well as the latest advances concerning upper GI, lower GI, and pancreatobiliary endoscopy. IDEN 2014 featured American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE-KSGE)-joint sessions prepared through cooperation between ASGE and KSGE. Furthermore, IDEN 2014 provided a special program for young scientists called the 'Asian Young Endoscopist Award Forum' to foster networks, with many young endoscopists from Asian countries taking an active interest and participation. PMID:25324994

Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Ryu, Ji Kon

2014-01-01

48

International digestive endoscopy network 2014: turnpike to the future.  

PubMed

Social networks are useful in the study of relationships between individuals or entire populations, and the ties through which any given social unit connects. Those represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. Consequently, the term "social networking service" (SNS) became extremely familiar. Similar to familiar SNSs, International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2014 was based on an international network composed of an impressive 2-day scientific program dealing with a variety of topics for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, which connects physicians and researchers from all over the world. The scientific programs included live endoscopic demonstrations and provided cutting-edge information and practice tips as well as the latest advances concerning upper GI, lower GI, and pancreatobiliary endoscopy. IDEN 2014 featured American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE-KSGE)-joint sessions prepared through cooperation between ASGE and KSGE. Furthermore, IDEN 2014 provided a special program for young scientists called the 'Asian Young Endoscopist Award Forum' to foster networks, with many young endoscopists from Asian countries taking an active interest and participation. PMID:25324994

Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Ryu, Ji Kon; Hahm, Ki Baik

2014-09-01

49

A Prospective Study Comparing Video Capsule Endoscopy with Double-Balloon Enteroscopy in Patients with Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal and ileal lesions remains undiagnosed using traditional imaging techniques (radiologic, endoscopic). This prospective study compares the diagnostic detection rate of small-bowel lesions using wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) with the detection rate using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Tolerance, adverse events, endoscopic interventions, and prognosis were described as secondary aims.METHODS:Thirty-five

Muhammed Hadithi; G. Dimitri N. Heine; Maarten A. J. M. Jacobs; Adriaan A. v Bodegraven; Chris J. J. Mulder

2006-01-01

50

Re-bleeding events in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate long-term re-bleeding events after a negative capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and the risk factors associated with the procedure. METHODS: Patients referred to Hospital Egas Moniz (Lisboa, Portugal) between January 2006 and October 2012 with OGIB and a negative capsule endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. The following study variables were included: demographic data, comorbidities, bleeding-related drug use, hemoglobin level, indication for capsule endoscopy, post procedure details, work-up and follow-up. Re-bleeding rates and associated factors were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of re-bleeding at 1, 3 and 5 years, and the differences between factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 640 patients referred for OGIB investigation. Wireless capsule endoscopy was deemed negative in 113 patients (17.7%). A total of 64.6% of the population was female, and the median age was 69 years. The median follow-up was forty-eight months (interquartile range 24-60). Re-bleeding occurred in 27.4% of the cases. The median time to re-bleeding was fifteen months (interquartile range 2-33). In 22.6% (n = 7) of the population, small-bowel angiodysplasia was identified as the culprit lesion. A univariate analysis showed that age > 65 years old, chronic kidney disease, aortic stenosis, anticoagulant use and overt OGIB were risk factors for re-bleeding; however, on a multivariate analysis, there were no risk factors for re-bleeding. The cumulative risk of re-bleeding at 1, 3 and 5 years of follow-up was 12.9%, 25.6% and 31.5%, respectively. Patients who presented with overt OGIB tended to re-bleed sooner (median time for re-bleeding: 8.5 mo vs 22 mo). CONCLUSION: Patients with OGIB despite a negative capsule endoscopy have a significant re-bleeding risk; therefore, these patients require an extended follow-up strategy.

Magalhães-Costa, Pedro; Bispo, Miguel; Santos, Sofia; Couto, Gilberto; Matos, Leopoldo; Chagas, Cristina

2015-01-01

51

The role of endoscopy and biopsy in the management of severe gastrointestinal disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThere is increasing evidence to suggest the presence of chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Some CF patients continue to have very severe GI symptoms despite conventional CF treatment. In our centre, these patients are managed in a CF gastroenterology clinic, jointly with a gastroenterologist. A number of them have required GI endoscopy and

H L Tan; N Shah; R Suri

2011-01-01

52

Sedation-associated hiccups in adults undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the incidence of hiccups in patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or same-day bidirectional endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy; BDE) with sedation is different from those without sedation in terms of quantity, duration and typical onset time. METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for elective EGD or same-day BDE at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit or the health examination center were allocated to two groups: EGD without sedation (Group A) and BDE with sedation (Group B). The use of sedation was based on the patients’ request. Anesthesiologists participated in this study by administrating sedative drugs as usual. A single experienced gastroenterologist performed both the EGD and the colonoscopic examinations for all the patients. The incidence, duration and onset time of hiccups were measured in both groups. In addition, the association between clinical variables and hiccups were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study. The incidences of hiccups in the patients with and without sedation were significantly different (20.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The use of sedation for patients undergoing endoscopy was still significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups (adjusted odds ratio: 8.79, P < 0.001) after adjustment. The incidence of hiccups in males under sedation was high (67.4%). The sedated patients who received 2 mg midazolam developed hiccups more frequently compared to those receiving 1 mg midazolam (P = 0.0028). The patients with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were prone to develop hiccups (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Male patients undergoing EGD or BDE with sedation are significantly more likely to suffer from hiccups compared to those without sedation. Midazolam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups. Furthermore, patients with GERD are prone to develop hiccups. PMID:22826626

Liu, Chien Cheng; Lu, Cheng Yuan; Changchien, Chih Fang; Liu, Ping Hsin; Perng, Daw Shyong

2012-01-01

53

Propofol versus Midazolam for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Cirrhotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy is often achieved using propofol or midazolam in general population. However, impaired protein synthesis, altered drug metabolism, and compromised hepatic blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis might affect the pharmacokinetics of sedatives, placing cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy at a greater risk of adverse events. The objective of this study was to assess comparative efficacies and safety of propofol and midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy. Methods Randomized, controlled trials comparing propofol with midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy were selected. We performed the meta-analysis, using a random-effect model, the Review Manager, Version 5.2, statistical software package (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results Five studies between 2003 and 2012, including 433 patients, were included. Propofol provided a shorter time to sedation (weight mean difference: -2.76 min, 95% confidence interval: -3.00 to -2.51) and a shorter recovery time (weight mean difference -6.17 min, 95% confidence interval: -6.81 to -5.54) than midazolam did. No intergroup difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, or hypoxemia was observed. Midazolam was associated with the deterioration of psychometric scores for a longer period than propofol. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that Propofol sedation for endoscopy provides more rapid sedation and recovery than midazolam does. The risk of sedation-related side effects for propofol does not differ significantly from that of midazolam. The efficacy of propofol in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy is superior to those of midazolam. PMID:25646815

Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Yu-Cih; Ko, Ching-Lung; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tam, Ka-Wai; Chen, Chien-Yu

2015-01-01

54

H. pylori May Not Be Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Normal Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy Results  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori in patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. Materials and Methods. A total of 117 male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results were included in this retrospective study. The study and control groups included 69 and 48 patients with and without iron deficiency anemia, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori, the number of RBCs, and the levels of HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin were calculated and compared. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the groups according to the prevalence of H. pylori (65.2% versus 64.6%, P = 0.896). Additionally, the levels of RBCs, HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin in the patients in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Finally, there was no association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori (OR 1.02, Cl 95% 0.47–2.22, and P = 0.943). Conclusion. H. pylori is not associated with iron deficiency anemia in male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. PMID:25610466

Saler, Tayyibe; Ke?kek, ?akir Özgür; K?rk, Sibel; Ahbab, Süleyman; Orto?lu, Gülay

2014-01-01

55

The Changing Pattern of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders by Endoscopy: Data of the Last 40 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We have investigated the changes in the incidence of various diagnoses that have been made in the endoscopy unit throughout the last 40 years. Methods. In this study, changes in the incidence of endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal system between 1970 and 2010 were evaluated. Their diagnosis, age, and gender data were entered into the Excel software. Results. Of the 52816 cases who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in the 40-year time period, the mean age was 48.17 ± 16.27 (mean ± SD). Although overall more than half of the patients were male (54.3%), in 1995 and after a marked increase was seen in the proportion of female gender (51–55%). The presence of hiatal hernia, reflux esophagitis, and the number of Barrett's esophaguses significantly increased. Erosive gastritis showed gradual increase, while the number of gastric ulcers decreased significantly. The presence of gastric and esophageal cancer significantly decreased. The number of duodenal ulcers significantly decreased. Conclusion. We detected that the incidences of esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and erosive gastritis significantly increased while the incidences of gastric/duodenal ulcer and gastric/esophageal cancer decreased throughout the last 40 years. PMID:25276089

Caglar, Erkan; Baysal, Birol; Dobrucal?, Ahmet

2014-01-01

56

Biochromoendoscopy: Molecular Imaging with Capsule Endoscopy for Detection of Adenomas of the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Background Current capsule endoscopy (CE) provides minimally invasive technology for gastrointestinal imaging, but has limited ability to discriminate different polyp types. Near Infrared Fluorescent (NIRF) probes activated by biomarkers upregulated in adenomas (e.g., cathepsin B) are potentially powerful tools to distinguish premalignant or malignant lesions from benign or inflammatory lesions. Objectives To examine whether CE can be integrated with NIRF probes to detect adenomas, and whether cathepsin B activated NIRF probes are activated by benign or inflammatory ones. Design and Setting Mouse models of adenomas, hyperplastic/lymphoid polyps, and acute or chronic intestinal inflammation were injected intravenously with a cathepsin B activated probe (Prosense™ 680). Dissected intestine was imaged with CE under white or NIRF light. For NIRF, excitation (680 nm), dichroic and emission (700 nm) filters were combined with CE when images were recorded. Prosense™ 680 samples with or without protease were used as positive and negative controls. CE based imaging data was verified using an independent imaging system (Xenogen IVIS system). Main Outcome Measurements Proof of principle that CE integrated with NIRF probes can detect and discriminate adenomas from other lesions. Results CE based NIRF imaging with Prosense™ 680 readily visualized adenomas, including in the colitis model. NIRF signals of different intensities were detected. Prosense™ 680 was not activated by benign or inflammatory lesions. Limitations Optical filters external to capsule were used. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of principle of biochromoendoscopy, CE combined with molecular probes, provides a novel approach that differentiates adenomas from benign polyps and inflammatory lesions. PMID:18499106

Zhang, Howard; Morgan, Douglas; Cecil, Gerald; Burkholder, Adam; Ramocki, Nicole; Scull, Brooks; Kay Lund, P.

2009-01-01

57

Technical skills and training of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for new beginners  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastric cancer remains high in South Korea. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, i.e., esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), has a higher diagnostic specificity and sensitivity than the upper GI series. Additionally, EGD has the ability to biopsy, through taking a tissue of the pathologic lesion. Successful training of EGD procedural skills require a few important things to be learned and remembered, including the posture of an examinee (e.g., left lateral decubitus and supine) and examiner (e.g., one-man standing method vs one-man sitting method), basic skills (e.g., tip deflection, push forward and pull back, and air suction and infusion), advanced skills (e.g., paradoxical movement, J-turn, and U-turn), and intubation techniques along the upper GI tract (e.g., oral cavity, pharynx, larynx including vocal cord, upper and middle and lower esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, gastric fundus, body, and antrum, duodenal bulb, and descending part of duodenum). In the current review, despite several limitations, we explained the intubation method of EGD for beginners. We hope this will be helpful to beginners who wish to learn the procedure. PMID:25624710

Lee, Seung-Hwa; Park, Young-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Duck-Joo

2015-01-01

58

Appropriate use of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: up-to-date indications for primary care providers  

PubMed Central

The field of endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in recent years. Besides the ‘traditional’ endoscopic procedures (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), advances in imaging technology (endoscopic ultrasonography, wireless capsule endoscopy, and double balloon enteroscopy) have allowed GI specialists to detect and manage disorders throughout the digestive system. This article reviews various endoscopic procedures and provides up-to-date endoscopic indications based on the recommendations of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and American Cancer Society for primary care providers in order to achieve high-quality and cost-effective care. PMID:21116340

Nguyen, Vien X; Le Nguyen, Vi Thuy; Nguyen, Cuong C

2010-01-01

59

Wireless capsule endoscopy: a comparison with push enteroscopy in patients with gastroscopy and colonoscopy negative gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: The development of wireless capsule endoscopy allows painless imaging of the small intestine. Its clinical use is not yet defined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and technical performance of capsule endoscopy and push enteroscopy in a series of 50 patients with colonoscopy and gastroscopy negative gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: A wireless capsule endoscope was used containing a CMOS colour video imager, transmitter, and batteries. Approximately 50 000 transmitted images are received by eight abdominal aerials and stored on a portable solid state recorder, which is carried on a belt. Push enteroscopy was performed using a 240 cm Olympus video enteroscope. Results: Studies in 14 healthy volunteers gave information on normal anatomical appearances and preparation. In 50 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and negative colonoscopy and gastroscopy, push enteroscopy was compared with capsule endoscopy. A bleeding source was discovered in the small intestine in 34 of 50 patients (68%). These included angiodysplasia (16), focal fresh bleeding (eight), apthous ulceration suggestive of Crohn’s disease (three), tumour (two), Meckel’s diverticulum (two), ileal ulcer (one), jejunitis (one), and ulcer due to intussusception (one). One additional intestinal diagnosis was made by enteroscopy. The yield of push enteroscopy in evaluating obscure bleeding was 32% (16/50). The capsule identified significantly more small intestinal bleeding sources than push enteroscopy (p<0.05). Patients preferred capsule endoscopy to push enteroscopy (p<0.001). Conclusions: In this study capsule endoscopy was superior to push enteroscopy in the diagnosis of recurrent bleeding in patients who had a negative gastroscopy and colonoscopy. It was safe and well tolerated. PMID:12865269

Mylonaki, M; Fritscher-Ravens, A; Swain, P

2003-01-01

60

Procedural sedation and analgesia for gastrointestinal endoscopy in infants and children: how, with what, and by whom?  

PubMed

Endoscopic procedures involving the gastrointestinal tract have been successfully developed in paediatric practice over the last two decades, improving both diagnosis and treatment in many children's gastrointestinal diseases. In this group of patients, experience and co-operation between paediatricians/endoscopists and paediatric anaesthesiologists should help to guarantee the quality and safety of a procedure and should additionally help to minimise the risk of adverse events which are greater the smaller the child is. This principle is more and more important especially since the announcement of the Helsinki Declaration on Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology in 2010, emphasising the role of anaesthesiology in promoting safe perioperative care. The Helsinki Declaration has been endorsed by all European anaesthesiology institutions as well as the World Health Organisation's 'Safe Surgery Saves Lives' initiative including the 'Surgical Safety Checklist'. Although most of these procedures could be performed by paediatricians under procedural sedation and analgesia, children with congenital defects and serious coexisting diseases (ASA ? III) as well as the usage of anaesthetics (e.g. propofol) must be managed by paediatric anaesthesiologists. We have reviewed the specific principles employed during qualification and performance of procedural sedation and analgesia for gastrointestinal endoscopy in paediatrics. We have also tried to answer the questions as to how, with what, and by whom, procedural sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy in children should be performed. PMID:24858971

Bartkowska-?niatkowska, Alicja; Rosada-Kurasi?ska, Jowita; Zieli?ska, Marzena; Grze?kowiak, Ma?gorzata; Bienert, Agnieszka; Jenkins, Ian A; Igny?, Iwona

2014-01-01

61

Open-Access Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy a Decade after the Introduction of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Shift in Endoscopic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Over the past 15 years, there were considerable changes in factors associated with the development and treatment of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, of which the introduction of proton pump inhibitors and Helicobacter pylori eradication in guidelines for treatment of patients with dyspepsia are the most prominent: findings at open-access upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have not been evaluated properly ever since. This

Lieke A. S. van Kerkhoven; Sally J. van Rijswijck; Leo G. M. van Rossum; Robert J. F. Laheij; Ellen M. Witteman; Adriaan C. I. T. L. Tan; Jan B. M. J. Jansen

2007-01-01

62

Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related “superbugs” during gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and their related superbugs during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Reports of outbreaks linked to GI endoscopes contaminated with different types of infectious agents, including CRE and their related superbugs, were reviewed. Published during the past 30 years, both prior to and since CRE’s emergence, these reports were obtained by searching the peer-reviewed medical literature (via the United States National Library of Medicine’s “MEDLINE” database); the Food and Drug Administration’s Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, or “MAUDE”; and the Internet (via Google’s search engine). This review focused on an outbreak of CRE in 2013 following the GI endoscopic procedure known as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or ERCP, performed at “Hospital X” located in the suburbs of Chicago (IL; United States). Part of the largest outbreak of CRE in United States history, the infection and colonization of 10 and 28 of this hospital’s patients, respectively, received considerable media attention and was also investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which published a report about this outbreak in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), in 2014. This report, along with the results of an independent inspection of Hospital X’s infection control practices following this CRE outbreak, were also reviewed. While this article focuses primarily on the prevention of transmissions of CRE and their related superbugs in the GI endoscopic setting, some of its discussion and recommendations may also apply to other healthcare settings, to other types of flexible endoscopes, and to other types of transmissible infectious agents. This review found that GI endoscopy is an important risk factor for the transmission of CRE and their related superbugs, having been recently associated with patient morbidity and mortality following ERCP. The CDC reported in MMWR that the type of GI endoscope, known as an ERCP endoscope, that Hospital X used to perform ERCP in 2013 on the 38 patients who became infected or colonized with CRE might be particularly challenging to clean and disinfect, because of the complexity of its physical design. If performed in strict accordance with the endoscope manufacturer’s labeling, supplemented as needed with professional organizations’ published guidelines, however, current practices for reprocessing GI endoscopes, which include high-level disinfection, are reportedly adequate for the prevention of transmission of CRE and their related superbugs. Several recommendations are provided to prevent CRE transmissions in the healthcare setting. CRE transmissions are not limited to contaminated GI endoscopes and also have been linked to other reusable flexible endoscopic instrumentation, including bronchoscopes and cystoscopes. In conclusion, contaminated GI endoscopes, particularly those used during ERCP, have been causally linked to outbreaks of CRE and their related superbugs, with associated patient morbidity and mortality. Thorough reprocessing of these complex reusable instruments is necessary to prevent disease transmission and ensure patient safety during GI endoscopy. Enhanced training and monitoring of reprocessing staffers to verify the proper cleaning and brushing of GI endoscopes, especially the area around, behind and near the forceps elevator located at the distal end of the ERCP endoscope, are recommended. If the ERCP endoscope features a narrow and exposed channel that houses a wire connecting the GI endoscope’s control head to this forceps elevator, then this channel’s complete reprocessing, including its flushing with a detergent using a procedure validated for effectiveness, is also emphasized. PMID:25324917

Muscarella, Lawrence F

2014-01-01

63

Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related "superbugs" during gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

To evaluate the risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and their related superbugs during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Reports of outbreaks linked to GI endoscopes contaminated with different types of infectious agents, including CRE and their related superbugs, were reviewed. Published during the past 30 years, both prior to and since CRE's emergence, these reports were obtained by searching the peer-reviewed medical literature (via the United States National Library of Medicine's "MEDLINE" database); the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, or "MAUDE"; and the Internet (via Google's search engine). This review focused on an outbreak of CRE in 2013 following the GI endoscopic procedure known as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or ERCP, performed at "Hospital X" located in the suburbs of Chicago (IL; United States). Part of the largest outbreak of CRE in United States history, the infection and colonization of 10 and 28 of this hospital's patients, respectively, received considerable media attention and was also investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which published a report about this outbreak in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), in 2014. This report, along with the results of an independent inspection of Hospital X's infection control practices following this CRE outbreak, were also reviewed. While this article focuses primarily on the prevention of transmissions of CRE and their related superbugs in the GI endoscopic setting, some of its discussion and recommendations may also apply to other healthcare settings, to other types of flexible endoscopes, and to other types of transmissible infectious agents. This review found that GI endoscopy is an important risk factor for the transmission of CRE and their related superbugs, having been recently associated with patient morbidity and mortality following ERCP. The CDC reported in MMWR that the type of GI endoscope, known as an ERCP endoscope, that Hospital X used to perform ERCP in 2013 on the 38 patients who became infected or colonized with CRE might be particularly challenging to clean and disinfect, because of the complexity of its physical design. If performed in strict accordance with the endoscope manufacturer's labeling, supplemented as needed with professional organizations' published guidelines, however, current practices for reprocessing GI endoscopes, which include high-level disinfection, are reportedly adequate for the prevention of transmission of CRE and their related superbugs. Several recommendations are provided to prevent CRE transmissions in the healthcare setting. CRE transmissions are not limited to contaminated GI endoscopes and also have been linked to other reusable flexible endoscopic instrumentation, including bronchoscopes and cystoscopes. In conclusion, contaminated GI endoscopes, particularly those used during ERCP, have been causally linked to outbreaks of CRE and their related superbugs, with associated patient morbidity and mortality. Thorough reprocessing of these complex reusable instruments is necessary to prevent disease transmission and ensure patient safety during GI endoscopy. Enhanced training and monitoring of reprocessing staffers to verify the proper cleaning and brushing of GI endoscopes, especially the area around, behind and near the forceps elevator located at the distal end of the ERCP endoscope, are recommended. If the ERCP endoscope features a narrow and exposed channel that houses a wire connecting the GI endoscope's control head to this forceps elevator, then this channel's complete reprocessing, including its flushing with a detergent using a procedure validated for effectiveness, is also emphasized. PMID:25324917

Muscarella, Lawrence F

2014-10-16

64

Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.  

PubMed

This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended. PMID:25046348

Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc; Meisner, Søren; Repici, Alessandro; Saunders, Brian P; Vezakis, Antonios; Gonzalez, Jean Michel; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Fockens, Paul; Hassan, Cesare

2014-08-01

65

Recommendations for standards of sedation and patient monitoring during gastrointestinal endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Safety and monitoring should be part of a quality assurance programme for endoscopy units. (2) Resuscitation equipment and drugs must be available in the endoscopy and recovery areas. (3) Staff of all grades and disciplines should be familiar with resuscitation methods and undergo periodic retraining. (4) Equipment and drugs necessary for the maintenance of airway, breathing, and circulation should

G D Bell; R F McCloy; J E Charlton; D Campbell; N A Dent; M W Gear; R F Logan; C H Swan

1991-01-01

66

The role of endoscopy and biopsy in the management of severe gastrointestinal disease in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence to suggest the presence of chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Some CF patients continue to have very severe gastrointestinal symptoms despite conventional CF treatment. In our center, these patients are managed in a CF gastroenterology clinic, jointly with a pediatric gastroenterologist. A number have required GI endoscopy and biopsy. The aim of our study was to characterize these patients and determine whether endoscopy and biopsy changed their management. We reviewed all the patients seen in the CF gastroenterology clinic from 2004 to 2009, who had GI endoscopies performed. The GI symptoms these patients were experiencing included abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, rectal bleeding, failure to thrive, loose stools, and constipation. Twelve patients had GI endoscopies with mucosal biopsies performed. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] age at referral to the CF gastroenterology clinic was 4 years [0.9-8]. Their body mass index (BMI) was 15.2 [13.7-15.5]. Twenty-five percent were homozygous delta F508. Two patients had previously had meconium ileus as neonates requiring surgical intervention. One other patient had needed abdominal surgery for intussusception. Ninty-two percent were pancreatic insufficient, 25% were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 17% were on regularly 3 monthly intravenous antibiotics. Of the 10 patients who were able to perform spirometry, FEV1 was 101% [67-125] predicted. Nine of the 12 patients had evidence of mucosal inflammation in their biopsies, including duodenitis with eosinophilic infiltrate, chronic non-specific inactive gastritis, enteropathy with partial villous atrophy, and non-specific colitis. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies were commenced in these nine patients, including prednisolone, azathioprine, methotrexate, ketotifen, mesalazine, and sulfasalazine as well as the use of parenteral nutrition and elemental feeds. All the patients clinically responded to therapy. Five of the patients commenced on anti-inflammatory therapy had repeat biopsies 1-5 years following commencement of treatment and all showed histological improvement of the mucosal inflammation. GI endoscopy with mucosal biopsy has a significant role to play in the management of CF children with severe GI disease. In our study, it influenced the management in the majority of patients with severe GI symptoms. Furthermore, if GI mucosal inflammation is identified on biopsy, management with immunomodulatory agents may be clinically beneficial. PMID:23825099

Shah, Neil; Tan, Hui-leng; Sebire, Neil; Suri, Ranjan; Leuven, Ku

2013-12-01

67

24th Seah Cheng Siang Lecture*: Seeing Better, Doing Better-Evolution and Application of Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has evolved tremendously from the early days when candlelight was used to illuminate scopes to the extent that it has now become an integral part of the practice of modern gastroenterology. The first gastroscope was a rigid scope first introduced by Adolf Kussmaul in 1868. However this scope suffered from the 2 drawbacks of poor illumination and high risk of instrumental perforation. Rudolf Schindler improved on this by inventing the semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. But it was Basil Hirschowitz, using the principle of light conduction in fibreoptics, who allowed us to "see well" for the first time when he invented the flexible gastroscopy in 1958. With amazing speed and innovation, instrument companies, chiefly Japanese, had improved on the Hirschowitz gastroscope and invented a flexible colonoscope. Walter McCune introduced the technique of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 1968 which has now evolved into a sophisticated procedure. The advent of the digital age in the 1980s saw the invention of the videoendoscope. Videoendoscopes have allowed us to start seeing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) "better" with high magnification and resolution and optical/digital enhancements. Fusing confocal and light microscopy with endoscopy has allowed us to perform an "optical biopsy" of the GI mucosa. Development of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed us to see "beyond" the GIT lumen. Seeing better has allowed us to do better. Endoscopists have ventured into newer procedures such as the resection of mucosal and submucosal tumours and the field of therapeutic GI endoscopy sees no end in sight. PMID:25703498

Goh, Khean Lee

2015-01-01

68

The Canadian Registry on Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE): Endoscopic Hemostasis and Proton Pump Inhibition are Associated with Improved Outcomes in a Real-Life Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:From the Canadian Registry of patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE), we determined clinical outcomes and explored the roles of endoscopic and pharmacologic therapies in a contemporary real-life setting.METHODS:Analysis of randomly selected patients endoscoped for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 18 community and tertiary care institutions between 1999 and 2002. Covariates and outcomes were defined a priori and

Alan Barkun; Sandrine Sabbah; Robert Enns; David Armstrong; Jamie Gregor; Richard N. N. Fedorak; Elham Rahme; Youssef Toubouti; Myriam Martel; Naoki Chiba; Carlo A. Fallone

2004-01-01

69

A Meta-Analysis of the Yield of Capsule Endoscopy Compared to Other Diagnostic Modalities in Patients with Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Due to its superior ability to examine the entire small bowel mucosa, capsule endoscopy (CE) has broadened the diagnostic evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Published studies have revealed a numerically superior performance of CE in determining a source of OGIB compared with other modalities, but due to small sample sizes, the overall magnitude of benefit is unknown.

Stuart L. Triester; Jonathan A. Leighton; Grigoris I. Leontiadis; David E. Fleischer; Amy K. Hara; Russell I. Heigh; Arthur D. Shiff; Virender K. Sharma

2005-01-01

70

ASGE Technology Committee systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE PIVI thresholds for adopting real-time endoscopic assessment of the histology of diminutive colorectal polyps.  

PubMed

In vivo real-time assessment of the histology of diminutive (?5 mm) colorectal polyps detected at colonoscopy can be achieved by means of an "optical biopsy" by using currently available endoscopic technologies. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee to specifically assess whether acceptable performance thresholds outlined by an ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) document for clinical adoption of these technologies have been met. We conducted direct meta-analyses calculating the pooled negative predictive value (NPV) for narrow-band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, and Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE)-assisted optical biopsy for predicting adenomatous polyp histology of small/diminutive colorectal polyps. We also calculated the pooled percentage agreement with histopathology when assigning postpolypectomy surveillance intervals based on combining real-time optical biopsy of colorectal polyps 5 mm or smaller with histopathologic assessment of polyps larger than 5 mm. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated by means of I(2) statistics. Our meta-analyses indicate that optical biopsy with NBI, exceeds the NPV threshold for adenomatous polyp histology, supporting a "diagnose-and-leave" strategy for diminutive predicted nonneoplastic polyps in the rectosigmoid colon. The pooled NPV of NBI for adenomatous polyp histology by using the random-effects model was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94). This finding was associated with a high degree of heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%). Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled NPV was greater than 90% for academic medical centers (91.8%; 95% CI, 89-94), for experts (93%; 95% CI, 91-96), and when the optical biopsy assessment was made with high confidence (93%; 95% CI, 90-96). Our meta-analyses also indicate that the agreement in assignment of postpolypectomy surveillance intervals based on optical biopsy with NBI of diminutive colorectal polyps is 90% or greater in academic settings (91%; 95% CI, 86-95), with experienced endoscopists (92%; 95% CI, 88-96) and when optical biopsy assessments are made with high confidence (91%; 95% CI, 88-95). Our systematic review and meta-analysis confirms that the thresholds established by the ASGE PIVI for real-time endoscopic assessment of the histology of diminutive polyps have been met, at least with NBI optical biopsy, with endoscopists who are expert in using this advanced imaging technology and when assessments are made with high confidence. PMID:25597420

Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Thosani, Nirav; Konda, Vani; Wallace, Michael B; Rex, Douglas K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

2015-03-01

71

Capturing and stitching images with a large viewing angle and low distortion properties for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies are primarily performed to observe the pathologies of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. However, when an endoscope is pushed into the esophagus or stomach by the physician, the organs behave similar to a balloon being gradually inflated. Consequently, their shapes and depth-of-field of images change continually, preventing thorough examination of the inflammation or anabrosis position, which delays the curing period. In this study, a 2.9-mm image-capturing module and a convoluted mechanism was incorporated into the tube like a standard 10- mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was adopted to implement disease feature extraction on a koala doll. Following feature extraction, the smoothly varying affine stitching (SVAS) method was employed to resolve stitching distortion problems. Subsequently, the real-time splice software developed in this study was embedded in an upper gastrointestinal endoscope to obtain a panoramic view of stomach inflammation in the captured images. The results showed that the 2.9-mm image-capturing module can provide approximately 50 verified images in one spin cycle, a viewing angle of 120° can be attained, and less than 10% distortion can be achieved in each image. Therefore, these methods can solve the problems encountered when using a standard 10-mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope with a single camera, such as image distortion, and partial inflammation displays. The results also showed that the SIFT algorithm provides the highest correct matching rate, and the SVAS method can be employed to resolve the parallax problems caused by stitching together images of different flat surfaces.

Liu, Ya-Cheng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Lai, Jyun-Yi; Chang, Han-Chao; Hsu, Feng-Yi

2013-06-01

72

Esophageal polyps in pediatric patients undergoing routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a multicenter study.  

PubMed

Esophageal polyps are uncommon findings in pediatric patients, and reports have been limited to case reports. Esophageal polyps have been previously ascribed to esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux, medications, infections and recurrent vomiting. They have been associated with underlying conditions such as hiatal hernia, Barrett's esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis and Crohn's disease. Presenting complaints of children with esophageal polyps have included vomiting, dysphagia, hematemesis and abdominal pain. The aim of this paper is to characterize the incidence, clinical presentation and progression, histologic subtypes and associated mucosal abnormalities in children with esophageal polyps. A retrospective multicenter study was performed at four institutions identifying diagnosis of esophageal polyps in pediatric patients (<21 years). Information was obtained from patient charts, endoscopy reports and histopathology reports. Specimens and slides were examined by experienced pediatric pathologists for all included cases. Esophageal polyps were identified in 13 patients (9?M) from 9438 esophagogastroduodenoscopies (0.14%). Mean age of subjects was 9.2 years. Vomiting was the most common indication for endoscopy. Polyp location was at the gastroesophageal junction in 7 of the 13 cases. Most polyps were inflammatory (n = 7). Esophagitis was noted in 69% of those with esophageal polyps. Repeat endoscopies in six patients at a mean interval of 8 months noted persistence of polyps in all six patients. This paper is the first to characterize esophageal polyps in pediatrics. These polyps are rare in children and often are associated with esophagitis. Presenting complaints seem to vary by age. Polyps did not consistently change with either time or acid suppression. The optimal management strategy has yet to be defined and likely depends on the underlying pathophysiologic process. PMID:23551692

Septer, S; Cuffari, C; Attard, T M

2014-01-01

73

Safety of Gastroenterologist-Guided Sedation with Propofol for Upper Gastrointestinal Therapeutic Endoscopy in Elderly Patients Compared with Younger Patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Propofol sedation for elderly patients during time-consuming endoscopic procedures is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the safety of using propofol in elderly patients during upper gastrointestinal therapeutic endoscopy. Methods The medical records of 160 patients who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures under gastroenterologist-guided propofol sedation at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were divided into two groups: a younger group, patients <75 years old; and an elderly group, patients ?75 years old. The two groups were compared with respect to the therapeutic regimen, circulatory dynamics, and presence/absence of discontinuation of propofol treatment. Results Although the number of patients with liver dysfunction was higher in the elderly group, there were no other significant differences in the baseline characteristics, including the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, between the elderly and younger groups. The average maintenance rate of continuous propofol infusion was lower in the elderly patients. No statistically significant differences were found in the occurrence of adverse events between the elderly and younger groups. None of the patients returned to a resedated state after the initial recovery from sedation. Conclusions Gastroenterologist-guided propofol sedation in elderly patients can be safely achieved in the same manner as that in younger patients, even for time-consuming upper gastrointestinal therapeutic endoscopic procedures. PMID:25170057

Nonaka, Masaya; Gotoda, Takuji; Kusano, Chika; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

2015-01-01

74

Provision of gastrointestinal endoscopy and related services for a district general hospital. Working Party of the Clinical Services Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology.  

PubMed Central

(1) The number of endoscopic examinations performed is rising. Epidemiological data and the workload of well developed units show that annual requirements per head of population are approaching: Upper gastrointestinal 1 in 100 Flexible sigmoidoscopy 1 in 500 Colonoscopy 1 in 500 ERCP 1 in 2000 (2) Open access endoscopy to general practitioners is desirable and increasingly sought. For a district general hospital serving a population of 250,000, this workload entails about 3500 procedures annually, performed during 10 half day routine sessions plus emergency work. (3) High standards of training and experience are needed by all staff, who must work in purpose built accommodation designed to promote efficient and safe practice. (4) The endoscopy unit should be adjacent to day care facilities and near the x ray department. There should be easy access to wards. (5) An endoscopy unit needs at least two endoscopy rooms; a fully ventilated cleaning/disinfection area; rooms for patient reception, preparation, and recovery; and accommodation for administration, storage, and staff amenities. (6) The service should be consultant based. At least 10 clinical sessions are required, made up of six or more consultant sessions and two to four clinical assistant, hospital practitioner, or staff specialist sessions. Each consultant should be expected to commit at least two sessions weekly to endoscopy. Extra consultant sessions may be needed to provide an efficient service. (7) A specially trained nursing sister (grade G or H) and five other endoscopy nurses are needed to care for the patients; their work may be supplemented by care assistants. (8) A new post of endoscopy department assistant (analogous to an operating department assistant) is proposed to maintain and prepare instruments, and to give technical assistance during procedures. (9) A full time secretary should be employed. Records, appointments, and audit should be computer based. (10) ERCP needs the collaboration of an interventional radiologist working with high quality x ray equipment in a specially prepared radiology screening room. This facility may need to serve more than one hospital. (11) A gastrointestinal measurement laboratory can conveniently be combined with the endoscopy unit. In some hospitals one or more gastrointestinal measurement technicians may staff this laboratory. (12) An endoscopy unit is a service department analogous to a radiology department. It needs an annual budget. PMID:1991644

1991-01-01

75

Virtual gastrointestinal colonoscopy in combination with large bowel endoscopy: clinical application.  

PubMed

Although colorectal cancer (CRC) has no longer been the leading cancer killer worldwide for years with the exponential development in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT as well as virtual colonoscopy for early detection, the CRC related mortality is still high. The objective of CRC screening is to reduce the burden of CRC and thereby the morbidity and mortality rates of the disease. It is believed that this goal can be achieved by regularly screening the average-risk population, enabling the detection of cancer at early, curable stages, and polyps before they become cancerous. Large-scale screening with multimodality imaging approaches plays an important role in reaching that goal to detect polyps, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and CRC in early stage. This article reviews kinds of presentative imaging procedures for various screening options and updates detecting, staging and re-staging of CRC patients for determining the optimal therapeutic method and forecasting the risk of CRC recurrence and the overall prognosis. The combination use of virtual colonoscopy and conventional endoscopy, advantages and limitations of these modalities are also discussed. PMID:25320519

He, Qing; Rao, Ting; Guan, Yong-Song

2014-10-14

76

Virtual gastrointestinal colonoscopy in combination with large bowel endoscopy: Clinical application  

PubMed Central

Although colorectal cancer (CRC) has no longer been the leading cancer killer worldwide for years with the exponential development in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT as well as virtual colonoscopy for early detection, the CRC related mortality is still high. The objective of CRC screening is to reduce the burden of CRC and thereby the morbidity and mortality rates of the disease. It is believed that this goal can be achieved by regularly screening the average-risk population, enabling the detection of cancer at early, curable stages, and polyps before they become cancerous. Large-scale screening with multimodality imaging approaches plays an important role in reaching that goal to detect polyps, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and CRC in early stage. This article reviews kinds of presentative imaging procedures for various screening options and updates detecting, staging and re-staging of CRC patients for determining the optimal therapeutic method and forecasting the risk of CRC recurrence and the overall prognosis. The combination use of virtual colonoscopy and conventional endoscopy, advantages and limitations of these modalities are also discussed. PMID:25320519

He, Qing; Rao, Ting; Guan, Yong-Song

2014-01-01

77

Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGE were randomized to receive either a bupivacaine lozenge (L-group, n = 51) or lidocaine spray (S-group, n = 42). Primary objective was assessment of patient discomfort including acceptance of the gag reflex during UGE. The L-group assessed the discomfort significantly lower on a visual analog scale compared with the S-group (P = 0.02). There was also a significant difference in the four-point scale assessment of the gag reflex (P = 0.03). It was evaluated as acceptable by 49% in the L-group compared with 31% in the S-group. A bupivacaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE. PMID:25374463

Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine; Rasmussen, Mette; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove; Jacobsen, Jette

2014-01-01

78

An update on pediatric endoscopy.  

PubMed

Advances in endoscopy and anesthesia have enabled gastrointestinal endoscopy for children since 1960. Over the past decades, the number of endoscopies has increased rapidly. As specialized teams of pediatric gastroenterologists, pediatric intensive care physicians and pediatric endoscopy nurses are available in many medical centers, safe and effective procedures have been established. Therefore, diagnostic endoscopies in children are routine clinical procedures. The most frequently performed endoscopies are esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). Therapeutic interventions include variceal bleeding ligation, foreign body retrieval and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. New advances in pediatric endoscopy have led to more sensitive diagnostics of common pediatric gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease; likewise, new diseases, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, have been brought to light.Upcoming modalities, such as capsule endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and narrow band imaging, are being established and may contribute to diagnostics in pediatric gastroenterology in the future. PMID:23885793

Friedt, Michael; Welsch, Simon

2013-01-01

79

Detection of malignant lesions in vivo in the upper gastrointestinal tract using image-guided Raman endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational analytic technique sensitive to the changes in biomolecular composition and conformations occurring in tissue. With our most recent development of near-infrared (NIR) Raman endoscopy integrated with diagnostic algorithms, in vivo real-time Raman diagnostics has been realized under multimodal wide-field imaging (i.e., white- light reflectance (WLR), narrow-band imaging (NBI), autofluorescence imaging (AFI)) modalities. A selection of 177 patients who previously underwent Raman endoscopy (n=2510 spectra) was used to render two robust models based on partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for esophageal and gastric cancer diagnosis. The Raman endoscopy technique was validated prospectively on 4 new gastric and esophageal patients for in vivo tissue diagnosis. The Raman endoscopic technique could identify esophageal cancer in vivo with a sensitivity of 88.9% (8/9) and specificity of 100.0% (11/11) and gastric cancers with a sensitivity of 77.8% (14/18) and specificity of 100.0% (13/13). This study realizes for the first time the image-guided Raman endoscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of malignancies in the esophagus and gastric at the biomolecular level.

Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Teh, Ming; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

2012-01-01

80

Initial experience of wireless-capsule endoscopy for evaluating occult gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected small bowel pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Small bowel pathology can be diagnosed using enteroscopy (which has limitations) and by x-ray (which is not sensitive for flat lesions). For the first time ever, we used a new technique, wireless-capsule video endoscopy, to diagnose small bowel pathology. Our aim was to prove the effectiveness and safety of this technology.METHODS:We used the Given (M2A) system in 35 patients, aged

Eitan Scapa; Harold Jacob; Shlomo Lewkowicz; Michal Migdal; Daniel Gat; Arkady Gluckhovski; Nurit Gutmann; Zvi Fireman

2002-01-01

81

Present status of endoscopy, therapeutic endoscopy and the endoscopy training system in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Recently, Indonesia was ranked as the fourth most populous country in the world. Based on 2012 data, 85000 general practitioners and 25000 specialists are in service around the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) disease remains the most common finding in daily practise, in both outpatient and inpatient settings, and ranks fifth in causing mortality in Indonesia. Management of patients with GI disease involves all health-care levels with the main portion in primary health care. Some are managed by specialists in secondary health care or are referred to tertiary health care. GI endoscopy is one of the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the management of GI disease. Development of GI endoscopy in Indonesia started before World War II and, today, many GI endoscopy procedures are conducted in Indonesia, both diagnostic and therapeutic. Based on August 2013 data, there are 515 GI endoscopists in Indonesia. Most GI endoscopists are competent in carrying out basic endoscopy procedures, whereas only a few carry out advanced endoscopy procedures, including therapeutic endoscopy. Recently, the GI endoscopy training system in Indonesia consists of basic GI endoscopy training of 3-6 months held at 10 GI endoscopy training centers. GI endoscopy training is also eligible as part of a fellowship program of consultant gastroenterologists held at six accredited fellowship centers in Indonesia. Indonesian Society for Digestive Endoscopy in collaboration with GI endoscopy training centers in Indonesia and overseas has been working to increase quality and number of GI endoscopists, covering both basic and advanced GI endoscopy procedures. PMID:24750141

Makmun, Dadang

2014-04-01

82

A randomized trial of topical anesthesia comparing lidocaine versus lidocaine plus xylometazoline for unsedated transnasal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean ± SD, difference in mean, 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2±2.4 versus 3.9±2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI ?0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4±2.1 versus 3.2±2.8, respectively [?0.80; 95% CI ?1.54 to ?0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4±1.8 min versus 3.5±2.2 min, respectively [?1.10; 95% CI ?1.71 min to ?0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2±1.8 min versus 3.9±2.2 min, respectively [?0.70 min; 95% CI ?1.30 min to ?0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSIONS: LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required. PMID:20485707

Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Bailey, Robert; Fedorak, Richard N; Morse, John; Millan, Mario; Guzowski, Tom; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

2010-01-01

83

Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy for Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Chromoendoscopy and magnification endoscopy are 2 endoscopic techniques used to improve visualization and diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucosa. This article summarizes the principles behind magnification endoscopy, with and without chromoendoscopy, for the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, this article discusses the possible clinical use of magnification endoscopy and chromoendoscopy in evaluating patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. PMID:16012986

Canto, Marcia Irene

2005-07-01

84

Functional imaging and endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-01-01

85

Evidence-Based Recommendations on Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Stenting: A Report from the Stent Study Group of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic stents have evolved dramatically over the past 20 years. With the introduction of uncovered self-expanding metal stents in the early 1990s, they are primarily used to palliate symptoms of malignant obstruction in patients with inoperable gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. At present, stents have emerged as an effective, safe, and less invasive alternative for the treatment of malignant GI obstruction. Clinical decisions about stent placement should be made based on the exact understanding of the patient's condition. These recommendations based on a critical review of the available data and expert consensus are made for the purpose of providing endoscopists with information about stent placement. These can be helpful for management of patients with inoperable cancer or various nonmalignant conditions in the upper GI tract. PMID:23964331

Jee, Sam Ryong; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Cho, Jun-Hyung

2013-01-01

86

Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy: interim recommendations of a Working Party of the British Society of Gastroenterology.  

PubMed

1. All patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy must be considered 'at risk' for HIV and appropriate cleaning/disinfection measures taken for endoscopes and accessories. 2. Thorough manual cleaning with detergent, of the instrument and its channels is the most important part of the cleaning/disinfection procedure. Without this, blood, mucus and organic material will prevent adequate penetration of disinfectant for inactivation of bacteria and viruses. 3. Aldehyde preparations (2% activated glutaraldehyde and related products) are the recommended first line antibacterial and antiviral disinfectant. A four minute soak is recommended as sufficient for inactivation of vegetative bacteria and viruses (including HIV and HBV). 4. Quaternary ammonium detergents (8% Dettox for two minutes for bacterial disinfection), followed by exposure of the endoscope shaft and channels to ethyl alcohol (70% for four minutes for viral inactivation), is an acceptable second-line disinfectant routine where staff sensitisation prevents the use of an aldehyde disinfectant. 5. Accessories, including mouthguards and cleaning brushes, require similarly careful cleaning/disinfection, before and after each use. Disposable products (especially injection needles) may be used and appropriate items can be sterilised by autoclaving and kept in sterile packs. 6. Closed circuit endoscope washing machines have advantages in maintaining standards and avoiding staff sensitisation to disinfectants. Improved ventilation including exhaust extraction facilities may be required. 7. Endoscopy staff should receive HBV vaccination, wear gloves and appropriate protective garments, cover wounds or abrasions and avoid needlestick injuries (including spiked forceps, etc). 8. Known HIV-infected or AIDS patients are managed as immunosuppressed, and require protection from atypical mycobacteria/cryptosporidia etc, by one hour aldehyde disinfection of endoscopic equipment before and after the procedure. A dedicated instrument is not required. 9. Increased funding is necessary for capital purchases of GI endoscopic equipment, including extra and immersible endoscopes with additional accessories to allow for safe practice. 10. Greater numbers of trained GI assistants are needed to ensure that cleaning/disinfection recommendations and safety precautions are followed, both during routine lists and emergency endoscopic procedures. 11. These recommendations are based on expert interpretation of current data on infectivity and disinfection; they may require future modification. PMID:3410338

1988-08-01

87

CASS—CFEL-ASG software suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL) has created the CFEL-ASG Software Suite CASS to view, process and analyse multi-parameter experimental data acquired at Free Electron Lasers (FELs) using the CFEL-ASG Multi Purpose (CAMP) instrument Strüder et al. (2010) [6]. The software is based on a modular design so that it can be adjusted to accommodate the needs of all the various experiments that are conducted with the CAMP instrument. In fact, this allows the use of the software in all experiments where multiple detectors are involved. One of the key aspects of CASS is that it can be used either 'on-line', using a live data stream from the free-electron laser facility's data acquisition system to guide the experiment, and 'off-line', on data acquired from a previous experiment which has been saved to file. Program summary Program title: CASS Catalogue identifier: AEMP_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167073 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1065056 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-64. Operating system: GNU/Linux (for information about restrictions see outlook). RAM: >8 GB Classification: 2.3, 3, 15, 16.4. External routines: Qt-Framework[1], SOAP[2], (optional HDF5[3], VIGRA[4], ROOT[5], QWT[6]) Nature of problem: Analysis and visualisation of scientific data acquired at Free-Electron-Lasers Solution method: Generalise data access and storage so that a variety of small programming pieces can be linked to form a complex analysis chain. Unusual features: Complex analysis chains can be built without recompiling the program Additional comments: An updated extensive documentation of CASS is available at [7]. Running time: Depending on the data size and complexity of analysis algorithms. References: [1] http://qt.nokia.com [2] http://www.cs.fsu.edu/~engelen/soap.html [3] http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/ [4] http://hci.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/vigra/ [5] http://root.cern.ch [6] http://qwt.sourceforge.net/ [7] http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/personalhomes/gitasg/cass

Foucar, Lutz; Barty, Anton; Coppola, Nicola; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Hoppe, Uwe; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Küpper, Jochen; Scholz, Mirko; Techert, Simone; White, Thomas A.; Strüder, Lothar; Ullrich, Joachim

2012-10-01

88

Biodegradable stents in gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable stents (BDSs) are an attractive option to avoid ongoing dilation or surgery in patients with benign stenoses of the small and large intestines. The experience with the currently the only BDS for endoscopic placement, made of Poly-dioxanone, have shown promising results. However some aspects should be improved as are the fact that BDSs lose their radial force over time due to the degradable material, and that can cause stent-induced mucosal or parenchymal injury. This complication rate and modest clinical efficacy has to be carefully considered in individual patients prior to placement of BDSs. Otherwise, the price of these stents therefore it is nowadays an important limitation. PMID:24605020

Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Moreno-de-Vega, Vicente; Marín, Ingrid; Boix, Jaume

2014-01-01

89

Highlights of International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2013  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as the evolution of science have made it necessary for us to continue update in either various endoscopic techniques or state of art lectures relevant to endoscopy. International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2013 was held in conjunction with Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KJSGE) during June 8 to 9, 2013 at Seoul, Korea. Two days of impressive scientific program dealt with a wide variety of basic concerns from upper gastrointestine (GI), lower GI, pancreaticobiliary endoscopy to advanced knowledge including endoscopic submucosal dissection forum. IDEN seems to be an excellent opportunity to exchange advanced information of the latest issues on endoscopy with experts from around the world. In this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy, we prepared state of art review articles from contributing authors and the current highlights will skillfully deal with very hot spots of each KJSGE, upper GI, lower GI, and pancreaticobiliary sessions by associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy. PMID:24143297

Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Eun Young; Dong, Seok Ho

2013-01-01

90

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is one of a series of statements discussing the utilization of GI endoscopy in common clinical situations. The Standards of Practice Committee of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy prepared this text. In preparing this guideline, a MEDLINE literature search was performed, and additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of the identified articles and from recommendations of expert

Jonathan A Leighton; Jay Goldstein; William Hirota; Brian C Jacobson; John F Johanson; J. Shawn Mallery; Kathryn Peterson; J. Patrick Waring; Robert D Fanelli; Jo Wheeler-Harbaugh; Todd H Baron; Douglas O Faigel

2003-01-01

91

Guidelines for sedation in gastroenterological endoscopy.  

PubMed

Recently, the need for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy has been increasing. However, the National Health Insurance Drug Price list in Japan does not include any drug specifically used for the sedation. Although benzodiazepines are the main medication, their use in cases of gastrointestinal endoscopy has not been approved. This has led the Japan Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Society to develop the first set of guidelines for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy on the basis of evidence-based medicine in collaboration with the Japanese Society for Anesthesiologists. The present guidelines comprise 14 statements, five of which were judged to be valid on the highest evidence level and three on the second highest level. The guidelines are not intended to strongly recommend the use of sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy, but rather to indicate the policy as to the choice of appropriate procedures when such sedation is deemed necessary. In clinical practice, the final decision as to the use of sedation should be made by physicians considering patient willingness and physical condition. PMID:25677012

Obara, Katsutoshi; Haruma, Ken; Irisawa, Atsushi; Kaise, Mitsuru; Gotoda, Takuji; Sugiyama, Masanori; Tanabe, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Akira; Fujita, Naotaka; Ozaki, Makoto; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Masao; Kaminishi, Michio

2015-05-01

92

Chromo- and magnifying endoscopy for colorectal lesions.  

PubMed

It is essential to identify patients with premalignant or early malignant changes during colonoscopy. Thus, curative resection can be offered. At present, endoscopy can be performed with new powerful high-resolution or magnifying endoscopes. Comparably to the rapid development in chip technology, the optic features of the newly designed endoscopes offer resolutions which allow new mucosal surface details to be seen. In conjunction with chromoendoscopy, the newly discovered tool video endoscopy is much easier and more impressive than with conventional fibre optics. This review summarizes the value of magnifying endoscopy in the lower gastrointestinal tract and focuses on colorectal lesions. PMID:16003126

Kiesslich, Ralf; Neurath, Markus F

2005-08-01

93

Angiography and the gastrointestinal bleeder  

SciTech Connect

The role of angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed. Three categories of gastrointestinal bleeding are considered: upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, upper gastrointestinal bleeding of arterial or capillary origin, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The advantages and disadvantages of angiography are compared with those of radionuclide scanning and endoscopy or colonoscopy. It is anticipated that, as radionuclide scans are more widely employed, angiography will eventually be performed only in those patients with positive scans.

Baum, S.

1982-05-01

94

[Endoscopy in pregnancy].  

PubMed

Assessing the need of endoscopy and performing the examination is a difficult task which requires an experienced investigator. Though it is prudent to postpone the investigation to the third trimester or rather to the postpartum period; in certain clinical situations like upper gastrointestinal bleeding or biliary pancreatitis it is not possible; endoscopic intervention has to be performed in these cases just like in non-pregnant patients. There is a paucity of data in medical literature to rely on and the retrospective nature of these data makes it even more problematic. There is not more than one such a case per year per endoscopist in Hungary which requires decision in these situations; we have to think of the factors endangering the fetus but we have to keep in mind the factors that ensure the well-being of the mother by all means. PMID:17573254

Zágoni, Tamás; Juhász, Eszter Daniella; Sipos, Ferenc; Tulassay, Zsolt

2007-06-24

95

Improving visualization techniques by narrow band imaging and magnification endoscopy.  

PubMed

Endoscopy plays an important role in the early detection of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms. Using conventional white light or dye-based image enhanced endoscopy, it has been difficult to assess pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions precisely. However, narrow band imaging (NBI) dramatically improves the detection of these lesions, particularly in combination with magnifying endoscopy. This allows the endoscopist to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Such enhanced detection of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract should allow better targeting of biopsy, improved and more appropriate treatment, and thereby contribute to optimal quality of life and patient survival. PMID:19702901

Muto, Manabu; Horimatsu, Takahiro; Ezoe, Yasumasa; Morita, Shuko; Miyamoto, Shinichi

2009-08-01

96

Complex therapeutic-diagnostic endoscopy with laser irradiation and in-Situ spectrophotometry of erosive-ulcerative impairments of upper part of the gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today in the world there are a lot of effective methods to treat different disease with the use of low-level laser (LLL) radiation. And there are a number of well-known effective noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques, such as a laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS), elastic-scattering spectroscopy (ESS), absorption spectroscopy (ABSS), etc. In this paper the first experience of the complex laser-optical therapeutic-diagnostic treatment for the erosive-ulcerative impairments (EUI) of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (UPGT) are discussed. The EUI of the UPGT very often have a resistance to a medicamentous therapy and the treatment of that is very difficult in this case. The method of LLL irradiation through an endoscope has been used to increase the efficiency of LLL-therapy and to monitor a general process of recovery respectively. The standard biopsy was investigated to estimate the effect of care as well. As it is shown in this paper the in-situ ABSS allows to optimize the LLL treatment parameters for each patient and for each procedure if the laser has effect on a blood circulation in the irradiated zone. In this case the doctors can see the considerable effect and the reduction period of the cure for EUI. Otherwise, the ABSS indicates that there will be no any effect of LLL therapy for such patient and another methods of treatment are needed. The LFS in this case shows the absence of effect during the care course too. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results this paper presents our current understanding of mechanisms of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics and LLL therapy effect for EUI of the UPGT. Today this technique has the official approval of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation.

Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tereschenko, Sergey G.; Lapaeva, Ludmila G.; Gorenkov, Roman V.

2002-05-01

97

Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato.  

PubMed

The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180

Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

2012-12-15

98

An ultra wideband communication channel model for capsule endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule endoscopy is an increasingly popular alternative to a tube-based endoscope used in diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases. It enables the inspection of areas that are not easily accessible using traditional endoscopy and reduces patient discomfort. In addition to transferring high-capacity demanding image data, the capsule's wireless interface must provide a wireless link that enables real-time positioning and tracking of the capsule.

S. Stoa; Raul Chavez-Santiago; Ilangko Balasingham

2010-01-01

99

Endoscopy unit considerations in the care of obese patients.  

PubMed

The dramatic increase in obesity in the general population is accompanied by a concomitant increase in bariatric surgical programs. Gastrointestinal endoscopy has an important role in patient evaluation, postoperative management, and emerging endoscopic bariatric therapies. Endoscopy units must address special design and equipment needs of obese patients in short- and long-range planning. Obese people require more health care resources than nonobese people, with increased physical challenges for staff in administering that care. This article details endoscopy unit considerations pertaining to the bariatric patient, which may apply to pretreatment endoscopic evaluation, managing postoperative bariatric surgical complications, and emerging endoluminal bariatric therapies. PMID:21569978

Ginsberg, Gregory G; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

2011-04-01

100

Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

101

New aspects of modern endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine. PMID:25132916

Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur

2014-01-01

102

On-the-fly Detection of Images with Gastritis Aspects in Magnetically-Guided Capsule Endoscopy  

E-print Network

On-the-fly Detection of Images with Gastritis Aspects in Magnetically-Guided Capsule Endoscopy P. W for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre endoscopy, gastritis 1. INTRODUCTION Cancer in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has the first highest

Angelopoulou, Elli

103

Understanding Capsule Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... by traditional methods of endoscopy. IMPORTANT REMINDER: This information is intended only to provide general guidance. It does not provide definitive medical advice. It is very important that you consult your doctor about your specific condition.

104

Upper Endoscopy for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... basis for diagnosis or treatment in any particular case. It is very important that you consult your doctorabout your specific condition. Upper Endoscopy SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: NASPGHAN •PO BOX 6 •Flourtown, PA 19031 • ...

105

Sedation for Your Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... blood” such as Coumadin, Lovenox, Heparin, and Plavix yes | no Any type of medicine that is used for diabetes ( ... the past? yes | no Are you allergic to any medicines? yes | no If you had an endoscopy before, were ...

106

How reliable is determination of ulcer size by endoscopy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suface areas of 23 artificial ulcers in a rubber manikin and of 35 ulcers in 35 consecutive patients admitted for endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract were estimated by six endoscopists. Of the 138 estimations made in the manikin 80% underestimated the true size of the ulcer: the mean (+\\/- SD) was -29 +\\/- 40%. The largest and the

A Sonnenberg; M Giger; L Kern; C Noll; K Study; K B Weber; A L Blum

1979-01-01

107

Endoscopy reporting standards  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) recently published consensus recommendations for safety and quality indicators in digestive endoscopy. The present article focuses specifically on the identification of key elements that should be found in all electronic endoscopy reports detailing recommendations adopted by the CAG consensus group. METHODS: A committee of nine individuals steered the CAG Safety and Quality Indicators in Endoscopy Consensus Group, which had a total membership of 35 voting individuals with knowledge on the subject relating to endoscopic services. A comprehensive literature search was performed with regard to the key elements that should be found in an electronic endoscopy report. A task force reviewed all published, full-text, adult and human studies in French or English. RESULTS: Components to be entered into the standardized report include identification of procedure, timing, procedural personnel, patient demographics and history, indication(s) for procedure, comorbidities, type of bowel preparation, consent for the procedure, pre-endoscopic administration of medications, type and dose of sedation used, extent and completeness of examination, quality of bowel preparation, relevant findings and pertinent negatives, adverse events and resulting interventions, patient comfort, diagnoses, endoscopic interventions performed, details of pathology specimens, details of follow-up arrangements, appended pathology report(s) and, when available, management recommendations. Summary information should be provided to the patient or family. CONCLUSION: Continuous quality improvement should be the responsibility of every endoscopist and endoscopy facility to ensure improved patient care. Appropriate documentation of endoscopic procedures is a critical component of such activities. PMID:23712304

Beaulieu, Daphnée; Barkun, Alan N; Dubé, Catherine; Tinmouth, Jill; Hallé, Pierre; Martel, Myriam

2013-01-01

108

Recent advances in photoacoustic endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Imaging based on photoacoustic effect relies on illuminating with short light pulses absorbed by tissue absorbers, resulting in thermoelastic expansion, giving rise to ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves are then detected by detectors placed around the sample. Photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) is one of four major implementations of photoacoustic tomography that have been developed recently. The prototype PAE was based on scanning mirror system that deflected both the light and the ultrasound. A recently developed mini-probe was further miniaturized, and enabled simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. This PAE-endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) system can offer high-resolution vasculature information in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and display differences between optical and mechanical contrast compared with single-mode EUS. However, PAE for endoscopic GI imaging is still at the preclinical stage. In this commentary, we describe the technological improvements in PAE for possible clinical application in endoscopic GI imaging. In addition, we discuss the technical details of the ultrasonic transducer incorporated into the photoacoustic endoscopic probe. PMID:24255745

Yoon, Tae-Jong; Cho, Young-Seok

2013-01-01

109

Capsule endoscopy: Current practice and future directions  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed investigation of the small bowel providing a non-invasive, well tolerated means of accurately visualising the distal duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Since the introduction of small bowel CE thirteen years ago a high volume of literature on indications, diagnostic yields and safety profile has been presented. Inclusion in national and international guidelines has placed small bowel capsule endoscopy at the forefront of investigation into suspected diseases of the small bowel. Most commonly, small bowel CE is used in patients with suspected bleeding or to identify evidence of active Crohn’s disease (CD) (in patients with or without a prior history of CD). Typically, CE is undertaken after upper and lower gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy has failed to identify a diagnosis. Small bowel radiology or a patency capsule test should be considered prior to CE in those at high risk of strictures (such as patients known to have CD or presenting with obstructive symptoms) to reduce the risk of capsule retention. CE also has a role in patients with coeliac disease, suspected small bowel tumours and other small bowel disorders. Since the advent of small bowel CE, dedicated oesophageal and colon capsule endoscopes have expanded the fields of application to include the investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. Oesophageal CE may be used to diagnose oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and varices but reliability in identifying gastroduodenal pathology is unknown and it does not have biopsy capability. Colon CE provides an alternative to conventional colonoscopy for symptomatic patients, while a possible role in colorectal cancer screening is a fascinating prospect. Current research is already addressing the possibility of controlling capsule movement and developing capsules which allow tissue sampling and the administration of therapy. PMID:24976712

Hale, Melissa F; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E

2014-01-01

110

Flexible and capsule endoscopy for screening, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Endoscopy dates back to the 1860s, but many of the most significant advancements have been made within the past decade. With the integration of robotics, the ability to precisely steer and advance traditional flexible endoscopes has been realized, reducing patient pain and improving clinician ergonomics. Additionally, wireless capsule endoscopy, a revolutionary alternative to traditional scopes, enables inspection of the digestive system with minimal discomfort for the patient or the need for sedation, mitigating some of the risks of flexible endoscopy. This review presents a research update on robotic endoscopic systems, including both flexible scope and capsule technologies, detailing actuation methods and therapeutic capabilities. A future perspective on endoscopic potential for screening, diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal procedures is also presented. PMID:25148269

Sliker, Levin J; Ciuti, Gastone

2014-11-01

111

Extra-articular hip endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

2012-01-01

112

Canadian Association of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on safety and quality indicators in endoscopy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality, highlight the need for clearly defined, evidence-based processes to support quality improvement in endoscopy. OBJECTIVE: To identify processes and indicators of quality and safety relevant to high-quality endoscopy service delivery. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of 35 voting participants developed recommendation statements and performance indicators. Systematic literature searches generated 50 initial statements that were revised iteratively following a modified Delphi approach using a web-based evaluation and voting tool. Statement development and evidence evaluation followed the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, REsearch and Evaluation) and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) guidelines. At the consensus conference, participants voted anonymously on all statements using a 6-point scale. Subsequent web-based voting evaluated recommendations for specific, individual quality indicators, safety indicators and mandatory endoscopy reporting fields. Consensus was defined a priori as agreement by 80% of participants. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 23 recommendation statements addressing the following: ethics (statement 1: agreement 100%), facility standards and policies (statements 2 to 9: 90% to 100%), quality assurance (statements 10 to 13: 94% to 100%), training, education, competency and privileges (statements 14 to 19: 97% to 100%), endoscopy reporting standards (statements 20 and 21: 97% to 100%) and patient perceptions (statements 22 and 23: 100%). Additionally, 18 quality indicators (agreement 83% to 100%), 20 safety indicators (agreement 77% to 100%) and 23 recommended endoscopy-reporting elements (agreement 91% to 100%) were identified. DISCUSSION: The consensus process identified a clear need for high-quality clinical and outcomes research to support quality improvement in the delivery of endoscopy services. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines support quality improvement in endoscopy by providing explicit recommendations on systematic monitoring, assessment and modification of endoscopy service delivery to yield benefits for all patients affected by the practice of gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:22308578

Armstrong, David; Barkun, Alan; Bridges, Ron; Carter, Rose; de Gara, Chris; Dubé, Catherine; Enns, Robert; Hollingworth, Roger; MacIntosh, Donald; Borgaonkar, Mark; Forget, Sylviane; Leontiadis, Grigorios; Meddings, Jonathan; Cotton, Peter; Kuipers, Ernst J; Valori, Roland

2012-01-01

113

Evaluation and outcomes of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as recurrent or persistent bleeding or presence of iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation with a negative bidirectional endoscopy. OGIB accounts for 5% of gastrointestinal bleeding and presents a diagnostic challenge. Current modalities available for the investigation of OGIB include capsule endoscopy, balloon assisted enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy and computed tomography enterography. These modalities overcome the limitations of previous techniques. Following a negative bidirectional endoscopy, capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy remain the cornerstone of investigation in OGIB given their high diagnostic yield. Long-term outcome data in patients with OGIB is limited, but is most promising for capsule endoscopy. This article reviews the current literature and provides an overview of the clinical evaluation of patients with OGIB, available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25400992

Santhakumar, Cositha; Liu, Ken

2014-01-01

114

Micromachines in endoscopy.  

PubMed

Conventional endoscopy has reached a plateau in technical development, necessitating the exploration of bold new ideas in order to make further advances. One such idea is a self-navigating, independent, intelligent colonoscopic micro-robot. The design of a vehicle that can negotiate the difficult and hostile terrain of the colon is a complex task. Options include wheeled or tracked vehicles and pneumatically driven devices. The development of navigation and lesion recognition software to drive such a vehicle is also challenging. The various mathematical concepts involved in the development of such software are explored in this article. PMID:11030633

Goh, P; Krishnan, S M

1999-04-01

115

Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... supplies at all times, and strict procedures for reporting possible problems. Availability of Reprocessing Guidelines The ASGE guidelines for infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy provide the latest techniques and ...

116

Removal of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 80–95% of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without or with few complications; it is considered that 10–20% require medical intervention. In the great majority of the cases, endoscopy solves the problem and in around 1% of the cases surgery is required for exploration and extraction. Although foreign body ingestion can induce severe

Josep M. Bordas; Josep Llach; Miguel Muñoz-Navas

2010-01-01

117

Long-time octreotide in an adolescent with severe haemorrhagic gastrointestinal vascular malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are a rare cause of acute or chronic blood loss. Usually they are treated by endoscopic obliteration or surgical resection. When such a therapy is inapplicable, pharmacotherapy may be required. At the age of 15 years, our female patient suffered from transfusion dependent recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to multiple gastrointestinal vascular malformations. Gastroscopy, coloscopy and capsule endoscopy

Carl Friedrich Classen; Dieter Haffner; Christina Hauenstein; Ricarda Wolf; Ulrike Kyank

2011-01-01

118

Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score) for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing mucosal status, capsule endoscopy will provide important information about the course and outcome of Crohn’s disease. PMID:23818810

Niv, Yaron

2013-01-01

119

Overt gastrointestinal bleeding because of hookworm infection.  

PubMed

Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. The most common hookworm species are Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. In this report we present a case of overt gastrointestinal bleeding because of hookworm infection. Capsule endoscopy revealed many hookworms in the lumen of proximal jejunum where active bleeding was seen. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. PMID:22449530

Chen, Jia-Min; Zhang, Xin-Mei; Wang, Liang-Jing; Chen, Yan; Du, Qin; Cai, Jian-Ting

2012-04-01

120

Waiting lines in the endoscopy unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The efficient management of the endoscopy unit involves issues of scheduling. The aim of this study was to assess efficient use of an endoscopy unit and its relationship to patient waiting. Methods: Formulas of queueing theory are applied to patient scheduling in endoscopy. The M\\/M\\/n queueing model assumes exponential (Markovian) distributions underlying both patient arrival and endoscopy times with

Amnon Sonnenberg

2000-01-01

121

Logistical considerations for endoscopy simulators.  

PubMed

A variety of endoscopy simulators have been produced during the last several decades. Multiple factors have influenced the types of simulators that have been developed and the ongoing evolution of existing models. Realistic simulation is only one issue in providing simulation-based training in GI endoscopy. Details such as cost, technologic limitations, management and availability of training facilities, personnel, animal welfare and the procurement, handling, and disposal of animal parts are all major factors when considering the options available among existing endoscopy simulators. Table 1 summarizes the logistical factors for the different types of endoscopy simulator. These considerations clearly are of major importance in simulator design and development and in the conceptualization and organization of simulator-based curricula and courses. PMID:16876726

Cisler, Jason J; Martin, John A

2006-07-01

122

Patient satisfaction with the endoscopy experience and willingness to return in a central Canadian health region  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients’ willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients’ willingness to return. METHODS: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients’ overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. RESULTS: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients’ willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients’ willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. PMID:23712300

Loftus, Russell; Nugent, Zoann; Graff, Lesley A; Schumacher, Frederick; Bernstein, Charles N; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

123

An Interactive Virtual Endoscopy Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a 3D Virtual Endoscopy system for facilitating diagnostic and surgical planning phases of endoscopic procedures. Our system allows the user to interactively explore the internal surface of a 3D patient-specific anatomical model and to create and update a fly-through trajectory through the model to simulate endoscopy. We also present an

Delphine Nain; Steven Haker; Ron Kikinis; W. Eric; L. Grimson

2001-01-01

124

Safety of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Wireless video capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new technology that allows visualization of the entire small intestinal mucosa. It is indicated for the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and other disorders of the small intestine. Studies to date suggest that CE is safe and associated with few adverse events. A concern, which has not been studied, is the potential

Jonathan A. Leighton; Komandoor Srivathsan; Elizabeth J. Carey; Virender K. Sharma; Russell I. Heigh; Janice K. Post; Paula J. Erickson; Sarah R. Robinson; Jane L. Bazzell; David E. Fleischer

2005-01-01

125

Surgical management of gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Severe gastrointestinal bleeding has historically been a clinical problem primarily under the purview of the general surgeon. Diagnostic advances made as the result of newer technologies, such as fiberoptic and video endoscopy, selective visceral arteriography, and nuclear scintigraphy, have permitted more accurate and targeted operations. More importantly, they have led to safe, effective nonoperative therapeutic interventions that have obviated the need for surgery in many patients. Today, most gastrointestinal bleeding episodes are initially managed by endoscopic or angiographic control measures. Such interventions are often definitive in obtaining hemostasis. Even temporary cessation or attenuation of massive bleeding in an unstable patient permits a safer, more controlled operative procedure by allowing an adequate period of preoperative resuscitation. Despite the less frequent need for surgical intervention, traditional operative approaches, such as suture ligation, lesion or organ excision, vagotomy, portasystemic anastomosis, and devascularization procedures, continue to be life-saving in many instances. The proliferation of laparoscopic surgery has fostered the application of minimally invasive techniques to highly selected patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Intraoperative endoscopy has greatly facilitated the accuracy of laparoscopic surgery by endoscopic localization of bleeding lesions requiring excision. It is anticipated that the evolving technologies pertinent to the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding will continue to promote collaboration and cooperation between gastroenterologists, radiologists, and surgeons. PMID:10752022

Stabile, B E; Stamos, M J

2000-03-01

126

Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding by radionuclide scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning with Technetium /sup 99m/ labeled autologous red blood cells was performed in 59 patients with clinical suspicion of acute and/or intermittent, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. In 36 patients (61%), a definite site of bleeding could be demonstrated. A strong correlation with other modalities such as upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, contrast angiography, and surgical exploration was found. Overall sensitivity of the procedure was 91%; specificity 100% and accuracy 93.3%. It is suggested that radionuclide scintigraphy provides a completely noninvasive, simple, and sensitive procedure which may be routinely used for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Kingsley, S.; Prince, M.; Herrera, N.

1984-01-01

127

Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges  

PubMed Central

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621

Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

2012-01-01

128

Magnifying chromoendoscopy for the detection of premalignant gastrointestinal lesions.  

PubMed

The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract is strictly dependent on the early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. At present, endoscopy can be performed with new, powerful high-resolution or magnifying endoscopes. Comparable to the rapid development in chip technology, the optic features of the newly designed endoscopes offer resolutions that allow new mucosal surface details to be seen. In conjunction with chromoendoscopy, the newly discovered tool of video endoscopy is much easier to use and more impressive than previously used fibreoptic endoscopy. This review summarises the value of magnifying endoscopy in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and early gastric and colorectal cancer. PMID:16473801

Kiesslich, R; Neurath, M F

2006-02-01

129

Small bowel capsule endoscopy in 2007: Indications, risks and limitations  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate, endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions).The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming, can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy. At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy). PMID:18069752

Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Mulder, Chris JJ; Jacobs, Maarten AJM; de Franchis, Roberto

2007-01-01

130

[Image-enhanced endoscopy and magnifying endoscopy for esophageal cancer].  

PubMed

Image diagnoses for esophageal cancer are progressing. With regard to endoscopic examination, chrome endoscopy using iodine have been performed so far to identify the range of lesion and to detect multiple primary cancers. In addition to that, endoscopic ultrasonography is used to diagnose the depth of tumor invasion and to identify lymph node metastasis. Recently, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) [e.g. Flexible spectral Imaging Color Enhancement (FICE), i-scan, Narrow Band Imaging (NBI), Autofluorescence imaging (AFI)] has developed. IEE is useful to detect superficial lesion, and is being utilized for diagnosing the tumor depth of invasion by using magnifying endoscopy( ME) together. In this literature, recent progress of endoscopic diagnosis, especially about IEE and ME, is reviewed. In addition to that, a way of endoscopic examination using IEE and ME is introduced. PMID:25138953

Nakajima, Masanobu; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-07-01

131

Endoscopy in the Diagnosis and Management of Motility Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Gastrointestinal illness may result from either an underlying structural abnormality (e.g. neoplastic obstruction), or a functional\\u000a disorder (e.g. motor diarrhea), or both (e.g. achalasia with squamous esophageal cancer).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  The purpose of this study was to highlight the potential value and role of endoscopy in the recognition and management of\\u000a patients with functional and motility disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a literature review

Yael Kopelman; George Triadafilopoulos

2011-01-01

132

Beyond standard image-enhanced endoscopy confocal endomicroscopy.  

PubMed

Endomicroscopy is a new imaging tool for gastrointestinal endoscopy. In vivo histology becomes possible at subcellular resolution during ongoing colonoscopy. Panchromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies has become the method of choice for surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Endomicroscopy can be added after chromoendoscopy to clarify whether standard biopsies are needed. This smart biopsy concept can increase the diagnostic yield of intraepithelial neoplasia and substantially reduce the need for biopsies. Clinical acceptance is increasing because of a multitude of positive studies about the diagnostic value of endomicroscopy. Smart biopsies, functional imaging, and molecular imaging may represent the future for endomicroscopy. PMID:24975533

Teubner, Daniel; Kiesslich, Ralf; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Rey, Johannes W; Hoffman, Arthur

2014-07-01

133

Early endoscopy in systemic sclerosis without gastrointestinal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation into the upper GI-tract of patients suffering from systemic sclerosis [SSc] and mixed connective tissue disease\\u000a [MCTD] without symptoms of GI-tract involvement early in the course of the disease to diagnose inflammatory and motility disorders.\\u000a We retrospectively analysed patients with SSc and MCTD who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy [OGD] within a year of\\u000a the first diagnosis. Patients with a Rodnan skin

Rene Thonhofer; Cornelia Siegel; Markus Trummer; Winfried Graninger

134

Early endoscopy in systemic sclerosis without gastrointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed

Investigation into the upper GI-tract of patients suffering from systemic sclerosis [SSc] and mixed connective tissue disease [MCTD] without symptoms of GI-tract involvement early in the course of the disease to diagnose inflammatory and motility disorders. We retrospectively analysed patients with SSc and MCTD who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy [OGD] within a year of the first diagnosis. Patients with a Rodnan skin score above 5, proton pump inhibitors and treatment regimes potentially harmful to the mucosa of the upper GI-tract were excluded. Mucosal damage of the oesophagus was classified according to the Los Angeles Classification. Oesophageal dysmotility was assessed during OGD and confirmed by video cineradiography. A total of thirteen patients with SSc and six with MCTD fulfilled the inclusion criteria. OGD revealed reflux-oesophagitis in 77%, dysmotility of the distal oesophagus in 85%, gastritis in 92% [31% erosive gastritis] and Helicobacter pylori positivity in 38% of our patients suffering from SSc. Patients with MCTD showed features of reflux-oesophagitis, dysmotility of the distal oesophagus, gastritis and dysmotility of the stomach in 0.6%. In all thirteen patients with SSc, significant pathology of the upper GI-tract was found. The results of this study might indicate that OGD should be performed early in patients diagnosed with SSc, even if they do not report typical symptoms. An early diagnose of GI involvement might be followed by an effective therapy and therefore subsequently may improve the prognosis. PMID:20711592

Thonhofer, Rene; Siegel, Cornelia; Trummer, Markus; Graninger, Winfried

2012-01-01

135

The endoscopy Global Rating Scale – Canada: Development and implementation of a quality improvement tool  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality highlight the need for endoscopy facilities to review the quality of the service they offer. OBJECTIVE: To adapt the United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (UK-GRS) to develop a web-based and patient-centred tool to assess and improve the quality of endoscopy services provided. METHODS: Based on feedback from 22 sites across Canada that completed the UK endoscopy GRS, and integrating results of the Canadian consensus on safety and quality indicators in endoscopy and other Canadian consensus reports, a working group of endoscopists experienced with the GRS developed the GRS-Canada (GRS-C). RESULTS: The GRS-C mirrors the two dimensions (clinical quality and quality of the patient experience) and 12 patient-centred items of the UK-GRS, but was modified to apply to Canadian health care infrastructure, language and current practice. Each item is assessed by a yes/no response to eight to 12 statements that are divided into levels graded D (basic) through A (advanced). A core team consisting of a booking clerk, charge nurse and the physician responsible for the unit is recommended to complete the GRS-C twice yearly. CONCLUSION: The GRS-C is intended to improve endoscopic services in Canada by providing endoscopy units with a straightforward process to review the quality of the service they provide. PMID:23472242

MacIntosh, Donald; Dubé, Catherine; Hollingworth, Roger; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Daniels, Sandra; Ghattas, George

2013-01-01

136

Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn’s disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

2014-01-01

137

Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

2014-08-01

138

Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

2006-03-01

139

Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.  

PubMed

The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25361499

Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; OShea, Conor; ODonoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; OShea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

2015-03-01

140

On the quality of EPN and ASG-EUPOS time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Centre of Applied Geomatics as the one of 18 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) Local Analysis Centres processes data from the network consisting of 114 sites evenly distributed among the Europe. It provides coordinates with full matrices in SINEX files and troposphere parameters on weekly basis. They are being used to construct the reference frame. Helmert parameters indicate the coherence between reference solution and each of weekly solutions. Daily EPN solutions were determined in the frame of EPN Reprocessing project. Apart from that, data gathered by all ASG-EUPOS (Polish Active Geodetic Network consisting of more than 130 sites) is being processed using the same strategy, which is applied by the EPN community. As the result daily and weekly time series of coordinates are determined. Basing on the weekly solutions cumulative coordinates and velocities are calculated. Their characteristic is very important in the context of the reliability estimation since many potential ambiguities in GPS system exist. The basic parameters which were determined were skewness and kurtosis. Skewness is a measure of the lack of symmetry of probability distribution. Negative values for the skewness indicate data that are skewed left and positive values indicate data that are skewed right, the skewness for a normal distribution is zero. Kurtosis is a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to the normal distribution. High kurtosis means that the peak near the mean is distinct, and probability distribution decline rather rapidly. Low kurtosis means that the peak near the mean is rather flat than sharp and the probability distribution tends to be more uniform than normal. The presentation will deal with the analysis on the topocentric coordinates (North-East and Up separately) of the chosen EPN and ASG-EUPOS sites aimed at quality and reliability investigation.

Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna; Kosek, Wieslaw; Szafranek, Karolina

2013-04-01

141

Guidelines for Video Capsule Endoscopy: Emphasis on Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is an ingestible video camera that transmits high-quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This makes the small intestine more readily accessible to physicians investigating the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn's disease (CD). Although VCE is frequently performed in Korea, there are no evidence-based guidelines on the appropriate use of VCE in the diagnosis of CD. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel diseases, the Korean Gut Image Study Group, part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, developed guidelines on VCE. Teams were set up to develop guidelines on VCE. Four areas were selected: diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel preparation for VCE, diagnosis of CD, and diagnosis of small bowel tumors. Three key questions were selected regarding the role of VCE in CD. In preparing these guidelines, a systematic literature search, evaluation, selection, and meta-analysis were performed. After writing a draft of the guidelines, the opinions of various experts were solicited before producing the final document. These guidelines are expected to play a role in the diagnosis of CD. They will need to be updated as new data and evidence become available.

Park, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Wan-Sik; Jang, Byung Ik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Hyun Jung

2015-01-01

142

Stigmata of recent haemorrhage in diagnosis and prognosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 277 consecutive episodes of suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding, lesions bearing stigmata of recent haemorrhage (stigmata) were found by endoscopy in 110 (47%) out of 233 patients who were judged to have bled; 78 (33%) had lesions without stigmata, and in 45 (19%) no lesion was seen. Results in 176 entirely unselected admissions for upper gastrointestinal bleeding were similar.Forty-eight chronic

D N Foster; K J A Miloszewski; M S Losowsky

1978-01-01

143

Management of gastrointestinal and liver diseases during pregnancy.  

PubMed

In the majority of patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease follow-up or disease control might necessitate endoscopy. Evidence on the safety of drugs and imaging techniques during pregnancy is scarce and sometimes difficult to interpret. In this review we summarise existing literature with the aim of optimising counselling of patients with common chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases who want to conceive. PMID:24429582

van der Woude, C Janneke; Metselaar, Herold J; Danese, Silvio

2014-06-01

144

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) may be decreasing, the case fatality associated with it remains unchanged. What do the most recent studies tell us about medical and endoscopic therapy? Erythromycin is a potentially useful adjunct to endoscopy, and further data are needed to establish its role in the management of patients with NVUGIB. The use of proton-pump inhibitors in addition to combination endoscopic therapy appears to reduce the rebleeding rate consistently across different studies; the route of administration, dosage, and duration of treatment require further definition. Although two controlled studies suggest improved outcomes with clot removal and endoscopic therapy, the exact role of endoscopic treatment in the setting of overlying clots remains controversial. Hemoclips have not been found, in general, to be superior to the available endoscopic techniques. Currently, other hemostatic techniques such as injection and thermocoagulation - and in particular, combination therapy using both methods - are preferable. No major "breakthrough" endoscopic treatment has emerged. Newer endoscopic therapies such as cryotherapy are interesting, but have not had widespread application. Endoscopic suturing techniques, as used in the treatment of esophageal reflux and obesity, have not been adapted to the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:14722856

Rollhauser, C; Fleischer, D E

2004-01-01

145

[Gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAIDs, aspirin and anticoagulants].  

PubMed

The studies presented at the recent American Congress of Gastroenterology in the field of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (associated or not to NSAIDs or ASA use) have not been numerous but interesting. The key findings are: a) rabeprazole, the only PPI that had few studies in this field, is effective in the prevention of gastric ulcers; b) famotidine could also be effective in the prevention of complications by AAS; c) the new competitive inhibitors of the acid potassium pump are effective (as much as PPIs) on the recurrence of peptic ulcers by ASA; d) early endoscop (<8 h) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to offer no better results than those made in the first 24 h; e) endoscopic therapy in Forrest 1a ulcers does not obliterate the bleeding artery in 30% of cases and is the cause of bleeding recurrence; f) alternative therapies with glue or clotting products are being increasingly used in endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding; g) liberal administration of blood in the GI bleeding is associated with poor prognosis; h) lesions of the small intestine are frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding when upper endoscopy shows no positive stigmata; and i) capsule endoscopy studies have high performance in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, if performed early in the first two days after the beginning of the bleeding episode. PMID:25294267

Lanas, Ángel

2014-09-01

146

Endoscopy-based triage significantly reduces hospitalization rates and costs of treating upper GI bleeding: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  Many patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding have a benign outcome and could receive less intensive and costly care if accurately identified. We sought to determine whether early endoscopy performed shortly after admission in the emergency department could significantly reduce the health care use and costs of caring for patients with nonvariceal upper GI bleeding without adversely affecting the

John G. Lee; Samuel Turnipseed; Patrick S. Romano; Heather Vigil; Rahman Azari; Norman Melnikoff; Ronald Hsu; Douglas Kirk; Peter Sokolove; Joseph W. Leung

1999-01-01

147

Recent advances in targeted endoscopic imaging: Early detection of gastrointestinal neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging has emerged as a new discipline in gastrointestinal endoscopy. This technology encompasses modalities that can visualize disease-specific morphological or functional tissue changes based on the molecular signature of individual cells. Molecular imaging has several advantages including minimal damage to tissues, repetitive visualization, and utility for conducting quantitative analyses. Advancements in basic science coupled with endoscopy have made early detection of gastrointestinal cancer possible. Molecular imaging during gastrointestinal endoscopy requires the development of safe biomarkers and exogenous probes to detect molecular changes in cells with high specificity anda high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, a high-resolution endoscope with an accurate wide-field viewing capability must be developed. Targeted endoscopic imaging is expected to improve early diagnosis and individual therapy of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:22442742

Kwon, Yong-Soo; Cho, Young-Seok; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Ho-Shik; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2012-01-01

148

Anesthesia and sedation in pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedure has become an essential modality for evaluation and treatment of GI diseases. Intravenous (IV) sedation and General Anesthesia (GA) have both been employed to minimize discomfort and provide amnesia. Both these procedures require, at the very least, monitoring of the level of consciousness, pulmonary ventilation, oxygenation and hemodynamics. Although GI endoscopy is considered safe, the procedure

Abdul Q Dar; Zahoor A Shah; Sheri Kashmir; Kazuki Sumiyama; Nishi Shinbashi; Shah Z. A. Anesthesia

2010-01-01

149

Gastric Electrical Activity and Gastrointestinal Hormones in Dyspeptic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To explore the patterns of gastric electrical activity, gastric emptying and gastrointestinal hormones in dyspeptic patients and relate them to Helicobacter pylori status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with functional dyspepsia and 29 healthy volunteers underwent cutaneous electrogastrography and dynamic ultrasound before and after a test meal. All dyspeptic patients underwent endoscopy and biopsy; all subjects were examined for the presence

Giuseppe Riezzo; Marisa Chiloiro; Francesco Russo; Caterina Clemente; Giovanni Di Matteo; Vito Guerra; Alfredo Di Leo

2001-01-01

150

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis: clinical and endoscopic correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical data of 180 episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 168 patients with cirrhosis of the liver are examined. The source of bleeding had been determined by early endoscopy in all cases. In men under the age of 50 years, and without symptoms of liver failure, bleeding was due to ruptured gastro-oesophageal varices in 84% of cases. Severe liver

J Terés; J M Bordas; C Bru; F Diaz; M Bruguera; J Rodes

1976-01-01

151

Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

2014-06-01

152

Evaluation of results of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsi  

PubMed Central

Aim: The endoscopic examination is widely used and also the the gold standard in lower gastrointestinal system (LGIS) in the diagnosis and treatment of mucosal pathology. Colon and rectum often hosts premalignant lesions and relatively easily accessible organs. Therefore, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a early detectable disease. And to prevent the development of CRC and to capture at early stage the screening tests such as screening endoscopy are used. In our study was aimed to evaluate the biopsy results of the lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Materials and Methods: The lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (LGE) biopsy results of 135 cases and demographic characteristics of the patients were evaluated retrospectively who admitted to Department of Pathology between January 2013-November 2013. Results: 135 patients enrolled in the study, 89 (65.92%) of male and 46 (34.07%) were female. The age of patients were between 15 and 82 with a mean age of 53.00 ± 14.6. 85 of 135 cases (62.96%) were colitis, 3 (2.22%) were hyperplastic polyps, 22 (16.30%) were tubular adenoma, 15 (11.11%) of them tubulovillous adenoma, 1 (0%, 74) of submucosal lipoma, 9 (6.67%) patients were diagnosed with cancer. All of the cancer cases were in adenocarcinoma histology, one of developing from villous adenoma, one of them from tübülovillous adenoma. Cases of adenomas were included to only cancer groups because there is no duplication of data. Conclusion: Colonoscopy in the detection of both benign and malignant LGIS pathologies is the gold standard method. The upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy(LGE) must be remembered as a reliable method in the population, with a low complication rate and high diagnosis rate and when there is clinical necessity gastrointestinal endoscopy should not be avoided as planned. PMID:25664113

Yan?k, Serdar; Akkoca, Ay?e Neslin; Özdemir, Zeynep Tuba; Sözütek, Didem; Y?lmaz, Edip Erdal; Sayar, Süleyman

2014-01-01

153

Heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce positive scintiscan in occult gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

The value of using heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce a positive scintiscan was studied in a patient with chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding. When all standard diagnostic tests (upper and lower gastrointestinal series, upper and lower endoscopy, and conventional noninterventional Tc-99m RBC imaging) fail to detect and localize gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient who has definite clinical evidence (guaiac positive stool and dropping hemoglobin, hematocrit) of chronic occult gastrointestinal oozing, heparin may be used (with proper precaution) as a last resort to aid in the scintigraphic detection and localization of chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

Chaudhuri, T.K.; Brantly, M.

1984-04-01

154

Nurse endoscopy in a district general hospital.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: This study describes the first full year of independent practice by a newly appointed nurse endoscopist in a district general hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients underwent either 'one stop' flexible sigmoidoscopy and barium enema or flexible sigmoidoscopy alone. Barium enema results, video photography, clinical follow-up, and histology were used to validate the results of the flexible sigmoidoscopy. One stop clinic: 161 endoscopies were performed, with 104 female patients (65%), and a mean age of 64 years. There was one failed endoscopy due to poor bowel preparation. Abnormalities were identified in 84% of endoscopies. Flexible sigmoidoscopy detected abnormalities not seen on the barium enema in 28 cases, all of which were polyps (18%). Barium enema identified one abnormality within reach of the flexible sigmoidoscope not identified at endoscopy (small polyp in sigmoid; 1%). Elective flexible sigmoidoscopy list: 121 endoscopies were performed, with 65 female patients (54%), and a mean age of 59 years. There were two failed endoscopy procedures, both attributed to poor bowel preparation. Two-thirds of patients had an abnormality on investigation. There were no complications in either group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The nurse-led endoscopy service has been successfully initiated with a high completion rate for flexible sigmoidoscopies. All significant conditions were identified with 99% sensitivity. Nurse endoscopy is a safe, useful and practical procedure in the setting of this district general hospital. PMID:12831491

Goodfellow, P. B.; Fretwell, I. A.; Simms, J. M.

2003-01-01

155

Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... Laparoscopy is used to look directly at the ovaries, appendix, or other abdominal organs. It is inserted through small surgical cuts in the pelvic or belly area. Tumors or organs in the abdomen or pelvis can ...

156

Diagnostic Evaluation and Management of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract that persists or recurs after a negative initial evaluation using bidirectional endoscopy and radiologic imaging with small-bowel radiograph. The main challenges related to evaluation of OGIB include the high miss rate for lesions on initial evaluation with standard endoscopy and the limited capacity of older diagnostic modalities to effectively examine the small bowel. The introduction of capsule endoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy, and computed tomography (CT) enterography have served to overcome the limitations of older diagnostic tests. Capsule endoscopy is currently recommended as the third test of choice in the evaluation of patients with OGIB, after a negative bidirectional endoscopy. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy is useful for both the diagnosis and endoscopic management of OGIB. CT enterography is superior to small-bowel radiograph for luminal and extraluminal small-bowel examination. These advances in small-bowel diagnostics and the capacity to successfully perform endoscopic therapeutics have largely replaced surgical procedures and resulted in a trend toward noninvasive evaluation and endoscopic management of OGIB. PMID:20567529

Hara, Amy K.; Leighton, Jonathan A.

2009-01-01

157

Capsule Endoscopy in the Small Bowel Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated to mucosal and transmural inflammation of the bowel wall. It is well known that CD can affect the entire gastrointestinal. Therefore, ileocolonoscopy and biopsies of the terminal ileum as well as of each colonic segment to look for microscopic evidence of CD are the first-line procedures to establish the diagnosis. However, it has been observed that up to 30% of the patients have only small bowel involvement. Evaluation of the small bowel has been made with radiological procedures, barium radiography, and abdominal computed tomography or by ileocolonoscopy or enteroscopy, but they have many recognized limitations. CE is undoubtedly a very useful diagnostic tool proposed to observe small-bowel lesions undetectable by conventional endoscopy or radiologic studies. We review different studies that have been published reporting the use of CE in suspected and evaluation of the extension or the recurrence in CD and also its use in pediatric population and its complications. PMID:24741374

Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Rodríguez-Oballe, Juan; Duarte-Chang, Calixto; Castro-Laria, Luisa; García-Montes, Josefa María; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

158

A review of drug delivery systems for capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

The development of a highly controllable drug delivery system (DDS) for capsule endoscopy has become an important field of research due to its promising applications in therapeutic treatment of diseases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and drug absorption studies. Several factors need to be considered to establish the minimum requirements for a functional DDS. Environmental factors of the GI tract and also pharmaceutical factors can help determine the requirements to be met by a DDS in an endoscopic capsule. In order to minimize the influence of such factors on the performance of an effective DDS, at least two mechanisms should be incorporated into a capsule endoscope: an anchoring mechanism to control the capsule position and a drug release mechanism to control variables such as the drug release rate, number of doses and amount of drug released. The implementation of such remotely actuated mechanisms is challenging due to several constraints, including the limited space available in a swallowable capsule endoscope and the delicate and complex environment within the GI tract. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing DDS. A comparison of such DDS for capsule endoscopy based on the minimum DDS requirements is presented and future work is also discussed. PMID:24384373

Munoz, Fredy; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua

2014-05-01

159

Capsule endoscopy retention as a helpful tool in the management of a young patient with suspected small-bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy is an easy and painless procedure permitting visualization of the entire small-bowel during its normal peristalsis. However, important problems exist concerning capsule retention in patients at risk of small bowel obstruction. The present report describes a young patient who had recurrent episodes of overt gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, 18 years after small bowel resection in infancy for ileal atresia. Capsule endoscopy was performed, resulting in capsule retention in the distal small bowel. However, this event contributed to patient management by clearly identifying the site of obstruction and can be used to guide surgical intervention, where an anastomotic ulcer is identified. PMID:17451218

Kalantzis, Chryssostomos; Apostolopoulos, Periklis; Mavrogiannis, Panagiota; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Papacharalampous, Xenofon; Bramis, Ioannis; Kalantzis, Nikolaos

2007-01-01

160

Technology Insight: laser-scanning confocal microscopy and endocytoscopy for cellular observation of the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in endoscopic imaging technology have enabled the visualization of early-stage cancer and its precursors in the gastrointestinal tract. Chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, endoscopic optical coherent tomography, spectroscopy, and various combinations of these technologies, are all important for the recognition of small and unclear lesions. To observe cancer cells in vivo, two types of ultra-high magnifying endoscope—'laser-scanning confocal endoscopy series'

Shin-ei Kudo; Akira Shiokawa; Haruhiro Inoue

2005-01-01

161

Narrow band imaging with magnification for the diagnosis of lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders. Chromoendoscopy has proven to be superior to white light endoscopy for early detection of various GI lesions. This has however been fraught with problems. The use of color stains, time taken to achieve an effect and the learning curve associated with the technique has been some of the pitfalls. Narrow band imaging (NBI) particularly in combination with magnifying endoscopy may allow the endoscopist to accomplish a fairly accurate diagnosis with good histological correlation similar to results achieved with chromoendoscopy. Such enhanced detection of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract should allow better targeting of biopsies and could ultimately prove to be cost effective. Various studies have been done demonstrating the utility of this novel technology. This article will review the impact of NBI in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:24368933

Singh, Rajvinder; Hussain, Asif; Loong, Cheong Kuan

2013-01-01

162

GI endoscopic reprocessing practices in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  Patient infection from contaminated gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes can generally be attributed to failure to follow appropriate reprocessing guidelines. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration recommended a 45-minute exposure of GI endoscopes to 2.4% glutaraldehyde solutions heated to 25° C. Simultaneously, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), the American Gastroenterological Association, and the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates

Raynard J. Cheung; Daisy Ortiz; Anthony J. DiMarino

1999-01-01

163

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in common variable immunodeficiency syndrome mimicking familial adenomatous polyposis on endoscopy.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) includes a heterogeneous disorder characterized by reduced levels of IgG, IgA or IgM, and recurrent bacterial infections with normal T-cell immunity in 60% of patients. It affects the gastrointestinal tract as the largest immune organ with a wide spectrum of symptoms and signs. We present a case of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) of the small intestine in a 31-year-old man admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhea. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple polyps in the stomach, duodenum, ileum, and large intestine mimicking familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Although he had no history of recurrent infection, immunological profiles were in favor of CVID. We emphasize the importance of considering CVID in any patient with gastrointestinal manifestations even in the absence of recurrent bacterial infections. Diagnostic delay results in more morbidity and complications in untreated patients. PMID:19805964

Molaei, Mahsa; Kaboli, Alireza; Fathi, Alireza Modares; Mashayekhi, Reza; Pejhan, Shervin; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2009-01-01

164

Gastrointestinal radiology  

SciTech Connect

This book covers diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, from the esophagus to the rectum, as well as the biliary system. Each chapter presents a radiographic pattern, followed by a list of entities that might demonstrate that appearance. The most important aspects of each entity are discussed in the text.

Eisenberg, R.

1989-01-01

165

[Ultrahigh magnifying endoscopy: development of CM double staining for endocytoscopy and its safety].  

PubMed

Endocytoscopy is ultrahigh magnifying endoscopy which enables in vivo cellular imaging of gastrointestinal mucosa. Double staining using both 0.05% crystal violet and 0.1% methylene blue (CM double staining) was developed as this was anticipated to produce similar results to conventional haematoxylin-eosin staining in histology. Endocytoscopy with CM staining enables us to evaluate tissue atypia by approximating the tip of the endoscope onto the mucosal surface. Our initial clinical experience of 152 patients who underwent endocytoscopic examination did not identify any patients with clinically evident side effects. The safety of staining methods has recently been questioned in the literature and in order to clarify this further, a literature review was undertaken. There are only a few reports warning against the use of dye, due to toxicity. This was particularly apparent in animal studies with increased risk of carcinogenesis after one year of daily dye administration. Single administration of dye, however, does not seem to cause severe side effects especially at the low concentrations used during endoscopy. Olliver et al. described one case of genetic injury secondary to dye administration, but carcinogenesis after routine chromoendoscopy has not been verified. Although there is not sufficient evidence to support that genetic injury results in carcinogenesis, we advocate measures during endoscopy to reduce the volume and concentration of dye solution in contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa. Therefore, regularly suctioning and irrigation should be routinely performed as a precautionary measure. PMID:20662202

Inoue, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Kudo, Shin-ei

2010-07-01

166

Implementation of an endoscopy safety checklist.  

PubMed

Patient safety and quality improvement are increasingly prioritised across all areas of healthcare. Errors in endoscopy are common but often inconsequential and therefore go uncorrected. A series of minor errors, however, may culminate in a significant adverse event. This is unsurprising given the rising volume and complexity of cases coupled with shift working patterns. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that surgical safety checklists can prevent errors and thus positively impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Consequently, surgical checklists are mandatory for all procedures. Many UK hospitals are mandating the use of similar checklists for endoscopy. There is no guidance on how best to implement endoscopy checklists nor any measure of their usefulness in endoscopy. This article outlines lessons learnt from innovating service delivery in our unit. PMID:25285191

Matharoo, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Haycock, A; Sevdalis, N

2014-10-01

167

Preoperative diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to a GIST of the jejunum: a case report  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are rare mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the digestive tract or nearby structures within the abdomen. We present a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent exploratory laparotomy during which a large gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the small intestine was discovered. Examining the preoperative results of video capsule endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography and comparing them with the operative findings we discuss which of these investigations plays the most important role in the detection and localization of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. A sort review of the literature is also conducted on these rare mesenchymal tumours. PMID:19918463

Kotoulas, Dimitrios; Aloizos, Stavros; Kolovou, Aikaterini; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Kantounakis, Ioannis

2009-01-01

168

A case of idiopathic gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma and its disappearance observed by endoscopy.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man was hospitalized due to hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a very large and dark red mass in the cardiac region of the stomach that extended from the upper esophagus. A biopsy specimen showed hemorrhagic tissue and no malignant cells. The tumor-like region ulcerated at 5 days after the administration of intravenous lansoprazole at a dose of 30 mg twice a day and resolved with scar formation at 2 months after a change to oral rabeprazole at a dose of 10 mg/day.We diagnosed the patient with gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma. Gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma is a rare complication. In this case, we could follow the process of its disappearance by endoscopy. PMID:24930876

Oe, Shinji; Watanabe, Tatsuyuki; Kume, Keiichiro; Shibata, Michihiko; Hiura, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Harada, Masaru

2014-06-01

169

Angiography in gastrointestinal bleeding in children  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven children aged 1 day to 16 years studied arteriographically for acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding were reviewed. Children with known esophageal varices and portal hypertension were excluded. Final diagnoses were made in 25 patients by means of surgery, endoscopy, biopsy, laboratory data, and clinical follow-up. Of these 25 cases, arteriography gave a correct diagnosis in 64% and was falsely negative in 36%. The common causes of bleeding in this study were gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, vascular malformations, and typhlitis. Transcatheter therapy was attempted in six acute bleeders, with success in three (50%).

Meyerovitz, M.F.; Fellows, K.E.

1984-10-01

170

Reduced hemoglobin and increased C-reactive protein are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (endoscopy) significantly reduces mortality resulting from upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. METHODS: Upper GI bleeding was defined as 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b according to the Forrest classification. The hemoglobin (Hb), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined at around the day of endoscopy and 3 mo prior to endoscopy. The rate of change was calculated as follows: (the result of blood examination on the day of endoscopy - the results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy)/(results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to determine threshold values. RESULTS: Seventy-nine men and 77 women were enrolled. There were 17 patients with upper GI bleeding: 12 with a gastric ulcer, 3 with a duodenal ulcer, 1 with an acute gastric mucosal lesion, and 1 with gastric cancer. The area under the curve (AUC), threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of Hb around the day of endoscopy were 0.902, 11.7 g/dL, 94.1%, and 77.1%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.722, 0.5 mg/dL, 70.5%, and 73%, respectively. The AUC, threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of the rate of change of Hb were 0.851, -21.3%, 76.4%, and 82.6%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.901, 100%, 100%, and 82.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Predictors for upper GI bleeding were Hb < 11.7 g/dL, reduction rate in the Hb > 21.3% and an increase in the CRP > 100%, 3 mo before endoscopy. PMID:24574805

Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Togawa, Akira; Shirai, Yoshinori; Ichiki, Noboru; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto

2014-01-01

171

The two week WAIT (2WW) referral for upper gastrointestinal cancer: predictors and prevalence of non-upper gastrointestinal cancers in those with negative gastroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction2-week WAIT (2WW) referrals for suspected upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer guidelines was introduced by the department of health in 2000. It was meant to allow patients presenting to their general practitioners with specific symptoms suggestive of UGI cancer rapid access to endoscopy. It was anticipated that this could lead to a 20% reduction in cancer related deaths for patients under

M B Wireko; V Subramanian; K Ragunath

2011-01-01

172

Endoscopy Is Accurate, Safe, and Effective in the Assessment and Management of Complications Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a common intervention for morbid obesity. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms are frequent and difficult to interpret following RYGB. The aim of our study was to examine the role of endoscopy in evaluating UGI symptoms after RYGB and to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopic therapy.METHODS:Between 1998 and 2005, a total of 1,079 patients underwent

Jeffrey K Lee; Jacques Van Dam; John M Morton; Myriam Curet; Subhas Banerjee

2009-01-01

173

Long-time octreotide in an adolescent with severe haemorrhagic gastrointestinal vascular malformation  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are a rare cause of acute or chronic blood loss. Usually they are treated by endoscopic obliteration or surgical resection. When such a therapy is inapplicable, pharmacotherapy may be required. At the age of 15 years, our female patient suffered from transfusion dependent recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to multiple gastrointestinal vascular malformations. Gastroscopy, coloscopy and capsule endoscopy revealed numerous foci making both endoscopic obliteration and complete surgical resection impossible. Neither regular transfusions nor substitution with coagulation factors were helpful. However, subcutaneous octreotide resulted in immediate stop of bleeding. Initial treatment by daily subcutaneous injections was followed by monthly depot application. Over 3 years only 2 transfusions had to be given. The patient required thyroxin substitution, otherwise, no side effects occurred and the girl had a good quality of life. The authors conclude that octreotide is safe and effective in gastrointestinal angiodysplasias inaccessible to endoscopy or surgery. PMID:22688939

Classen, Carl Friedrich; Haffner, Dieter; Hauenstein, Christina; Wolf, Ricarda; Kyank, Ulrike

2011-01-01

174

Ruling in or out a source of gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The search for a source of gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with two distinct approaches of trying to rule in a specific diagnosis or rule out any potential source of bleeding. The study aim was to understand the conceptual differences underlying the two searches. Methods The performance of endoscopy as diagnostic test is analyzed in terms of Bayes’ formula. Results The performance of gastrointestinal endoscopy to rule in a suspected lesion is mostly influenced by its underlying specificity. Because the specificity of endoscopy is less likely to be affected by procedural exigencies, the demands on pre-procedural prep and general quality can be more relaxed. In contradistinction, the performance of endoscopy to rule out a suspected bleeding site is mostly influenced by its sensitivity, which can easily be compromised by suboptimal procedural conditions. Conclusions Paradoxically, the more urgent, focused, and important search (to rule in a bleeding site), carries less stringent criteria for its execution than the more general and aimless search (to rule out a bleeding site) that frequently ends up just empty handed. PMID:25436110

2014-01-01

175

The Effect of Virtual Endoscopy Simulator Training on Novices: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in virtual endoscopy simulators have paralleled an interest in medical simulation for gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Objective The primary objective was to determine whether the virtual endoscopy simulator training could improve the performance of novices. Design A systematic review. Setting Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared virtual endoscopy simulator training with bedside teaching or any other intervention for novices were collected. Patients Novice endoscopists. Interventions The PRISMA statement was followed during the course of the research. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched (up to July 2013). Data extraction and assessment were independently performed. Main outcome measurements Independent procedure completion, total procedure time and required assistance. Results Fifteen studies (n?=?354) were eligible for inclusion: 9 studies designed for colonoscopy training, 6 for gastroscopy training. For gastroscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 87.7% of participants in simulator training group compared to 70.0% of participants in control group (1 study; 22 participants; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.13–1.39; P<0.0001). For colonoscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 89.3% of participants in simulator training group compared to 88.9% of participants in control group (7 study; 163 participants; RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88–1.37; P?=?0.41; I2?=?85%). Limitations The included studies are quite in-homogeneous with respect to training schedule and procedure. Conclusions Virtual endoscopy simulator training might be effective for gastroscopy, but so far no data is available to support this for colonoscopy. PMID:24586609

Lv, Ruxi; Zhang, Wendi; Chen, Yuqing; Lei, Shan; Zhi, Fachao

2014-01-01

176

Therapeutic management options for patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the most challenging disorders faced by gastroenterologists because of its evasive nature and difficulty in identifying the exact source of bleeding. Recent technological advances such as video capsule endoscopy and small bowel deep enteroscopy have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with OGIB. In this paper, we review the various diagnostic and therapeutic options available for the management of patients with OGIB. PMID:22282709

Kochhar, Gursimran S.; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.

2012-01-01

177

Preoperative and intraoperative localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past six years, 37 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin had their bleeding sites localised preoperatively or intraoperatively. Preoperative investigations followed a regime consisting of endoscopy, barium meal and follow through, small bowel enema, 99mTc pertechnetate scan, 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scan and selective coeliac and mesenteric angiography. Bleeding lesions were localised preoperatively in 36 patients. In

W Y Lau; S T Fan; S H Wong; K P Wong; G P Poon; K W Chu; W C Yip; K K Wong

1987-01-01

178

System for clinical photometric stereo endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric stereo endoscopy is a technique that captures information about the high-spatial-frequency topography of the field of view simultaneously with a conventional color image. Here we describe a system that will enable photometric stereo endoscopy to be clinically evaluated in the large intestine of human patients. The clinical photometric stereo endoscopy system consists of a commercial gastroscope, a commercial video processor, an image capturing and processing unit, custom synchronization electronics, white light LEDs, a set of four fibers with diffusing tips, and an alignment cap. The custom pieces that come into contact with the patient are composed of biocompatible materials that can be sterilized before use. The components can then be assembled in the endoscopy suite before use. The resulting endoscope has the same outer diameter as a conventional colonoscope (14 mm), plugs into a commercial video processor, captures topography and color images at 15 Hz, and displays the conventional color image to the gastroenterologist in real-time. We show that this system can capture a color and topographical video in a tubular colon phantom, demonstrating robustness to complex geometries and motion. The reported system is suitable for in vivo evaluation of photometric stereo endoscopy in the human large intestine.

Durr, Nicholas J.; González, Germán.; Lim, Daryl; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Parot, Vicente

2014-02-01

179

Clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients with and without stress-ulcer prophylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the rates of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding and the number of blood units and endoscopies required for gastrointestinal hemorrhage between patients receiving or not receiving stress-ulcer prophylaxis.DesignHistorical observational study comparing two consecutive periods: with (phase 1) and without stress-ulcer prophylaxis (phase 2).Design and settingA 17-bed intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital.PatientsIn phase 1 there were 736

Christophe Faisy; Emmanuel Guerot; Jean-Luc Diehl; Eléonore Iftimovici; Jean-Yves Fagon

2003-01-01

180

Technetium sulfur colloid scintigraphy in the detection of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy is a technique which can be used to localize sites of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Two reports of patients illustrate its use clinically. This procedure is non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, easily performed and has a high degree of sensitivity. The technique may, in some instances, replace angiography or endoscopy as the initial procedure used to diagnose the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding or, more likely, serve as a complementary diagnostic modality.

Simpson, A.J.; Previti, F.W.

1982-07-01

181

Secondary aorto-enteric fistula presenting over a 2-month period with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

A female in her sixties presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding over a two-month period requiring multiple hospital admissions. Inconclusive upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopies in addition to an initial negative CT angiogram initially left the diagnosis uncertain. A subsequent catastrophic bleed prompted a further CT angiogram that demonstrated a fistula between the aorta and third part of the duodenum with active contrast extravasation. Emergency surgery was carried out but ultimately the patient did not survive. PMID:23592810

Jamal, K; Shaunak, S; Kalsi, S; Nehra, D

2013-01-01

182

Gastrointestinal complications of systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive skin thickening and tightness. Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and kidney damage are the most important indicators for mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly damaged system. Virtually all parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be involved, although the esophagus is the most frequently reported. The mechanisms that cause such extensive damage are generally unclear, but vascular changes, immunological abnormalities, excessive accumulation of collagen in the submucosa, smooth muscle atrophy and neuropathy may participate because these are the most common histological findings in biopsies and autopsies. Most patients with GI tract involvement complain about dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating/distension, and fecal incontinence. These symptoms are generally mild during the early stage of the disease and are likely ignored by physicians. As the disease becomes more advanced, however, patient quality of life is markedly influenced, whereby malnutrition and shortened survival are the usual consequences. The diagnosis for systemic sclerosis is based on manometry measurements and an endoscopy examination. Supportive and symptomatic treatment is the main therapeutic strategy; however, an early diagnosis is critical for successful management. PMID:24222949

Tian, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Xuan

2013-11-01

183

Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

2012-01-01

184

Wireless capsule endoscopy in pediatric patients: the first series from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of our study was to determine the safety and usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) in pediatric patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We prospectively examined children (aged 10–18 years) with suspected small bowel disease and recorded capsule transit times,\\u000a findings, and complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We performed 19 CE examinations in 12 patients (median age 11.8 years; range 10–18 years). One of the two patients with obscure\\u000a gastrointestinal bleeding

Daisuke TokuharaKenji; Kenji Watanabe; Yoshiyuki Okano; Akio Tada; Kazumi Yamato; Takahiro Mochizuki; Junji Takaya; Tsunekazu Yamano; Tetsuo Arakawa

2010-01-01

185

Technology insight: Laser-scanning confocal microscopy and endocytoscopy for cellular observation of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Recent advances in endoscopic imaging technology have enabled the visualization of early-stage cancer and its precursors in the gastrointestinal tract. Chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, endoscopic optical coherent tomography, spectroscopy, and various combinations of these technologies, are all important for the recognition of small and unclear lesions. To observe cancer cells in vivo, two types of ultra-high magnifying endoscope--'laser-scanning confocal endoscopy series' and 'contact endoscopy series'--that have a maximum of more than 1,000x magnifying power have been developed. These endoscopes can generate high-quality images of both living cancer cells and normal cells in the gastrointestinal tract, with a quality comparable to that possible with conventional cytology. These novel imaging technologies may make in vivo histological diagnosis by virtual histology possible. PMID:16265098

Inoue, Haruhiro; Kudo, Shin-ei; Shiokawa, Akira

2005-01-01

186

Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy after Therapeutic Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

2015-01-01

187

Severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding in extraluminal diverticula in the third part of the duodenum.  

PubMed

The successful management of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding requires identification of the source of bleeding and when this is achieved the bleeding can often be treated endoscopically. However, the identification of the bleeding can be challenging due to the location of the bleeding or technical aspects. Therefore it might be necessary to use other measures than endoscopy such as CT angiography. Duodenal diverticula is a rare cause of upper GI bleeding and can be challenging to diagnose as they often require specialised endoscopy procedures such as endoscopy with a side-viewing scope. This case describes the first successful management of this rare condition with an upper GI endoscopy with a colonoscope and afterwards intravascular coiling. PMID:24825552

Wilhelmsen, Michael; Andersen, Johnny Fredsbo; Lauritsen, Morten Laksafoss

2014-01-01

188

The gastrointestinal aspects of halitosis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with halitosis as a primary or secondary symptom was conducted. All endoscopies were performed by the same endoscopist. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients had halitosis, and of the 56 patients (59.6%) who were recently examined by a dental surgeon, pathology (eg, cavities) was found in only one (1.8%). Pathology was found in only six of 27 patients (28.7%) who were assessed by an otolaryngology surgeon. Gastrointestinal pathology was found to be very common, with halitosis present in 54 of the 94 (57.4%) patients. The pathology was noted regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings. Most pathologies, both macroscopically and microscopically, were noted in the stomach (60% non-H pylori related), followed by the duodenum and the esophagus. Fifty-two of 90 patients (57.8%) were offered a treatment based on their endoscopic findings. Of the 74 patients for whom halitosis improvement data were available, some improvement was noted in 24 patients (32.4%) and complete improvement was noted in 41 patients (55.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal pathology was very common in patients with halitosis regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings, and most patients improved with treatment. PMID:21152460

Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron

2010-01-01

189

The evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disease in children with cystinosis receiving cysteamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Cysteamine prevents organ damage in children with cystinosis, but may cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study we evaluated the nature of GI disease, and the value of omeprazole in controlling GI symptoms in these children.Study design Upper GI disease was evaluated with endoscopy, gastrin levels, and acid secretion studies after oral administration of cysteamine, before and after 16

Ranjan Dohil; Robert O. Newbury; Zachary M. Sellers; Reena Deutsch; Jerry A. Schneider

2003-01-01

190

Endoscopic Management of Foreign Body in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: A Tertiary Care Center Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Foreign body (FB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) is a common clinical problem in endoscopic practice. At present, many physicians recommend endoscopy for both diagnosis and treatment. To date, few have report endoscopic findings and management of FB in UGIT. Objective: To report the authors' experience and outcome of the endoscopic management of foreign body ingestion at Siriraj

Supaporn Opasanon; Thawatchai Akaraviputh; Asada Methasate; Mongkol Laohapensang

2009-01-01

191

Simulation of quantum-state endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of quantum-state endoscopy [P. J. Bardroff, E. Mayr, and W. P. Schleich, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4963 (1995)] to measure the complete quantum state of a single mode of the electromagnetic field in a cavity. We perform numerical simulations of an experiment in progress.

Bardroff, P. J.; Mayr, E.; Schleich, W. P.; Domokos, P.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.

1996-04-01

192

Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy.  

PubMed

We report a case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy. It was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The patient is a 58-year-old Malaysian woman who lives in a rural area, where uncontrolled populations of stray and semidomesticated dogs live in close proximity with humans. PMID:24891471

Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Lim, Kie Nyok; Mahmud, Rohela

2014-07-01

193

Capsule Endoscopy Removal through Flexible Bronchoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction over 9 years ago, capsule video endoscopy has become increasingly popular within the gastroenterology community, leading to its use in a growing number of patients including the elderly. With the widespread adoption of this diagnostic modality within the elderly population comes the added risk of capsule aspiration. We present such a case where a 90-year-old patient was

Kirk Depriest; Ali S. Wahla; Russell Blair; Bennett Fein

2010-01-01

194

A fully autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design of an autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system is presented. The proposed microrobotic endoscope is a vision-guided device, developed to facilitate navigation inside a human colon. The design of the entire system is divided into three areas viz. design of a microrobotic carrier, path planning and guidance, and an off-board control system. A microrobotic design based on pneumatic

Vijayan K. Asari; Sanjiv Kumar; Irwan M. Kassim

2000-01-01

195

A robust real-time abnormal region detection framework from capsule endoscopy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel method to detect abnormal regions from capsule endoscopy images. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a recent technology where a capsule with an embedded camera is swallowed by the patient to visualize the gastrointestinal tract. One challenge is one procedure of diagnosis will send out over 50,000 images, making physicians' reviewing process expensive. Physicians' reviewing process involves in identifying images containing abnormal regions (tumor, bleeding, etc) from this large number of image sequence. In this paper we construct a novel framework for robust and real-time abnormal region detection from large amount of capsule endoscopy images. The detected potential abnormal regions can be labeled out automatically to let physicians review further, therefore, reduce the overall reviewing process. In this paper we construct an abnormal region detection framework with the following advantages: 1) Trainable. Users can define and label any type of abnormal region they want to find; The abnormal regions, such as tumor, bleeding, etc., can be pre-defined and labeled using the graphical user interface tool we provided. 2) Efficient. Due to the large number of image data, the detection speed is very important. Our system can detect very efficiently at different scales due to the integral image features we used; 3) Robust. After feature selection we use a cascade of classifiers to further enforce the detection accuracy.

Cheng, Yanfen; Liu, Xu; Li, Huiping

2009-02-01

196

Software for enhanced video capsule endoscopy: challenges for essential progress.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized the diagnostic work-up in the field of small bowel diseases. Furthermore, VCE has the potential to become the leading screening technique for the entire gastrointestinal tract. Computational methods that can be implemented in software can enhance the diagnostic yield of VCE both in terms of efficiency and diagnostic accuracy. Since the appearance of the first capsule endoscope in clinical practice in 2001, information technology (IT) research groups have proposed a variety of such methods, including algorithms for detecting haemorrhage and lesions, reducing the reviewing time, localizing the capsule or lesion, assessing intestinal motility, enhancing the video quality and managing the data. Even though research is prolific (as measured by publication activity), the progress made during the past 5 years can only be considered as marginal with respect to clinically significant outcomes. One thing is clear-parallel pathways of medical and IT scientists exist, each publishing in their own area, but where do these research pathways meet? Could the proposed IT plans have any clinical effect and do clinicians really understand the limitations of VCE software? In this Review, we present an in-depth critical analysis that aims to inspire and align the agendas of the two scientific groups. PMID:25688052

Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

2015-03-01

197

A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.  

PubMed

The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846

Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

2014-06-01

198

Treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy  

PubMed Central

Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care for the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic stroke, especially after coronary intervention. However, this therapy is associated with bleeding complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, which is one of the most common life-threatening complications. Early endoscopy is recommended for most patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After successful endoscopic hemostasis, immediate resumption of antiplatelet therapy with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended to prevent further ischemic events. PPI prophylaxis during antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The potential negative metabolic interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel is still unclear. PMID:25685721

Yasuda, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasumasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Sun-ichiro; Ishigooka, Shinya; Yamashita, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio

2015-01-01

199

What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... of the gastrointestinal system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes food for energy and rids the body ...

200

Modern methods of endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The last years brought the substantial development of new diagnostic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. High resolution endoscopy and magnifying endoscopy both give the detailed picture of the mucosal surface of esophagus, stomach, duodenum and large bowel. They are very useful in diagnosis precancer states or early cancer. The use of the biopsy forceps and cytology brush allows histologic confirmation of endoscopic impression. The new methods, which allow complete diagnosis of small bowel are double balloon enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy. They are recommended in case of Crohn's disease, identification of bleeding source, detection of stenoses and neoplastic changes in the small intestine, diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and detection of visceral diseases or malabsorption syndromes. Only double balloon enteroscopy allows to take the biopsy as well as to make endoscopic therapy. Chromoendoscopy involves topical application of stains to the mucosa on endoscopy in order to delineate and better characterize specific findings. This technique is thought to be helpful for both the diagnosis of early cancer for evaluation of non-neoplastic diseases. Endoscopic ultrasonography connecting endoscopic and ultrasonographic techniques is applied to diagnose the intramural abnormalities. PMID:17901580

Cichoz-Lach, H; Celi?nski, K

2007-08-01

201

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

202

Repeat Endoscopy Affects Patient Management in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Endoscopy is commonly performed in the diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The utility of repeat endoscopy for the management of pediatric IBD has not been subject to investigation. The frequency and determinants of changes in medical management resulting from endoscopy are unknown.METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study to assess the frequency and determinants of management change in

Kalpesh Thakkar; Chantal J Lucia; George D Ferry; Adelina McDuffie; Kevin Watson; Marc Tsou; Mark A Gilger

2009-01-01

203

Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

2013-03-01

204

Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopical investigation in elderly patients with iron deficiency anaemia.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently observed in male adults and postmenopausal women due to chronic occult bleeding, usually from the gastrointestinal tract. Practically, as endoscopical investigation of the gastrointestinal system is an invasive procedure, iron replacement treatment was generally started without investigation of the underlying aetiology even in first-line health institutions. This study evaluates the role of endoscopy in the investigation of the aetiology of anaemia in 95 patients (51 males, 44 females), aged 64.9+/-12.5 years (range 50-90 years). All patients having iron deficiency anaemia were investigated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy. Upper and lower gastrointestinal pathologies were seen in 10 (10.6%) and 55 (57.8%) patients, respectively. However, no gastrointestinal lesion was found in 30 (31.6%) patients with iron deficiency anaemia. Out of the 95 patients, 16 (16.9%) had erosive gastritis, 15 (15.8%) duodenal ulcer, 8 (8.4%) gastric ulcer, 7 (7.3%) gastric tumours, 7 (7.3%) oesophagitis. 5 (5.4%) colon tumours, 3 (3.2%) haemorrhoids, 2 (2.1%) non-tropical sprue, 1 (1%) colonic polyp, and 1 (1%) colitis. In the majority of elderly patients with iron deficiency anaemia, upper gastrointestinal system disease was found. In 12 (12.7%) patients in the study group, malignancies were detected. In elderly patients with iron deficiency anaemia, the aetiology should be highlighted before giving iron supplementation. PMID:12038516

Sari, Ramazan; Aydogdu, Ismet; Sevinc, Alper; Karincaoglu, Melih

2002-01-01

205

Factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy studies  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify patient risk factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) studies. METHODS: Data from all CE procedures performed at St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, between December 2001 and June 2008 were collected and analyzed on a retrospective basis. Data collection for complete and incomplete CE study groups included patient demographics as well as a number of potential risk factors for incomplete CE including indication for the procedure, hospitalization, diabetes mellitus with or without end organ damage, limitations in mobility, renal insufficiency, past history of bowel obstruction, abdominal surgery, abdominal radiation therapy and opiate use. Risk factors were analyzed using a univariable and multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: From a total of 535 CE procedures performed, 158 were incomplete (29.5%). The univariable analysis showed that CE procedures performed for overt gastrointestinal bleeding (P = 0.002), and for patients with a prior history of abdominal surgery (P = 0.023) or bowel obstruction (P = 0.023) were significantly associated with incomplete CE studies. Patients on opiate medications (P = 0.094) as well as hospitalized patients (P = 0.054) were not statistically significant, but did show a trend towards incomplete CE. The multivariable analysis showed that independent risk factors for an incomplete CE procedure include prior history of bowel obstruction [odds ratios (OR) 2.77, P = 0.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.17-6.56] and procedures performed for gastrointestinal bleeding (Occult OR 2.04, P = 0.037, 95% CI: 1.04-4.02 and Overt OR 2.69, P = 0.002, 95% CI: 1.44-5.05). Patients with a prior history of abdominal surgery (OR 1.46, P = 0.068, 95% CI: 0.97-2.19), those taking opiate medications (OR 1.54, P = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.86-2.76) and hospitalized patients (OR 1.82, P = 0.124, 95% CI: 0.85-3.93) showed a trend towards statistical significance. CONCLUSION: We have identified a number of risk factors for incomplete CE procedures that can be used to risk-stratify patients and guide interventions to improve completion rates. PMID:21072896

Lee, Mitchell M; Jacques, Andrew; Lam, Eric; Kwok, Ricky; Lakzadeh, Pardis; Sandhar, Ajit; Segal, Brandon; Svarta, Sigrid; Law, Joanna; Enns, Robert

2010-01-01

206

High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.  

PubMed

High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

2015-02-20

207

Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

2001-01-01

208

Factors Contributing to Patient Nonattendance at Open-access Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who miss endoscopy appointments cause inefficient utilization of medical resources. Because national nonattendance rates are as high as 27% and reasons for nonattendance have not been well studied, we sought to quantitate nonattendance at our tertiary care institution. We conducted a retrospective records review of the institutional database to identify patients who did not attend a scheduled endoscopy appointment

Suryakanth R. Gurudu; Lucía C. Fry; David E. Fleischer; Bradford H. Jones; Marlene R. Trunkenbolz; Jonathan A. Leighton

2006-01-01

209

Chromoendoscopy and Magnifying Endoscopy in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common in the Western world. Upper endoscopy is needed to characterize the disease. Barrett’s esophagus as a complication of GERD is an established precancerous condition which can lead to adenocarcinoma in the distal esophagus. This review summarizes recent advances in the endoscopic characterization of Barrett’s esophagus using magnification endoscopy and chromoendoscopy. Methylene blue, indigo carmine

Ralf Kiesslich; Markus F. Neurath; Peter R. Galle

2004-01-01

210

Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common gastroenterological emergency. A vast majority of these bleeds have nonvariceal causes, in particular gastroduodenal peptic ulcers. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, low-dose aspirin use, and Helicobacter pylori infection are the main risk factors for UGIB. Current epidemiologic data suggest that patients most affected are older with medical comorbidit. Widespread use of potentially gastroerosive medications underscores the importance of adopting gastroprotective pharamacologic strategies. Endoscopy is the mainstay for diagnosis and treatment of acute UGIB. It should be performed within 24 hours of presentation by skilled operators in adequately equipped settings, using a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25440917

Rotondano, Gianluca

2014-12-01

211

Small bowel capsule endoscopy: Where are we after almost 15 years of use?  

PubMed Central

The development of capsule endoscopy (CE) in 2001 has given gastroenterologists the opportunity to investigate the small bowel in a non-invasive way. CE is most commonly performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but other indications include diagnosis or follow-up of Crohn’s disease, suspicion of a small bowel tumor, diagnosis and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small bowel lesions and celiac disease. Almost fifteen years have passed since the release of the small bowel capsule. The purpose of this review is to offer the reader a brief but complete overview on small bowel CE anno 2014, including the technical and procedural aspects, the possible complications and the most important indications. We will end with some future perspectives of CE. PMID:25610531

Van de Bruaene, Cedric; De Looze, Danny; Hindryckx, Pieter

2015-01-01

212

Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects. PMID:24949645

Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

2014-01-01

213

Image-enhanced endoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal tumors in view of endoscopic treatment  

PubMed Central

Recently, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) has been used to diagnose gastrointestinal tumors. This method is a change from conventional white-light (WL) endoscopy without dyeing solution, requiring only the push of a button. In IEE, there are many advantages in diagnosis of neoplastic tumors, evaluation of invasion depth for cancerous lesions, and detection of neoplastic lesions. In narrow band imaging (NBI) systems (Olympus Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan), optical filters that allow narrow-band light to pass at wavelengths of 415 and 540 nm are used. Mucosal surface blood vessels are seen most clearly at 415 nm, which is the wavelength that corresponds to the hemoglobin absorption band, while vessels in the deep layer of the mucosa can be detected at 540 nm. Thus, NBI also can detect pit-like structures named surface pattern. The flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) system (Fujifilm Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan) is also an IEE but different to NBI. FICE depends on the use of spectral-estimation technology to reconstruct images at different wavelengths based on WL images. FICE can enhance vascular and surface patterns. The autofluorescence imaging (AFI) video endoscope system (Olympus Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan) is a new illumination method that uses the difference in intensity of autofluorescence between the normal area and neoplastic lesions. AFI light comprises a blue light for emitting and a green light for hemoglobin absorption. The aim of this review is to highlight the efficacy of IEE for diagnosis of colorectal tumors for endoscopic treatment. PMID:23293724

Yoshida, Naohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Naito, Yuji

2012-01-01

214

[Design of extracorporeal apparatus of capsule endoscopy based on ARM+FPGA].  

PubMed

Considering that the patients would bear the annoyance of fixed posture for long time when they are examined with gastrointestinal wireless endoscopy, even though portable devices have been developed, the treatments still depend on PC so much, we proposed an embedded solution based on ARM + FPGA. It used embedded ARM9 S3C2440 as processor core, collected images from digestive tract through capsule endoscopy which can be swallowed down there, and wirelessly transferred these images to the receiving system, then used video decoder chip SAA7114H for analog of NTSC video image decode. And under FPGA's logic controlling, effective digital video signal was transferred to S3C2440 for further treatment. Finally within the embedded Linux environment, we programmed the visual user interfaces using the QT/Embedded, realizing the offline record of the real-time video images of digestive tract portable and preferences. It can make patients move more freely and even without PC when examining. In addition, the method greatly improves the efficiency of the doctor, and is more intelligent and with more humane nature. PMID:22097259

Wang, Shenghua; Zhang, Sijie; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhenxing

2011-10-01

215

A Review of Machine-Vision-Based Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Video  

PubMed Central

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables a physician to diagnose a patient's digestive system without surgical procedures. However, it takes 1-2 hours for a gastroenterologist to examine the video. To speed up the review process, a number of analysis techniques based on machine vision have been proposed by computer science researchers. In order to train a machine to understand the semantics of an image, the image contents need to be translated into numerical form first. The numerical form of the image is known as image abstraction. The process of selecting relevant image features is often determined by the modality of medical images and the nature of the diagnoses. For example, there are radiographic projection-based images (e.g., X-rays and PET scans), tomography-based images (e.g., MRT and CT scans), and photography-based images (e.g., endoscopy, dermatology, and microscopic histology). Each modality imposes unique image-dependent restrictions for automatic and medically meaningful image abstraction processes. In this paper, we review the current development of machine-vision-based analysis of WCE video, focusing on the research that identifies specific gastrointestinal (GI) pathology and methods of shot boundary detection. PMID:23197930

Chen, Yingju; Lee, Jeongkyu

2012-01-01

216

Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Gastrointestinal cancers are heterogeneous and can overexpress several protein targets that can be imaged simultaneously on endoscopy using multiple molecular probes. We aim to demonstrate a multispectral scanning fiber endoscope for wide-field fluorescence detection of colonic dysplasia. Excitation at 440, 532, and 635 nm is delivered into a single spiral scanning fiber, and fluorescence is collected by a ring of light-collecting optical fibers placed around the instrument periphery. Specific-binding peptides are selected with phage display technology using the CPC;Apc mouse model of spontaneous colonic dysplasia. Validation of peptide specificity is performed on flow cytometry and in vivo endoscopy. The peptides KCCFPAQ, AKPGYLS, and LTTHYKL are selected and labeled with 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC), 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), and CF633, respectively. Separate droplets of KCCFPAQ-DEAC, AKPGYLS-TAMRA, and LTTHYKL-CF633 are distinguished at concentrations of 100 and 1 ?M. Separate application of the fluorescent-labeled peptides demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenomas. The average target/background ratios are 1.71±0.19 and 1.67±0.12 for KCCFPAQ-DEAC and AKPGYLS-TAMRA, respectively. Administration of these two peptides together results in distinct binding patterns in the blue and green channels. Specific binding of two or more peptides can be distinguished in vivo using a novel multispectral endoscope to localize colonic dysplasia on real-time wide-field imaging. PMID:22463021

Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron M.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Gaustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.

2012-01-01

217

Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

2014-01-01

218

Scintigraphic diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with /sup 99/. mu. Tc-labeled blood-pool agents  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99/..mu..Tc-labeled albumin or red blood cells was used in 68 patients to localize gastrointestinal bleeding or confirm that it had stopped. Acute, active bleeding was identified in 33 patients; characteristic patterns of bleeding from the stomach, biliary passages, small intestine, and colon are shown. Sensitivity was 0.86 (95% confidence limits, 0.57-0.98) and specificity was 1.0 (95% confidence limits, 0.82-1.0) in 33 patients who had scintigraphy and endoscopy performed in succession. Abdominal scintigraphy appears to be a valuable supplement to conventional diagnostic methods. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be considered when endoscopy fails. In lower intestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be the method of choice.

Miskowiak, J.; Nielsen, S.; Munck, O.

1981-11-01

219

Scintigraphic diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with /sup 99/mTc-labeled blood-pool agents  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99/mTc-labeled albumin or red blood cells was used in 68 patients to localize gastrointestinal bleeding or confirm that it had stopped. Acute, active bleeding was identified in 33 patients; characteristic patterns of bleeding from the stomach, biliary passages, small intestine, and colon are shown. Sensitivity was 0.86 (95% confidence limits, 0.57-0.98) and specificity was 1.0 (95% confidence limits, 0.82-1.0) in 33 patients who had scintigraphy and endoscopy performed in succession. Abdominal scintigraphy appears to be a valuable supplement to conventional diagnostic methods. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be considered when endoscopy fails. In lower intestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be the method of choice.

Miskowiak, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Munck, O.

1981-01-01

220

Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

2014-01-01

221

Angiography Is Useful in Detecting the Source of Chronic Gastrointestinal Bleeding of Obscure Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding can be a frustrating diagnostic challenge. In the past 10-15 years, a variety of new diagnostic procedures (e.g., fiber-optic endoscopy, scintigraphy, and double-contrast barium studies) have become available to examine these patients. Despite these new procedures, a small number of patients continue to bleed without a defined cause. We sought to evaluate

Edward S. Rollins; Daniel Picus; Marshall E. Hicks; Michael D. Darcy; Bruce L. Bower; Michael A. Kleinhoffer

222

Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding with \\/sup 99m\\/Tc-labeled red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified in vivo \\/sup 99m\\/Tc red cell labeling technique, gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy was performed in 100 patients with GI bleeding. Sixty-two patients with melena or bright red blood per rectum had positive scintiscans. In comparison to results of angiography, endoscopy, surgery and contrast radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy correctly located the site of bleeding in 83% of patients. The procedures

G. G. Winzelberg; K. A. McKusick; J. W. Froelich; R. J. Callahan; H. W. Strauss

1982-01-01

223

Early administration of terlipressin plus glyceryl trinitrate to control active upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryUpper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major complication in cirrhotic patients. Endoscopy and oesophageal sclerosis are reference treatments and must be done as soon as possible. However, such treatment is not possible unless the patient is admitted to hospital.In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial, we compared the efficacy of terlipressin combined with glyceryl trinitrate (TER-GTN), administered as early as possible

S Levacher; M Blaise; J-L Pourriat; P Letoumelin; C Lapandry; D Pateron

1995-01-01

224

Preoperative diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to a GIST of the jejunum: a case report  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the digestive tract or nearby structures within the abdomen. We present a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent exploratory laparotomy during which a large GIST of the small intestine was discovered. Examining the preoperative results of video capsule endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography and comparing them with the operative findings we discuss which of these investigations plays the most important role in the detection and localization of GIST. A sort review of the literature is also conducted on these rare mesenchymal tumours. PMID:20062725

2009-01-01

225

[Historical schedule of management of bleeding from the upper part of gastrointestinal tract].  

PubMed

Treatment of bleeding from the upper part of gastrointestinal tract were changed many times. First there were waiting (Hipocrates, Sydenham, Stahl), next transfusion of the blood were initiated (Denis, Blundell, Dieffenbach, Bierkowski, Dungren, Hirszfeld). Big (Rydygier) and small (Dragstedt) operations procedures were attempted. Discovery of endoscopy of gastrointestinal tract (Mikulicz) and initiation of elastic scopes (Hirschowitz) and exploration inhibitor of histamine receptors (H2) and proton pump inhibitors with recognition of role Helicobacter pylori in bleeding were permitted elaborate actual schemas of proceedings. PMID:19606711

Wójtowicz, Jacek; Wojtu?, Stanis?aw; Gil, Jerzy

2009-05-01

226

Accuracy of administrative health data for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The use of administrative health data is increasingly common for the study of various medical and surgical diseases. The validity\\u000a of diagnosis codes for the study of benign upper gastrointestinal disorders has not been well studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The authors abstracted the charts for 590 adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 1,\\u000a 2000 and June 30, 2001 in Toronto,

S. R. Lopushinsky; K. A. Covarrubia; L. Rabeneck; P. C. Austin; D. R. Urbach

2007-01-01

227

Esophageal Involvement of Pemphigus Vulgaris Associated with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation and oozing bleeding of the oropharynx and esophagus. The patient recovered after the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. In case 2, a 30-year-old female patient with known pemphigus vulgaris also presented with hematemesis, showing similar endoscopic findings to the first case. She also responded to the same treatment. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris responds to high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Thus, in patients with pemphigus vulgaris with signs or symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, an early endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal involvement is beneficial. PMID:25325007

Chang, Sooyun; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

2014-01-01

228

Recent Advances in Image-enhanced Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The desire to better recognized such malignancies, which may be difficult to distinguish from inflammation or trauma, has accelerated the development of endoscopy with new optical technologies. Narrow-band imaging is a novel endoscopic technique that may enhance the accuracy of diagnosis using narrow-bandwidth filters in a red-green-blue sequential illumination system. Autofluorescence imaging is based on the detection of natural tissue fluorescence emitted by endogenous molecules. I-scan technology using a digital filter that modifies normal images through software functions, is the newly developed image-enhanced endoscopic technology from PENTAX. Flexible spectral imaging color enhancement enhances the visualization of mucosal structure and microcirculation by the selection of spectral transmittance with a dedicated wavelength. Confocal laser endomicroscopy images were collected with an argon beam with a scanning depth of 0 (epithelium) to 250 µm (lamina propria) and analyzed using the reflected light. PMID:22741116

Cho, Won Young; Lee, Don Haeng

2011-01-01

229

High technology imaging in digestive endoscopy.  

PubMed

A thorough endoscopic visualization of the digestive mucosa is essential for reaching an accurate diagnosis and to treat the different lesions. Standard white light endoscopes permit a good mucosa examination but, nowadays, the introduction of powerful endoscopic instrumentations increased ability to analyze the finest details. By applying dyes and zoom-magnification endoscopy further architectural detail of the mucosa can be elucidated. New computed virtual chromoendoscopy have further enhanced optical capabilities for the evaluation of submucosal vascolar pattern. Recently, confocal endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy were proposed for the study of ultrastructural mucosa details. Because of the technological contents of powerful instrumentation, a good knowledge of implemented technologies is mandatory for the endoscopist, nowadays. Nevertheless, there is a big confusion about this topic. We will try to explain these technologies and to clarify this terminology. PMID:22347528

Galloro, Giuseppe

2012-02-16

230

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver cirrhosis may develop upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from a variety of lesions, which include those that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy and other lesions seen in the general population. Do patients with liver cirrhosis, hemorrhage from varices and other lesions equally, or are they more likely to bleed from varices? The aim of this study is to determine predominant causes of bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 40 patients with liver cirrhosis based on the clinical and biochemical parameters of the Child-Pugh score, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding was carried out at an inner city hospital. Endoscopy diagnoses were documented. RESULTS: Of 40 patients, 38 patients had cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption. Twelve of the above 38 patients who consumed alcohol also had hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eleven patients had only varices on endoscopic examination, 17 had varices plus coexisting lesions. From these 17 patients, nine were found to have bled from varices, and eight were found to have bled from coexisting lesions. Twelve patients who had no varices bled from other lesions. Of 40 patients, 28 had varices, and 20 actually bled from varices. In this study there was no correlation between severity of liver cirrhosis as determined by the Child-Pugh score and the absence or presence of varices. CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding hemorrhage from a variety of lesions. In this study of 40 patients, (70%) had gastroesophageal varices diagnosed at upper endoscopy, while 50% actually bled from varices. PMID:12152928

Odelowo, Olajide O.; Smoot, Duane T.; Kim, Kyungsook

2002-01-01

231

Gastrointestinal effects of aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin is being used as an effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent at doses >325 mg daily. At low doses (75–325 mg daily), aspirin is the key antiplatelet drug in the pharmacological prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Topical and systemic effects of aspirin in the gastrointestinal mucosa are associated with mucosal damage in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The risk of

Carlos Sostres; Angel Lanas

2011-01-01

232

ASGE: Find a Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem ... Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Republic of Korea Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Helena Saint ...

233

Colon capsule endoscopy: Advantages, limitations and expectations. Which novelties?  

PubMed Central

Since the first reports almost ten years ago, wireless capsule endoscopy has gained new fields of application. Colon capsule endoscopy represents a new diagnostic technology for colonic exploration. Clinical trials have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible, accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases and might be a valid alternative to conventional colonoscopy in selected cases such as patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or with contraindications to colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is incomplete. Despite the enthusiasm surrounding this new technique, few clinical and randomized controlled trials are to be found in the current literature, leading to heterogeneous or controversial results. Upcoming studies are needed to prove the substantial utility of colon capsule endoscopy for colon cancer screening, especially in a low prevalence of disease population, and for other indications such as inflammatory bowel disease. Possible perspectives are critically analysed and reported in this paper. PMID:22523610

Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Cianci, Rossella; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Spada, Cristiano; Costamagna, Guido

2012-01-01

234

Effect of longer battery life on small bowel capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if longer battery life improves capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rates. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients who underwent CE with either PillCam™ SB2 or SB2U between 01/2010 and 12/2013 were considered for inclusion. SB2 and SB2U share identical physical dimensions but differ in their battery lives (8 h vs 12 h). Exclusion criteria included history of gastric or small bowel surgery, endoscopic placement of CE, interrupted view of major landmarks due to technical difficulty or significant amount of debris, and repeat CE using same system. Basic demographics, comorbidities, medications, baseline bowel habits, and previous surgeries were reviewed. Timing of major landmarks in CE were recorded, and used to calculate gastric transit time, small bowel transit time, and total recording time. A complete CE study was defined as visualization of cecum. Transit times and completion rates were compared. RESULTS: Four hundred and eight patients, including 208 (51.0%) males, were included for analysis. The mean age was 55.5 ± 19.3 years. The most common indication for CE was gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 254, 62.3%), followed by inflammatory bowel disease (n = 86, 21.1%). There was no difference in gastric transit times (group difference 0.90, 95%CI: 0.72-1.13, P = 0.352) and small bowel transit times (group difference 1.07, 95%CI: 0.95-1.19, P = 0.261) between SB2U and SB2, but total recording time was about 14% longer in the SB2U group (95%CI: 10%-18%, P < 0.001) and there was a corresponding trend toward higher completion rate (88.2% vs 93.2%, OR = 1.78, 95%CI 0.88-3.63, P = 0.111). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of positive findings (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.64-1.51, P = 0.918). CONCLUSION: Extending the operating time of CE may be a simple method to improve completion rate although it does not affect the rate of positive findings.

Ou, George; Shahidi, Neal; Galorport, Cherry; Takach, Oliver; Lee, Terry; Enns, Robert

2015-01-01

235

[Diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's carcinoma using magnifying endoscopy].  

PubMed

Specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) in Barrett's esophagus has been detected by random or four quadrant biopsy using conventional endoscopy; however little is known about the fine mucosal structure of SCE. The fine mucosal pattern (pit pattern) was classified into five categories. Tubular or villous pit patterns were not only characteristics of both SCE and methylene blue absorption but also possessed intestinal mucin phenotype. Targeted biopsy under the magnifying chromo-endoscopy might contribute to the early detection of Barrett's cancer. PMID:16101229

Endo, Takao; Yamashita, Kentaro; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

2005-08-01

236

Predicting Pathology in Medical Decision Support Systems in Endoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract  

E-print Network

the risk of can- cer in the GI tract are adenomas, Barrett's esophagus, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, GI tract, physicians are able to detect severe diseases already in early de- velopment stages and therefore the mortality rate for many diseases, especially different types of can- cers, has been lowered drastically

Uhl, Andreas

237

[Therapeutic program for ascites. Recommendations from the Swedish Society of Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy].  

PubMed

As ascites is related to liver cirrhosis in 80% of the patients, the present therapeutic guidelines are focused on ascites in liver cirrhosis. A combination of spironolactone and furosemide is recommended as first line therapy in patients with mild to moderate ascites and is effective in 90% of patients. In patients with pronounced or tense ascites, first line treatment is total paracentesis with intravenous infusion of human albumin as colloid replacement. Maintenance therapy for the prevention of recurrent ascites is based on spironolactone with or without furosemide. The indications for peritoneovenous shunt, or transjugular intrahepatic stent-shunt (TIPSS), are limited and only recommended in strictly selected patients with refractory ascites. Ascites in liver cirrhosis is a symptom of advanced liver disease, and liver transplantation should always be considered in eligible patients. PMID:11783052

Lööf, L; Prytz, H; Söderlund, C; Wallerstedt, S

2001-12-01

238

Integrated optical tools for minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment at gastrointestinal endoscopy  

E-print Network

in the incidence of peptic ulcer disease in the era of antisecretory medications coupled with emerging evidence for colorectal polyps and surveillance of ``flat'' dysplasia such as Barrett's esophagus and chronic colitis due

Bigio, Irving J.

239

Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices. PMID:21253148

Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.

1988-01-01

240

A UWB wireless capsule endoscopy device.  

PubMed

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) presents many advantages over traditional wired endoscopic methods. The performance of WCE devices can be improved using high-frequency communication systems such as Impulse Radio-Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) to enable a high data rate transmission with low-power consumption. This paper presents the hardware implementation and experimental evaluation of a WCE device that uses IR-UWB signals in the frequency range of 3.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz to transmit image data from inside the body to a receiver placed outside the body. Key components of the IR-UWB transmitter, such as the narrow pulse generator and up-conversion based RF section are described in detail. This design employs a narrowband receiver in the WCE device to receive a control signal externally in order to control and improve the data transmission from the device in the body. The design and performance of a wideband implantable antenna that operates in the aforementioned frequency range is also described. The operation of the WCE device is demonstrated through a proof-of-concept experiment using meat. PMID:25571601

Thotahewa, Kasun M S; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

2014-01-01

241

Automated polyp detection in colon capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

Colorectal polyps are important precursors to colon cancer, a major health problem. Colon capsule endoscopy is a safe and minimally invasive examination procedure, in which the images of the intestine are obtained via digital cameras on board of a small capsule ingested by a patient. The video sequence is then analyzed for the presence of polyps. We propose an algorithm that relieves the labor of a human operator analyzing the frames in the video sequence. The algorithm acts as a binary classifier, which labels the frame as either containing polyps or not, based on the geometrical analysis and the texture content of the frame.We assume that the polyps are characterized as protrusions that are mostly round in shape. Thus, a best fit ball radius is used as a decision parameter of the classifier. We present a statistical performance evaluation of our approach on a data set containing over 18 900 frames from the endoscopic video sequences of five adult patients. The algorithm achieves 47% sensitivity per frame and 81% sensitivity per polyp at a specificity level of 90%. On average, with a video sequence length of 3747 frames, only 367 false positive frames need to be inspected by an operator. PMID:24710829

Mamonov, Alexander V; Figueiredo, Isabel N; Figueiredo, Pedro N; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

2014-07-01

242

Narrow-band imaging in digestive endoscopy.  

PubMed

The application of opto-electronics in video-endoscopes improves the accuracy in diagnosis, through image processing and digital technology. Narrow Band Imaging (NBI), consists of using interference filters for the illumination of the target in narrowed blue and green bands of the spectrum. NBI is combined with magnifying endoscopy using an objective macro or an optical zoom. The NBI technique developed by Olympus Medical Systems is now available in the most recent models of video-endoscopes that use the non-sequential system of illumination (Lucera Spectrum) or the sequential R/G/B system of illumination (Exera II). The major contribution of the technique is in the characterization (analysis after detection) of the flat and superficial neoplastic areas of the digestive mucosa, with a specific application to the identification of intestinal metaplasia and early neoplastic changes in the Barrett's esophagus. The technique also proves helpful for the assessment of the vascular pattern in chronic inflammatory disorders of the digestive mucosa. PMID:17450308

Lambert, R; Kuznetsov, K; Rey, J-F

2007-01-01

243

Gastrointestinal Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The Gastrointestinal Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 3 and large phase 2 therapeutic clinical trials to be conducted in the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN).

244

Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience  

PubMed Central

Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

2014-01-01

245

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

246

Mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

New insights gained through the use of state-of-the-art technologies, including next-generation sequencing, are starting to reveal that the association between the gastrointestinal tract and the resident mycobiota (fungal community) is complex and multifaceted, in which fungi are active participants influencing health and disease. Characterizing the human mycobiome (the fungi and their genome) in healthy individuals showed that the gastrointestinal tract contains 66 fungal genera and 184 fungal species, with Candida as the dominant fungal genera. Although fungi have been associated with a number of gastrointestinal diseases, characterization of the mycobiome has mainly been focused on patients with IBD and graft-versus-host disease. In this Review, we summarize the findings from studies investigating the relationship between the gut mycobiota and gastrointestinal diseases, which indicate that fungi contribute to the aggravation of the inflammatory response, leading to increased disease severity. A model explaining the mechanisms underlying the role of the mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases is also presented. Our understanding of the contribution of the mycobiota to health and disease is still in its infancy and leaves a number of questions to be addressed. Answering these questions might lead to novel approaches to prevent and/or manage acute as well as chronic gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25385227

Mukherjee, Pranab K; Sendid, Boualem; Hoarau, Gautier; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Poulain, Daniel; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

2015-02-01

247

Systematic investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in China (SILC): validation of survey methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Symptom-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases is lower in China than in Western countries. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for the epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China. Methods A randomized, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select 18 000 adults aged 18-80 years from Shanghai, Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan and Guangzhou. Participants from Shanghai were invited to provide blood samples and undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All participants completed Chinese versions of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were also invited to complete the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were evaluated statistically. Results The study was completed by 16 091 individuals (response rate: 89.4%), with 3219 (89.4% of those invited) completing the SF-36 and ESS. All 3153 participants in Shanghai provided blood samples and 1030 (32.7%) underwent endoscopy. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.89, 0.89, 0.80 and 0.91, respectively, for the RDQ, modified Rome II questionnaire, ESS and SF-36, supporting internal consistency. Factor analysis supported construct validity of all questionnaire dimensions except SF-36 psychosocial dimensions. Conclusion This population-based study has great potential to characterize the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China. PMID:19925662

2009-01-01

248

A typical presentation of a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

A 52-year-old white woman had suffered from intermittent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding for one year. Upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and peroral double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) did not detect any bleeding source, suggesting obscure GI bleeding. However, in videocapsule endoscopy a jejunal ulceration without bleeding signs was suspected and this was endoscopically confirmed by another peroral DBE. After transfusion of packed red blood cells, the patient was discharged from our hospital in good general condition. Two weeks later she was readmitted because of another episode of acute bleeding. Multi-detector row computed tomography with 3D reconstruction was performed revealing a jejunal tumor causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with partial jejunal resection and end-to-end jejunostomy for reconstruction. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Nine days after surgery the patient was discharged in good health. No signs of gastrointestinal rebleeding occurred in a follow-up of eight months. We herein describe the complex presentation and course of this patient with GIST and also review the current approach to treatment. PMID:21403816

Reuter, Stefan; Bettenworth, Dominik; Mees, Sören Torge; Neumann, Jörg; Beyna, Torsten; Domschke, Wolfram; Wessling, Johannes; Ullerich, Hansjörg

2011-01-01

249

Analyzing the Impact of Different Pcv Calibration Models on Height Determination Using Gps/Glonass Observations from Asg-Eupos Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of GPS with GLONASS is very important in satellite-based positioning because it can clearly improve reliability and availability. However, unlike GPS, GLONASS satellites transmit signals at different frequencies. This results in significant difficulties in modeling and ambiguity resolution for integrated GNSS positioning. There are also some difficulties related to the antenna Phase Center Variations (PCV) problem because, as is well known, the PCV is dependent on the received signal frequency dependent. Thus, processing simultaneous observations from different positioning systems, e.g. GPS and GLONASS, we can expect complications resulting from the different structure of signals and differences in satellite constellations. The ASG-EUPOS multifunctional system for precise satellite positioning is a part of the EUPOS project involving countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of its users is increasing rapidly. Currently 31 of 101 reference stations are equipped with GPS/GLONASS receivers and the number is still increasing. The aim of this paper is to study the height solution differences caused by using different PCV calibration models in integrated GPS/GLONASS observation processing. Studies were conducted based on the datasets from the ASG-EUPOS network. Since the study was intended to evaluate the impact on height determination from the users' point of view, a so-called "commercial" software was chosen for post-processing. The analysis was done in a baseline mode: 3 days of GNSS data collected with three different receivers and antennas were used. For the purposes of research the daily observations were divided into different sessions with a session length of one hour. The results show that switching between relative and absolute PCV models may cause an obvious effect on height determination. This issue is particularly important when mixed GPS/GLONASS observations are post-processed.

Dawidowicz, Karol

2014-12-01

250

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover the whole space to explore; made of special polyurethane rigid foam with excellent attenuation performances, the prototypes are covered by flexible polyurethane electric resin. By multiplying the number of elementary receptors around the vertical axes and piling up each elementary sensor, a complete design of multi-azimuth and multi-offset has been concepted. In addition to this, a test site has been built in order to obtain a controlled medium at typical scales of interest for seismic endoscopy and dedicated to experiment near the conditions in the field. Various reflectors are placed in well known positions and filled in an homogeneous cement medium; the whole edifice (2.2 m in diameter and 8 metres in depth) also contains 4 PVC tubes to simulate boreholes. The second part of this instrumental developments concern the synthesis of input signals; indeed, many modern devices used in ultrasonic experiment have non linear output response outside their nominal range: this is especially true in geophysical acoustical experiments when high acoustical power is necessary to insonify deep geological targets. Thanks to the high speed electronic and computerised devices now available, it is possible to plug in experimental set-ups into non linear inversions algorithms like simulated annealing. First experiments showed the robustness of the method in case of non linear analogic architecture. Large wavelet families have or example been constructed thanks to the method and multiscale Non Destructive Testing Method have been performed as an efficient method to detect and characterise discontinuities or velocities variations of a material.

Conil, F.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.

2003-04-01

251

Informative frame classification for endoscopy video.  

PubMed

Advances in video technology allow inspection, diagnosis and treatment of the inside of the human body without or with very small scars. Flexible endoscopes are used to inspect the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, and airways, whereas rigid endoscopes are used for a variety of minimal invasive surgeries (i.e., laparoscopy, arthroscopy, endoscopic neurosurgery). These endoscopes come in various sizes, but all have a tiny video camera at the tip. During an endoscopic procedure, the tiny video camera generates a video signal of the interior of the human organ, which is displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the physician. However, many out-of-focus frames are present in endoscopy videos because current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. We need to distinguish the out-of-focus frames from the in-focus frames to utilize the information of the out-of-focus and/or the in-focus frames for further automatic or semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). This classification can reduce the number of images to be viewed by a physician and to be analyzed by a CAD system. We call an out-of-focus frame a non-informative frame and an in-focus frame an informative frame. The out-of-focus frames have characteristics that are different from those of in-focus frames. In this paper, we propose two new techniques (edge-based and clustering-based) to classify video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames. However, because intensive specular reflections reduce the accuracy of the classification we also propose a specular reflection detection technique, and use the detected specular reflection information to increase the accuracy of informative frame classification. Our experimental studies indicate that precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the specular reflection detection technique and the two informative frame classification techniques are greater than 90% and 95%, respectively. PMID:17329146

Oh, JungHwan; Hwang, Sae; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C

2007-04-01

252

Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Prevention in the Endoscopy Practitioner  

PubMed Central

Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

2014-01-01

253

Intraductal biliary and pancreatic endoscopy: An expanding scope of possibility  

PubMed Central

Intraductal endoscopy describes the use of an endoscope to directly visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts. For many years, technological challenges have made performing these procedures difficult. The “mother-baby” system and other various miniscopes have been developed, but routine use has been hampered due to complex setup, scope fragility and the time consuming, technically demanding nature of the procedure. Recently, the SpyGlass peroral cholangiopancreatoscopy system has shown early success at providing diagnostic information and therapeutic options. The clinical utility of intraductal endoscopy is broad. It allows better differentiation between benign and malignant processes by allowing direct visualization and targeted sampling of tissue. Therapeutic interventions, such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), laser lithotripsy, photodynamic therapy, and argon plasma coagulation (APC), may also be performed as part of intraductal endoscopy. Intraductal endoscopy significantly increases the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), and as technology progresses, it is likely that its utilization will only increase. In this review of intraductal endoscopy, we describe in detail the various endoscopic platforms and their diagnostic and clinical applications. PMID:18506916

Judah, Joel R; Draganov, Peter V

2008-01-01

254

On-the-fly detection of images with gastritis aspects in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.

Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

2011-03-01

255

Confocal laser endomicroscopy and immunoendoscopy for real-time assessment of vascularization in gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal cancers represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with incomplete response to chemotherapy in the advanced stages and poor prognosis. Angiogenesis plays a crucial part in tumor growth and metastasis, with most gastrointestinal cancers depending strictly on the development of a new and devoted capillary network. Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new technology which allows in vivo microscopic analysis of the gastrointestinal mucosa and its microvascularization during ongoing endoscopy by using topically or systemically administered contrast agents. Targeting markers of angiogenesis in association with confocal laser endomicroscopic examination (immunoendoscopy), as a future challenge, will add functional analysis to the morphological aspect of the neoplastic process. This review describes previous experience in endomicroscopic examination of the upper and lower digestive tract with emphasis on vascularization, resulting in a broad spectrum of potential clinical applications, and also preclinical research that could be translated to human studies. PMID:21218080

Gheonea, Dan Ionu?; Câr?ân?, Tatiana; Ciurea, Tudorel; Popescu, Carmen; B?d?r?u, Anca; S?ftoiu, Adrian

2011-01-01

256

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum presenting as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with a history of gliosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Small bowel malignant tumors are rare and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. We report a 56-year-old woman, with history of an excised gliosarcoma, who presented with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. She underwent endoscopy and colonoscopy, which failed to identify the cause of the bleeding. The abdominal computed tomography scan located a tumor in the small bowel. Pathology revealed a jejunal sarcomatoid carcinoma. She developed tumor recurrence and multiple liver metastases shortly after surgery. Immunohistochemistry is required for accurate diagnosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which is associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:24759341

Alfonso Puentes, Nidia; Jimenez-Alfaro Larrazabal, Carmen; García Higuera, Maria Isabel

2014-01-01

257

Gastrointestinal bleeding from Dieulafoy’s lesion: Clinical presentation, endoscopic findings, and endoscopic therapy  

PubMed Central

Although relatively uncommon, Dieulafoy’s lesion is an important cause of acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to the frequent difficulty in its diagnosis; its tendency to cause severe, life-threatening, recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding; and its amenability to life-saving endoscopic therapy. Unlike normal vessels of the gastrointestinal tract which become progressively smaller in caliber peripherally, Dieulafoy’s lesions maintain a large caliber despite their peripheral, submucosal, location within gastrointestinal wall. Dieulafoy’s lesions typically present with severe, active, gastrointestinal bleeding, without prior symptoms; often cause hemodynamic instability and often require transfusion of multiple units of packed erythrocytes. About 75% of lesions are located in the stomach, with a marked proclivity of lesions within 6 cm of the gastroesophageal junction along the gastric lesser curve, but lesions can also occur in the duodenum and esophagus. Lesions in the jejunoileum or colorectum have been increasingly reported. Endoscopy is the first diagnostic test, but has only a 70% diagnostic yield because the lesions are frequently small and inconspicuous. Lesions typically appear at endoscopy as pigmented protuberances from exposed vessel stumps, with minimal surrounding erosion and no ulceration (visible vessel sans ulcer). Endoscopic therapy, including clips, sclerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation, thermocoagulation, or electrocoagulation, is the recommended initial therapy, with primary hemostasis achieved in nearly 90% of cases. Dual endoscopic therapy of epinephrine injection followed by ablative or mechanical therapy appears to be effective. Although banding is reportedly highly successful, it entails a small risk of gastrointestinal perforation from banding deep mural tissue. Therapeutic alternatives after failed endoscopic therapy include repeat endoscopic therapy, angiography, or surgical wedge resection. The mortality has declined from about 30% during the 1970’s to 9%-13% currently with the advent of aggressive endoscopic therapy.

Nojkov, Borko; Cappell, Mitchell S

2015-01-01

258

Gastrointestinal bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesion: Clinical presentation, endoscopic findings, and endoscopic therapy.  

PubMed

Although relatively uncommon, Dieulafoy's lesion is an important cause of acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to the frequent difficulty in its diagnosis; its tendency to cause severe, life-threatening, recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding; and its amenability to life-saving endoscopic therapy. Unlike normal vessels of the gastrointestinal tract which become progressively smaller in caliber peripherally, Dieulafoy's lesions maintain a large caliber despite their peripheral, submucosal, location within gastrointestinal wall. Dieulafoy's lesions typically present with severe, active, gastrointestinal bleeding, without prior symptoms; often cause hemodynamic instability and often require transfusion of multiple units of packed erythrocytes. About 75% of lesions are located in the stomach, with a marked proclivity of lesions within 6 cm of the gastroesophageal junction along the gastric lesser curve, but lesions can also occur in the duodenum and esophagus. Lesions in the jejunoileum or colorectum have been increasingly reported. Endoscopy is the first diagnostic test, but has only a 70% diagnostic yield because the lesions are frequently small and inconspicuous. Lesions typically appear at endoscopy as pigmented protuberances from exposed vessel stumps, with minimal surrounding erosion and no ulceration (visible vessel sans ulcer). Endoscopic therapy, including clips, sclerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation, thermocoagulation, or electrocoagulation, is the recommended initial therapy, with primary hemostasis achieved in nearly 90% of cases. Dual endoscopic therapy of epinephrine injection followed by ablative or mechanical therapy appears to be effective. Although banding is reportedly highly successful, it entails a small risk of gastrointestinal perforation from banding deep mural tissue. Therapeutic alternatives after failed endoscopic therapy include repeat endoscopic therapy, angiography, or surgical wedge resection. The mortality has declined from about 30% during the 1970's to 9%-13% currently with the advent of aggressive endoscopic therapy. PMID:25901208

Nojkov, Borko; Cappell, Mitchell S

2015-04-16

259

Symptoms, gastritis, and Helicobacter pylori in patients referred for endoscopy.  

PubMed

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with dyspeptic symptoms but chronic infection has not clearly been shown to cause symptoms. To define further the role of H. pylori infection and gastritis in dyspepsia, we interviewed all patients about to undergo upper endoscopy, recorded the primary indication for endoscopy, noted the endoscopic findings, and obtained antral biopsies. Among non-ulcer patients there was a strong correlation of acute gastritis with H. pylori. Gastritis and H. pylori increased with age, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use correlated with normal histology. Neither H. pylori concentration nor gastritis grade correlated with gender, use of alcohol and tobacco, indication for endoscopy, or symptoms (epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, belching, heartburn, halitosis, and flatulence). PMID:1607089

Schubert, T T; Schubert, A B; Ma, C K

1992-01-01

260

Lens-free endoscopy probe for optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We present an ultrathin fiber-optic endoscopy probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is made of a series of fused optical fibers instead of the conventional scheme based on an objective lens. The large-core fiber with a core diameter of 20 µm was utilized for the probe, while a single-mode fiber of core diameter 8.2 µm mainly delivered the OCT light. Those fibers were spliced with a bridge fiber of an intermediate core size. The guided light was stepwise converted to a beam of a large mode-field diameter to be radiated with a larger depth of focus. We obtained a 125 µm thick all-fiber endoscopy probe with a side-viewing capability implemented by an angled fiber end. Successful OCT imaging was demonstrated with a swept-source OCT system and showed the practical applicability of our lens-free endoscopy probe. PMID:23938961

Moon, Sucbei; Piao, Zhonglie; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

2014-01-01

261

Capsule endoscopy device retention and magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old man was hospitalized for a neurologic and infectious workup after having hallucinations and productive cough for 2 days. During hospitalization, he experienced dark stools with an acute drop in hemoglobin. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for an identifiable source of bleed. Capsule endoscopy was later done and subsequently an anteroposterior abdominal radiograph confirmed the presence of a retained capsule near the junction of the descending and distal transverse colon, likely contained within a colonic diverticulum. In the interim, the patient developed acute right-sided lumbar radiculopathy prompting emergent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the scanning process, the retained capsule was seen and the test was immediately terminated without harm to the patient. Device retention is a complication unique to capsule endoscopy, occurring at a rate of 1% to 1.7%; retained devices are considered a danger and contraindication to MRI. PMID:23814387

Liang, Jackson J.; DeJesus, Ramona S.

2013-01-01

262

Management of early asymptomatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785

Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva

2014-01-01

263

Genetics Home Reference: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... gastrointestinal stromal tumor and may include treatment providers. American Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors You might also find ...

264

Reliable Path for Virtual Endoscopy: Ensuring Complete Examination of Human Organs  

E-print Network

Reliable Path for Virtual Endoscopy: Ensuring Complete Examination of Human Organs Taosong HeÐVirtual endoscopy is a computerized, noninvasive procedure for detecting anomalies inside human organs. Several to the traditional clinic endoscopy for examining the interior structure of human organs. From high resolution

265

To discuss the management of the different causes of feline gastrointestinal obstruction, particularly linear foreign bodies, trichobezoars, intussusception, and feline infectious peritonitis. To review the basic surgical techniques that are utilized in the definitive treatment of these conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEY CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC POINTS Abdominal palpation is an excellent tool when gastrointestinal obstruction is suspected, as often an abdominal mass can be felt. However, usually other diagnostics are necessary for definitive diagnosis. These diagnostics may include abdominal radiographs, ultrasonography, contrast studies, endoscopy, and exploratory laparotomy. The appearance of 3 or more small, eccentrically located, luminal gas bubbles tapered at one

Catriona MacPhail

266

Narrow Band Imaging with Magnification Endoscopy for Celiac Disease: Results from a Prospective, Single-Center Study  

PubMed Central

In celiac disease (CD), the intestinal lesions can be patchy and partial villous atrophy may elude detection at standard endoscopy (SE). Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) system in combination with a magnifying endoscope (ME) is a simple tool able to obtain targeted biopsy specimens. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between NBI-ME and histology in CD diagnosis and to compare diagnostic accuracy between NBI-ME and SE in detecting villous abnormalities in CD. Forty-four consecutive patients with suspected CD undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been prospectively evaluated. Utilizing both SE and NBI-ME, observed surface patterns were compared with histological results obtained from biopsy specimens using the k-Cohen agreement coefficient. NBI-ME identified partial villous atrophy in 12 patients in whom SE was normal, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 92.6%, and 95%, respectively. The overall agreement between NBI-ME and histology was significantly higher when compared with SE and histology (kappa score: 0.90 versus 0.46; P = 0.001) in diagnosing CD. NBI-ME could help identify partial mucosal atrophy in the routine endoscopic practice, potentially reducing the need for blind biopsies. NBI-ME was superior to SE and can reliably predict in vivo the villous changes of CD. PMID:23983448

De Luca, L.; Ricciardiello, L.; Rocchi, M. B. L.; Fabi, M. T.; Bianchi, M. L.; de Leone, A.; Fiori, S.; Baroncini, D.

2013-01-01

267

Narrow band imaging with magnification endoscopy for celiac disease: results from a prospective, single-center study.  

PubMed

In celiac disease (CD), the intestinal lesions can be patchy and partial villous atrophy may elude detection at standard endoscopy (SE). Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) system in combination with a magnifying endoscope (ME) is a simple tool able to obtain targeted biopsy specimens. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between NBI-ME and histology in CD diagnosis and to compare diagnostic accuracy between NBI-ME and SE in detecting villous abnormalities in CD. Forty-four consecutive patients with suspected CD undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been prospectively evaluated. Utilizing both SE and NBI-ME, observed surface patterns were compared with histological results obtained from biopsy specimens using the k-Cohen agreement coefficient. NBI-ME identified partial villous atrophy in 12 patients in whom SE was normal, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 92.6%, and 95%, respectively. The overall agreement between NBI-ME and histology was significantly higher when compared with SE and histology (kappa score: 0.90 versus 0.46; P = 0.001) in diagnosing CD. NBI-ME could help identify partial mucosal atrophy in the routine endoscopic practice, potentially reducing the need for blind biopsies. NBI-ME was superior to SE and can reliably predict in vivo the villous changes of CD. PMID:23983448

De Luca, L; Ricciardiello, L; Rocchi, M B L; Fabi, M T; Bianchi, M L; de Leone, A; Fiori, S; Baroncini, D

2013-01-01

268

Opioid-Induced Gastrointestinal Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of opioid analgesics is associated with a number of side effects, especially opioid-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. The extensive use of these compounds and the significant negative impact of the resulting gastrointestinal dysfunction on patients’ quality of life make it an important clinical issue. In recent years our understanding of the mechanisms of opioid-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction has advanced greatly. This article

Sangeeta R. Mehendale; Chun-Su Yuan

2006-01-01

269

Relationship between upper gastrointestinal bleeding and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in children.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated the relationship between drug intake and upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The endoscopic files of the previous 2 years were reviewed and the incidence and age and sex distribution recorded. GI bleeding is indication for a high percentage of lower endoscopies and a low percentage of upper endoscopies. On the other hand, although rarer upper GI bleeding is more severe and frequently related to drug ingestion. About 50% of cases showed gastric erosions secondary to drug intake. A relation between gastric bleeding and paracetamol is considered, as is the possibility of preventing secondary severe bleeding by pharmacologic gastric protection in children with risk factors such as chronic use of other drugs or portal hypertension. PMID:9099642

Li Voti, G; Acierno, C; Tulone, V; Cataliotti, F

1997-04-01

270

Gastrointestinal cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis upon which this study was based is that there is a relationship between mortality from gastrointestinal cancer and living standards. On this basis we found significant correlations between the intake of animal proteins and the mortality rates for gastric and intestinal cancer. The negative correlation coefficient (r = ? 0·85) is an expression of the inverse relationship between

O. Gregor; R. Toman; F. Prušová

1969-01-01

271

Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal hormones (GI hormones) have received growing interest in endocrinology, gastroenterology and neuroendocrinology. Because of new methodological techniques, they can be measured in plasma and therefore be related to different pathophysiological conditions. In childhood, our present knowledge is as yet limited to the physiological rôle of gastrin at different ages and in some diseases (gastrinoma; Verner-Morrison syndrome) caused by humoral

Ivo Henrichs; Walter M. Teller

1980-01-01

272

Apollo gastrointestinal analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

1975-01-01

273

Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

Eichner, Edward R.

1989-01-01

274

Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

275

Gastrointestinal Steering Committee Roster  

Cancer.gov

Gastrointestinal Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Neal Meropol, M.D. Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Cleveland, OH Bruce Minsky, M.D. MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX Members Carmen Allegra, M.D. University of Florida Tallahassee, FL Anuradha

276

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding can be a confusing clinical conundrum, the satisfactory evaluation and management of which requires a disciplined and orderly approach. Diagnosis and management has evolved with the development of new technology such as selective mesenteric angiography and colonoscopy. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to review the available data in the literature and to determine the current optimum

Anthony M. Vernava; Beth A. Moore; Walter E. Longo; Frank E. Johnson

1997-01-01

277

Gastrointestinal Steering Committee Roster  

Cancer.gov

Gastrointestinal Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Neal Meropol, M.D.Case Comprehensive Cancer CenterCleveland, OH Bruce Minsky, M.D.MD Anderson Cancer CenterHouston, TX Members Carmen Allegra, M.D.University of FloridaTallahassee, FL Christopher Crane,

278

ROC curves and video analysis optimization in intestinal capsule endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless capsule endoscopy involves inspection of hours of video material by a highly qualified professional. Time episodes corre- sponding to intestinal contractions, which are of interest to the physician constitute about 1% of the video. The problem is to label auto- matically time episodes containing contractions so that only a fraction of the video needs inspection. As the classes of

Fernando Vilariño; Ludmila I. Kuncheva; Petia Radeva

2006-01-01

279

Rotational multiphoton endoscopy with a 1 m fiber laser system  

E-print Network

Rotational multiphoton endoscopy with a 1 m fiber laser system Gangjun Liu,1 Tuqiang Xie,1 Ivan V-based femtosecond laser. The rotational probe is based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber, a gradient index a diameter of 2.2 mm and can provide 360° full-view rotation. The fiber laser provides ultrashort pulses

Chen, Zhongping

280

Automatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos  

E-print Network

.00. A human digestive system consists of a series of several different organs including the esophagus, stomach such as gastroscopy, push enteroscopy colonoscopy have been used for the visualization of digestive system. HoweverAutomatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos Jeongkyu Lee1

Lee, Jeongkyu

281

Screening for gastric cancer: the usefulness of endoscopy.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

2014-11-01

282

Screening for Gastric Cancer: The Usefulness of Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

Suh, Mina

2014-01-01

283

Bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using adaptive colour histogram model and support vector classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a colour imaging technology that enables detailed examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. A typical WCE examination takes ~ 8 hours and captures ~ 40,000 useful images. After the examination, the images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a clinician over an hour to analyse. The manufacturers of the WCE provide certain automatic image analysis functions e.g. Given Imaging offers in their Rapid Reader software: The Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), which is designed to report the location in the video of areas of active bleeding. However, this tool has been reported to have insufficient specificity and sensitivity. Therefore it does not free the specialist from reviewing the entire footage and was suggested only to be used as a fast screening tool. In this paper we propose a method of bleeding detection that uses in its first stage Hue-Saturation-Intensity colour histograms to track a moving background and bleeding colour distributions over time. Such an approach addresses the problem caused by drastic changes in blood colour distribution that occur when it is altered by gastrointestinal fluids and allow detection of other red lesions, which although are usually "less red" than fresh bleeding, they can still be detected when the difference between their colour distributions and the background is large enough. In the second stage of our method, we analyse all candidate blood frames, by extracting colour (HSI) and texture (LBP) features from the suspicious image regions (obtained in the first stage) and their neighbourhoods and classifying them using Support Vector Classifier into Bleeding, Lesion and Normal classes. We show that our algorithm compares favourably with the SBI on the test set of 84 full length videos.

Mackiewicz, Michal W.; Fisher, Mark; Jamieson, Crawford

2008-03-01

284

Fibre-Optic Endoscopy In Clinical Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Man's curiosity has led him to seek methods of investigating the inner workings of the human body, but it is only recently that it has become possible to properly visualise the inner cavities of the human frame. Physiologists such as William Beaumont have occasionally had the opportunity to see the function of the gastrointestinal tract, in this case the gastric fistula of Alexis St Martin who was injured following an accidental firearm explosion. Rigid instruments, down which lights are shone, can be used to visualise the respiratory passages, the gullet, the rectum, and the bladder, and in the past artists were employed to record what was seen. Such instruments are still in use, although light from a powerful source is now conducted down the instrument using a fibreoptic bundle. The first semi-flexible instrument which could be inserted into the stomach and used to visualise its walls was developed by Schindler and Wolf in Germany in 1932. The optics consisted of a series of convex-lenses, transmitting an image back to the eye, but again the view obtained was limited and since its optics were side viewing, the gullet could not be viewed. The advent of fibre-optics revolutionised the situation, and the first fibrescope conducting the image up a fibreoptic bundle was a side-viewing instrument, developed by Hirschowitz, Curtiss, Peters and Pollard by 1958, and used for viewing the stomach. Since those pioneering days, the development of fibrescopes for viewing every potential cavity in the human body has proceeded in leaps and bounds.

Jourdan, Martin H.

1985-08-01

285

A rare cause of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION Cystic artery pseudoaneurysms and cholecystoenteric fistulae represent two rare complications of gallstone disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 86 year old male presented to the emergency department with obstructive jaundice, RUQ pain and subsequent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper GI endoscopy revealed bleeding from the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm, concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula and gallstone ileus. This patient was successfully managed surgically with open subtotal cholecystectomy, pseudoaneurysm resection and fistula repair. DISCUSSION To date there are very few cases describing haemobilia resulting from a bleeding cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. This report is the first to describe upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a consequence of two synchronous rare pathologies: a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm causing haemobilia and bleeding through a concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula. CONCLUSION Through this case, we stress the importance of accurate and early diagnosis through ultra- sonography, endoscopy, and contrast-enhanced CT imaging and emphasise that haemobilia should be included in the differential diagnosis of anyone presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We have demonstrated the success of surgical management alone in the treatment of such a case, but accept that consideration of combined therapeutic approach with angiography be given in the first instance, when available and clinically indicated. PMID:24394852

Glaysher, Michael A; Cruttenden-Wood, David; Szentpali, Karoly

2014-01-01

286

Angiosarcoma Involving Solid Organs and the Gastrointestinal Tract with Life-Threatening Bleeding  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of angiosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lung and vertebrae, as well as bulky dissemination in the pleuroperitoneal membranes. A 72-year-old man with no history of illness became aware of melena. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple reddish nodules in the stomach and duodenum. However, biopsy specimens showed no evidence of histological features. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed space-occupying lesions in the spleen, liver and vertebrae. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen and repeated endoscopic biopsy of the stomach. We performed laparoscopic splenectomy to avoid rupture of the involved spleen. Due to continuous gastrointestinal bleeding, double balloon endoscopy was performed and multiple bleeding lesions were detected throughout the small intestine. Surgical hemostasis was performed by partial enterectomy, but anemia continued to worsen. Therefore, we conducted transcatheter arterial embolization. Despite attempting several modalities and frequent daily blood transfusion, the anemia did not improve, and the patient expired due to hemorrhagic shock. Subsequent autopsy revealed the cause of death as rupture and bleeding due to disseminated involvement of the small intestine. PMID:23341800

Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Uemura, Naomi

2012-01-01

287

Management of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory–Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include ?-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant. PMID:25177367

Ribeiro, Suzane

2014-01-01

288

Management of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include ?-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant. PMID:25177367

Cremers, Isabelle; Ribeiro, Suzane

2014-09-01

289

Gastrointestinal bleeding with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.  

PubMed

Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) insertion is a life-saving procedure that is being increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure. However, patients with CF-LVADs are at an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Bleeding can occur anywhere in the GI tract with lesions being more prevalent in the upper GI tract than in the lower GI tract. The pathophysiology of GIB in patients with CF-LVADs is unique and likely involves three synergistic mechanisms-coagulopathy, acquired von Willebrand disease and continuous non-pulsatile blood flow. Management strategies vary depending on the presentation and site of bleeding. Prevention strategies to prevent GIB in these patients include low pump speed, close hemodynamic monitoring and a low threshold for endoscopy. We aim to review in detail the pathophysiology, management, complications and preventive strategies in patients with CF-LVAD who present with GIB. PMID:25614135

Amer, Syed; Shah, Parth; Hassan, Syed

2015-04-01

290

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen.

Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

2015-01-01

291

Adenomyoma of the jejunum --- a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Adenomyoma of the small intestine is rare. It occurs mostly in the periampullary region or ileum. The common presentations are intussusception and intestinal or biliary obstruction, depending on the location. To our knowledge, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from a jejunal adenomyoma has not been reported previously. We present a 74-year-old female patient who suffered intermittent tarry stool passage for 1 month. Initial upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography failed to find the bleeder. A papilla-like tumor with central depression and active bleeding in the proximal jejunum was found by push enteroscopy. Exploratory laparotomy showed a submucosal nodule about 1.5 cm in size located about 20 cm distal to the Treitz ligament. Wedge resection was carried out. Pathologic examination revealed that the tumor was composed of some cystic exocrine-type ducts and bundles of smooth muscle, indicating adenomyoma. The patient was symptom-free following operation. PMID:18290255

Yu, Hsien-Chung; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, I-Shu; Hsieh, Pin-Pen

2008-02-01

292

Cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal cell proliferation plays an important role in the maintenance of the integrity of the gastrointestinal system. The study of gastrointestinal proliferation kinetics allows a better understanding of the complexity of the system, and also has important implications for the study of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Gastrointestinal stem cells are shown to be pluripotential and to give rise to all cell lineages in the epithelium. Carcinogenesis in the colon occurs through sequential mutations, possibly occurring in a single cell--the stem cell. Images PMID:10560350

Wong, W M; Wright, N A

1999-01-01

293

Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Advantages and hurdles.  

PubMed

One of the most prominent characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is their unpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs are not classified as "benign" or "malignant" but are rather stratified by their associated clinical risk of malignancy as determined by tumor size, location, and number of mitoses identified during surgical histology. The difficulty in assessing the malignant potential and prognoses of GISTs as well as the increasing incidence of "incidental GISTs" presents challenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopic enucleation has been actively performed as both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs. Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages, including keeping the stomach intact after the removal of GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscious sedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewer human resources required compared with surgery. However, a low complete resection rate and the risk of perforation could reduce the overall advantages of this procedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appears to achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, this technique absolutely requires a very skilled operator. Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding due to large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopy collaborations have been applied for more stable and pathologically acceptable management. These collaborative procedures have produced excellent outcomes. Many procedures have been developed and attempted because they were technically possible. However, we should first consider the theoretical basis for each technique. Until the efficacy and safety of sole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopy endoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be an appropriate method for minimally destructive GIST surgery. PMID:25789089

Kim, Hyung Hun

2015-03-16

294

Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Advantages and hurdles  

PubMed Central

One of the most prominent characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is their unpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs are not classified as “benign” or “malignant” but are rather stratified by their associated clinical risk of malignancy as determined by tumor size, location, and number of mitoses identified during surgical histology. The difficulty in assessing the malignant potential and prognoses of GISTs as well as the increasing incidence of “incidental GISTs” presents challenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopic enucleation has been actively performed as both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs. Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages, including keeping the stomach intact after the removal of GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscious sedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewer human resources required compared with surgery. However, a low complete resection rate and the risk of perforation could reduce the overall advantages of this procedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appears to achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, this technique absolutely requires a very skilled operator. Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding due to large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopy collaborations have been applied for more stable and pathologically acceptable management. These collaborative procedures have produced excellent outcomes. Many procedures have been developed and attempted because they were technically possible. However, we should first consider the theoretical basis for each technique. Until the efficacy and safety of sole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopy endoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be an appropriate method for minimally destructive GIST surgery. PMID:25789089

Kim, Hyung Hun

2015-01-01

295

Effect of Ramadan fasting on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: Prolonged fasting may precipitate or exacerbate gastrointestinal complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between Ramadan fasting and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB), and to assess characteristics of those occurred in the holly month. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients, who underwent endoscopy for AUGIB in Ramadan (R) and the month before Ramadan (BR). Epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics and outcome of patients having AUGIB were compared between the two periods from 2001 to 2010. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one patients had endoscopy for AUGIB during the two periods study. There was an increasing trend in the overall number of patients in Ramadan period (n = 132, 45.4% versus n = 159, 54.6%), especially with duodenal ulcer (n = 48, 37.2% versus n = 81, 62.8%). The most frequent etiology was peptic ulcer but it was more observed in group R than in group BR (46.2% versus 57.9%, P = 0.04), especially duodenal ulcer (36.4% versus 50.3%, P = 0.01); this finding persisted in multivariable modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.69, P = 0.03). In contrast, there was a decreasing trend in rate of variceal bleeding from BR period (26.5%) to R period (18.9%; P = 0.11). Regarding the outcome, there were no significant differences between the two periods of the study: Recurrent bleeding (10.6% versus 7.5%, P = 0.36) and mortality rate (5.3% versus 4.4%, P = 0.7). Conclusion: The most frequent etiology of AUGIB was peptic ulcer during Ramadan. However, Ramadan fasting did not influence the outcome of the patients. Prophylactic measures should be taken for people with risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:23930121

Amine, El Mekkaoui; Kaoutar, Saâda; Ihssane, Mellouki; Adil, Ibrahimi; Dafr-Allah, Benajah

2013-01-01

296

Video summarization based tele-endoscopy: a service to efficiently manage visual data generated during wireless capsule endoscopy procedure.  

PubMed

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use. More importantly, WCE combined with mobile computing ensures rapid transmission of diagnostic data to hospitals and enables off-site senior gastroenterologists to offer timely decision making support. However, during this WCE process, video data are produced in huge amounts, but only a limited amount of data is actually useful for diagnosis. The sharing and analysis of this video data becomes a challenging task due the constraints such as limited memory, energy, and communication capability. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing tasks, we present a video summarization-based tele-endoscopy service that estimates the semantically relevant video frames from the perspective of gastroenterologists. For this purpose, image moments, curvature, and multi-scale contrast are computed and are fused to obtain the saliency map of each frame. This saliency map is used to select keyframes. The proposed tele-endoscopy service selects keyframes based on their relevance to the disease diagnosis. This ensures the sending of diagnostically relevant frames to the gastroenterologist instead of sending all the data, thus saving transmission costs and bandwidth. The proposed framework also saves storage costs as well as the precious time of doctors in browsing patient's information. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed service provides video keyframes to the gastroenterologists without discarding important information. PMID:25037715

Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2014-09-01

297

Small Bowel Endoscopy Diagnostic Yield and Reasons of Obscure GI Bleeding in Chinese Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the diagnostic yield and etiologies of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) using capsule endoscopy (CE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Method. We studied the data of 532 consecutive patients with OGIB that were referred to Xinqiao Hospital in Chongqing from December 2005 to January 2012. A lesion that was believed to be the source of the bleeding (ulceration, mass lesion, vascular lesion, visible blood, inflammation, or others) was considered to be a positive finding. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of CE and SBE and the etiologies of OGIB. Result. CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields, at 71.9% (196/231) and 71.8% (251/304), respectively. The most common etiology was erosions/ulceration (27.1%) followed by mass lesion (19.4%) and angiodysplastic/vascular lesions (13.9%). By stratified analysis, we found that erosions/ulceration (27.1%) was the most common etiology for the 21–40-year age group. Mass lesion was the most common etiology in the 41–60-year age group. However, in the >60 years age group, angiodysplastic/vascular lesions were significantly increased compared with the other groups, even though erosions/ulceration was most common. Conclusion. In this study, we found that CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields and erosions/ulceration was the most common reason for OGIB, followed by mass lesion and angiodysplasias. PMID:25183969

He, Ya-Fei; Hao, Ning-Bo; Yang, Wu-Chen; Yang, Li; Liao, Zhong-Li; Fan, Chao-Qiang; Yu, Jin; Bai, Jian-Ying; Yang, Shi-Ming; Guo, Hong

2014-01-01

298

A clinically viable capsule endoscopy video analysis platform for automatic bleeding detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic bleeding detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos for GI tract run about 8 hours and are manually reviewed by physicians to locate diseases such as bleedings and polyps. As a result, the process is time consuming and is prone to disease miss-finding. While researchers have made efforts to automate this process, however, no clinically acceptable software is available on the marketplace today. Working with our collaborators, we have developed a clinically viable software platform called GISentinel for fully automated GI tract bleeding detection and classification. Major functional modules of the SW include: the innovative graph based NCut segmentation algorithm, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant features, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling various GI tract scenes (e.g. normal tissue, food particles, bubbles, fluid, and specular reflection). Initial evaluation results on the SW have shown zero bleeding instance miss-finding rate and 4.03% false alarm rate. This work is part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. While the overall SW framework is designed for intelligent finding and classification of major GI tract diseases such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos, this paper will focus on the automatic bleeding detection functional module.

Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Xie, Jean; Mui, Peter; Leighton, Jonathan A.; Pasha, Shabana; Rentz, Lauri; Abedi, Mahmood

2013-02-01

299

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

300

GISentinel: a software platform for automatic ulcer detection on capsule endoscopy videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic ulcer detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos take about 8 hours. They have to be reviewed manually by physicians to detect and locate diseases such as ulcers and bleedings. The process is time consuming. Moreover, because of the long-time manual review, it is easy to lead to miss-finding. Working with our collaborators, we were focusing on developing a software platform called GISentinel, which can fully automated GI tract ulcer detection and classification. This software includes 3 parts: the frequency based Log-Gabor filter regions of interest (ROI) extraction, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant feature, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling "ulcer vs. non-ulcer" cases. After the experiments, this SW gave descent results. In frame-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 69.65% (319/458). In instance-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 82.35%(28/34).The false alarm rate is 16.43% (34/207). This work is a part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. The final goal of this SW is to find and classification of major GI tract diseases intelligently, such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos. This paper will mainly describe the automatic ulcer detection functional module.

Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Meng, Fan; Leighton, Jonathon A.; Shabana, Pasha; Rentz, Lauri

2014-03-01

301

Assessment of Antigenemia Assay for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Gastrointestinal Diseases in HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract We conducted a single-center prospective study to evaluate the utility of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay for the diagnosis of CMV-gastrointestinal disease (GID). The study subjects were HIV-infected patients with CD4 count ?200??L/cells who had undergone endoscopy. A definite diagnosis of CMV-GID was made by histological examination of endoscopic biopsied specimen. CMV antigenemia assay (C10/C11 monoclonal antibodies), CD4 count, HIV viral load, history of HAART, and gastrointestinal symptoms as measured by 7-point Likert scale, were assessed on the same day of endoscopy. One hundred cases were selected for analysis, which were derived from 110 cases assessed as at high-risk for CMV-GID after endoscopy screening of 423 patients. Twelve patients were diagnosed with CMV-GID. Among the gastrointestinal symptoms, mean bloody stool score was significantly higher in patients with CMV-GID than in those without (2.5 vs. 1.7, p=0.02). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of antigenemia was 0.80 (95%CI 0.64–0.96). The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), and negative LR of antigenemia were 75.0%, 79.5%, 3.7, and 0.31, respectively, when the cutoff value for antigenemia was ?1 positive cell per 300,000 granulocytes, and 50%, 92.0%, 5.5, and 0.55, respectively, for ?5 positive cells per 300,000 granulocytes. In conclusion, CMV antigenemia seems a useful diagnostic test for CMV-GID in patients with HIV infection. The use of ?5 positive cells per 300,000 granulocytes as a cutoff value was associated with high specificity and high positive LR. Thus, a positive antigenemia assay with positive endoscopic findings should allow the diagnosis of CMV-GID without biopsy. PMID:23799239

Hamada, Yohei; Shimbo, Takuro; Igari, Toru; Nakashima, Ryo; Asayama, Naoki; Nishimura, So; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Akiyama, Junichi; Ohmagari, Norio; Uemura, Naomi; Oka, Shinichi

2013-01-01

302

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed. PMID:22943011

Yue, Changjun

2012-01-01

303

Gastrointestinal Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections are caused by a wide variety of fungi, viruses, and bacteria, and all areas of the\\u000a GI tract are affected. Infections range from mild, where disease is self-limited and supportive care is the treatment, to\\u000a severe, where hospitalization and intravenous fluids and antibiotics are required for survival. In recent years, the increasing\\u000a antibiotic resistance of various

Robert E. Post; Barry L. Hainer

304

Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes (PS) are characterized by the development of multiple polyps, characteristically\\u000a colorectal, but occasionally involving the small intestine and (less commonly) the stomach. PS may be characterized by the\\u000a histologic type of polyps found, being either adenomatous, hamartomatous, or hyperplastic. Additionally, they may be characterized\\u000a by the mode of inheritance, being either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.

William J. Harb

305

Gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Endoscopic ultrasound findings presented  

SciTech Connect

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an uncommon benign neurogenic tumor of the digestive tract that is usually located in the descending duodenum. Patients with GP usually present with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which reflects the tendency of the tumor to ulcerate the mucosa. The authors report a patient in whom the tumor was overlooked on routine radiologic examinations and initial endoscopy. It was discovered in the distal transverse duodenum at small bowel enteroscopy. The findings of endoscopic ultrasonography are correlated with radiographic and histologic examination. 10 refs.

Smithline, A.E.; Hawes, R.H.; Kopecky, K.K.; Cummings, O.W.; Kumar, S. (Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis (United States))

1993-01-01

306

Endoscopic Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: State of the Art  

PubMed Central

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained. However, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery.

Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Takayama, Tetsuji

2015-01-01

307

A large-sized phytobezoar located on the rare site of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Bezoars are concretions of undigested material and are most often observed in the stomach. They can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract; however, duodenal localization is very rare. We report the case of a 71-year-old male who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy with gastroduodenostomy and experienced severe epigastric discomfort, abdominal pain, and vomiting for a few days. An approximately 7×8 cm-sized mass was found on an abdominal computed tomography scan. On following endoscopy, a large bezoar was revealed in the duodenum and was removed using an endoscopic removal technique, assisted by a large amount of Coca-Cola infusion. PMID:23964339

Yang, Jee Eun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Kim, Gi Ae; Kim, Ga Hee; Yoon, Da Lim; Jeon, Sung Jin; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-07-01

308

Endoscopic management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: state of the art.  

PubMed

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained. However, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery. PMID:25844335

Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Takayama, Tetsuji

2015-03-01

309

Message in a bottle: decoding medication injury patterns in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Medication injury in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rapidly evolving topic. Increasing endoscopy together with an ageing population, polypharmacy, and a burgeoning drug industry offer heightened opportunities to observe the unintended side effects of therapeutic ingestants. In this review, we emphasise the most commonly encountered medication injuries involving the GIT, as well as emerging agents and mimics. While topics are organised by organ system, the reader should keep in mind that injury patterns are generally not site-specific. As such, awareness of these major morphologic patterns can be translated to multiple tissue sites to more broadly facilitate the diagnostic process. PMID:25028528

Voltaggio, Lysandra; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

2014-10-01

310

Diagnosis of colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The magnifying colonoscope allows 100-fold magnified viewing of the colonic surface. Methods: We examined 2050 colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy, stereomicroscopy, and histopathology and classified these lesions according to pit pattern. Based on stereomicroscopy, lesions with a type 1 or 2 pit pattern were nontumors, whereas lesions with types 3s, 3L, 4, and\\/or 5 pit patterns were neoplastic

Shin-ei Kudo; Satoru Tamura; Takashi Nakajima; Hiro-o Yamano; Hisashi Kusaka; Hidenobu Watanabe

1996-01-01

311

Recent Advances of Endoscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most valuable tool for distinguishing different types of IBD is a complete ileocolonoscopy with mucosal biopsy. Endoscopic localization of the disease not only aids in determining prognosis and appropriateness of medical therapies but also aids decision-making in those undergoing surgical therapy. With regard to therapeutic applications, obstructive symptoms caused by benign fibrotic strictures can be treated adequately by endoscopic balloon dilation. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal cancer in patients with both ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease (CD). Colonoscopy is currently considered to be the gold standard for cancer surveillance. Published guidelines recommend that two to four biopsy samples should be obtained every 10 cm in the colorectum, necessitating 20-50 samplings per examination. This may result in standard colonoscopy - which is also very time-consuming and laborious - missing significant numbers of small lesions. Various novel techniques have been applied to reduce the required number of biopsy samples and the duration of examinations, including chromoendoscopy with or without magnification, fluorescence endoscopy, narrow-band imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Until recently the only way to evaluate the small-bowel mucosa in a patient with CD was by barium small-bowel radiographs and intubation of the distal terminal ileum. Both wireless-capsule endoscopy (WCE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) allow light to be used in the inspection of the small bowel and may replace radiological methods. WCE is more convenient than DBE for probing small-bowel mucosal changes, but only DBE allows a biopsy sample to be obtained from the deep small bowel, and these two examinations can be considered complementary. The wider application of new techniques in the near future might increase the role played by endoscopy in the management of IBD. PMID:20485627

Cheon, Jae Hee

2007-01-01

312

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

During the last decades, numerous studies have been performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and patients with functional gastrointestinal diseases. A PubMed search was performed on this topic and all available studies published in English have been reviewed and evaluated. This review is organized based on the gastrointestinal organ (from the esophagus to the colon), components of gastrointestinal motility and the functional diseases related to specific motility disorders. It was found that the effects of acupuncture or EA on gastrointestinal motility were fairly consistent and the major acupuncture points used in these studies were ST36 and PC6. Gastric motility has been mostly studied, whereas much less information is available on the effect of EA on small and large intestinal motility or related disorders. A number of clinical studies have been published, investigating the therapeutic effects of EA on a number of functional gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. However, the findings of these clinical studies were inconclusive. In summary, acupuncture or EA is able to alter gastrointestinal motility functions and improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, more studies are needed to establish the therapeutic roles of EA in treating functional gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:20363196

Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

2010-01-01

313

Intracochlear visualization - comparing established and novel endoscopy techniques  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Intracochlear visualization is achievable with chip-on-tip endoscopes—also called (digital) video endoscopy, videoscopy, electronic endoscopy or endoscopy with distal chip/sensor/camera technology. Background Recent advances in digital camera sensor sizes have significantly reduced the size of chip-on-tip endoscopes to sizes near that of the scala tympani opening up the possibility of intracochlear visualization. Methods We compared the image quality of chip-on-tip cameras with commercially-available rigid endoscopes (a.k.a. Hopkins rods) and commercially-available fiber optic scopes (sialendoscopes). Furthermore, we performed a feasibility study to elucidate the spatial constraints which future visualization technology must reach to allow intracochlear visualization. Results Image resolution for chip-on-tip endoscopes ranks before fiberscopes and after Hopkins rods. The image quality depends further on illumination which remains unresolved for chip-on-tip endoscopes for intracochlear visualization. The insertion depth of the currently available cameras allows up to 270° travel from the round window. Conclusion Visual guidance and inspection inside scala tympani is possible with a novel, small-size, digital-camera endoscope. This may find clinical applicability for visual confirmation of anatomy during cochlear implantation. PMID:22064671

McRackan, Theodore R.; Labadie, Robert F.

2011-01-01

314

Small-bowel capsule endoscopy: A ten-point contemporary review  

PubMed Central

The introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) in clinical practice increased the interest for the study of the small-bowel. Consequently, in about 10 years, an impressive quantity of literature on indications, diagnostic yield (DY), safety profile and technical evolution of CE has been published as well as several reviews. At present time, there are 5 small-bowel capsule enteroscopy (SBCE) models in the worldwide market. Head-to-head trials have showed in the great majority of studies comparable results in terms of DY, image quality and completion rate. CE meta-analyses formed the basis of national/international guidelines; these guidelines place CE in a prime position for the diagnostic work-up of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, known and/or suspected Crohn’s disease and possible small-bowel neoplasia. A 2-L polyethylene glycol-based purge, administered the day before the procedure, is the most widely practiced preparation regimen. Whether this regimen can be further improved (i.e., by further decreasing its volume, changing the timing of administration, coupling it with prokinetics and/or other factors) or if it can really affect the DY, is still under discussion. Faecal calprotectin has been used in SBCE studies in two settings: in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to evaluate the type and extent of mucosal damage and, more importantly from a clinical point of view, in patients with known or suspected Crohn’s disease for assessment of inflammation activity. Although there is still a lot of debate around the exact reasons of SBCE poor performance in various small-bowel segments, it is worth to remember that the capsule progress is non-steerable, hence more rapid in the proximal than in lower segments of the small-bowel. Capsule aspiration, a relatively unexpected complication, has been reported with increasing frequency. This is probably related with the increase in the mean age of patients undergoing CE. CE video review is a time-consuming procedure. Therefore, several attempts have been made to develop technical software features, in order to make CE video analysis easier and shorter (without jeopardizing its accuracy). Suspected Blood Indicator, QuickView and Fujinon Intelligent Chromo Endoscopy are some of the software tools that have been checked in various clinical studies to date. PMID:23840112

Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Karargyris, Alexandros

2013-01-01

315

The gastrointestinal motility laboratory.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) motor function contribute directly or indirectly to a number of common clinical problems and account for significant health care-related expenditure. Proper evaluation of patients who have suspected GI motility disorders is important to ensure a correct diagnosis and to embark on an appropriate plan of treatment. The GI motility laboratory serves as an important area for patient evaluation in gastroenterology and is an essential element in any comprehensive digestive disease program. This article addresses important concepts in setting up and running an efficient and practical GI motility laboratory. PMID:17950436

Parkman, Henry P; Orr, William C

2007-09-01

316

Management of gastrointestinal haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

A variety of endoscopic haemostatic techniques have enabled major advances in the management of not only bleeding peptic ulcers and bleeding varices, but also in a variety of bleeding lesions in the small intestine and in the colon. Indeed, the development and widespread implementation of endoscopic haemostasis has been one of the most important developments in clinical gastroenterology in the past two decades. An increasingly ageing cohort of patients with multiple co-morbidity are being treated and therefore improving the outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding continues to pose major challenges. PMID:11796865

Ghosh, S; Watts, D; Kinnear, M

2002-01-01

317

Two Cases of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma Mimicking a Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer that mimics a submucosal tumor is rare. This rarity and the normal mucosa covering the protuberant tumor make it difficult to diagnosis with endoscopy. We report two cases of advanced gastric cancer that mimicked malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors preoperatively. In both cases, the possibility of cancer was not completely ruled out. In the first case, a large tumor was suspected to be cancerous during surgery. Therefore, total gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. In the second case, the first gross endoscopic finding was of a Borrmann type II advanced gastric cancer-like protruding mass with two ulcerous lesions invading the anterior wall of the body. Therefore, subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Consequently, delayed treatment of cancer was avoided in both cases. If differential diagnosis between malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor and cancer is uncertain, a surgical approach should be carefully considered due to the possible risk of adenocarcinoma. PMID:25861526

Shin, Ha Song; Suh, Byoung Jo

2015-01-01

318

Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Using a modified in vivo /sup 99m/Tc red cell labeling technique, gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy was performed in 100 patients with GI bleeding. Sixty-two patients with melena or bright red blood per rectum had positive scintiscans. In comparison to results of angiography, endoscopy, surgery and contrast radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy correctly located the site of bleeding in 83% of patients. The procedures could be performed over a 24 hr period which increased the sensitivity of the test since 85% of the scintiscans were positive at one hr or greater after the onset of imaging. The procedure was more sensitive than angiography in detecting sources of GI bleeding. We conclude that GI bleeding scintigraphy /sup 99m/Tc-red cells in an accurate and effective method to detect upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with acute intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Froelich, J.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Strauss, H.W.

1982-04-01

319

Therapeutic effect of argon plasma coagulation on small malignant gastrointestinal tumors.  

PubMed

In endoscopy, argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a new principle of non-contact electrocoagulation and has proved to be a sufficient tool for palliative endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms, predominantly of the oesophagus and colorectum. In a study of 67 patients suffering from histologically confirmed and endosonographic T1-staged tumours of the gastrointestinum, 10 patients were selected for endoscopic APC treatment because of the impossibility of surgical therapy. Although the application was primarily of a palliative nature, in 9 of 10 cases of minor neoplasms, no further tumour could be detected in biopsies during the observation period (9.45 +/- 2.8 months). One patient was not cured locally. In none of the patients was any serious complication noticed during the outpatient follow-up. The effective results and lack of severe complications suggest this technique as an alternative therapy in selected patients with smaller gastrointestinal tumours. PMID:7538505

Sessler, M J; Becker, H D; Flesch, I; Grund, K E

1995-01-01

320

Rare case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in achalasia.  

PubMed

Achalasia is a prototypic esophageal motility disorder with complications including aspiration-pneumonia, esophagitis, esophageal-tracheal fistula, spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, achalasia is rarely associated with esophageal stones and ulcer formation that lead to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old woman who was admitted to our department after vomiting blood for six hours. Physical examination revealed that the patient had severe anemia and mild palpitation in the upper abdomen. CT revealed lower esophageal dilatation and esophageal wall thickening, and an emergency upper endoscopy showed that the esophagus was substantially expanded by a dark round stone, with multiple ulcers on the esophageal wall and a slit in the cardiac mucosa with a large clot attached. The patient's history included ingestion of 1 kg hawthorn three days prior. The acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome associated with achalasia and an esophageal stone. For patients with achalasia, preventing excessive ingestion of tannins is crucial to avoid complications such as bleeding and rupture. PMID:25789307

Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xie, Xiang-Jun; Geng, Chang-Xin; Zhan, Shu-Hui

2015-03-16

321

Rare case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in achalasia  

PubMed Central

Achalasia is a prototypic esophageal motility disorder with complications including aspiration-pneumonia, esophagitis, esophageal-tracheal fistula, spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, achalasia is rarely associated with esophageal stones and ulcer formation that lead to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old woman who was admitted to our department after vomiting blood for six hours. Physical examination revealed that the patient had severe anemia and mild palpitation in the upper abdomen. CT revealed lower esophageal dilatation and esophageal wall thickening, and an emergency upper endoscopy showed that the esophagus was substantially expanded by a dark round stone, with multiple ulcers on the esophageal wall and a slit in the cardiac mucosa with a large clot attached. The patient’s history included ingestion of 1 kg hawthorn three days prior. The acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome associated with achalasia and an esophageal stone. For patients with achalasia, preventing excessive ingestion of tannins is crucial to avoid complications such as bleeding and rupture. PMID:25789307

Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xie, Xiang-Jun; Geng, Chang-Xin; Zhan, Shu-Hui

2015-01-01

322

Endoscopic detection of transitional cell carcinoma with 5-aminolevulinic acid: results of 1012 fluorescence endoscopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The initial encouraging results using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE) have promised a procedure with an outstanding sensitivity for the detection of early stage bladder cancer. Summarized here is our clinical experience and data comprising 1012 fluorescence endoscopies. Methods. Two hours, 30 minutes before endoscopy, 1.5 g 5-ALA dissolved in 50 mL of 5.7% sodium monohydrogen phosphate

Dirk Zaak; Martin Kriegmair; Herbert Stepp; Helmut Stepp; Reinhold Baumgartner; Ralph Oberneder; Peter Schneede; Stefan Corvin; Dominic Frimberger; Ruth Knüchel; Alfons Hofstetter

2001-01-01

323

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal motility disorders encompass a wide array of signs and symptoms that can occur anywhere throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract. Motility disorders are often chronic in nature and dramatically affect patients’ quality of life. These prevalent disorders cause a tremendous impact both to the individual patient and to society as a whole. Significant progress has been made over the last

Brian E. Lacy; Kirsten Weiser

2006-01-01

324

Modeling lengthy work-ups in gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Multiple procedures and medical devices are being used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model that helps in estimating the average number of procedures to be expected in the general management of gastrointestinal bleeding. The modeling process serves as an example of how mathematical analysis in general can be used to answer unresolved clinical questions, lead to a better understanding of the underlying influences in a disease process, and provide a starting point for future clinical trials. The analysis uses a Markov chain to model the transition probabilities among consecutive interventions used to find and treat a bleeding site. The results show that starting a work-up of gastrointestinal bleeding with an esophagogastroduodenoscopy will lead on average to 2.69 procedures per patient. Of these expected procedures, 1.46 will be esophagogastroduodenoscopies, 0.69 colonoscopies, 0.25 video capsule endoscopies, 0.14 double-balloon enteroscopies, and 0.14 procedures from interventional radiology. Management chains initiated with a colonoscopy result in similar outcomes. Among 10,000 simulated individual patients, the number of procedures varies between 1 and 16 consecutive procedures, with 95% of all patients undergoing 6 procedures or less. The outcomes of the model suggest that the published success rates of endoscopic and radiographic procedures are overly optimistic. The results also point to the need to generate clinical data through future studies that more reliably account for treatment failures and the interchange among various complementary diagnostic modalities. PMID:24440338

Sonnenberg, Amnon

2015-03-01

325

Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

1986-11-01

326

Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

2013-01-01

327

Fucosylation and gastrointestinal cancer.  

PubMed

Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is a monosaccharide that is found on glycoproteins and glycolipids in verte-brates, invertebrates, plants, and bacteria. Fucosylation, which comprises the transfer of a fucose residue to oligosaccharides and proteins, is regulated by many kinds of molecules, including fucosyltransferases, GDP-fucose synthetic enzymes, and GDP-fucose transporter(s). Dramatic changes in the expression of fucosylated oligosaccharides have been observed in cancer and inflammation. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and lectins recognizing cancer-associated fucosylated oligosaccharides have been clinically used as tumor markers for the last few decades. Recent advanced glycomic approaches allow us to identify novel fucosylation-related tumor markers. Moreover, a growing body of evidence supports the functional significance of fucosylation at various pathophysiological steps of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. This review highlights the biological and medical significance of fucosylation in gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:21160988

Moriwaki, Kenta; Miyoshi, Eiji

2010-04-27

328

Fucosylation and gastrointestinal cancer  

PubMed Central

Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is a monosaccharide that is found on glycoproteins and glycolipids in verte-brates, invertebrates, plants, and bacteria. Fucosylation, which comprises the transfer of a fucose residue to oligosaccharides and proteins, is regulated by many kinds of molecules, including fucosyltransferases, GDP-fucose synthetic enzymes, and GDP-fucose transporter(s). Dramatic changes in the expression of fucosylated oligosaccharides have been observed in cancer and inflammation. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and lectins recognizing cancer-associated fucosylated oligosaccharides have been clinically used as tumor markers for the last few decades. Recent advanced glycomic approaches allow us to identify novel fucosylation-related tumor markers. Moreover, a growing body of evidence supports the functional significance of fucosylation at various pathophysiological steps of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. This review highlights the biological and medical significance of fucosylation in gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:21160988

Moriwaki, Kenta; Miyoshi, Eiji

2010-01-01

329

Chronotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers.  

PubMed

Chronotherapy consists in the administration of medicines according to biological rhythms. Further insight into the mechanisms of the circadian system has led to adapting the delivery of cancer chemotherapy to rhythms in drug metabolism or cell proliferation. The pharmacology of anticancer agents has long been known to vary largely and predictably according to dosing time in mice or rats. Portable programmable multi-channel pumps allowed demonstration of the clinical relevance of the chronotherapy principle in a sufficiently large patient population. This demonstration was achieved using a 5-day infusion of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin in patients with colorectal cancer metastases. A further innovation was that oxaliplatin, a new drug whose activity in this disease was first shown using chronomodulated infusion, was incorporated early in this novel three-drug regimen, in view of the good tolerability of this administration schedule. The fully ambulatory nature of treatment courses was an additional constraint put on chronotherapy. More than 1000 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies have now received chronotherapy protocols in several countries from North America or Europe. Results have clearly indicated that this approach improved chemotherapy tolerance and allowed safe increases in drug doses. A clinical phase III trial compared a flat versus the chronomodulated three-drug regimen, and demonstrated large, simultaneous improvements in both tolerability and response rates in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chronotherapy. This approach may also be beneficial to patients with other gastrointestinal malignancies, and it was amenable to combination with surgery and radiotherapy. It also appeared suitable for devising potentially more active dose-intensive yet safe regimens. Incorporation of chronopharmacology into the development stages of new drugs may improve their safe use to the greatest benefit of both cancer patients and new drug development, as was done for oxaliplatin. PMID:8869810

Lévi, F

1996-07-01

330

Greek results of the “ENERGIB” European study on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background Non-variceal upper gastro-intestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common and challenging emergency situation. We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with NVUGIB in Greece. Methods ENERGIB (NCT00797641) was an epidemiological survey conducted in 7 European countries including Greece. It included adult patients with overt NVUGIB from 10 tertiary hospitals across Greece. Data for each patient were collected on admission and up to 30 days thereafter. Results 201 patients were enrolled. A previous history of NVUGIB was reported by 14% of patients, while 61% had ? 1 co-morbidities. At presentation, 59% were on therapy that could harm the gastrointestinal mucosa, 14% on anticoagulant(s) and 42% had sign(s) of hemodynamic instability. 54% of patients showed stigmata of recent hemorrhage. Therapeutic endoscopy was performed in 25% and blood product(s) transfusions were required in 86% of cases. Proton pump inhibitors were administered before and after endoscopy in 70% and 95% of patients, respectively. Uncontrolled bleeding or rebleeding was observed in 11% being more common in elderly, hospitalized patients and patients with ?1 co-morbidities. Second-look endoscopy was performed in 20%, angiographic intervention in 1.5% and surgical intervention in 4% of patients. Only 5/201 (2.5%) patients died during hospitalization and none died during the 30-day post-hospitalization period. Conclusions The majority of patients with NVUGIB in tertiary Greek hospitals are elderly, with co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability and required transfusion(s), while one fourth undergoes therapeutic endoscopic interventions. However, NVUGIB is associated with moderate degrees of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, low surgical rates and, most importantly, low mortality. PMID:24714268

Papatheodoridis, George; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Evgenidis, Nikolaos; Kapetanakis, Anargyros; Karamanolis, Demetrios; Kountouras, Jannis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Potamianos, Spyros; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalambos

2012-01-01

331

Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images’ identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results: The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent. PMID:24179399

Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

2011-01-01

332

Adherence to guidelines: A national audit of the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The REASON registry  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess process of care in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) using a national cohort, and to identify predictors of adherence to ‘best practice’ standards. METHODS: Consecutive charts of patients hospitalized for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding across 21 Canadian hospitals were reviewed. Data regarding initial presentation, endoscopic management and outcomes were collected. Results were compared with ‘best practice’ using established guidelines on NVUGIB. Adherence was quantified and independent predictors were evaluated using multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 2020 patients (89.4% NVUGIB, variceal in 10.6%) were included (mean [± SD] age 66.3±16.4 years; 38.4% female). Endoscopy was performed in 1612 patients: 1533 with NVUGIB had endoscopic lesions (63.1% ulcers; high-risk stigmata in 47.8%). Early endoscopy was performed in 65.6% and an assistant was present in 83.5%. Only 64.5% of patients with high-risk stigmata received endoscopic hemostasis; 9.8% of patients exhibiting low-risk stigmata also did. Intravenous proton pump inhibitor was administered after endoscopic hemostasis in 95.7%. Rebleeding and mortality rates were 10.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that low American Society of Anesthesiologists score patients had fewer assistants present during endoscopy (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), a hemoglobin level <70 g/L predicted inappropriate high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor use in patients with low-risk stigmata, and endoscopies performed during regular hours were associated with longer delays from presentation (OR 0.33 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.47]). CONCLUSION: There was variability between the process of care and ‘best practice’ in NVUGIB. Certain patient and situational characteristics may influence guideline adherence. Dissemination initiatives must identify and focus on such considerations to improve quality of care. PMID:25314356

Lu, Yidan; Barkun, Alan N; Martel, Myriam

2014-01-01

333

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach with a giant abscess penetrating the gastric lumen  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In large GISTs, cystic degeneration, necrosis and focal hemorrhage that occur inside the tumor can result in gastrointestinal bleeding. We describe a case of a 74-year old male with GIST of the stomach accompanied with a giant abscess that penetrated the gastric lumen. The patient experienced undiagnosed fever for two months prior to hospitalization. Gastrointestinal endoscopy, X-ray series and computed tomography of the patient’s abdomen revealed a gastric submucosal tumor in the fornix, with a fistula to the gastric lumen that was inundated with a great deal of pus. The mass was diagnosed as a GIST from biopsy specimens. The patient was treated by endoscopic drainage of the abscess and intravenous administration of antibiotics. Eventually, a partial gastrectomy was performed. He was also administered Imanitib mesylate as adjuvant therapy. He was followed up for 2 years and no metastasis or recurrence was recognized at the follow-up examinations. This is the first report of a patient with clearly diagnosed GIST with endoscopic evidence of an abscess penetrating into the gastric lumen. PMID:17511044

Osada, Taro; Nagahara, Akihito; Kodani, Tomohiro; Namihisa, Akihiro; Kawabe, Masato; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Watanabe, Sumio

2007-01-01

334

Zn concentration in plasma and gastric fluid in patients with upper gastrointestinal disease  

SciTech Connect

Very few data are available about Zn in gastrointestinal fluids in humans. To obtain data in one such fluid Zn was measured in plasma and gastric fluid, obtained by direct visual aspiration through an endoscope placed into the gastric fundus, in 36 subjects with normal gastrointestinal mucosa (N) and in 36 patients with the following upper gastrointestinal pathology confirmed by endoscopy: 13 with esophagitis (E), 9 with gastritis (G) and 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Plasma and gastric fluid Zn were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean plasma Zn was significantly lower than normal in patients with E (N, 87 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl, M +/- SEM; E, 75 +/- 4, p < 0.01) but plasma values were similar to normal in the other patient groups (G, 89 +/- 4; DU, 87 +/- 2). Mean gastric fluid zinc in G was significantly higher than in normal subjects (G, 664 +/- 159 ..mu..g/L; N, 360 +/- 43, p < 0.02) but not significantly different from normal in patients with DU or E (DU, 402 +/- 76; E, 307 +/- 55). Mean gastric fluid Zn in women with DU was approximately 45% higher than in men with DU, although it was 17% lower in normal women than in normal men. Compared to other normal tissues gastric fluid Zn is about 1/3 that in serum and about 3 times that in saliva. These results indicate that Zn in plasma and gastric fluid is altered in some upper gastrointestinal diseases.

Kadakia, S.C.; Wong, R.H.K.; Maydonovitch, C.; Johnson, L.F.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

1986-03-05

335

Sleep Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is not always resolved or improved with adenotonsillectomy. Persistent or complex cases of pediatric OSA may be due to sites of obstruction in the airway other than the tonsils and adenoids. Identifying these areas in the past has been problematic, and therefore, therapy for OSA in children who have failed adenotonsillectomy has often been unsatisfactory. Sleep endoscopy is a technique that can enable the surgeon to determine the level of obstruction in a sleeping child with OSA. With this knowledge, site-specific surgical therapy for persistent and complex pediatric OSA may be possible. PMID:22518178

Lin, Aaron C.; Koltai, Peter J.

2012-01-01

336

Colon capsule endoscopy: Current status and future directions  

PubMed Central

Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE; PillCam Colon; Given Imaging; Yoqneam, Israel) is a minimally invasive wireless technique for the visualization of the colon. With the recent introduction of the second generation colon capsule the diagnostic accuracy of CCE for polyp detection has significantly improved and preliminary data suggest it may be useful to monitor mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Limitations include the inability to take biopsies and the procedural costs. However, given the potentially higher acceptance within an average risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening population, its usefulness as a screening tool with regard to CRC prevention should be further evaluated. PMID:25469027

Tal, Andrea O; Vermehren, Johannes; Albert, Jörg G

2014-01-01

337

[The role of capsule endoscopy in suspected Crohn's disease].  

PubMed

Capsule endoscopy (CE) revolutionized the small bowel examination. We emphasize the role of CE in suspected Crohn's disease, studying 24 investigations performed in the Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The global diagnostic yield was 54%, the specific diagnostic yield for Crohn's disease was 37.5%, the specificity was 100% and the retention rate was 4.1%. For maximum accuracy and efficiency, unitary administration and diagnostic criteria are needed, and for minimising the risk of complications, specific prior investigations would be suitable. PMID:21870726

Singeap, Ana-Maria; Trifan, Anca; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, C; Stanciu, C

2011-01-01

338

Second-Look Endoscopy after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Reducing Delayed Postoperative Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims This stuy evaluated the role of a second-look endoscopy after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients without signs of bleeding. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, 407 patients with gastric neoplasms who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for 445 lesions were retrospectively reviewed. After the patients had undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection, they were allocated to two groups (with or without second-look endoscopy) according to the following endoscopy. The postoperative bleeding risk of the lesions was not considered when allocating the patients. Results The delayed postoperative bleeding rates did not differ between the two groups (with vs without second-look endoscopy, 3.0% vs 2.1%; p=0.546). However, a tumor in the upper-third of the stomach (odds ratio [OR], 5.353; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075 to 26.650) and specimen size greater than 40 mm (OR, 4.794; 95% CI, 1.307 to 17.588) were both independent risk factors for delayed postoperative bleeding. Additionally, second-look endoscopy was not related to reduced delayed postoperative bleeding. However, delayed postoperative bleeding in the patients who did not undergo a second-look endoscopy occurred significantly earlier than that in patients who underwent a second-look endoscopy (4.5 and 14.0 days, respectively, p=0.022). Conclusions A routine second-look endoscopy after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection is not necessary for all patients. PMID:25170062

Park, Chan Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

2015-01-01

339

Narrow-band imaging system with magnifying endoscopy for superficial esophageal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBy assessing the intrapapillary capillary loop in esophageal mucosa, magnifying endoscopy can play an important role in the evaluation of superficial esophageal lesions. A newly developed narrow-band imaging system was applied to magnifying endoscopy in a clinical setting; the benefit of the narrow-band imaging system was evaluated.

Tatsuya Yoshida; Haruhiro Inoue; Shinsuke Usui; Hitoshi Satodate; Norio Fukami; Shin-ei Kudo

2004-01-01

340

Serology for Helicobacter pylori compared with symptom questionnaires in screening before direct access endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study aimed to compare serology for Helicobacter pylori with two, symptom questionnaires in screening patients before direct access endoscopy. Methods were compared in terms of the number of endoscopies saved and pathology missed in 315 patients referred to a gastroenterology unit by 65 local GPs. The serology used was based on an acid glycine extract of H pylori.

M A Mendall; R P Jazrawi; J M Marrero; N Molineaux; J Levi; J D Maxwell; T C Northfield

1995-01-01

341

“Through the Looking Glass”: Optical Physics, Issues, and the Evolution of Neuro-Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concept of endoscopy has existed for centuries, a practical working neuro-endoscopic system did not emerge until last century, as a result of numerous contributions and refinements in optical technology, illumination sources, and instrumentation. Modern neuro-endoscopy would not be a flourishing field, as it is today, without the dedication, innovation, and implementation of emerging technology by key contributors including

Gabriel Zada; Charles Liu; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

342

Absolute length measurement using manually decided stereo correspondence for endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various kinds of endoscope have been developed and widely used to endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic operation and endoscopy. The size of the inflammatory part is important to determine a method of medical treatment. However, it is not easy to measure absolute size of inflammatory part such as ulcer, cancer and polyp from the endoscopic image. Therefore, it is required measuring the size of those part in endoscopy. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the absolute length in a straight line between arbitrary two points based on the photogrammetry using endoscope with magnetic tracking sensor which gives camera position and angle. In this method, the stereo-corresponding points between two endoscopic images are determined by the endoscopist without any apparatus of projection and calculation to find the stereo correspondences, then the absolute length can be calculated on the basis of the photogrammetry. The evaluation experiment using a checkerboard showed that the errors of the measurements are less than 2% of the target length when the baseline is sufficiently-long.

Sasaki, M.; Koishi, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Tsumura, N.; Miyake, Y.

2009-02-01

343

DRUG DISCOVERY Modulation of gastrointestinal  

E-print Network

MECHANISMS DRUG DISCOVERY TODAY DISEASE Modulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and colorectal homeostasis, cellular differentia- tion and modulation of inflammation. The potential for targeting PPARb, for the treatment and management of type II diabetes (Fig. 1). Similar to fibrates that actasagonistsof

Omiecinski, Curtis

344

Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

345

Gastrointestinal bleeding. An angiographic perspective  

SciTech Connect

Angiography has become an integral tool in the management of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. It is used for localizing the site of bleeding and then for controlling the bleeding when more conservative methods of treatment are unsuccessful.

Eckstein, M.R.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

1984-02-01

346

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children  

PubMed Central

The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

Ambartsumyan, Lusine

2014-01-01

347

Gastrointestinal symptoms in atopic eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with eczema and the association of such symptoms with the extent of eczema or skin prick test results.METHODSSixty five children with atopic eczema and a control group matched for age and sex were recruited. Their parents completed a questionnaire about the children’s gastrointestinal symptoms. The children’s skin was examined; their weight,

Carlo Caffarelli; Giovanni Cavagni; Franca M Deriu; Paola Zanotti; David J Atherton

1998-01-01

348

Hypoxia and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal mucosa is a richly perfused vascular bed directly juxtaposed with the anaerobic and nonsterile lumen of the gut. As such, intestinal epithelial cells, which line the mucosa, experience a uniquely steep physiologic oxygen gradient in comparison with other cells of the body. Inflammation associated with a loss of epithelial barrier function and unregulated exposure of the mucosal immune system to luminal antigens leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a relatively common disorder with severe morbidity and a limited therapeutic repertoire. During IBD, increased tissue metabolism and vasculitis renders the chronically inflamed mucosa and particularly the epithelium hypoxic, giving rise to the activation of the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Recent studies utilizing conditional intestinal epithelial hif1a-null mice have revealed a protective role for epithelial HIF-1alpha in murine models of IBD. Such protection occurs, at least in part, through HIF-dependent induction of barrier-protective genes in the epithelium. More recently, studies employing pharmacologic activation of HIF via inhibition of HIF prolyl hydroxylases revealed a profoundly protective effect of these agents in murine models of colitis. In this paper, we review this pathway in detail and examine the therapeutic potential for targeting HIF hydroxylases in intestinal mucosal inflammatory disease. PMID:18026919

Taylor, Cormac T; Colgan, Sean P

2007-12-01

349

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

PubMed

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

350

Pathology of gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

Nonneoplastic and neoplastic proliferative lesions of endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract are detailed. A multistep continuum from hyperplasia, dysplasia to neoplasia is identified for histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the gastric corpus. Most gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are silent and composed by ECL cells, the second most frequent neuroendocrine neoplasms being the high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). In the duodenum, preneoplastic lesions are similarly described for gastrin (G) and somatostatin (D) cells. G-cell NETs are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum, either functioning or nonfunctioning, followed by D-cell NETs and gangliocytic paraganglioma (GCP). No systematic definition of nonneoplastic lesions exists for endocrine cells of the ileum, appendix, and colon-rectum. The most frequent ileal NETs are serotonin-producing enterochromaffin (EC)-cell NETs (classic carcinoid), associating with functional syndrome only in presence of liver metastases. Neoplasms are usually larger in the colon as compared with the small lesions observed in the rectum. High-grade NECs are observed in the colon and rectum-sigmoid, often associate with nonendocrine neoplastic components, and fare an aggressive course with poor outcome and short survival. PMID:21095540

Rindi, Guido; Inzani, Frediano; Solcia, Enrico

2010-12-01

351

Role of small bowel capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in elderly: A comprehensive review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common and often under recognized problem in the elderly. It may be the result of multiple factors including a bleeding lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty percent of elderly patients with IDA have a negative upper and lower endoscopy and two-thirds of these have a lesion in the small bowel (SB). Capsule endoscopy (CE) provides direct visualization of entire SB mucosa, which was not possible before. It is superior to push enteroscopy, enteroclysis and barium radiography for diagnosing clinically significant SB pathology resulting in IDA. Angioectasia is one of the commonest lesions seen on the CE in elderly with IDA. The diagnostic yield of CE for IDA progressively increases with advancing age, and is highest among patients over 85 years of age. Balloon assisted enteroscopy is used to treat the lesions seen on CE. CE has some limitations mainly lack of therapeutic capability, inability to provide precise location of the lesion and false positive results. Overall CE is a very safe and effective procedure for the evaluation of IDA in elderly. PMID:25024599

Muhammad, Adnan; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; Brady, Patrick

2014-01-01

352

State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by microscopic techniques. In this respect, the challenging combination of autofluorescence imaging and confocal endomicroscopy seems promising, and further research is awaited. PMID:24868168

Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

2014-01-01

353

Time-resolved spectrofluorometer for clinical tissue characterization during endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to provide more information for the detection of early cancer than continuous wave spectroscopy. A new optical fiber-based spectrofluorometer for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue during clinical endoscopy is presented. The apparatus is based on a nitrogen laser pumping a dye laser as excitation source and a streak camera coupled with a spectrograph as time-resolved spectrometer. The excitation and fluorescence light is carried by an optical fiber to the tissue under investigation and back to the detector, respectively. This optical fiber can be inserted into the biopsy channel of a conventional endoscope. Hence, the apparatus can be used to perform in situ tissue characterization during endoscopy. The instrument enables the measurement of the decays of entire fluorescence spectra within 15 s with a dynamic range of the spectro-temporal images of up to three orders of magnitude. Luminescence lifetimes from the sub ns up to the ms range can be measured. Spectral and temporal resolution, sensitivity, and dynamic range of the instrumentation were determined. The accuracy of the apparatus was checked by the measurement of the fluorescence lifetimes of various fluorophores with known lifetimes. For the first time, two-dimensional time-resolved spectra with sub-ns temporal resolution of tissue fluorescence of the human bladder, the bronchi, and the esophagus taken during endoscopy are presented as a demonstration of performance of the instrumentation. The excitation wavelengths were 337 nm in the case of the bladder and the esophagus and 480 nm in the case of the bronchi. Lifetime contrasts between normal and neoplastic tissue were found in all three organs. The spectral analysis of the fluorescence decays showed that the fluorescence between 370 and 490 nm, excited at 337 nm, consisted in several overlapping spectra. In the case of the esophagus, the contrast between normal and tumoral tissue was inverse in two different spectral bands proving the importance of the choice of the appropriate spectral range for time-resolved autofluorescence measurements for an optimal contrast. The in vivo fluorescence decay of the photosensitizers 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester hydrochloride-induced protoporphyrin IX was measured in the human bladder and found to be mono-exponential with a lifetime of 15.9 (±1.2) ns. An in vivo fluorescence lifetime of 8.5 (±0.8) ns was found in the case of the photosensitizer 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) in the esophagus.

Glanzmann, Thomas; Ballini, Jean-Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

1999-10-01

354

Colorectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm arising in the digestive tract, with an estimated prevalence of 15-20 per 1,000,000. GISTs are related to the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by constitutive over-expression of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor KIT. This is produced by a patognomonic mutation of the proto-oncogene c-kit that occurs in up to 90% of cases. Exon 11 is affected most frequently; exons 9 and 13 are less commonly involved. One-third of GISTs lacking KIT mutations exhibits alternative activating mutations in the PDGFR? gene. Colorectal GISTs represent about 5-10% of the cases, mainly located in the rectum that is the third common site. Benign GISTs are more common, but many tumors are of uncertain malignant potential; tumor size and rate of mitosis are still the most reliable criteria for assessing the risk of an aggressive behavior. Surgery is the first-line treatment for resectable non-metastatic colorectal GIST. Standard oncologic resection is inappropriate because skip metastases and lymphatic spread are rarely reported. Segmental colectomy with negative margins is recommended, and local excision is oncologically adequate in highly selected rectal tumors. Radical surgery alone is not always curative especially in high-risk GISTs, and half of patients develops local recurrences or distant metastases after R0 operation. Medical therapeutic strategies have rapidly evolved after the introduction of targeted molecular therapy. Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate was first demonstrated in patients with metastatic and unresectable disease. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of imatinib are promising therapeutic options to improve the outcome of surgery to downstage unresectable lesions and to allow less extensive resections. PMID:20967481

Amato, A

2010-11-01

355

Effects of supplemental oxygen on cardiac rhythm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a randomised controlled double blind trial.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of supplemental oxygen on cardiac rhythm during gastroscopy, 103 patients aged over 60 were randomised to receive either supplemental oxygen or air at 2 litres/minute during the procedure. Pulse rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and a Holter cardiac trace were monitored before, during, and for one hour after the gastroscopy. A wide range of electrocardiographic abnormalities were recorded in both oxygen and air groups, of which ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats were the most common. There were no significant differences in the rate of occurrence of any clinically important cardiac abnormality either between the oxygen and air groups or between the three monitored periods before, during, and after gastroscopy. There were significantly fewer patients, however, with supraventricular extra systoles when oxygen was given during gastroscopy (p < 0.05). Although supplemental oxygen during gastroscopy significantly improved oxygen saturation (p < 0.001; 95% confidence intervals for the difference between the means: 2.9 to 4.7), there was no correlation between oxygen saturation and any electrocardiographic changes. It is concluded that electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in patients over 60, but this study found no evidence that they are induced by gastroscopy. Supplemental oxygen increases oxygen saturation but does not reduce the incidence of clinically important cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:8244130

Bowling, T E; Hadjiminas, C L; Polson, R J; Baron, J H; Foale, R A

1993-01-01

356

Development of a fluorescence video endoscopy imaging system for the early detection of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of autofluorescence imaging for the early detection of lung cancer has been previously demonstrated. The aim of this work is to extend the use of real time autofluorescence imaging to the early detection of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and colon. A prototype fluorescence imaging system was developed which produces real time video images of tissue autofluorescence. The system consist of a filtered blue light source, two intensified CCD cameras, a fiber optic endoscope, and a computer based control center. The system produces a real time pseudo color display based on images acquired from two fluorescence bands. These bands were selected based on in vivo fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The generated pseudo image clearly delineates the abnormal tissue areas for biopsy. Early cancer sties missed under conventional white light examination became visible under fluorescence imaging. A further development allows the fluorescence imaging system to be used in an alternate fashion. The system captures a fluorescence image in the green and a reflectance image in the red-near IR. Different spectral information was exploited in the two imaging modes.

Zeng, Haishan; Weiss, Alan; MacAulay, Calum E.; MacKinnon, Nick; Cline, Richard W.; Dawson, Remy

1997-06-01

357

Electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for medical endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for endoscopy imaging is presented. The devices are supported by a single actuating cantilever to achieve a high fill factor, the ratio of mirror area to the combined mirror and actuator area. The largest fill factor devices (74%) achieved 10° mechanical scan range at +/?10V with a 300 ?m long cantilever. The largest angular displacement of 30° mechanical scan range was obtained with a 500 ?m long cantilever device with a 63% fill factor driven at 40 Vpp. A systematic investigation of device performance (displacement and speed) as a function of fabrication and operational parameters including the stress balance in the cantilever revealed unexpectedly large displacements with lack of inversion at the coercive field. An interpretation of the results is presented based on piezoelectric film domain orientation and clamping with supporting piezoelectric film characterization measurements. PMID:22773894

Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Dausch, David E.; Grego, Sonia

2012-01-01

358

Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests. PMID:25082182

Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

2014-10-01

359

Magnifying endoscopy for diagnosing and delineating early gastric cancer.  

PubMed

We describe the basic principles and clinical usefulness of modern magnifying endoscopy techniques, using white-light imaging or narrow-band imaging, for precise diagnosis of small flat gastric cancers. Regarding technology, first, the resolution provided by the endoscope is important in order to consistently visualize the precise morphology of microvascular architecture, and second, the use of a distal attachment (soft hood or cap) is essential in order to maintain a constant distance between the tip of the scope and the mucosal surface. Regarding methodology, a systematic but simple classification system based on microvascular pattern and microsurface pattern (the "VS classification") is proposed. The technique based on the principles described here can be applied not only in routine endoscopic examination but also in the detailed preoperative assessment of the lateral extent of early gastric cancer, before endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). PMID:19418401

Yao, K; Anagnostopoulos, G K; Ragunath, K

2009-05-01

360

Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left heart assist devices  

PubMed Central

According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation. PMID:24714370

Bandorski, Dirk; Höltgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

2014-01-01

361

Gastrointestinal symptoms in atopic eczema  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with eczema and the association of such symptoms with the extent of eczema or skin prick test results.?METHODS—Sixty five children with atopic eczema and a control group matched for age and sex were recruited. Their parents completed a questionnaire about the children's gastrointestinal symptoms. The children's skin was examined; their weight, height, and abdominal circumference were measured; and skin prick tests were carried out.?RESULTS—Gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhoea, vomiting, and regurgitation, were more common in the children with eczema. Diarrhoea appeared to be associated with the ingestion of specific foods. Gastrointestinal symptoms were related to diffuse eczema and positive skin prick tests to foods. There was no anthropometric differences between the patient and control groups.?CONCLUSIONS—A gastrointestinal disorder is common in children with eczema, especially with diffuse distribution. This may be responsible for substantial symptoms and may play a part in the pathogenesis of the disease and in the failure to thrive with which it is sometimes associated.?? PMID:9613352

Caffarelli, C.; Cavagni, G.; Deriu, F.; Zanotti, P.; Atherton, D.

1998-01-01

362

Automatic detection of small bowel tumors in capsule endoscopy based on color curvelet covariance statistical texture descriptors.  

PubMed

Traditional endoscopic methods do not allow the visualization of the entire Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (CE) is a diagnostic procedure that overcomes this limitation of the traditional endoscopic methods. The CE video frames possess rich information about the condition of the stomach and intestine mucosa, encoded as color and texture patterns. It is known for a long time that human perception of texture is based in a multi-scale analysis of patterns, which can be modeled by multi-resolution approaches. Furthermore, modeling the covariance of textural descriptors has been successfully used in classification of colonoscopy videos. Therefore, in the present paper it is proposed a frame classification scheme based on statistical textural descriptors taken from the Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT) domain, a recent multi-resolution mathematical tool. The DCT is based on an anisotropic notion of scale and high directional sensitivity in multiple directions, being therefore suited to characterization of complex patterns as texture. The covariance of texture descriptors taken at a given detail level, in different angles, is used as classification feature, in a scheme designated as Color Curvelet Covariance. The classification step is performed by a multilayer perceptron neural network. The proposed method has been applied in real data taken from several capsule endoscopic exams and reaches 97.2% of sensitivity and 97.4% specificity. These promising results support the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:19964706

Barbosa, Daniel J C; Ramos, Jaime; Correia, José Higino; Lima, Carlos S

2009-01-01

363

Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis Presenting with Multiple Episodes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.

Kim, Sang Hyeon, E-mail: g4439@naver.com; Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Department of Pathology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

364

Gastrointestinal Involvement in Lipoid Proteinosis: A Ten-Year Follow-Up of a Brazilian Female Patient  

PubMed Central

Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of hyaline material in the skin and internal organs. The main clinical features are hoarseness and typical skin lesions. In this report we describe the endoscopic and radiologic findings in a Brazilian female patient presenting extensive gastrointestinal involvement and the evolution of the detected lesions in ten years of follow-up. Initial upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed a similar pattern of multiple yellowish nodules throughout the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colons. Histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lipoid proteinosis. In addition, small bowel follow through demonstrated numerous well defined, round, small filling defects throughout the jejunum. Ten years later, the esophageal lesions remained the same, but none of the previous alterations were detected in the stomach, duodenum, and colons. In conclusion, lipoid proteinosis may affect all gastrointestinal organs with the same pattern of macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Some lesions may regress with increasing age. PMID:25045357

Custódio Lima, Juliana; Nagasako, Cristiane Kibune; Montes, Ciro Garcia; Barcelos, Irene Harumi Kamata; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa

2014-01-01

365

Ankaferd Blood Stopper for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding due to distinct benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, Ankaferd Health Products Ltd, Turkey) hemostatic agent for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding associated with various benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures. METHODS: The records of all patients who underwent upper and lower endoscopy procedures at the Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Teaching and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) between April 2008 and June 2009 were reviewed. Patients in whom ABS was used as a primary or adjuvant hemostatic agent were included in the study. Rates of bleeding control and postprocedural complications were documented. RESULTS: Hemostasis with no immediate complications was achieved in all patients within seconds of endoscopic application of ABS. CONCLUSIONS: ABS may have a role as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to conventional modalities used to control gastrointestinal bleeding. Prospective controlled studies are needed to help establish its efficacy and, perhaps, offer a comparison with conventional hemostatic interventions. PMID:20559581

Kurt, Mevlut; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Akdogan, Meral; Kekilli, Murat; Arhan, Mehmet; Sayilir, Abdurrahim; Oztas, Erkin; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

2010-01-01

366

A Case of an Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Ruptured Dissection of a Right Aortic Arch  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a rare underlying cause. The patient was unconscious when he was admitted to the hospital. No chest radiogram was performed. Routine diagnostic measures, including endoscopy, failed to reveal the origin of the bleeding, which was believed to originate from the esophagus secondary to a peptic ulcer or varices. Exploratory laparotomy added no further information, but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the chest showed dextroposition of the widened aortic arch with a ruptured type-B dissection and a consecutive aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF). The patient died on the day of admission. Noninvasive MSCT angiography gives rapid diagnostic information on patients with occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding and should be considered before more invasive conventional angiography or surgery.

Born, Christine; Forster, Andreas; Rock, Clemens; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Rieger, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Ziemssenstrasse 1, D-80336 Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2003-09-15

367

Diagnosis of Adult Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Can Nasal Endoscopy Predict Intrasinus Disease?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To define the role of endoscopic evaluation of middle meatus in adult patients clinically diagnosed to have chronic rhino-sinusitis and its ability to predict intra-sinus mucosal involvement as compared to CT scan. Methods This prospective analytical study was conducted on consecutive patients with diagnosis of chronic rhino-sinusitis who were symptomatic and fulfilled the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Task Force criteria. The patients were enrolled prospectively and were subjected to rigid diagnostic nasal endoscopy and classified as defined by the revised Sinus Allergy Health Partnership Task Force criteria. The patients then underwent non contrast CT sinuses on the same day. Results were analyzed as a diagnostic test evaluation using CT as a gold standard. Results Among the 75 study patients with symptom based chronic rhino-sinusitis, nasal endoscopy was abnormal in 65 patients (87%). Of these patients, 60/65 (92%) showed positive findings on CT scan. Ten patients had normal endoscopy, of these 6/10 (60%) had abnormal CT scan. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic nasal endoscopy against CT scan were 91% (95% CI: 81-97) and 44% (95% CI: 14-79), respectively. The likelihood ratio for positive nasal endoscopy to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis was 1.6 and the likelihood ratio to rule out chronic rhino-sinusitis when endoscopy was negative was 0.2. Conclusion Nasal endoscopy is a valid and objective diagnostic tool in the work up of patients with symptomatic chronic rhino-sinusitis. When clinical suspicion is low (<50%) and endoscopy is negative, the probability of rhino-sinusitis is very low (<17%) and there is no need to perform a CT scan to reconfirm this finding routinely. Endoscopy alone is able to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis in >90% of patients when clinical suspicion is high (88%) as defined in this study by AAO-HNS Task Force criteria. Negative endoscopy, however, does not totally exclude the sinus disease in patients fulfilling task force criteria. CT scan may be needed on follow-up if there is clinical suspicion in 10% of these patients who are negative on endoscopy if symptoms persists. It is thus possible to reduce the number of CT scans if patients are carefully selected based on clinical criteria and endoscopy is done initially as part of their evaluation. PMID:24223247

Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Paul, Roshna Rose; Kurien, Mary; Kumar, Shyam; Al Abri, Rashid; Thomas, Kurien

2013-01-01

368

Malakoplakia of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and pathological features of 3 cases of colonic malakoplakia are documented thereby bringing to 34 the total of recorded cases of malakoplakia involving the gastrointestinal tract. This is therefore the most common site of involvement outside the urogenital tract. A comprehensive review of the world literature on gastrointestinal malakoplakia has been made and the characteristic features of the condition have been delineated. There was a bimodal age incidence with a small cluster of cases occurring in childhood and associated with significant additional systemic disease. In the adult cases the average age was 57 years with a slight excess of males. The most commonly involved part of the gastrointestinal tract was the colon and colonic carcinoma was the most common associated disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7267514

McClure, J.

1981-01-01

369

Gastrointestinal changes after bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24359701

Quercia, I.; Dutia, R.; Kotler, D.P.; Belsley, S.; Laferrère, B.

2015-01-01

370

Motion management in gastrointestinal cancers  

PubMed Central

The presence of tumor and organ motions complicates the planning and delivery of radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Without proper accounting of the movements, target volume could be under-dosed and the nearby normal critical organs could be over-dosed. This situation is further exacerbated by the close proximity of abdominal tumors to many normal organs at risk (OARs). A number of strategies have been developed to deal with tumor and organ motions in radiotherapy. This article presents a review of the techniques used in the evaluation, quantification, and management of tumor and organ motions for radiotherapy of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24982771

Abbas, Hassan; Chang, Bryan

2014-01-01

371

Gastrointestinal complications of mycosis fungoides.  

PubMed Central

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an uncommon T-cell lymphoma which characteristically involves the skin. Two patients with MF are described who developed fatal complications secondary to involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. One developed malabsorption due to small intestinal involvement; the other had a massive haemorrhage from an ulcerated nodule of tumour in the stomach. The potential for extracutaneous spread is discussed, and it is emphasized that bowel infiltration should be considered in any patient with MF who develops gastrointestinal symptoms or complications. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:6737393

Slater, D N; Bleehen, S S; Beck, S

1984-01-01

372

Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

2013-07-01

373

Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

2013-01-01

374

Multiple magnetic gastrointestinal foreign bodies in a dog.  

PubMed

Case Description-A 3-year-old castrated male Yorkshire Terrier was referred because of a 3-day history of vomiting, hyporexia, and lethargy after suspected ingestion of magnetic desk toys. Multiple metallic gastric foreign bodies were visible on radiographic views obtained 24 hours previously by the referring veterinarian. Clinical Findings-On physical examination of the dog, findings included moderate dyspnea, signs of pain in the cranial portion of the abdomen, hypothermia, and tachycardia. Repeated radiography revealed moderate pleural effusion and the presence of several round metallic foreign bodies in a linear ring formation in the distal aspect of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Treatment and Outcome-Endoscopy was performed, at which time the dog became increasingly dyspneic, tachycardic, and hypotensive. Thoracocentesis was performed, and a large volume of septic exudate was removed from the left hemithorax. Exploratory surgery of the thoracic and abdominal cavities was performed, during which the magnetic foreign bodies were removed and esophageal and gastric perforations were debrided and closed. The dog died following acute cardiac arrest 48 hours after surgery. Clinical Relevance-Ingestion of multiple magnetic foreign bodies carries a high risk of gastrointestinal tract perforation, volvulus, and obstruction. Immediate surgical intervention is recommended in such cases and would have likely improved the outcome for the dog of this report. PMID:25671286

Garneau, Mark S; McCarthy, Robert J

2015-03-01

375

What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What should you ask your doctor about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? It is important to ... Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors ...

376

Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSMinor gastrointestinal abnormalities have been reported in children with asthma, but the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in these children has not been studied.METHODS75 children with bronchial asthma and an age and sex matched control group were recruited. Parents completed a questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and on asthma. Weight and height were measured; a clinical evaluation of asthma was undertaken and

Carlo Caffarelli; Franca Maria Deriu; Vittorio Terzi; Francesca Perrone; Gianluigi dè Angelis; David J Atherton

2000-01-01

377

Cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a myriad of dermatologic disorders asso- ciated with gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. This article covers the common dermatologic conditions that may be associated with underlying GI diseases and several uncommon conditions that the dermatologist should recognize as being associated with GI disor- ders. Table 1 presents an outline of the diseases that are covered. Inflammatory bowel diseases Inflammatory disorders

Erin E. Boh; Raed Mahmoud

378

Barrett's Esophagus Suspected at Endoscopy but No Specialized Intestinal Metaplasia on Biopsy, What's Next?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES There are no guidelines regarding the best practice for when Barrett's esophagus (BE) is suspected but not confirmed by histology. The aim of this study was to examine the value of endoscopic follow-up for individuals with endoscopic only BE at index endoscopy. METHODS We performed a longitudinal study of patients diagnosed with suspected columnar lined esophagus (CLE) (suspected BE in the absence of histological confirmation of specialized intestinal metaplasia (IM)). We examined three possible outcomes (definite BE defined as CLE plus IM in targeted biopsies, suspected CLE, or no suspected CLE) on repeat endoscopy within 2 years after the index endoscopy and their predictors (clinical, demographic as well as endoscopists' identity). RESULTS A total of 107 of 1,844 patients had suspected CLE (101 were <3 cm), and 80 underwent a repeat endoscopy within 2 years. Approximately, 71% (95% confidence interval (CI) 61.1–80.9%) had suspected CLE confirmed at repeat endoscopy and only 29% (95% CI 19.1–38.9%) had IM. The length of CLE on the index esophagogastroduodenoscopies was slightly longer among patients with definite BE on repeat endoscopy than those with suspected CLE and no IM or no CLE (1.6 cm (s.d. 1.3) vs. 1.5 cm (s.d. 1.4), and 1.4 cm (s.d. 1.2), respectively P>0.1). Patient demographics, body mass index, gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms, hiatal hernia, and endoscopists' identity were not significantly associated with the outcome on the repeat endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS Most (71%) patients with suspected CLE remain negative for IM in the 2 years following the index endoscopy. The findings support withholding BE diagnosis for individuals with suspected CLE. PMID:24343550

Khandwalla, Hashim E.; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Ramsey, David J.; Duong, Ngoc; Green, Linda K.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

2014-01-01

379

Prevention of Traditional NSAID-Induced Small Intestinal Injury: Recent Preliminary Studies Using Capsule Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule endoscopy and balloon endoscopy, advanced modalities that now allow for full investigation of the entire small intestine, have revealed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause a variety of abnormalities in the small intestine. Traditional NSAIDs can induce small intestinal injuries in over 50% of patients. Several studies have shown that the preventive effect of proton pump inhibitors does

Shunji Fujimori; Yoko Takahashi; Tsuguhiko Seo; Katya Gudis; Akihito Ehara; Tsuyoshi Kobayashi; Keigo Mitsui; Masaoki Yonezawa; Shu Tanaka; Atsushi Tatsuguchi; Choitsu Sakamoto

2010-01-01

380

Utilisation d'un laser argon ionis en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lsions hmorragiques  

E-print Network

of this system is to induce through endoscopy the hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the digestive tract. The blue385 Utilisation d'un laser à argon ionisé en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lésions'hémostase des lésions digestives hémorragiques. Il est réalisé avec un laser à argon ionisé dont le faisceau est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Is the Environment of the Endoscopy Unit a Reservoir of Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Given the characteristic procedures involved in the endoscopy unit, the spread of pathogens is much more frequent in this unit than in other environments. However, there is a lack of data elucidating the existence of pathogens in the endoscopy unit. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of possible pathogens in the endoscopy unit. Methods We performed environmental culture using samples from the endoscopy rooms of 2 tertiary hospitals. We used sterile cotton-tipped swabs moistened with sterile saline to swab the surfaces of 197 samples. Then, we cultured the swab in blood agar plate. Samples from the colonoscopy room were placed in thioglycollate broth to detect the presence of anaerobes. After 2 weeks of culture period, we counted the colony numbers. Results The most commonly contaminated spots were the doctor's keyboard, nurse's cart, and nurse's mouse. The common organisms found were non-pathogenic bacterial microorganisms Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus spp.. No definite anaerobe organism was detected in the colonoscopy room. Conclusions Although the organisms detected in the endoscopy unit were mainly non-pathogenic organisms, they might cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, the environment of the endoscopy room should be managed appropriately; moreover, individual hand hygiene is important for preventing possible hospital-acquired infections. PMID:25374497

Choi, Eun Sung; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kang, Yu Jin; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Hwang, Jae Seok; Chung, Woo Jin; Ryoo, Nam Hee; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jung, Min Kyu

2014-01-01

382

Therapeutic Decision-Making in Endoscopically Unmanageable Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to identify endoscopic and clinical parameters influencing the decision-making in salvage of endoscopically unmanageable, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and to report the outcome of selected therapy. We retrospectively retrieved all cases of surgery and arteriography for arrest of endoscopically unmanageable UGIH. Only patients with overt bleeding on endoscopy within the previous 24 h were included. Patients with preceding nonendoscopic hemostatic interventions, portal hypertension, malignancy, and transpapillar bleeding were excluded. Potential clinical and endoscopic predictors of allocation to either surgery or arteriography were tested using statistical models. Outcome and survival were regressed on the choice of rescue and clinical variables. Forty-six arteriographed and 51 operated patients met the inclusion criteria. Univariate analysis revealed a higher number of patients with a coagulation disorder in the catheterization group (41.4%, versus 20.4% in the laparotomy group; p = 0.044). With multivariate analysis, the identification of a bleeding peptic ulcer at endoscopy significantly steered decision-making toward surgical rescue (OR = 5.2; p = 0.021). Taking into account reinterventions, hemostasis was achieved in nearly 90% of cases in both groups. Overall therapy failure (no survivors), rebleeding within 3 days (OR = 3.7; p = 0.042), and corticosteroid use (OR = 5.2; p = 0.017) had a significant negative impact on survival. The odds of dying were not different for embolotherapy or surgery. In conclusion, decision-making was endoscopy-based, with bleeding peptic ulcer significantly directing the choice of rescue toward surgery. Unsuccessful hemostasis and corticosteroid use, but not the choice of rescue, negatively affected outcome.

Defreyne, Luc, E-mail: Luc.Defreyne@UGent.b [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Schrijver, Ignace De [Clinique de Flandre, Flandre Imagerie (France); Decruyenaere, Johan [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Intensive Care (Belgium); Maele, Georges Van [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics and Statistics (Belgium); Ceelen, Wim [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Digestive Surgery (Belgium); Looze, Danny De [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Belgium); Vanlangenhove, Peter [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium)

2008-09-15

383

[The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders].  

PubMed

Endoscopic ultrasound is one of those diagnostic methods in gastrointestinal endoscopy which has developed rapidly in the last decade and has became exceedingly available to visualize the walls of the internal organs in details corresponding to histological layers, or analyze the adjacent structures. Fine needles and other endoscopic accessories can be introduced into the neighbouring tissues under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound, and diagnostic and minimally invasive therapeutic interventions can be performed. The endoscopic ultrasound became more widely available in Hungary in recent years. This review focuses on the indications, benefits and complications of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. We recommend this article to gastroenterologists, surgeons, internists, pulmonologists, and to specialists in oncology and radiology. This recommendation was based on the consensus of the Board members of the Endoscopic Ultrasound Section of the Hungarian Gastroenterological Society. PMID:24681675

Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Hamvas, József; Pakodi, Ferenc; Szepes, Attila; Szepes, Zoltán

2014-04-01

384

Non-small-bowel lesions encountered during double-balloon enteroscopy performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To report the incidence of non-small-bowel bleeding pathologies encountered during double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) procedures and to analyse their significance. METHODS: A retrospective study of a prospective DBE database conducted in a tertiary-referral center was conducted. A total of 179 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) referred for DBE from June 2004 to November 2008 were analysed looking for the incidence of non-small-bowel lesions (NSBLs; all and newly diagnosed) encountered during DBE. RESULTS: There were 228 (150 antegrade and 78 retrograde) DBE procedures performed in 179 patients. The mean number of DBE procedures was 1.27 per patient. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 62 ± 16 years old. There were 94 females (52.5%). The positive yield for a bleeding lesion was 65.9%. Of the 179 patients, 44 (24.6%) had NSBLs (19 of them had dual pathology with small-bowel lesions and NSBLs); 27 (15.1%) had lesions not detected by previous endoscopies. The most common type of missed lesions were vascular lesions. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients (24.6%) had lesions within reach of conventional endoscopy. Careful repeat examination with gastroscopy and colonoscopy might be required. PMID:20397267

Tee, Hoi-Poh; Kaffes, Arthur J

2010-01-01

385

Gastric retention of sucralfate gel and suspension in upper gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare by scintigraphy the gastric retention of a new dosage form of sucralfate as gel (Gastrogel) with that of sucralfate suspension in 25 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred for routine endoscopy. After endoscopy 4 subgroups were defined: macroscopically normal mucosa (n = 7), antral gastritis and/or erosions (n = 6), gastric ulcer (n = 6) and duodenal ulcer (n = 6). Each patient received either sucralfate gel or sucralfate suspension in equivalent doses (5 ml containing 1 g sucralfate). Both formulations were labelled with 111 MBq 99mTc-DTPA before administration. The mean value of t1/2 in the total group was significantly longer when patients were taking sucralfate gel (61.6 min) compared to sucralfate suspension (33.8 min) (P < 0.001). The mean values of t1/2 were significantly longer for sucralfate gel compared to sucralfate suspension also among the subgroups (macroscopically normal P < 0.02, antral gastritis P < 0.05, gastric ulcer P < 0.02 and duodenal ulcer P < 0.05). After 2 and 3 hours, the percentage residual activity in the gastric area was significantly higher following administration of sucralfate gel compared to sucralfate suspension. This study has shown that, compared to sucralfate suspension, sucralfate gel persists longer in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer. PMID:8280821

Vaira, D; Corbelli, C; Brunetti, G; Menegatti, M; Levorato, M; Mulè, P; Colombo, P; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

1993-10-01

386

Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy: A novel technique for in vivo cellular characterization of gastrointestinal lesions  

PubMed Central

While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:24976717

Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

2014-01-01

387

A general framework for wireless capsule endoscopy study synopsis.  

PubMed

We present a general framework for analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) studies. The current available workstations provide a time-consuming and labor-intense work-flow for clinicians which requires the inspection of the full-length video. The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) CE workstation will have a great potential to reduce the diagnostic time and improve the accuracy of assessment. We propose a general framework based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) for study synopsis that forms the computational engine of our CAD workstation. Color, edge and texture features are first extracted and analyzed by a Support Vector Machine classifier, and then encoded as the observations for the HMM, uniquely combining the temporal information during the assessment. Experiments were performed on 13 full-length CE studies, instead of selected images previously reported. The results (e.g. 0.933 accuracy with 0.933 recall for detection of polyps) show that our framework achieved promising performance for multiple classification. We also report the patient-level CAD assessment of complete CE studies for multiple abnormalities, and the patient-level validation demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods. PMID:24974010

Zhao, Qian; Mullin, Gerard E; Meng, Max Q-H; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Kumar, Rajesh

2015-04-01

388

The British society for gynaecological endoscopy endometriosis centres project.  

PubMed

Management of advanced endometriosis frequently requires a multidisciplinary team approach and international guidelines suggest treatment in centres of expertise. Due to variability of published outcome data, prospective data collection and standardisation of reporting systems have been suggested to improve our understanding of surgical outcomes. The British Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) Endometriosis Centres were established to manage rectovaginal endometriosis, to collect treatment and outcome data, and to provide these data to patients, clinicians and healthcare commissioners. The BSGE Endometriosis Centres Project works on the principle of voluntary participation. Centres that would like to be recognised or accredited as a BSGE Endometriosis Centre need to fulfil a number of basic requirements including working in appropriate multidisciplinary clinical teams, auditing their outcome and having sufficient workload to maintain their surgical skills. The project has already had an impact on where the patients with advanced endometriosis are treated in the United Kingdom. Patients and healthcare professionals are becoming aware of their presence and more patients with the condition are being referred to these centres. It is also expected that the accredited centre status would be required for funding by healthcare commissioners for this type endometriosis. PMID:23485863

Saridogan, Ertan; Byrne, Dominic

2013-01-01

389

Managing gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: The role of endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a growing problem in the pediatric population and recent advances in diagnostics and therapeutics have improved their management, particularly the use of esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Most of the current knowledge is derived from studies in adults; however there are distinct features between infant onset and adult onset GERD. Children are not just little adults and attention must be given to the stages of growth and development and how these stages impact the disease management. Although there is a lack of a gold standard test to diagnose GERD in children, EGD with biopsy is essential to assess the type and severity of tissue damage. To date, the role of endoscopy in adults and children has been to assess the extent of esophagitis and detect metaplastic changes complicating GERD; however the current knowledge points another role for the EGD with biopsy that is to rule out other potential causes of esophagitis in patients with GERD symptoms such as eosinophilic esophagitis. This review highlights special considerations about the role of EGD in the management of children with GERD. PMID:22912907

Goldani, Helena AS; Nunes, Daltro LA; Ferreira, Cristina T

2012-01-01

390

Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

Woo, Sang Hyo; Kim, Tae Wan; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Park, Il Young; Cho, Jin-Ho

2011-01-01

391

[Drug sedation during digestive tract endoscopy: current trends].  

PubMed

The paper considers whether ketofol, a mixture of ketamine and propofol, may be used for medical sedation. Prerequisites for designing this mixture are identified. The foreign experience with ketofol is analyzed. The authors' study evaluating the clinical efficiency of a ketofol-based sedation procedure during endoscopic interventions into the digestive tract (n=152; 94 males and 58 females) is described. Ketofol was found to reduce the use of drugs and a need for additional analgesia, by exerting a minimum depriming effect on respiration and blood pressure. A ketamine/propofol ratio of 1:4 is optimal for drug sedation at digestive tract endoscopy; with this ratio, ketofol has sufficient analgesic properties and a stabilizing hemodynamic effect. With the higher mass fraction of ketamine in the mixture, its controllability reduces. Overall, the mixture of ketamine and propofol has proved to be a safe and effective sedative; its use provides not only a good position comfort, possible avoidance of opioids, and no effect of ketamine on psychomotor recovery, but also a more controlled sedation than when these agents are used in the same doses alone. PMID:19824413

Mustafaeva, M N; Mizikov, V M; Kochneva, Z V

2009-01-01

392

Managing gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: The role of endoscopy.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a growing problem in the pediatric population and recent advances in diagnostics and therapeutics have improved their management, particularly the use of esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Most of the current knowledge is derived from studies in adults; however there are distinct features between infant onset and adult onset GERD. Children are not just little adults and attention must be given to the stages of growth and development and how these stages impact the disease management. Although there is a lack of a gold standard test to diagnose GERD in children, EGD with biopsy is essential to assess the type and severity of tissue damage. To date, the role of endoscopy in adults and children has been to assess the extent of esophagitis and detect metaplastic changes complicating GERD; however the current knowledge points another role for the EGD with biopsy that is to rule out other potential causes of esophagitis in patients with GERD symptoms such as eosinophilic esophagitis. This review highlights special considerations about the role of EGD in the management of children with GERD. PMID:22912907

Goldani, Helena As; Nunes, Daltro La; Ferreira, Cristina T

2012-08-16

393

Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

2011-01-01

394

Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

2008-02-01

395

Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre

2014-01-01

396

Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: A 10-years journey  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE’s diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations. PMID:25469028

Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

2014-01-01

397

The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study. PMID:25381842

Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

2014-11-01

398

X-ray diagnosis of synchronous multiple primary carcinoma in the upper gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the radiological features of multiple primary carcinoma (MPC) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, study its biological characteristics and evaluate X-ray examination in its diagnosis. METHODS: Hypotonic double-contrast GI radiography was performed in 59 multiple primary carcinoma cases, pathologically proved by surgery or endoscopy biopsy. Radiological findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 59 cases, esophageal MPC (EMPC) was seen in 24, esophageal and gastric MPC (EGMPC) in 27 and gastric MPC (GMPC) in 8. Of the 49 lesions found in 24 EMPC, hyperplastic type was seen in 23, medullary type in 9. The lesions were located at the upper (n = 17), middle (n = 19) or lower (n = 13) segment of the esophagus. In 27 EGMPC, the esophageal lesions were located at the middle (n = 16) or lower (n = 11) segment of the esophagus, while the gastric lesions were located at the gastric cardia (n = 16), fundus (n = 1), body (n = 3) and antrum (n = 7). The esophageal lesions were mainly of the hyperplastic type (n = 12) or medullary type (n = 7), while the gastric lesions were mainly of the hyperplastic type (n = 18). A total of 119 lesions in the 59 patients with synchronous multiple carcinoma were proved by surgery or endoscopy biopsy, and preoperative upper radiographic examination detected 100 of them (84.03% sensitivity). Eighteen (52.94%) of the T1 lesions were found during preoperative diagnosis by radiographic examination. Moreover, only 3 (3.53%) of the T2-4 lesions were misdiagnosed. CONCLUSION: Hypotonic double-contrast upper gastrointestinal examination, providing accurate information about lesion morphology, location and size, can serve as a sensitive technique for the preoperative diagnosis of MPC. PMID:21528053

Yang, Zhi-Hao; Gao, Jian-Bo; Yue, Song-Wei; Guo, Hua; Yang, Xue-Hua

2011-01-01

399

Usefulness of magnifying endoscopy in post-endoscopic resection scar for early gastric neoplasm: A prospective short-term follow-up endoscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the relationship between post- endoscopic resection (ER) scars on magnifying endoscopy (ME) and the pathological diagnosis in order to validate the clinical significance of ME. and (?) 9 destroyed pits. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 62.5%, respectively, by the presence of nodularity on CE. Erythematous lesions were high sensitivity (100%), but specificity was as low as

Tae Hoon Lee; Il-Kwun Chung; Ji-Young Park; Chang Kyun Lee; Suck-Ho Lee; Hong Soo Kim; Sang-Heum Park; Sun-Joo Kim; Hyun-Deuk Cho; Young Hwangbo; Chang Kyun

400

Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal tract is the most frequently involved extranodal localization, representing 30–40% of extranodal lymphomas\\u000a and from 4% to 20% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cases1, 2. In Western countries the most common location is the stomach (approximately 50–60%), followed by the small intestines (30%)\\u000a and the large intestine (around 10%)3. Involvement of the oesophagus is very rare. These proportions

E. Zucca

401

[Collagen diseases with gastrointestinal manifestations].  

PubMed

Collagen vascular diseases are known to present with a diverse array of gastrointestinal manifestations. These can be classified as: 1) gastrointestinal damage due to the collagen vascular disease itself; 2) adverse events caused by pharmacotherapies; or 3) gastrointestinal infections following immunosuppression due to corticosteroid (CS) administration. The first group includes lupus enteritis and protein-losing gastroenteropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), reflux esophagitis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and pneumatosis cystoids intestinalis in systemic sclerosis, amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis, bowel ulcer and bleeding in rheumatoid vasculitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and ileocecal ulcer in Behcet disease. In particular, colonic ulcers associated with SLE represent refractory lesions resistant to CS. Analysis of reported cases showing colonic lesions with SLE (22 cases in Japan) revealed that mean duration of SLE was 9.9 years and 77% of colonic lesions were observed in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Half of the patients developed intestinal perforation or penetration, and 6 of the 11 patients with perforation died. The second group includes lesions in the small and large intestine due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and CSs, in addition to peptic ulcers. As perforation in CS-treated patients displays relatively high incidence with poor prognosis, careful attention to such complications is needed. The third group includes candidal esophagitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Prompt diagnosis is required to prevent colonic bleeding and perforation due to CMV. PMID:15291251

Takahashi, Hiroki; Ohara, Mikiko; Imai, Kohzoh

2004-06-01

402

Double-balloon endoscopy: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) was developed as a new technique for visualization of and intervention in the entire small intestine. In DBE, the intestinal walls are held apart by a balloon attached to the distal end of a soft overtube. DBE has been reported worldwide to be very useful for not only diagnosis but also endoscopic therapy. Biopsy samples of small intestinal tumors can be obtained using DBE, and the appropriate treatment can be selected before a surgical procedure. For inflammatory diseases, DBE can reveal the localization of ulcers in the lumen (on the mesenteric or antimesenteric side), which is important for differential diagnosis. Some endoscopic therapies such as hemostatic procedures, polypectomy, and dilation therapy for benign strictures can be performed in the same manner as in the large intestine. DBE may also be suitable for colonoscopy for difficult insertion cases and therapeutic procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection. Furthermore, a double-balloon endoscope can be selectively inserted into the afferent loop to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, allowing various kinds of endoscopic treatments for biliary diseases to be successfully performed. Endoscopic therapy in the small intestine, whose wall is very thin, should be performed with special care to avoid complications such as bleeding and perforation. In the future, improvement is expected in terms of maneuverability, therapeutic capability, and imaging technology such as the addition of a magnifying function and flexible spectral imaging color enhancement. We anticipate that DBE will contribute to the establishment of medical science of the small intestine and to research elucidating the mechanisms of small intestinal diseases. PMID:19159069

Sunada, Keijiro; Yamamoto, Hironori

2009-01-01

403

Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal tissue, inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release, peristalsis, and cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions of longitudinal or circular smooth muscle. These are contractions evoked electrically or by agents that are thought to stimulate contractile transmitter release either in tissue taken from morphine pretreated animals (naloxone) or in unpretreated tissue (?-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine). The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastric emptying and intestinal transit are mediated to some extent by CB1 receptors in the brain as well as by enteric CB1 receptors. Gastric acid secretion is also inhibited in response to CB1 receptor activation, although the detailed underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Cannabinoid receptor agonists delay gastric emptying in humans as well as in rodents and probably also inhibit human gastric acid secretion. Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. Findings that the CB1 selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A produces in vivo and in vitro signs of increased motility of rodent small intestine probably reflect the presence in the enteric nervous system of a population of CB1 receptors that are precoupled to their effector mechanisms. SR141716A has been reported not to behave in this manner in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation (MPLM) of human ileum unless this has first been rendered cannabinoid tolerant. Nor has it been found to induce "withdrawal" contractions in cannabinoid tolerant guinea pig ileal MPLM. Further research is required to investigate the role both of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists and of non-CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent to which the effects on gastrointestinal function of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists can be exploited therapeutically has yet to be investigated as has the extent to which these drugs can provoke unwanted effects in the gastrointestinal tract when used for other therapeutic purposes.?? PMID:11358910

PERTWEE, R

2001-01-01

404

Clinicopathological features of narrow-band imaging endoscopy and immunohistochemistry in ultraminute esophageal squamous neoplasms.  

PubMed

To reveal clinicopathological features of narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy and immunohistochemistry in ultraminute esophageal squamous neoplasms. If a lesion diameter was smaller or same compared with a width of closed biopsy forceps, a lesion was defined to be an ultraminute lesion. Twenty-five consecutive patients with 33 ultraminute esophageal lesions that were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection were included in the present study. We conducted two questionnaire surveys of six endoscopists by their retrospective review of endoscopic still images. The six endoscopists evaluated the endoscopic findings of the ultraminute lesions on still images taken by conventional white-light imaging endoscopy and non-magnified NBI endoscopy in the first questionnaire, and taken by magnified NBI endoscopy in the second questionnaire. An experienced pathologist who was unaware of any endoscopic findings made histological diagnosis and evaluated immunoexpression of p53 and Ki67. The 33 ultraminute lesions were all determined to be either 11 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (HGIENs) or 22 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (LGIENs). The tumor diameters were histologically confirmed to be <3?mm. All of the ultraminute tumors were visualized as unstained areas and brownish areas by real-time endoscopy with Lugol dye staining and non-magnified NBI endoscopy, respectively. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as brownish areas by real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. Three of the 25 patients with the ultraminute IENs (12%) had multiple brownish areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as unstained areas by real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. Twenty of the 25 patients (80%) had multiple unstained areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. The first questionnaire survey revealed that a significantly higher detection rate of the ultraminute IENs on non-magnified NBI endoscopy images compared with conventional white-light imaging endoscopy ones (100% vs. 72%, respectively: P < 0.0001). The second questionnaire survey revealed that presence rates of any magnified NBI endoscopy findings were not significantly different between HGIENs and LGIENs. Proliferation, dilation, and various shapes of intrapapillary capillary loops indicated remarkably high presence rates of more than 90% in both HGIENs and LGIENs. Six of 22 LGIENs (27%) and 3 of 11 HGIENs (27%) show a positive expression for p53. None of peri-IEN epithelia was positive for p53. A mean of Ki67 labeling index of LGIENs was 33% and that of HGIENs 36%. Ki67 labeling index was significantly greater in the LGIENs and HGIENs compared with that in the peri-IEN epithelia. There were no significant differences in p53 expression and Ki67 labeling index between the HGIENs and LGIENs. Non-magnified/magnified NBI endoscopy could facilitate visualization and characterization of ultraminute esophageal squamous IENs. The ultraminute HGIENs and LGIENs might have comparable features of magnified NBI endoscopy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:23796261

Goda, K; Dobashi, A; Yoshimura, N; Chiba, M; Fukuda, A; Nakao, Y; Ohya, T R; Sasaki, Y; Kato, M; Aihara, H; Sumiyama, K; Toyoizumi, H; Kato, T; Tajiri, H; Ikegami, M

2014-04-01

405

Role of small-bowel endoscopy in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an international OMED-ECCO consensus.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong diseases seen predominantly in the developed countries of the world. Whereas ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition causing diffuse and continuous mucosal inflammation of the colon, Crohn's disease is a heterogeneous entity comprised of several different phenotypes, but can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract. A change in diagnosis from Crohn's disease to ulcerative colitis during the first year of illness occurs in about 10 % - 15 % of cases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) restricted to the colon that cannot be characterized as either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease is termed IBD-unclassified (IBDU). The advent of capsule and both single- and double-balloon-assisted enteroscopy is revolutionizing small-bowel imaging and has major implications for diagnosis, classification, therapeutic decision making and outcomes in the management of IBD. The role of these investigations in the diagnosis and management of IBD, however, is unclear. This document sets out the current Consensus reached by a group of international experts in the fields of endoscopy and IBD at a meeting held in Brussels, 12-13th December 2008, organised jointly by the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) and the Organisation Mondiale d'Endoscopie Digestive (OMED). The Consensus is grouped into seven sections: definitions and diagnosis; suspected Crohn's disease; established Crohn's disease; IBDU; ulcerative colitis (including ileal pouch-anal anastomosis [IPAA]); paediatric practice; and complications and unresolved questions. Consensus guideline statements are followed by comments on the evidence and opinion. Statements are intended to be read in context with qualifying comments and not read in isolation. PMID:19588292

Bourreille, A; Ignjatovic, A; Aabakken, L; Loftus, E V; Eliakim, R; Pennazio, M; Bouhnik, Y; Seidman, E; Keuchel, M; Albert, J G; Ardizzone, S; Bar-Meir, S; Bisschops, R; Despott, E J; Fortun, P F; Heuschkel, R; Kammermeier, J; Leighton, J A; Mantzaris, G J; Moussata, D; Lo, S; Paulsen, V; Panés, J; Radford-Smith, G; Reinisch, W; Rondonotti, E; Sanders, D S; Swoger, J M; Yamamoto, H; Travis, S; Colombel, J-F; Van Gossum, A

2009-07-01

406

Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnifying Endoscopy with Narrow-Band Imaging for Gastric Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) is a novel, image-enhanced endoscopic technique for differentiating gastrointestinal neoplasms and potentially enabling pathological diagnosis. Objectives The aim of this analysis was to assess the diagnostic performance of ME-NBI for gastric neoplasms. Methods We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies. Meta-DiSc (version 1.4) and STATA (version 11.0) software were used for the data analysis. Random effects models were used to assess diagnostic efficacy. Heterogeneity was tested by the Q statistic and I2 statistic. Meta-regression was used to analyze the sources of heterogeneity. Results A total of 10 studies, with 2151 lesions, were included. The pooled characteristics of these studies were as follows: sensitivity 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–0.89), specificity 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95–0.97), and area under the curve (AUC) 0.9647. In the subgroup analysis, which compared the diagnostic efficacy of ME-NBI and white light imaging (WLI), the pooled sensitivity and specificity of ME-NBI were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80–0.92) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90–0.95), respectively, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9556. In contrast, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of WLI were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53–0.69) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.60–0.69), respectively, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.6772. Conclusions ME-NBI presents a high diagnostic value for gastric neoplasms and has a high specificity. PMID:25856544

Lv, Xiuhe; Wang, Chunhui; Xie, Yan; Yan, Zhaoping

2015-01-01

407

Use of small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with chronic kidney disease: experience from a University Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Background There are only few reports on the diagnostic yield (DY) of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to report our SBCE experience in patients with CKD. Methods Retrospective study; case notes of patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) who underwent SBCE (March 2005-August 2012) for anemia and/or obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) were retrieved and abstracted. Severity of CKD was defined according to Renal Association recommendations as: stage 3 (eGFR: 30-59); stage 4 (eGFR: 15-29); and stage 5 (eGFR <15 or on dialysis). Results In the aforementioned period, 69 patients with CKD [stage 3: 65/69 (92.8%), stage 4 or 5:4/69 (7.2%)] had SBCE. 51/65 (78.5%) patients with stage 3 CKD had SBCE due to unexplained anemia and/or OGIB [43 (66.1%) and 8 (12.3%), respectively]. In 25/51 (49%), the SBCE was normal and in 17/51 (33.3%) showed small-bowel angiectasias. Other findings were active bleeding (n=2), fold edema (n=2), ileal erosions (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), and inconclusive/videos not available (n=3). All patients (n=4) with CKD grade 4 or 5 were referred due to unexplained anemia; 3/4 (75%) had angiectasias and 1 normal SBCE. Fecal calprotectin (FC) was measured in 12 patients with CKD stage 3 and unexplained anemia prior to their SBCE; no significant small-bowel inflammation was found in this subgroup. Conclusion SBCE has limited DY in CKD patients referred for unexplained anemia. Sinister SB pathology is rare, while the most common finding is angiectasias. Furthermore, FC measurement prior to SBCE -in this cohort of patients- is not associated with increased DY. PMID:25608445

Docherty, Emily; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Douglas, Sarah; Plevris, John N.

2015-01-01

408

Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms: dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

The most common diagnoses among patients with dyspepsia are functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, and gastric or esophageal cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is present in many patients with dyspepsia and is etiologic in some conditions. The evaluation of dyspepsia divides patients into 3 categories: 1) for patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), NSAIDs should be discontinued; if symptoms resolve after discontinuation, no further evaluation is needed; 2) for patients with reflux symptoms, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) should be prescribed without endoscopy unless alarm symptoms are present; and 3) for patients with no NSAID use or reflux symptoms, evaluation depends on risk. Patients older than 55 years or with alarm symptoms are at high risk and should undergo endoscopy. Those 55 years or younger with no alarm symptoms are at low risk. Those patients should be tested for H pylori and treated if results are positive. If symptoms persist after eradication treatment, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks; if symptoms persist after treatment, endoscopy should be obtained. If H pylori test results are negative, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks. Endoscopy should be obtained if symptoms persist. There are several regimens for eradication of H pylori. The most effective is sequential therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and tinidazole for another 5 days. PMID:24124704

Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

2013-10-01

409

Prognostic factors in upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined factors of possible prognostic value about outcome in a consecutive series of 2217 patients with hematemesis and melena. Death occurred in 189 (8.5%) patients, and 243 (11%) patients experienced rebleeding. Death was significantly associated with rebleeding, age over 60 years, and the finding of blood in the stomach at endoscopy. Rebleeding was significantly associated with

Bettina Katschinski; Richard Logan; Jackie Davies; Gail Faulkner; Jim Pearson; Michael Langman

1994-01-01

410

Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review  

PubMed Central

Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule’s performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases. PMID:25278694

Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

2014-01-01

411

Interference between pacemakers/implantable cardioverter defibrillators and video capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

Our Letter to the Editor, related to the article "Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry" by Cuschieri et al, comments on some small errors, that slipped into the authors discussions. The given informations concerning the pacemaker- and implantable cardioverter defibrillators modes were inaccurate and differ between the text and the table. Moreover, as 8 of 20 patient's pacemakers were programmed to VOO or DOO ("interference mode") and one patient was not monitored by telemetry during capsule endoscopy, 9 of 20 patients (45%) lack the informations of possible interference between capsule endoscopy their implanted device. Another objection refers to the interpretation of an electrocardiogram (figure 1, trace B) presented: in contrast to the author's opinion the marked spike should be interpreted as an artefact and not as "undersensing of a fibrillatory wave". Finally, three comments to cited reviews were not complete respectively not quoted correctly. PMID:23596547

Bandorski, Dirk; Gehron, Johannes; Höltgen, Reinhard

2013-04-16

412

Magnifying endoscopy for intestinal follicular lymphoma is helpful for prompt diagnosis.  

PubMed

The representative endoscopic features of primary intestinal follicular lymphoma are well known as small whitish polypoid nodules, but a magnified view has only been described in a few case reports. Herein, we report a case with intestinal follicular lymphoma in which magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging was helpful for prompt diagnosis. A 57-year-old Japanese woman underwent surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The endoscopic examination revealed confluent whitish granules in the duodenum, distinct from the nodules or polyps that are typical findings of intestinal follicular lymphoma. Magnifying endoscopy visualized whitish enlarged villi, and narrow band imaging emphasized an elongated and coiled vascular pattern. Based on these features, intestinal follicular lymphoma was highly suspected, and subsequent histological study confirmed the diagnosis. This case demonstrates that magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful for the detection and prompt diagnosis of intestinal follicular lymphoma. The pathological features of intestinal follicular lymphoma are also discussed. PMID:23560166

Iwamuro, Masaya; Okuda, Masato; Yumoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Seiyuu; Shirakawa, Atsuko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2013-03-01

413

Gastrointestinal cancer: nonliver proton therapy for gastrointestinal cancers.  

PubMed

Multimodality therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers carries considerable risk for toxicity; even single-modality radiation therapy in this population carries with it a daunting side effect profile. Supportive care can certainly mitigate some of the morbidity, but there remain numerous associated acute and late complications that can compromise the therapy and ultimately the outcome. Gastrointestinal cancers inherently occur amid visceral organs that are particularly sensitive to radiotherapy, creating a very narrow therapeutic window for aggressive cell kill with minimal normal tissue damage. Radiation therapy is a critical component of locoregional control, but its use has historically been limited by toxicity concerns, both real and perceived. Fundamental to this is the fact that long-term clinical experience with radiation in GI cancers derives almost entirely from 2-dimensional radiation (plain x-ray-based planning) and subsequently 3-dimensional conformal radiation. The recent use of intensity-modulated photon-based techniques is not well represented in most of the landmark chemoradiation trials. Furthermore, the elusive search for efficacious but tolerable local therapy in GI malignancies raises the possibility that proton radiotherapy's physical and dosimetric differences relative to conventional therapy may make it better suited to the challenge. In many sites, local recurrences after chemoradiation pose a particular challenge, and reirradiation in these sites may be done successfully with proton radiotherapy. PMID:25415682

Plastaras, John P; Dionisi, Francesco; Wo, Jennifer Y

2014-01-01

414

New techniques for fluorescence background rejection in microscopy and endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal microscopy is a popular technique in the bioimaging community, mainly because it provides optical sectioning. However, its standard implementation requires 3-dimensional scanning of focused illumination throughout the sample. Efficient non-scanning alternatives have been implemented, among which the simple and well-established incoherent structured illumination microscopy (SIM) [1]. We recently proposed a similar technique, called Dynamic Speckle Illumination (DSI) microscopy, wherein the incoherent grid illumination pattern is replaced with a coherent speckle illumination pattern from a laser, taking advantage of the fact that speckle contrast is highly maintained in a scattering media, making the technique well adapted to tissue imaging [2]. DSI microscopy relies on the illumination of a sample with a sequence of dynamic speckle patterns and an image processing algorithm based only on an a priori knowledge of speckle statistics. The choice of this post-processing algorithm is crucial to obtain a good sectioning strength: in particular, we developed a novel post-processing algorithm based one wavelet pre-filtering of the raw images and obtained near-confocal fluorescence sectioning in a mouse brain labeled with GFP, with a good image quality maintained throughout a depth of ˜100 ?m [3]. In the purpose of imaging fluorescent tissue at higher depth, we recently applied structured illumination to endoscopy. We used a similar set-up wherein the illumination pattern (a one-dimensional grid) is transported to the sample with an imaging fiber bundle with miniaturized objective and the fluorescence image is collected through the same bundle. Using a post-processing algorithm similar to the one previously described [3], we obtained high-quality images of a fluorescein-labeled rat colonic mucosa [4], establishing the potential of our endomicroscope for bioimaging applications. [4pt] Ref: [0pt] [1] M. A. A. Neil et al, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997) [0pt] [2] C. Ventalon et al, Opt. Lett. 30, 3350 (2005) [0pt] [3] C. Ventalon et al, Opt. Lett. 32, 1417 (2007) [0pt] [4] N. Bozinovic et al, Opt. Express 16, 8016 (2008)

Ventalon, Cathie

2009-03-01

415

Endoprobe: A system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy  

SciTech Connect

Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5-mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a previously acquired positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) image of the phantom. The detection system successfully acquired estimates of the beta flux emitted from areas chosen by the user. Indeed, Endoprobe was able to assist in distinguishing simulated FDG-avid areas as small as 3.5 mm in diameter from normal esophagus (p value <0.025). In addition to FDG, Endoprobe can be used with other positron or electron-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 11}C or {sup 131}I. The next phase of this project will focus on modification of the prototype to make it more suitable for clinical use.

Raylman, Raymond R.; Srinivasan, Amarnath [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9236 (United States)

2004-12-01

416

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract in adult patients: A review  

PubMed Central

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of multiple small nodules, normally between between 2 and 10 mm in diameter, distributed along the small intestine (more often), stomach, large intestine, or rectum. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. It can occur in all age groups, but primarily in children and can affect adults with or without immunodeficiency. Some patients have an associated disease, namely, common variable immunodeficiency, selective IgA deficiency, Giardia infection, or, more rarely, human immunodeficiency virus infection, celiac disease, or Helicobacter pylori infection. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia generally presents as an asymptomatic disease, but it may cause gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, bleeding or intestinal obstruction. A diagnosis is made at endoscopy or contrast barium studies and should be confirmed by histology. Its histological characteristics include markedly hyperplasic, mitotically active germinal centers and well-defined lymphocyte mantles found in the lamina propria and/or in the superficial submucosa, distributed in a diffuse or focal form. Treatment is directed towards associated conditions because the disorder itself generally requires no intervention. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a risk factor for both intestinal and, very rarely, extraintestinal lymphoma. Some authors recommend surveillance, however, the duration and intervals are undefined. PMID:25400867

Albuquerque, Andreia

2014-01-01

417

Status of the gastric mucosa with endoscopically diagnosed gastrointestinal stromal tumor.  

PubMed

Background. Since gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal submucosal tumor, the endosonographic, CT, and MRI features of gastric GISTs have been widely investigated. However, the GIST-bearing gastric mucosa status has not been reported. Objective. To characterize the GIST-bearing gastric mucosa status in terms of the degree of inflammation and atrophy, assessed endoscopically. Subjects and Methods. The subjects were 46 patients with submucosal tumors (histologically proven gastric GISTs) who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in our hospital between April 2007 and September 2012. They were retrospectively evaluated regarding clinicopathological features, the endoscopically determined status of the entire gastric mucosa (presence or absence and degree of atrophy), presence or absence and severity of endoscopic gastritis/atrophy (A-B classification) at the GIST site, and presence or absence of H. pylori infection. Results. Twenty-three patients had no mucosal atrophy, but 17 and 6 had closed- and open-type atrophy, respectively. Twenty-six, 5, 12, 1, 1, and 1 patients had grades B0, B1, B2, B3, A0, and A1 gastritis/atrophy at the lesion site, respectively, with no grade A2 gastritis/atrophy. Conclusion. The results suggest that gastric GISTs tend to arise in the stomach wall with H. pylori-negative, nonatrophic mucosa or H. pylori-positive, mildly atrophic mucosa. PMID:25104899

Nonaka, Kouichi; Ban, Shinichi; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu; Narita, Rei; Shimizu, Michio; Aikawa, Masayasu; Ohata, Ken; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Arai, Shin; Kita, Hiroto