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1

Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

Savas, Nurten

2014-01-01

2

Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

Savas, Nurten

2014-11-01

3

Performance of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines for dyspepsia in Saudi population: Prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate adherence of primary care physicians (PCPs) to international guidelines when referring patients for upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), evaluate the importance of alarm symptoms and the performance of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines in a Saudi population. METHODS: A prospective, observational cross-sectional study on dyspeptic patients undergoing UGE who were referred by PCPs over a 4 mo period. Referrals were classified as appropriate or inappropriate according to adherence to ASGE guidelines. RESULTS: Total of 221 dyspeptic patients was enrolled; 161 patients met our inclusion criteria. Mean age was 40.3 years (SD ± 18.1). Females comprised 70.1%. Alarm symptoms included low hemoglobin level (39%), weight loss (18%), vomiting (16%), loss of appetite (16%), difficulty swallowing (3%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3%). Abnormal endoscopy findings included gastritis (52%), duodenitis (10%), hiatus hernia (7.8%), features suggestive of celiac disease (6.5%), ulcers (3.9%), malignancy (2.6%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD: 17%). Among patients who underwent UGE, 63% met ASGE guidelines, and 50% had abnormal endoscopic findings. Endoscopy was not indicated in remaining 37% of patients. Among the latter group, endoscopy was normal in 54% of patients. There was no difference in proportion of abnormal endoscopic findings between two groups (P = 0.639). CONCLUSION: Dyspeptic patients had a low prevalence of important endoscopic lesions, and none of the alarm symptoms could significantly predict abnormal endoscopic findings. PMID:25605988

Azzam, Nahla A; Almadi, Majid A; Alamar, Hessah Hamad; Almalki, Lamis Atyah; Alrashedi, Rehab Nawaf; Alghamdi, Rawabi Saleh; Al-hamoudi, Waleed

2015-01-01

4

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... EndoFest Digestive Disease Week Online Learning Center STAR Certificate Programs Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Course Calendar GI ... a Research Award MORE Upcoming Courses EMR STAR Certificate Program – Lower GI February 7-8, 2015, ASGE ...

5

Sedation Regimens for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Sedation allows patients to tolerate unpleasant endoscopic procedures by relieving anxiety, discomfort, or pain. It also reduces a patient's risk of physical injury during endoscopic procedures, while providing the endoscopist with an adequate setting for a detailed examination. Sedation is therefore considered by many endoscopists to be an essential component of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic sedation by nonanesthesiologists is a worldwide practice and has been proven effective and safe. Moderate sedation/analgesia is generally accepted as an appropriate target for sedation by nonanesthesiologists. This focused review describes the general principles of endoscopic sedation, the detailed pharmacology of sedatives and analgesics (focused on midazolam, propofol, meperidine, and fentanyl), and the multiple regimens available for use in actual practice. PMID:24765595

2014-01-01

6

Sedation regimens for gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

Sedation allows patients to tolerate unpleasant endoscopic procedures by relieving anxiety, discomfort, or pain. It also reduces a patient's risk of physical injury during endoscopic procedures, while providing the endoscopist with an adequate setting for a detailed examination. Sedation is therefore considered by many endoscopists to be an essential component of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic sedation by nonanesthesiologists is a worldwide practice and has been proven effective and safe. Moderate sedation/analgesia is generally accepted as an appropriate target for sedation by nonanesthesiologists. This focused review describes the general principles of endoscopic sedation, the detailed pharmacology of sedatives and analgesics (focused on midazolam, propofol, meperidine, and fentanyl), and the multiple regimens available for use in actual practice. PMID:24765595

Moon, Sung-Hoon

2014-03-01

7

Endoscopy for Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding plays an important role in primary diagnosis and management, particularly with respect to identification of high-risk stigmata lesions and to providing endoscopic hemostasis to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality. Early endoscopy, defined as endoscopy within the first 24 hours after presentation, improves patient outcome and reduces the length of hospitalization when compared with delayed endoscopy. Various endoscopic hemostatic methods are available, including injection therapy, mechanical therapy, and thermal coagulation. Either single treatment with mechanical or thermal therapy or a treatment that combines more than one type of therapy are effective and safe for peptic ulcer bleeding. Newly developed methods, such as Hemospray powder and over-the-scope clips, may provide additional options. Appropriate decisions and specific treatment are needed depending upon the conditions. PMID:25133117

Kim, Ki Bae; Youn, Sei Jin

2014-01-01

8

Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training  

PubMed Central

The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees’ learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application. PMID:24527175

Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

2014-01-01

9

Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

Defining the risk of procedural sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures remains a vexing challenge. The definitions as to what constitutes a cardiopulmonary unplanned event are beginning to take focus but the existing literature is an amalgam of various definitions and subjective outcomes, providing a challenge to patient, practitioner, and researcher. Gastrointestinal endoscopy when undertaken by trained personnel after the appropriate preprocedural evaluation and in the right setting is a safe experience. However, significant challenges exist in further quantifying the sedation risks to patients, optimizing physiologic monitoring, and sublimating the pharmacoeconomic and regulatory embroglios that limit the scope of practice and the quality of services delivered to patients. PMID:25442964

Vargo, John J

2015-01-01

10

Gastrointestinal perforation associated with endoscopy in cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic tool for cats and dogs with signs of gastrointestinal disease. This retrospective study examined the case records of six cats and one dog diagnosed with perforation secondary to gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointestinal perforation occurred in 1.6% of cats and 0.1% of dogs that underwent endoscopy during the 17 yr study period (from 1993 to 2010). It can be difficult to predict what animals are at risk for gastrointestinal perforation but possible risk factors suggested by this study include small intestinal infiltrative disease in cats and preexisting gastrointestinal ulceration in both cats and dogs. Overall, gastrointestinal endoscopy is associated with a low rate of gastrointestinal perforation. PMID:25028434

Irom, Sara; Sherding, Robert; Johnson, Susan; Stromberg, Paul

2014-01-01

11

Inhaled sevoflurane for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy with possible propofol anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Sedation with propofol is widely used for the outpatient examination. Although anaphylaxis to propofol is rare, there were some reports of anaphylaxis following propofol administration. We present a case of female patient under sedation for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy with possible propofol anaphylaxis. Then sevoflurane was successfully used for the examination and the following surgery. We discussed the possible feasibility of sevoflurane for the examination of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Propofol is widely used for the sedation of outpatient with lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. But it may cause some allergic reaction. Inhaled sevoflurane may provide a satisfactory and safe alternative for adult outpatients’ endoscopy. PMID:25419408

Ye, Ling; Liu, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Tao

2014-01-01

12

Propofol alternatives in gastrointestinal endoscopy anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Although propofol has been the backbone for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy, both anesthesiologists and endoscopists are faced with situations where an alternative is needed. Recent national shortages forced many physicians to explore these options. A midazolam and fentanyl combination is the mainstay in this area. However, there are other options. The aim of this review is to explore these options. The future would be, invariably, to move away from propofol. The reason is not in any way related to the drawbacks of propofol as a sedative. The mandate that requires an anesthesia provider to administer propofol has been a setback in many countries. New sedative drugs like Remimazolam might fill this void in the future. In the meantime, it is important to keep an open eye to the existing alternatives. PMID:25422614

Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder

2014-01-01

13

Sedation and monitoring for gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The safe sedation of patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures requires a combination of properly trained physicians and suitable facilities. Additionally, appropriate selection and preparation of patients, suitable sedative technique, application of drugs, adequate monitoring, and proper recovery of patients is essential. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) vary widely. The majority of GIE patients are ambulatory cases. Most of this procedure requires a short time. So, short acting, rapid onset drugs with little adverse effects and improved safety profiles are commonly used. The present review focuses on commonly used regimens and monitoring practices in GIE sedation. This article is to discuss the decision making process used to determine appropriate pre-sedation assessment, monitoring, drug selection, dose of sedative agents, sedation endpoint and post-sedation care. It also reviews the current status of sedation and monitoring for GIE procedures in Thailand. PMID:23424050

Amornyotin, Somchai

2013-01-01

14

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infants: diagnostic usefulness and safety.  

PubMed

Although fiberoptic, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic technique in the older child and adult, concerns about safety have limited the use of this procedure in infants. A 1-year experience with 49 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies in infants less than 25 months of age is reported. There were varied indications for the procedures, including upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and obstruction, but evaluation for esophagitis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux was most common. Procedures were performed without sedation in 45% of all infants studied, including 87% of infants less than 3 months of age; procedures were well tolerated. General anesthesia was used on only three occasions. A thorough examination was always possible, and biopsies were taken whenever indicated. Only one complication, transient bradycardia, occurred in a critically ill infant. This experience demonstrates that upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a safe and effective diagnostic aid in infants, and it can often be performed with little or no sedation. PMID:6493878

Hargrove, C B; Ulshen, M H; Shub, M D

1984-11-01

15

[Quality improvement of gastrointestinal endoscopy in Korea: past, present, and future].  

PubMed

The motivation for improving quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy begins with the desire to provide patients with the best possible care. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is an excellent area for quality improvement because of its high volume, significant associated risk and expense, and variability in its performance affecting outcomes. Therefore, the assurance that high-quality endoscopic procedures are performed has taken increased importance. The 'Korean Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Research Foundation' and 'Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy', as ladders in promoting the highest quality patient care, formed endoscopy quality evaluation in 'National Cancer Screening Program' and'Endoscopy Unit Accreditation' in Korea. However, both new systems have not settled down despite efforts of many years and support by the government. In this article, the past and present of quality improvement of gastrointestinal endoscopy will be reviewed, and the future of quality improvement of gastrointestinal endoscopy will be illuminated. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;64:320-332). PMID:25530583

Cha, Jae Myung

2014-12-25

16

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Current issues  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature. PMID:23382625

Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E

2013-01-01

17

Remote clinical assessment of gastrointestinal endoscopy (tele-endoscopy): an initial experience.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is an effective tool to screen for cancers of the digestive tract. However, access to endoscopy is limited in many parts of South Carolina. This trial is a part of a prospective multi-part study for remote cancer screening in coastal South Carolina. This pilot study was to evaluate the quality of tele-endoscopy for cancer screening. METHODS: 10 patients scheduled for endoscopic procedures were observed simultaneously by the endoscopist and a remote observer connected over a 512 kbps ISDN line. Findings by both were compared for concordance on malignant or premalignant lesions. RESULTS: The image quality was adequate to support remote diagnosis of GI cancer and abnormal lesions by an experienced observer. However, assessment of the esophagogastric junction for Barrett's esophagus was equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our tele-endoscopy setup shows great promise for remote supervision or observation of endoscopic procedures done by nurse endoscopists. Tele-endoscopy is both adequate and feasible for diagnosis of most gastrointestinal lesions. Subtle lesions still may be missed in our current setup. However, improvements are being made in our setup to address the problem with resolution prior to further evaluation. PMID:11079918

Kim, C. Y.; Etemad, B.; Glenn, T. F.; Mackey, H. A.; Viator, G. E.; Wallace, M. B.; Mokhashi, M. S.; Cotton, P. B.; Hawes, R. H.

2000-01-01

18

General considerations and updates in pediatric gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal and colonic endoscopic examinations have been performed in pediatric patients in Korea for 3 decades. Endoscopic procedures are complex and may be unsafe if special concerns are not considered. Many things have to be kept in mind before, during, and after the procedure. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the most frequently performed procedure in children nowadays, Since the dimension size of the endoscopy was modified for pediatric patients 15 years ago, endoscopic procedures are almost performed routinely in pediatric gastrointestinal patients. The smaller size of the scope let the physicians approach the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. But this is an invasive procedure, so the procedure itself may provoke an emergence state. The procedure-related complications can more easily occur in pediatric patients. Sedation-related or procedure-related respiratory, cardiovascular complications are mostly important and critical in the care. The endoscopists are required to consider diverse aspects of the procedure - patient preparation, indications and contraindications, infection controls, sedation methods, sedative medicines and the side effects of each medicine, monitoring during and after the procedure, and complications related with the procedure and medicines - to perform the procedure successfully and safely. This article presents some important guidelines and recommendations for gastrointestinal endoscopy through literature review. PMID:21189965

2010-01-01

19

The role of capsule endoscopy in acute gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization, resulting in about 400,000 hospital admissions annually, with a mortality rate of 5–10%. It is estimated that 5% of acute GI bleedings are of obscure origin with a normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Capsule endoscopy is the state-of-the-art procedure for inspection of the entire small bowel with a high sensitivity for the detection of causes of bleeding. In recent years, many studies have addressed the sensitivity and outcome of capsule-endoscopy procedures in patients with acute GI bleeding. This review looks at the role of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with acute GI bleeding from either the upper GI tract or small bowel. PMID:24587821

Nadler, Moshe

2014-01-01

20

Summary of guidelines for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: High-quality processes to ensure infection prevention and control in the delivery of safe endoscopy services are essential. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) developed a Canadian guideline for the reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment. METHODS: The CAG Endoscopy Committee carefully reviewed the 2010 guidelines and prepared an executive summary. RESULTS: Key elements relevant to infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy were highlighted for each of the recommendations included in the 2010 document. The 2010 guidelines consist of seven sections, including administrative recommendations, as well as recommendations for endoscopy and endoscopy decontamination equipment, reprocessing endoscopes and accessories, endoscopy unit design, quality management, outbreak investigation and management, and classic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. DISCUSSION: The recommendations for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy are intended for all individuals with responsibility for endoscopes in all settings where endoscopy is performed. PMID:23781518

Hookey, Lawrence; Armstrong, David; Enns, Rob; Matlow, Anne; Singh, Harminder; Love, Jonathan

2013-01-01

21

Self-expandable metal stents for obstructing colonic and extracolonic cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.  

PubMed

This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). This Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the Governing Board of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations The following recommendations should only be applied after a thorough diagnostic evaluation including a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. 1 Prophylactic colonic stent placement is not recommended. Colonic stenting should be reserved for patients with clinical symptoms and imaging evidence of malignant large-bowel obstruction, without signs of perforation (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 Colonic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement as a bridge to elective surgery is not recommended as a standard treatment of symptomatic left-sided malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 3 For patients with potentially curable but obstructing left-sided colonic cancer, stent placement may be considered as an alternative to emergency surgery in those who have an increased risk of postoperative mortality, I. e. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status ? III and/or age > 70 years (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 SEMS placement is recommended as the preferred treatment for palliation of malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence), except in patients treated or considered for treatment with antiangiogenic drugs (e. g. bevacizumab) (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). PMID:25325682

van Hooft, Jeanin E; van Halsema, Emo E; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; DeWitt, John M; Donnellan, Fergal; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Glynne-Jones, Robert G T; Hassan, Cesare; Jiménez-Perez, Javier; Meisner, Søren; Muthusamy, V Raman; Parker, Michael C; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sabbagh, Charles; Sagar, Jayesh; Tanis, Pieter J; Vandervoort, Jo; Webster, George J; Manes, Gianpiero; Barthet, Marc A; Repici, Alessandro

2014-11-01

22

Live endoscopy events (LEEs): European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Position Statement - Update 2014.  

PubMed

The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is dedicated to improving the quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy through educational activities such as live endoscopy events (LEEs). The primary utility of LEEs is the educational value for the audience, and patients should not expect additional benefit from being treated during a LEE compared to a routine setting. Although there is no evidence that LEEs entail additional risks for patients, neither can possible unknown risks be excluded as the evidence available is limited. Therefore, necessary measures should be taken to assure patient safety. Patients must be adequately informed that the standard of care will be assured and that their identity will not be revealed. ESGE recommends that an endoscopist not belonging to the hosting unit is named as patient advocate. Clinical indications for the LEE procedures and the educational outputs must be clear and agreed between host and demonstrator teams. ESGE will ensure that in all ESGE-organized LEEs the indications, procedural descriptions, and adverse events will be registered, and that organizers requesting ESGE endorsement can demonstrate such a registry. PMID:25314327

Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hassan, Cesare; Meining, Alexander; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

2015-01-01

23

Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

2013-01-01

24

Procedural Performance in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Live and Simulated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of the present study was to compare the use of a human and a computer-based technical skills assessment tool in\\u000a live and simulated gastrointestinal endoscopies performed by consultants and trainees.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Validated human-based Likert scales were used individually for generic and specific technical skills for two procedures. Two\\u000a observers assessed each procedure independently and blindly. Computer-based assessment tools were

Sudip K. Sarker; Tark Albrani; Atiquaz Zaman; Isis Kumar

2010-01-01

25

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Where are we at in 2014?  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal endoscopies are invasive and unpleasant procedures that are increasingly being used worldwide. The importance of high quality procedures (especially in colorectal cancer screening), the increasing patient awareness and the expectation of painless examination, increase the need for procedural sedation. The best single sedation agent for endoscopy is propofol which, due to its' pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile allows for a higher patient satisfaction and procedural quality and lower induction and recovery times, while maintaining the safety of traditional sedation. Propofol is an anesthetic agent when used in higher doses than those needed for endoscopy. Because of this important feature it may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory depression and, ultimately, to cardiac arrest and death. Fueled by this argument, concern over the safety of its administration by personnel without general anesthesia training has arisen. Propofol usage seems to be increasing but it's still underused. It is a safe alternative for simple endoscopic procedures in low risk patients even if administered by non-anesthesiologists. Evidence on propofol safety in complex procedures and high risk patients is less robust and in these cases, the presence of an anesthetist should be considered. We review the existing evidence on the topic and evaluate the regional differences on sedation practices. PMID:25685266

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Cravo, Marília

2015-02-16

26

Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Where are we at in 2014?  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal endoscopies are invasive and unpleasant procedures that are increasingly being used worldwide. The importance of high quality procedures (especially in colorectal cancer screening), the increasing patient awareness and the expectation of painless examination, increase the need for procedural sedation. The best single sedation agent for endoscopy is propofol which, due to its’ pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile allows for a higher patient satisfaction and procedural quality and lower induction and recovery times, while maintaining the safety of traditional sedation. Propofol is an anesthetic agent when used in higher doses than those needed for endoscopy. Because of this important feature it may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory depression and, ultimately, to cardiac arrest and death. Fueled by this argument, concern over the safety of its administration by personnel without general anesthesia training has arisen. Propofol usage seems to be increasing but it’s still underused. It is a safe alternative for simple endoscopic procedures in low risk patients even if administered by non-anesthesiologists. Evidence on propofol safety in complex procedures and high risk patients is less robust and in these cases, the presence of an anesthetist should be considered. We review the existing evidence on the topic and evaluate the regional differences on sedation practices.

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Cravo, Marília

2015-01-01

27

Past, Present, and Future of the Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

We herein discuss the history, the present situation, and the future prospects of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) and Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES). Through the symposiums, endoscopy medicine in both countries has developed and matured remarkably, and Korea and Japan have taken a leadership position in this field. In the future, we continuously challenge to advance the symposium further, to hold international sessions, to develop the new KSGE journal Clinical Endoscopy and the JGES journal Digestive Endoscopy through friendly competition. Through those above, we will share useful information with the world and provide leadership in the field of endoscopy medicine. PMID:22741105

Niwa, Hirohumi

2011-01-01

28

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: single centre experience of capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

The advent of capsule endoscopy (CE) has resulted in a paradigm shift in the approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). With increasing global availability of this diagnostic tool, it has now become an integral part of the diagnostic algorithm for OGIB in most parts of the world. However, there is scant data on optimum timing of CE for maximizing diagnostic yield. OGIB continues to be a challenge because of delay in diagnosis and consequent morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of CE in identifying the source of bleeding in patients with OGIB. We identified patients who underwent CE at our institution from May 2006 to May 2011. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine the type of OGIB (occult, overt), CE results and complications, and timing of CE with respect to onset of bleeding. Out of 346 patients investigated for OGIB, 246 (71.1%) had some lesion detected by CE. In 206 patients (59.5%), definite lesions were detected that could unequivocally explain the OGIB. Small bowel angiodysplasia, ulcer/erosions secondary to Crohn's disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use, and neoplasms were the commonest lesions detected. Visualization of the entire small bowel was achieved in 311 (89.9%) of cases. Capsule retention was noted in five patients (1.4%). In this study, CE was proven to be a safe, comfortable, and effective, with a high rate of accuracy for diagnosing OGIB. PMID:21959901

Calabrese, Carlo; Liguori, Giuseppina; Gionchetti, Paolo; Rizzello, Fernando; Laureti, Silvio; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo

2013-12-01

29

Outcome of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after capsule endoscopy: Report of 100 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a promising diagnostic tool for the study of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the diagnostic yield of this technique has not been adequately studied. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of CE and the outcome after CE in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods:One hundred consecutive patients (all with recent negative upper and

Marco Pennazio; Renato Santucci; Emanuele Rondonotti; Carla Abbiati; Gizela Beccari; Francesco P. Rossini; Roberto De Franchis

2004-01-01

30

Outcome in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinical impact of capsule endoscopy (CE) after an obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) episode, focusing on diagnostic work-up, follow-up and predictive factors of rebleeding. METHODS: Patients who were referred to Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009 for OGIB who underwent a CE were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, current treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammtory drugs or anticoagulant drugs, hemoglobin levels, transfusion requirements, previous diagnostic tests for the bleeding episode, as well as CE findings (significant or non-significant), work-up and patient outcomes were analyzed from electronic charts. Variables were compared by ?2 analysis and Student t test. Risk factors of rebleeding were assessed by Log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model. RESULTS: There were 105 patients [45.7% women, median age of 72 years old (interquartile range 56-79)] and a median follow-up of 326 d (interquartile range 123-641) included in this study. The overall diagnostic yield of CE was 58.1% (55.2% and 63.2%, for patients with occult OGIB and overt OGIB, respectively). In 73 patients (69.5%), OGIB was resolved. Multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels lower than 8 g/dL at diagnosis [hazard ratios (HR) = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.9-6.3], patients aged 70 years and above (HR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-6.1) and significant findings in CE (HR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.1-5.8) were independent predictors of rebleeding. CONCLUSION: One third of the patients presented with rebleeding after CE; risk factors were hemoglobin levels < 8 g/dL, age ? 70 years or the presence of significant lesions. PMID:24255747

Cañas-Ventura, Alex; Márquez, Lucia; Bessa, Xavier; Dedeu, Josep Maria; Puigvehí, Marc; Delgado-Aros, Sílvia; Ibáñez, Ines Ana; Seoane, Agustin; Barranco, Luis; Bory, Felipe; Andreu, Montserrat; González-Suárez, Begoña

2013-01-01

31

Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho

2014-01-01

32

Highlights from the 50th seminar of the korean society of gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho; Hahm, Ki Baik

2014-07-01

33

Diagnosis and Management of Mid-Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Double-Balloon Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The new methods of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnostic approach to middle (mid) gastrointestinal bleeding (MGIB) in recent years. DBE also has therapeutic options and enables us to treat the MGIB endoscopically. In this review, we discuss endoscopic diagnosis and management of three major categories of sources of MGIB – vascular lesions, ulcers/erosions and tumors/polyps. PMID:21180539

Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Yano, Tomonori; Sugano, Kentaro

2009-01-01

34

Highlights of the 48th Seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

This special May issue of Clinical Endoscopy discusses the tutorial contents dealing with either the diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy that contain very fundamental and essential points in this filed. The seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) had positioned as one of prime educational seminars covering the very beginner to advanced experts of GI endoscopy. Besides of four rooms allocated for each lecture, two additional rooms were open for either live demonstration or hands-on course, covering totally 20 sessions including one special lecture. Among these prestigious lectures, 12 lectures were selected for the current review articles in this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy journal. Basic course for beginner to advanced tips to expert were all covered in this seminar. This introductory review prepared by four associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy contained core contents divided into four sessions-upper gut, lower gut, pancreaticobiliary, and specialized topic session part-to enhance understandings not covered by enlisted review articles in this issue. PMID:23767027

Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Eun Young; Dong, Seok Ho

2013-01-01

35

Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication.  

PubMed

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235

Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

2014-01-01

36

Role of endoscopy in management of gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension.  

PubMed

The management of patients with gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension is often complex and challenging. The endoscopy plays an important role in the management of these patients. The role of endoscopy is both diagnostic and interventional and in the last years the techniques have undergone a rapid expansion with the advent of different and novel endoscopic modalities, with consequent improvement of investigation and treatment of these patients. The choice of best therapeutic strategy depends on many factors: baseline disease, patient's clinical performance and the timing when it is done if in emergency or a prophylactic approaches. In this review we evaluate the endoscopic management of patients with the gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension. PMID:25610530

Luigiano, Carmelo; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Judica, Antonino; Virgilio, Clara; Peta, Valentina; Abenavoli, Ludovico

2015-01-16

37

Role of endoscopy in management of gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension is often complex and challenging. The endoscopy plays an important role in the management of these patients. The role of endoscopy is both diagnostic and interventional and in the last years the techniques have undergone a rapid expansion with the advent of different and novel endoscopic modalities, with consequent improvement of investigation and treatment of these patients. The choice of best therapeutic strategy depends on many factors: baseline disease, patient’s clinical performance and the timing when it is done if in emergency or a prophylactic approaches. In this review we evaluate the endoscopic management of patients with the gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension. PMID:25610530

Luigiano, Carmelo; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Judica, Antonino; Virgilio, Clara; Peta, Valentina; Abenavoli, Ludovico

2015-01-01

38

Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions  

PubMed Central

Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is an optical image enhancing technology that allows a detailed inspection of vascular and mucosal patterns, providing the ability to predict histology during real-time endoscopy. By combining NBI with magnification endoscopy (NBI-ME), the accurate assessment of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be achieved, as well as the early detection of neoplasia by emphasizing neovascularization. Promising results of the method in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract have been reported in clinical studies. The usefulness of NBI-ME as an adjunct to endoscopic therapy in clinical practice, the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, surveillance strategies and cost-saving strategies based on this method are summarized in this review. Various classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns used to differentiate preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions have been reviewed. We concluded that the clinical applicability of NBI-ME has increased, but standardization of endoscopic criteria and classification systems, validation in randomized multicenter trials and training programs to improve the diagnostic performance are all needed before the widespread acceptance of the method in routine practice. However, published data regarding the usefulness of NBI endoscopy are relevant in order to recommend the method as a reliable tool in diagnostic and therapy, even for less experienced endoscopists.

Boeriu, Alina; Boeriu, Cristian; Drasovean, Silvia; Pascarenco, Ofelia; Mocan, Simona; Stoian, Mircea; Dobru, Daniela

2015-01-01

39

Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions.  

PubMed

Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is an optical image enhancing technology that allows a detailed inspection of vascular and mucosal patterns, providing the ability to predict histology during real-time endoscopy. By combining NBI with magnification endoscopy (NBI-ME), the accurate assessment of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be achieved, as well as the early detection of neoplasia by emphasizing neovascularization. Promising results of the method in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract have been reported in clinical studies. The usefulness of NBI-ME as an adjunct to endoscopic therapy in clinical practice, the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, surveillance strategies and cost-saving strategies based on this method are summarized in this review. Various classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns used to differentiate preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions have been reviewed. We concluded that the clinical applicability of NBI-ME has increased, but standardization of endoscopic criteria and classification systems, validation in randomized multicenter trials and training programs to improve the diagnostic performance are all needed before the widespread acceptance of the method in routine practice. However, published data regarding the usefulness of NBI endoscopy are relevant in order to recommend the method as a reliable tool in diagnostic and therapy, even for less experienced endoscopists. PMID:25685267

Boeriu, Alina; Boeriu, Cristian; Drasovean, Silvia; Pascarenco, Ofelia; Mocan, Simona; Stoian, Mircea; Dobru, Daniela

2015-02-16

40

International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2014: Turnpike to the Future  

PubMed Central

Social networks are useful in the study of relationships between individuals or entire populations, and the ties through which any given social unit connects. Those represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. Consequently, the term "social networking service" (SNS) became extremely familiar. Similar to familiar SNSs, International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2014 was based on an international network composed of an impressive 2-day scientific program dealing with a variety of topics for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, which connects physicians and researchers from all over the world. The scientific programs included live endoscopic demonstrations and provided cutting-edge information and practice tips as well as the latest advances concerning upper GI, lower GI, and pancreatobiliary endoscopy. IDEN 2014 featured American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE-KSGE)-joint sessions prepared through cooperation between ASGE and KSGE. Furthermore, IDEN 2014 provided a special program for young scientists called the 'Asian Young Endoscopist Award Forum' to foster networks, with many young endoscopists from Asian countries taking an active interest and participation. PMID:25324994

Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Ryu, Ji Kon

2014-01-01

41

The diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the investigation of anaemia.  

PubMed

Computer records of patients endoscoped over a 34-month period were studied to assess the diagnostic yield of gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with anaemia. Patients with obvious gastrointestinal bleeding and known gastrointestinal pathology were excluded. On hundred and thirty-six patients were endoscoped for anaemia. Eighty-three of them (61%) had iron deficiency anaemia and 53 (39%) had other types of anaemia. The ages of the patients with iron deficiency anaemia (mean 56 years) were significantly lower than those of other anaemias (means 65 years), (p less than 0.003). Patient characteristics were otherwise comparable. There were significant endoscopic findings (ulcers, carcinoma and haemorrhagic or erosive gastritis) in 26 of 83 patients (31%) with iron deficiency anaemia, in 11 of 53 patients with other anaemias (21%) and 37 of 136 patients (27%) combined. Significant endoscopic findings were found in 506 of 2224 patients (23%) endoscoped during this period who were not anaemic, did not have obvious gastrointestinal haemorrhage and were not known to have gastrointestinal diseases. The diagnostic yield for iron deficiency anaemia was significantly higher than for the non anaemic group (p less than 0.05). There was no difference between the diagnostic yields of iron deficiency and other anaemias, other anaemias and the non anaemic group, or total anaemias and the non anaemic group. Gastrointestinal symptoms and history of analgesic or steroid usage did not appear to increase the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions in either iron deficiency anaemia or other anaemias. Twenty-three of 41 patients (56%) who had no cause for anaemia found at the end of all investigations were colonscoped.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1876887

Tan, C C; Guan, R; Tay, H H; Yap, I; Math, M V

1991-06-01

42

The GASTER project: building a computer network in digestive endoscopy: the experience of the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Application for Standards in Telecommunication, Education and Research.  

PubMed

Digestive endoscopy is currently the main diagnostic procedure for investigation of the digestive tract whenever a digestive disease is suspected. From 1970 to 1985, digestive endoscopy was performed with endoscopes equipped with fiberoptic bundles, whereas the last decade was marked by the development of electronic endoscopes, characterized by the presence of a CCD (charge coupled device) at the tip of the endoscope. Thus the physician looks at a TV screen to control the procedure and examine in detail the gut wall. Endoscopes examine the foregut until the duodenum and the hindgut, up to the three last intestinal loops. When the endoscopic workstation comprises a computer, it is possible to acquire electronic images during the endoscopy and use these images as support of the information about the results of the procedure. These numeric images can then be stored in databases containing text attached to them. Starting with these images, one may expect many developments in the near future that will change the management of the patient with digestive diseases. Physicians will become able to exchange images and text related to one patient or one procedure, although they are equipped with different workstations. Therefore, it is obvious that the information exchanged must be written in a standard format that makes it understandable by all systems. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is a scientific society that groups most of the gastroenterologists in Europe. This society has initiated a research program to develop standards for the exchange of images and text. The Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Applications for Standards in Telecommunication, Education, and Research (GASTER) project intends to implement a multimedia database of endoscopic images based on a standard format of images and a standard terminology for descriptive terms. These standards must be validated by use in different endoscopy units. The database will collect images from these centers that will be linked to the coordinating center through a network based on an integrated services digital network (fast electronic connection). This database will then be used for the development of computer applications. The output of the GASTER project will bring advances at three levels: (1) The physicians will be able to exchange images about the procedures their patients have undergone and will thus obtain more complete information, improving quality of care. They will also benefit from help-to-decision applications based on validated reference images from the database. (2) At the patient level, the quality of care will be improved through a better dissemination of information between the physicians in charge of the patient, thus there is better follow-up of the patient and a decrease in redundant examinations. (3) At the level of national health care systems, the benefit will be a decrease in cost of care due to a better follow-up of the patients, a decrease in redundant examinations, and a faster decision made to treat the patient. The possibility of consulting a database of a scientifically validated images used as reference material will also improve quality control in digestive endoscopy. PMID:10478870

Delvaux, M M; Crespi, M; Armengol-Miro, J R; Hagenmüller, F; Teuffel, W

1999-09-01

43

Fibreoptic endoscopy and the use of the Sengstaken tube in acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension and varices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of emergency upper gastrointestinal fibre-endoscopy, followed where required by the use of a modified Sengstaken tube, was studied during 84 episodes of acute bleeding in 75 patients who had evidence of portal hypertension with varices. The portal hypertension was due to alcoholic cirrhosis in 80% and to cryptogenic cirrhosis in 9% of the patients. By definition, varices were

B H Novis; P Duys; G O Barbezat; J Clain; S Bank; J Terblanche

1976-01-01

44

Sedation-associated hiccups in adults undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the incidence of hiccups in patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or same-day bidirectional endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy; BDE) with sedation is different from those without sedation in terms of quantity, duration and typical onset time. METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for elective EGD or same-day BDE at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit or the health examination center were allocated to two groups: EGD without sedation (Group A) and BDE with sedation (Group B). The use of sedation was based on the patients’ request. Anesthesiologists participated in this study by administrating sedative drugs as usual. A single experienced gastroenterologist performed both the EGD and the colonoscopic examinations for all the patients. The incidence, duration and onset time of hiccups were measured in both groups. In addition, the association between clinical variables and hiccups were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study. The incidences of hiccups in the patients with and without sedation were significantly different (20.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The use of sedation for patients undergoing endoscopy was still significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups (adjusted odds ratio: 8.79, P < 0.001) after adjustment. The incidence of hiccups in males under sedation was high (67.4%). The sedated patients who received 2 mg midazolam developed hiccups more frequently compared to those receiving 1 mg midazolam (P = 0.0028). The patients with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were prone to develop hiccups (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Male patients undergoing EGD or BDE with sedation are significantly more likely to suffer from hiccups compared to those without sedation. Midazolam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups. Furthermore, patients with GERD are prone to develop hiccups. PMID:22826626

Liu, Chien Cheng; Lu, Cheng Yuan; Changchien, Chih Fang; Liu, Ping Hsin; Perng, Daw Shyong

2012-01-01

45

Is there a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy?  

PubMed

Heart valve repair or replacement is a serious problem. Patients can benefit from an open dialogue between both cardiologists and gastroenterologists for the optimal effective patients care. The focused update on infective endocarditis of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 (ACC/AHA guidelines) and guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines) describe prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE) as not recommended for gastroscopy and colonoscopy in the absence of active infection but increasing evidence suggests that the role of IE antibiotic prophylaxis remains a dark side of the cardio-oncology prevention. New evidences concerning infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and new findings indicate that there is a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy especially in elderly patients and in cancer and immunocompromised patients, to avoid serious consequences. PMID:24566725

Patanè, Salvatore

2014-04-01

46

Usefulness of Double-Balloon Endoscopy in the Postoperative Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Background. The small intestine has been considered to be a highly difficult organ to visualize in imaging examinations due to its anatomical location compared with the stomach and the colon. In recent years, many imaging modalities have become available, such as CT enterography, MR enterography, capsule endoscopy (CE), and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). Patients and Methods. DBE was performed in the postoperative intestines of 91 patients (128 DBE examinations) at Iwate Medical University between 2004 and 2010. There were 61 male and 30 female patients, and their mean age was 69.7 years (range: 30–80 years). Results. A total of 124 DBE examinations were performed with endoscope insertion into the reconstructed intestines. The endoscope reached the blind end in 115 of 124 examinations, (92.7%). There were 17 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in whom 30 DBE examinations were performed. The bleeding site was identified in 12 patients (70.6%). Nine patients underwent endoscopic treatment. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Conclusion. DBE is very useful modality for the assessment and application of endotherapy to areas of the small bowel which have been altered by surgery. PMID:22194738

Endo, Masaki; Abiko, Yukito; Oana, Syuhei; Kudara, Norihiko; Kosaka, Takashi; Chiba, Toshimi; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu

2011-01-01

47

Predictors of double balloon endoscopy outcomes in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify patients’ characteristics associated with double balloon endoscopy (DBE) outcomes in investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS: Retrospective study performed at an academic tertiary referral center. Evaluated endpoints were clinical factors associated with no diagnostic yield or non-therapeutic intervention of DBE performed for OGIB evaluation. RESULTS: We included fifty-five DBE between August 2010 and April 2012. The mean age of the sample was 67 with 32 males (58.2%). Twenty-four DBE had no diagnostic yield and 30 DBE did not require therapy. Non-diagnostic yield was associated with performing two or more DBE studies in one day [odds ratio (OR): 13.72, P = 0.008], absence of blood transfusions within a year of the DBE (OR: 7.16, P = 0.03) and absence of ulcers or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) on prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or colonoscopy (OR: 19.30, P = 0.033). Non-therapeutic DBE was associated with performing two or more DBE per day (OR: 18.579, P = 0.007), gastrointestinal bleeding episode within a week of the DBE (OR: 11.48, P = 0.003), fewer blood transfusion requirements prior to DBE (OR: 4.55, P = 0.036) and absence of ulcers or AVMs on prior EGD or colonoscopy (OR: 8.47, P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Predictors of DBE yield and therapeutic intervention on DBE include blood transfusion requirements, previous endoscopic findings and possibly endoscopist fatigue. PMID:24932377

Hussan, Hisham; Crews, Nicholas R; Geremakis, Caroline M; Bahna, Soubhi; LaBundy, Jennifer L; Hachem, Christine

2014-01-01

48

Propofol versus Midazolam for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Cirrhotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy is often achieved using propofol or midazolam in general population. However, impaired protein synthesis, altered drug metabolism, and compromised hepatic blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis might affect the pharmacokinetics of sedatives, placing cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy at a greater risk of adverse events. The objective of this study was to assess comparative efficacies and safety of propofol and midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy. Methods Randomized, controlled trials comparing propofol with midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy were selected. We performed the meta-analysis, using a random-effect model, the Review Manager, Version 5.2, statistical software package (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results Five studies between 2003 and 2012, including 433 patients, were included. Propofol provided a shorter time to sedation (weight mean difference: -2.76 min, 95% confidence interval: -3.00 to -2.51) and a shorter recovery time (weight mean difference -6.17 min, 95% confidence interval: -6.81 to -5.54) than midazolam did. No intergroup difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, or hypoxemia was observed. Midazolam was associated with the deterioration of psychometric scores for a longer period than propofol. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that Propofol sedation for endoscopy provides more rapid sedation and recovery than midazolam does. The risk of sedation-related side effects for propofol does not differ significantly from that of midazolam. The efficacy of propofol in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy is superior to those of midazolam. PMID:25646815

Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Yu-Cih; Ko, Ching-Lung; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tam, Ka-Wai; Chen, Chien-Yu

2015-01-01

49

H. pylori May Not Be Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Normal Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy Results  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori in patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. Materials and Methods. A total of 117 male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results were included in this retrospective study. The study and control groups included 69 and 48 patients with and without iron deficiency anemia, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori, the number of RBCs, and the levels of HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin were calculated and compared. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the groups according to the prevalence of H. pylori (65.2% versus 64.6%, P = 0.896). Additionally, the levels of RBCs, HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin in the patients in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Finally, there was no association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori (OR 1.02, Cl 95% 0.47–2.22, and P = 0.943). Conclusion. H. pylori is not associated with iron deficiency anemia in male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. PMID:25610466

Saler, Tayyibe; Ke?kek, ?akir Özgür; K?rk, Sibel; Ahbab, Süleyman; Orto?lu, Gülay

2014-01-01

50

Technical skills and training of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for new beginners  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastric cancer remains high in South Korea. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, i.e., esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), has a higher diagnostic specificity and sensitivity than the upper GI series. Additionally, EGD has the ability to biopsy, through taking a tissue of the pathologic lesion. Successful training of EGD procedural skills require a few important things to be learned and remembered, including the posture of an examinee (e.g., left lateral decubitus and supine) and examiner (e.g., one-man standing method vs one-man sitting method), basic skills (e.g., tip deflection, push forward and pull back, and air suction and infusion), advanced skills (e.g., paradoxical movement, J-turn, and U-turn), and intubation techniques along the upper GI tract (e.g., oral cavity, pharynx, larynx including vocal cord, upper and middle and lower esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, gastric fundus, body, and antrum, duodenal bulb, and descending part of duodenum). In the current review, despite several limitations, we explained the intubation method of EGD for beginners. We hope this will be helpful to beginners who wish to learn the procedure. PMID:25624710

Lee, Seung-Hwa; Park, Young-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Duck-Joo

2015-01-01

51

Ketodex, a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

A combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGIE) was studied in 46 children aged 2-12 years over a 6-month period. Dexmedetomidine 1 ?g/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg were given as a bolus over 5 min. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and sedation scores were noted before induction as baseline and then every 5 min until recovery. The duration and ease of the procedure, time to recovery, and adverse effects, if any, were also recorded. UGIE could be performed with ease in 41 of the 46 cases. The HR, MAP, and SpO2 did not change significantly from the baseline. No airway intervention was required in any patient. There was no laryngospasm or shivering in any of the children, and one, four, and 11 children had hiccup, vomiting, and increased salivation, respectively. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium score was <4 in all except for two cases. The results of this case series show that this drug combination not only promises to be clinically effective but also safe for UGIE in children. Further randomized controlled trials with standard sedation protocols will be required to draw definite conclusions. PMID:23223916

Goyal, Rakhee; Singh, Shivinder; Shukla, R N; Patra, Arun Kumar; Bhargava, D V

2013-06-01

52

The Changing Pattern of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders by Endoscopy: Data of the Last 40 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We have investigated the changes in the incidence of various diagnoses that have been made in the endoscopy unit throughout the last 40 years. Methods. In this study, changes in the incidence of endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal system between 1970 and 2010 were evaluated. Their diagnosis, age, and gender data were entered into the Excel software. Results. Of the 52816 cases who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in the 40-year time period, the mean age was 48.17 ± 16.27 (mean ± SD). Although overall more than half of the patients were male (54.3%), in 1995 and after a marked increase was seen in the proportion of female gender (51–55%). The presence of hiatal hernia, reflux esophagitis, and the number of Barrett's esophaguses significantly increased. Erosive gastritis showed gradual increase, while the number of gastric ulcers decreased significantly. The presence of gastric and esophageal cancer significantly decreased. The number of duodenal ulcers significantly decreased. Conclusion. We detected that the incidences of esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and erosive gastritis significantly increased while the incidences of gastric/duodenal ulcer and gastric/esophageal cancer decreased throughout the last 40 years. PMID:25276089

Caglar, Erkan; Baysal, Birol; Dobrucal?, Ahmet

2014-01-01

53

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE. PMID:22915898

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette

2012-01-01

54

A pilot study of single-use endoscopy in screening acute gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of a single-use endoscopy as an alternative procedure to nasogastric lavage in patients with acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. METHODS: Patients who presented with hematemesis, melena or hematochezia were enrolled in this study. EG scan™ and conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were subsequently performed. Active bleeding was defined as blood in the stomach, and inactive bleeding was defined as coffee ground clots and clear fluid in the stomach. The findings were recorded and compared. RESULTS: Between January and March, 2011, 13 patients that presented with hematemesis (n = 4), melena (n = 6), or bleeding from a previous nasogastric feeding tube (n = 3), were enrolled in this study. In 12 patients with upper GI bleeding, the EG scan device revealed that 7 patients had active bleeding and 5 patients had inactive bleeding, whereas conventional EGD revealed that 8 patients had active bleeding and 4 patients had inactive bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of the EG scan device was 87.5% and 100% for active bleeding, with conventional EGD serving as a reference. No complication were reported during the EG scan procedures. CONCLUSION: The EG scan is a feasible device for screening acute upper GI bleeding. It may replace nasogastric lavage for the evaluation of acute upper GI bleeding. PMID:23326170

Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Hee Man; Lee, Sangheun; Kim, Yu Jin; Han, Ki Jun; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Song, Si Young

2013-01-01

55

Appropriate use of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: up-to-date indications for primary care providers  

PubMed Central

The field of endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in recent years. Besides the ‘traditional’ endoscopic procedures (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), advances in imaging technology (endoscopic ultrasonography, wireless capsule endoscopy, and double balloon enteroscopy) have allowed GI specialists to detect and manage disorders throughout the digestive system. This article reviews various endoscopic procedures and provides up-to-date endoscopic indications based on the recommendations of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and American Cancer Society for primary care providers in order to achieve high-quality and cost-effective care. PMID:21116340

Nguyen, Vien X; Le Nguyen, Vi Thuy; Nguyen, Cuong C

2010-01-01

56

Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related “superbugs” during gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and their related superbugs during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Reports of outbreaks linked to GI endoscopes contaminated with different types of infectious agents, including CRE and their related superbugs, were reviewed. Published during the past 30 years, both prior to and since CRE’s emergence, these reports were obtained by searching the peer-reviewed medical literature (via the United States National Library of Medicine’s “MEDLINE” database); the Food and Drug Administration’s Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, or “MAUDE”; and the Internet (via Google’s search engine). This review focused on an outbreak of CRE in 2013 following the GI endoscopic procedure known as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or ERCP, performed at “Hospital X” located in the suburbs of Chicago (IL; United States). Part of the largest outbreak of CRE in United States history, the infection and colonization of 10 and 28 of this hospital’s patients, respectively, received considerable media attention and was also investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which published a report about this outbreak in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), in 2014. This report, along with the results of an independent inspection of Hospital X’s infection control practices following this CRE outbreak, were also reviewed. While this article focuses primarily on the prevention of transmissions of CRE and their related superbugs in the GI endoscopic setting, some of its discussion and recommendations may also apply to other healthcare settings, to other types of flexible endoscopes, and to other types of transmissible infectious agents. This review found that GI endoscopy is an important risk factor for the transmission of CRE and their related superbugs, having been recently associated with patient morbidity and mortality following ERCP. The CDC reported in MMWR that the type of GI endoscope, known as an ERCP endoscope, that Hospital X used to perform ERCP in 2013 on the 38 patients who became infected or colonized with CRE might be particularly challenging to clean and disinfect, because of the complexity of its physical design. If performed in strict accordance with the endoscope manufacturer’s labeling, supplemented as needed with professional organizations’ published guidelines, however, current practices for reprocessing GI endoscopes, which include high-level disinfection, are reportedly adequate for the prevention of transmission of CRE and their related superbugs. Several recommendations are provided to prevent CRE transmissions in the healthcare setting. CRE transmissions are not limited to contaminated GI endoscopes and also have been linked to other reusable flexible endoscopic instrumentation, including bronchoscopes and cystoscopes. In conclusion, contaminated GI endoscopes, particularly those used during ERCP, have been causally linked to outbreaks of CRE and their related superbugs, with associated patient morbidity and mortality. Thorough reprocessing of these complex reusable instruments is necessary to prevent disease transmission and ensure patient safety during GI endoscopy. Enhanced training and monitoring of reprocessing staffers to verify the proper cleaning and brushing of GI endoscopes, especially the area around, behind and near the forceps elevator located at the distal end of the ERCP endoscope, are recommended. If the ERCP endoscope features a narrow and exposed channel that houses a wire connecting the GI endoscope’s control head to this forceps elevator, then this channel’s complete reprocessing, including its flushing with a detergent using a procedure validated for effectiveness, is also emphasized. PMID:25324917

Muscarella, Lawrence F

2014-01-01

57

Risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and related "superbugs" during gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

To evaluate the risk of transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and their related superbugs during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Reports of outbreaks linked to GI endoscopes contaminated with different types of infectious agents, including CRE and their related superbugs, were reviewed. Published during the past 30 years, both prior to and since CRE's emergence, these reports were obtained by searching the peer-reviewed medical literature (via the United States National Library of Medicine's "MEDLINE" database); the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, or "MAUDE"; and the Internet (via Google's search engine). This review focused on an outbreak of CRE in 2013 following the GI endoscopic procedure known as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or ERCP, performed at "Hospital X" located in the suburbs of Chicago (IL; United States). Part of the largest outbreak of CRE in United States history, the infection and colonization of 10 and 28 of this hospital's patients, respectively, received considerable media attention and was also investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which published a report about this outbreak in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), in 2014. This report, along with the results of an independent inspection of Hospital X's infection control practices following this CRE outbreak, were also reviewed. While this article focuses primarily on the prevention of transmissions of CRE and their related superbugs in the GI endoscopic setting, some of its discussion and recommendations may also apply to other healthcare settings, to other types of flexible endoscopes, and to other types of transmissible infectious agents. This review found that GI endoscopy is an important risk factor for the transmission of CRE and their related superbugs, having been recently associated with patient morbidity and mortality following ERCP. The CDC reported in MMWR that the type of GI endoscope, known as an ERCP endoscope, that Hospital X used to perform ERCP in 2013 on the 38 patients who became infected or colonized with CRE might be particularly challenging to clean and disinfect, because of the complexity of its physical design. If performed in strict accordance with the endoscope manufacturer's labeling, supplemented as needed with professional organizations' published guidelines, however, current practices for reprocessing GI endoscopes, which include high-level disinfection, are reportedly adequate for the prevention of transmission of CRE and their related superbugs. Several recommendations are provided to prevent CRE transmissions in the healthcare setting. CRE transmissions are not limited to contaminated GI endoscopes and also have been linked to other reusable flexible endoscopic instrumentation, including bronchoscopes and cystoscopes. In conclusion, contaminated GI endoscopes, particularly those used during ERCP, have been causally linked to outbreaks of CRE and their related superbugs, with associated patient morbidity and mortality. Thorough reprocessing of these complex reusable instruments is necessary to prevent disease transmission and ensure patient safety during GI endoscopy. Enhanced training and monitoring of reprocessing staffers to verify the proper cleaning and brushing of GI endoscopes, especially the area around, behind and near the forceps elevator located at the distal end of the ERCP endoscope, are recommended. If the ERCP endoscope features a narrow and exposed channel that houses a wire connecting the GI endoscope's control head to this forceps elevator, then this channel's complete reprocessing, including its flushing with a detergent using a procedure validated for effectiveness, is also emphasized. PMID:25324917

Muscarella, Lawrence F

2014-10-16

58

Long-term outcome in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate long-term outcome in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative capsule endoscopy (CE) and identify risk factors for rebleeding. METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive patients underwent CE for OGIB from May 2003 to June 2010 at Seoul National University Hospital. Ninety-five patients (84.1%) with a subsequent follow-up after CE of at least 6 mo were enrolled in this study. Follow-up data were obtained from the patients’ medical records. The CE images were reviewed by two board-certified gastroenterologists and consensus diagnosis was used in all cases. The primary outcome measure was the detection of rebleeding after CE, and factors associated with rebleeding were evaluated using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the 95 enrolled patients (median age 61 years, range 17-85 years), 62 patients (65.3%) were male. The median duration of follow-up was 23.7 mo (range 6.0-89.4 mo). Seventy-three patients (76.8%) underwent CE for obscure-overt bleeding. Complete examination of the small bowel was achieved in 77 cases (81.1%). Significant lesions were found in 38 patients (40.0%). The overall rebleeding rate was 28.4%. The rebleeding rate was higher in patients with positive CE (36.8%) than in those with negative CE (22.8%). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative rebleeding rates between the two groups (log rank test; P = 0.205). Anticoagulation after CE examination was an independent risk factor for rebleeding (hazard ratio, 5.019; 95%CI, 1.560-16.145; P = 0.007), regardless of CE results. CONCLUSION: Patients with OGIB and negative CE have a potential risk of rebleeding. Therefore, close observation is required and alternative modalities should be considered in suspicious cases. PMID:23539070

Koh, Seong-Joon; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

2013-01-01

59

Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%). While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. Capsule endoscopy was proven an important tool in diagnosing intestinal parasitosis. PMID:21173914

Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Sigounas, Dimitrios E; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Dimos, Georgios; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

2010-01-01

60

The Canadian Registry on Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE): Endoscopic Hemostasis and Proton Pump Inhibition are Associated with Improved Outcomes in a Real-Life Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:From the Canadian Registry of patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE), we determined clinical outcomes and explored the roles of endoscopic and pharmacologic therapies in a contemporary real-life setting.METHODS:Analysis of randomly selected patients endoscoped for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 18 community and tertiary care institutions between 1999 and 2002. Covariates and outcomes were defined a priori and

Alan Barkun; Sandrine Sabbah; Robert Enns; David Armstrong; Jamie Gregor; Richard N. N. Fedorak; Elham Rahme; Youssef Toubouti; Myriam Martel; Naoki Chiba; Carlo A. Fallone

2004-01-01

61

A Meta-Analysis of the Yield of Capsule Endoscopy Compared to Other Diagnostic Modalities in Patients with Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Due to its superior ability to examine the entire small bowel mucosa, capsule endoscopy (CE) has broadened the diagnostic evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Published studies have revealed a numerically superior performance of CE in determining a source of OGIB compared with other modalities, but due to small sample sizes, the overall magnitude of benefit is unknown.

Stuart L. Triester; Jonathan A. Leighton; Grigoris I. Leontiadis; David E. Fleischer; Amy K. Hara; Russell I. Heigh; Arthur D. Shiff; Virender K. Sharma

2005-01-01

62

Control of asgE Expression during Growth and Development of Myxococcus xanthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the earliest events in the Myxococcus xanthus developmental cycle is production of an extracellular cell density signal called A-signal (or A-factor). Previously, we showed that cells carrying an insertion in the asgE gene fail to produce normal levels of this cell-cell signal. In this study we found that expression of asgE is growth phase regulated and developmentally regulated.

ANTHONY G. GARZA; BARUCH Z. HARRIS; BRANDON M. GREENBERG; MITCHELL SINGER

2000-01-01

63

Safety of Gastroenterologist-Guided Sedation with Propofol for Upper Gastrointestinal Therapeutic Endoscopy in Elderly Patients Compared with Younger Patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Propofol sedation for elderly patients during time-consuming endoscopic procedures is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the safety of using propofol in elderly patients during upper gastrointestinal therapeutic endoscopy. Methods The medical records of 160 patients who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures under gastroenterologist-guided propofol sedation at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were divided into two groups: a younger group, patients <75 years old; and an elderly group, patients ?75 years old. The two groups were compared with respect to the therapeutic regimen, circulatory dynamics, and presence/absence of discontinuation of propofol treatment. Results Although the number of patients with liver dysfunction was higher in the elderly group, there were no other significant differences in the baseline characteristics, including the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, between the elderly and younger groups. The average maintenance rate of continuous propofol infusion was lower in the elderly patients. No statistically significant differences were found in the occurrence of adverse events between the elderly and younger groups. None of the patients returned to a resedated state after the initial recovery from sedation. Conclusions Gastroenterologist-guided propofol sedation in elderly patients can be safely achieved in the same manner as that in younger patients, even for time-consuming upper gastrointestinal therapeutic endoscopic procedures. PMID:25170057

Nonaka, Masaya; Gotoda, Takuji; Kusano, Chika; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

2015-01-01

64

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly

D L Carr-Locke; P Clayton

1978-01-01

65

Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGE were randomized to receive either a bupivacaine lozenge (L-group, n = 51) or lidocaine spray (S-group, n = 42). Primary objective was assessment of patient discomfort including acceptance of the gag reflex during UGE. The L-group assessed the discomfort significantly lower on a visual analog scale compared with the S-group (P = 0.02). There was also a significant difference in the four-point scale assessment of the gag reflex (P = 0.03). It was evaluated as acceptable by 49% in the L-group compared with 31% in the S-group. A bupivacaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE. PMID:25374463

Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine; Rasmussen, Mette; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove; Jacobsen, Jette

2014-01-01

66

The Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Video Capsule Endoscopy Compared to Other Strategies to Manage Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Study objective Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a common presentation in hospital-based emergency departments (EDs). A novel diagnostic approach is to use video capsule endoscopy to directly visualize the upper GI tract and identify bleeding. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the relative costs and benefits of video capsule endoscopy compared to other strategies in low to moderate risk ED patients with acute upper GI hemorrhage. Methods We constructed a model using standard decision analysis software to examine the cost-effectiveness of four available strategies for a base-case patient who presents to the ED with either mild or moderate risk scenarios (by Glasgow-Blatchford Score) for requiring invasive hemostatic intervention (i.e., endoscopic, surgical, etc.) The four available diagnostic strategies were (1) direct imaging with video capsule endoscopy performed in the ED, (2) risk stratification using the Glasgow-Blatchford score, (3) nasogastric tube placement and, finally, (4) an admit-all strategy. Results In the low-risk scenario, video capsule endoscopy was preferred strategy (cost $5,691, 14.69 QALYs) and more cost effective than the remaining strategies including nasogastric tube strategy (cost $8,159, 14.69 QALYs), risk stratification strategy (cost $10,695, 14.69 QALYs) and admit-all strategy (cost $22,766, 14.68 QALYs). In the moderate risk scenario, video capsule endoscopy continued to be preferred strategy (cost $9,190, 14.56 QALYs) compared to nasogastric tube (cost $9,487, 14.58 QALYs, ICER $15,891) and more cost effective than admit-all strategy (cost, $22,584, 14.54 QALYs.) Conclusion Video capsule endoscopy may be cost-effective for low and moderate risk patients presenting to the ED with acute upper GI hemorrhage. PMID:24961149

Meltzer, Andrew C.; Ward, Michael J.; Gralnek, Ian M.; Pines, Jesse M.

2014-01-01

67

An update on pediatric endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Advances in endoscopy and anesthesia have enabled gastrointestinal endoscopy for children since 1960. Over the past decades, the number of endoscopies has increased rapidly. As specialized teams of pediatric gastroenterologists, pediatric intensive care physicians and pediatric endoscopy nurses are available in many medical centers, safe and effective procedures have been established. Therefore, diagnostic endoscopies in children are routine clinical procedures. The most frequently performed endoscopies are esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). Therapeutic interventions include variceal bleeding ligation, foreign body retrieval and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. New advances in pediatric endoscopy have led to more sensitive diagnostics of common pediatric gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease; likewise, new diseases, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, have been brought to light. Upcoming modalities, such as capsule endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and narrow band imaging, are being established and may contribute to diagnostics in pediatric gastroenterology in the future. PMID:23885793

2013-01-01

68

Interventional endoscopy.  

PubMed

Interventional endoscopy is a general label given to endoscopic procedures used to deal with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. The interventional endoscopic procedures of interest in this review are those used specifically with gastric disorders. They include hemostasis, endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, stenting, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement and photodynamic laser therapy. Here, we review the latest data related to (a) a number of general issues having an impact on this diverse group of procedures (eg, such as proper patient selection criteria, consent in the era of open access endoscopy, protocol for anticoagulation, and sedation); (b) the methodology and outcomes of each of these unique procedures as they apply to the stomach; and (c) some of the latest technologic advances and developments that will potentially have an impact the future use of these procedures. PMID:17031213

Wassef, W; Nompleggi, D

2001-11-01

69

Detection of malignant lesions in vivo in the upper gastrointestinal tract using image-guided Raman endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational analytic technique sensitive to the changes in biomolecular composition and conformations occurring in tissue. With our most recent development of near-infrared (NIR) Raman endoscopy integrated with diagnostic algorithms, in vivo real-time Raman diagnostics has been realized under multimodal wide-field imaging (i.e., white- light reflectance (WLR), narrow-band imaging (NBI), autofluorescence imaging (AFI)) modalities. A selection of 177 patients who previously underwent Raman endoscopy (n=2510 spectra) was used to render two robust models based on partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for esophageal and gastric cancer diagnosis. The Raman endoscopy technique was validated prospectively on 4 new gastric and esophageal patients for in vivo tissue diagnosis. The Raman endoscopic technique could identify esophageal cancer in vivo with a sensitivity of 88.9% (8/9) and specificity of 100.0% (11/11) and gastric cancers with a sensitivity of 77.8% (14/18) and specificity of 100.0% (13/13). This study realizes for the first time the image-guided Raman endoscopy for real-time in vivo diagnosis of malignancies in the esophagus and gastric at the biomolecular level.

Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Teh, Ming; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

2012-01-01

70

Initial experience of wireless-capsule endoscopy for evaluating occult gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected small bowel pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Small bowel pathology can be diagnosed using enteroscopy (which has limitations) and by x-ray (which is not sensitive for flat lesions). For the first time ever, we used a new technique, wireless-capsule video endoscopy, to diagnose small bowel pathology. Our aim was to prove the effectiveness and safety of this technology.METHODS:We used the Given (M2A) system in 35 patients, aged

Eitan Scapa; Harold Jacob; Shlomo Lewkowicz; Michal Migdal; Daniel Gat; Arkady Gluckhovski; Nurit Gutmann; Zvi Fireman

2002-01-01

71

A randomized trial of topical anesthesia comparing lidocaine versus lidocaine plus xylometazoline for unsedated transnasal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean ± SD, difference in mean, 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2±2.4 versus 3.9±2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI ?0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4±2.1 versus 3.2±2.8, respectively [?0.80; 95% CI ?1.54 to ?0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4±1.8 min versus 3.5±2.2 min, respectively [?1.10; 95% CI ?1.71 min to ?0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2±1.8 min versus 3.9±2.2 min, respectively [?0.70 min; 95% CI ?1.30 min to ?0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSIONS: LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required. PMID:20485707

Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Bailey, Robert; Fedorak, Richard N; Morse, John; Millan, Mario; Guzowski, Tom; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

2010-01-01

72

Functional imaging and endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-01-01

73

Functional imaging and endoscopy.  

PubMed

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-10-14

74

Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy: interim recommendations of a Working Party of the British Society of Gastroenterology.  

PubMed Central

1. All patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy must be considered 'at risk' for HIV and appropriate cleaning/disinfection measures taken for endoscopes and accessories. 2. Thorough manual cleaning with detergent, of the instrument and its channels is the most important part of the cleaning/disinfection procedure. Without this, blood, mucus and organic material will prevent adequate penetration of disinfectant for inactivation of bacteria and viruses. 3. Aldehyde preparations (2% activated glutaraldehyde and related products) are the recommended first line antibacterial and antiviral disinfectant. A four minute soak is recommended as sufficient for inactivation of vegetative bacteria and viruses (including HIV and HBV). 4. Quaternary ammonium detergents (8% Dettox for two minutes for bacterial disinfection), followed by exposure of the endoscope shaft and channels to ethyl alcohol (70% for four minutes for viral inactivation), is an acceptable second-line disinfectant routine where staff sensitisation prevents the use of an aldehyde disinfectant. 5. Accessories, including mouthguards and cleaning brushes, require similarly careful cleaning/disinfection, before and after each use. Disposable products (especially injection needles) may be used and appropriate items can be sterilised by autoclaving and kept in sterile packs. 6. Closed circuit endoscope washing machines have advantages in maintaining standards and avoiding staff sensitisation to disinfectants. Improved ventilation including exhaust extraction facilities may be required. 7. Endoscopy staff should receive HBV vaccination, wear gloves and appropriate protective garments, cover wounds or abrasions and avoid needlestick injuries (including spiked forceps, etc). 8. Known HIV-infected or AIDS patients are managed as immunosuppressed, and require protection from atypical mycobacteria/cryptosporidia etc, by one hour aldehyde disinfection of endoscopic equipment before and after the procedure. A dedicated instrument is not required. 9. Increased funding is necessary for capital purchases of GI endoscopic equipment, including extra and immersible endoscopes with additional accessories to allow for safe practice. 10. Greater numbers of trained GI assistants are needed to ensure that cleaning/disinfection recommendations and safety precautions are followed, both during routine lists and emergency endoscopic procedures. 11. These recommendations are based on expert interpretation of current data on infectivity and disinfection; they may require future modification. PMID:3410338

1988-01-01

75

Short Message Service (SMS) can Enhance Compliance and Reduce Cancellations in a Sedation Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Center: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Many outpatients who inadequately prepared for the procedure were cancelled on the day of the examination for various reasons. The aim of study was to investigate whether short message service (SMS) can improve patients' compliance and reduce cancellation rates. Outpatients scheduled for sedation gastrointestinal endoscopy were randomly assigned to mobile phone SMS group or control group. Patients in the control group received a leaflet on preparation instructions, while patients in the SMS group received SMS reminders after making an appointment. A total of 1786 patients were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in the rate of cancellations for patients in the SMS group (4.8 %) compared with patients in the control group (8.0 %) (P?

Deng, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yuting; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, WeiYi; Yin, Yan; Ye, Ling

2015-01-01

76

Addition of sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine reduces gag reflex during propofol based sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A prospective randomised double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Gag reflex is unwanted during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Experimental studies have demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism prevents gag reflex. We conducted a study to determine if sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine, added to propofol, reduce the incidence of gag reflex. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 270 patients undergoing UGIE, were randomised to propofol (P) group (n = 135) or propofol plus ketamine (PK) group (n = 135). All patients received propofol boluses titrated to Ramsay sedation score of not <4. Patients in PK group in addition received ketamine, 0.15 mg/kg immediately before the first-propofol dose. Top-up doses of propofol were given as required. Stata 11 software (StataCorp.) was used to calculate the proportion of patients with gag reflex and the corresponding relative risk. Propofol consumed and time to recovery in the two groups was compared using Student's t-test and Cox proportional hazards regression respectively. Results: Significantly, fewer patients in the PK group had gag reflex compared to the P group (3 vs. 23, risk ratio = 0.214, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.62; P = 0.005). The incidence of hypotension (6 vs. 16, risk ratio = 0.519, 95% CI = 0.25-1.038; P = 0.06), number of required airway manoeuvres (4 vs. 19, risk ratio = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.74; P = 0.014), median time to recovery (4 min vs. 5 min, hazard ratio = 1.311, 95% CI = 1.029-1.671; P = 0.028) and propofol dose administered (152 mg vs. 167 mg, 95% CI = 4.74-24.55; P = 0.004) was also less in the PK group compared to the P group. Conclusion: Ketamine in sub-anaesthetic dose decreases gag reflex during UGIE. PMID:25197112

Tandon, Manish; Pandey, Vijay Kant; Dubey, Gaurav Kumar; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Wadhwa, Nitya

2014-01-01

77

Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn’s disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy. PMID:23983481

Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

2013-01-01

78

Highlights of International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2013  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as the evolution of science have made it necessary for us to continue update in either various endoscopic techniques or state of art lectures relevant to endoscopy. International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2013 was held in conjunction with Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KJSGE) during June 8 to 9, 2013 at Seoul, Korea. Two days of impressive scientific program dealt with a wide variety of basic concerns from upper gastrointestine (GI), lower GI, pancreaticobiliary endoscopy to advanced knowledge including endoscopic submucosal dissection forum. IDEN seems to be an excellent opportunity to exchange advanced information of the latest issues on endoscopy with experts from around the world. In this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy, we prepared state of art review articles from contributing authors and the current highlights will skillfully deal with very hot spots of each KJSGE, upper GI, lower GI, and pancreaticobiliary sessions by associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy. PMID:24143297

Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Eun Young; Dong, Seok Ho

2013-01-01

79

Asymptomatic Gallstones (AsGS) - To Treat or Not to?  

PubMed

With ready availability of abdominal ultrasound, asymptomatic gallstones (AsGS) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Management decisions need to take into account the natural history of AsGS as well as the risks of cholecystectomy. Long-term follow up studies from the West have consistently shown that only a small minority of asymptomatic gallstones lead to development of symptoms or complications. Some sub-groups of patients (eg those with chronic hemolytic syndromes) have been shown to be at a higher risk of developing symptoms and complications and prophylactic cholecystectomy has been advised for them. Clear division of patients into low or high risk categories is still far from ideal and better identification of risk factors and risk stratification is needed. Overall, both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, are generally safe procedures. However, the incidence of bile duct injury (with all its serious consequences) continues to be higher with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and this should receive due consideration before offering prophylactic cholecystectomy to an asymptomatic patient who is not expected to receive any clinical benefit from it. Gallbladder cancer is rare in most of the developed world and prophylactic cholecystectomy has generally not been recommended to prevent development of GBC. Considering the wide geographical/ethnic variation in incidence of GBC across the world and the strong association of GBC with gallstones, it may not be prudent to extrapolate the results of studies of natural history of AsGS from one part of the world to another. Since northern India has one of the highest incidences of GBC in the world, it is imperative to have data on natural history of AsGS in patients from this area to allow formulation of precise guidelines for management of AsGs. PMID:23372301

Behari, Anu; Kapoor, V K

2012-02-01

80

Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)  

PubMed Central

Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

2012-01-01

81

Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato.  

PubMed

The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180

Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

2012-12-15

82

Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato  

PubMed Central

The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180

Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

2013-01-01

83

The future of wireless capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett’s and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong. PMID:18636658

Swain, Paul

2008-01-01

84

Arteriovenous malformation detected by small bowel endoscopy.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine. PMID:25473391

Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Takada, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

85

Capsule endoscopy of the esophagus.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy has acquired wide clinical acceptance since its the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001. Recently, the technology of video capsule endoscopy has been adapted to other organs in the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus and colon. In this review, we discuss esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE)-the procedure, its indications, contraindications, safety, and future applications. ECE is a minimally invasive procedure that uses special video capsules with ability to acquire images from 2 cameras with high image storing speed of 14 to 18 frames per second. A special ingestion procedure allows for prolonged esophageal transit time and an optimized view of the gastroesophageal junction. ECE has been shown to have moderately high sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis and surveillance of Barrett esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease but has not demonstrated superiority to esogastroduodenoscopy in cost-effectiveness models. In patients with portal hypertension, ECE has a sensitivity of 63% to 100% for screening of esophageal varices, but does not seem to be superior to esogastroduodenoscopy in its cost-effectiveness. No serious complications have been reported after ECE although a low rate of esophageal capsule retention (0.7% to 2.2%) has been reported, usually because of unsuspected esophageal strictures. Contraindications to capsule endoscopy include known or suspected gastrointestinal and esophageal obstruction, strictures, or fistulas, intestinal pseudoobstruction, and children under 10 years of age. It is expected that improvements in imaging technology will improve the accuracy of ECE with the development of immunological-based and chemical-based diagnostic capabilities. PMID:19568182

Waterman, Matti; Gralnek, Ian M

2009-08-01

86

Complex therapeutic-diagnostic endoscopy with laser irradiation and in-Situ spectrophotometry of erosive-ulcerative impairments of upper part of the gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today in the world there are a lot of effective methods to treat different disease with the use of low-level laser (LLL) radiation. And there are a number of well-known effective noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques, such as a laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS), elastic-scattering spectroscopy (ESS), absorption spectroscopy (ABSS), etc. In this paper the first experience of the complex laser-optical therapeutic-diagnostic treatment for the erosive-ulcerative impairments (EUI) of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (UPGT) are discussed. The EUI of the UPGT very often have a resistance to a medicamentous therapy and the treatment of that is very difficult in this case. The method of LLL irradiation through an endoscope has been used to increase the efficiency of LLL-therapy and to monitor a general process of recovery respectively. The standard biopsy was investigated to estimate the effect of care as well. As it is shown in this paper the in-situ ABSS allows to optimize the LLL treatment parameters for each patient and for each procedure if the laser has effect on a blood circulation in the irradiated zone. In this case the doctors can see the considerable effect and the reduction period of the cure for EUI. Otherwise, the ABSS indicates that there will be no any effect of LLL therapy for such patient and another methods of treatment are needed. The LFS in this case shows the absence of effect during the care course too. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results this paper presents our current understanding of mechanisms of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics and LLL therapy effect for EUI of the UPGT. Today this technique has the official approval of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation.

Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tereschenko, Sergey G.; Lapaeva, Ludmila G.; Gorenkov, Roman V.

2002-05-01

87

Capsule endoscopy: Future horizons  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy (CE) was launched at the beginning of this millennium and has since become a well established methodology for evaluating the entire small bowel for manifold pathologies. CE far exceeded early expectations by providing a tool for establishing the correct diagnosis for elusive gastrointestinal (GI) conditions such as obscure GI bleeding, Crohn’s disease, polyposis syndrome and others. Contemporary CE, like radiology, gives results that can only be read, unlike conventional endoscopic procedures which enable concomitant biopsy when indicated. This is one of the major limitations of the technique. The ideal CE should improve the quality of the image and have a faster frame rate than the currently available one. There should be a therapeutic capsule capable of performing a biopsy, aspirating fluid, delivering drugs as well as measuring the motility of the small bowel wall. Another major leap forward would be the capability of remote control of the capsule’s movement in order to navigate it to reach designated anatomical areas for carrying out a variety of therapeutic options. Technology for improving the capability of the future generation capsule is almost within grasp and it would not be surprising to witness the realization of these giant steps within the coming decade. PMID:21160761

Fireman, Zvi

2010-01-01

88

Microscopic imaging in endoscopy: endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy.  

PubMed

Performing real-time microscopy has been a vision of endoscopists since the very early phases of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Confocal endomicroscopy, an adaption of confocal laser scanning microscopy, and endocytoscopy, an adaption of white-light microscopy, have been introduced into the endoscopic armamentarium in the past decade. Both techniques yield on-site histological information. Multiple trials have demonstrated the ability of gastroenterologists to obtain and interpret microscopic images from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and also the hepatobiliary-pancreatic system, during endoscopy. Such microscopic information has been successfully used in expert hands to minimize sampling error by 'smart', microscopically targeted biopsies and to guide endoscopic interventions. However, endomicroscopy is also unique in its ability to dynamically visualize cellular processes in their native environment free of artefacts. This ability enables fundamental insights into mechanisms of human diseases in clinical and translational science. PMID:23897286

Goetz, Martin; Malek, Nisar P; Kiesslich, Ralf

2014-01-01

89

Coding and billing for gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

PubMed

The complexities associated with the coding, billing, and reimbursement process seem to increase daily. Keeping abreast of the changes in this environment is, to say the least, a challenge. To succeed in today's billing environment the gastroenterologist should surround his or her practice with staff, resources, and education. Experienced skilled staff, preferably a certified professional coder should be employed. Certified coders bring advanced coding skills to ones practice, which allows increased proficiency with the coding and billing process. Provide the necessary resources for staff. Current coding material is crucial to the financial success of the practice. CPT-4, ICD-9, and Correct Coding Guide are the bare basics of the resource material available to staff. Maintaining a library of resource material (i.e., Medicare bulletins, managed care newsletters, and so forth) aids the staff with the necessary tools to carry out their duties. In addition, specific gastroenterology coding subscriptions are available to assist in staying ahead of the ever-changing billing and coding environment. Continuing education in the billing and coding process for both the physician and staff is essential. Numerous workshops are offered periodically. It is imperative that staff attends all Medicare-sponsored workshops in addition to gastroenterology-specific coding seminars. More and more physicians are now aware of their responsibility in the billing process and have begun to participate in the coding education along with their staff. This is a significant indicator of a physicians' intent to have a compliant and financially successful practice. PMID:12180165

Stout, Patricia L

2002-04-01

90

Endoscopy unit considerations in the care of obese patients.  

PubMed

The dramatic increase in obesity in the general population is accompanied by a concomitant increase in bariatric surgical programs. Gastrointestinal endoscopy has an important role in patient evaluation, postoperative management, and emerging endoscopic bariatric therapies. Endoscopy units must address special design and equipment needs of obese patients in short- and long-range planning. Obese people require more health care resources than nonobese people, with increased physical challenges for staff in administering that care. This article details endoscopy unit considerations pertaining to the bariatric patient, which may apply to pretreatment endoscopic evaluation, managing postoperative bariatric surgical complications, and emerging endoluminal bariatric therapies. PMID:21569978

Ginsberg, Gregory G; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

2011-04-01

91

Unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

We report a case of recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding where the bleeding source was difficult to find during recurrent hospitalizations. Eventually videocapsule endoscopy was the modality that finally diagnosed an ulcerated lipoma within an area of intussuscepted jejunum. Segmental resection of small bowel was performed and no further bleeding episodes have occurred. Our case illustrates the value of capsule endoscopy and the rare potential of lipomas to cause serious gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:24964424

Wardi, Joram; Langer, Peter; Shimonov, Mordechai

2013-01-01

92

Sedation for Pediatric Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

It is more difficult to achieve cooperation when conducting endoscopy in pediatric patients than adults. As a result, the sedation for a comfortable procedure is more important in pediatric patients. The sedation, however, often involves risks and side effects, and their prediction and prevention should be sought in advance. Physicians should familiarize themselves to the relevant guidelines in order to make appropriate decisions and actions regarding the preparation of the sedation, patient monitoring during endoscopy, patient recovery, and hospital discharge. Furthermore, they have to understand the characteristics of the pediatric patients and different types of endoscopy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the details of sedation in pediatric endoscopy. PMID:24749082

2014-01-01

93

Radiation protection in digestive endoscopy: European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline.  

PubMed

This article expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about radiation protection for endoscopic procedures, in particular endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Particular cases, including pregnant women and pediatric patients, are also discussed. This Guideline was developed by a group of endoscopists and medical physicists to ensure that all aspects of radiation protection are adequately dealt with. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. The target readership for this Guideline mostly includes endoscopists, anesthesiologists, and endoscopy assistants who may be exposed to X-rays during endoscopic procedures. PMID:22438152

Dumonceau, J-M; Garcia-Fernandez, F J; Verdun, F R; Carinou, E; Donadille, L; Damilakis, J; Mouzas, I; Paraskeva, K; Ruiz-Lopez, N; Struelens, L; Tsapaki, V; Vanhavere, F; Valatas, V; Sans-Merce, M

2012-04-01

94

Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy.  

PubMed

Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2014-06-21

95

Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

96

On-the-fly Detection of Images with Gastritis Aspects in Magnetically-Guided Capsule Endoscopy  

E-print Network

On-the-fly Detection of Images with Gastritis Aspects in Magnetically-Guided Capsule Endoscopy P. W for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre endoscopy, gastritis 1. INTRODUCTION Cancer in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has the first highest

Angelopoulou, Elli

97

Capsule endoscopy in the pediatric patient.  

PubMed

Wireless capsule endoscopy represents an extraordinary technical innovation in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. As in adult patients, it opens new horizons that permit an accurate and noninvasive approach to identifying occult lesions in the small bowel in children and adolescents. A limitation in the pediatric age group is the size of the capsule, precluding its use in infants and small toddlers. In children unable to swallow the capsule, "front loading" the gastroscope to introduce it into the duodenum is a suitable alternative approach. Capsule endoscopy is highly useful to evaluate for inflammatory changes in patients suspected to have small bowel Crohn's disease in whom conventional imaging failed to confirm the diagnosis. It is now the method of first choice to assess for small bowel polyps or tumors, to find a source of blood loss in obscure intestinal bleeding, and for undiagnosed malabsorptive conditions such as intestinal lymphangiectasia. Capsule retention is the one major potential adverse effect of capsule endoscopy. In patients suspected to have a small bowel stenosis, consideration should be given to using the patency capsule prior to using the real videocapsule so as to decrease the risk of capsule retention. PMID:16942667

Seidman, Ernest G; Dirks, Martha H

2006-09-01

98

Dual-View Catadioptric Imaging System Design for Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence endoscopy is a promising functional imaging technique to improve screening of early cancer lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The intensity of tissue autofluorescence is weak and conventional forward viewing endoscopes are inefficient in light collection from objects of interest located on the GI tract wall. This thesis work presents the design and optimization of a catadioptric endoscope objective

Roy Chih Chung Wang

2010-01-01

99

Understanding Capsule Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... by traditional methods of endoscopy. IMPORTANT REMINDER: This information is intended only to provide general guidance. It does not provide definitive medical advice. It is very important that you consult your doctor about your specific condition.

100

Upper GI Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... sedative, including respiratory or cardiac problems Bleeding and perforation are more common in endoscopies used for treatment rather than testing. Bleeding caused by the procedure often stops without treatment. Research ...

101

Sedation for Your Endoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... blood” such as Coumadin, Lovenox, Heparin, and Plavix yes | no Any type of medicine that is used for diabetes ( ... the past? yes | no Are you allergic to any medicines? yes | no If you had an endoscopy before, were ...

102

Minimally invasive surgery for obscure idiopathic ileal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy: report of a case.  

PubMed

Small intestinal bleeding is difficult to detect and can be life-threatening. Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new, minimally invasive diagnostic procedure designed to detect gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We report the successful management of idiopathic ileal varices by capsule endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Massive bleeding occurred suddenly with intermittent melena, and the patient was finally admitted to a local hospital in hypovolemic shock. Her condition was stabilized with conservative therapy but the site of bleeding was not defined by endoscopy, computed tomography, scintigraphy, or angiography. Thus, she was transferred to our hospital. On admission, CE revealed idiopathic ileal varices, so we performed laparoscopic partial ileal resection immediately. Follow-up CE has shown no evidence of recurrence in the 2 years since surgery. Idiopathic ileal varices are rare, difficult to diagnose, and often fatal. Capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure that detects this disorder in time for laparoscopic surgery to be performed effectively and safely. PMID:21046511

Konishi, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Miyashita, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kubota, Takeshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Kokuba, Yukihito; Yasukawa, Satoru; Yasukawa, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Otsuji, Eigo

2010-11-01

103

Capsule endoscopy: Current practice and future directions  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed investigation of the small bowel providing a non-invasive, well tolerated means of accurately visualising the distal duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Since the introduction of small bowel CE thirteen years ago a high volume of literature on indications, diagnostic yields and safety profile has been presented. Inclusion in national and international guidelines has placed small bowel capsule endoscopy at the forefront of investigation into suspected diseases of the small bowel. Most commonly, small bowel CE is used in patients with suspected bleeding or to identify evidence of active Crohn’s disease (CD) (in patients with or without a prior history of CD). Typically, CE is undertaken after upper and lower gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy has failed to identify a diagnosis. Small bowel radiology or a patency capsule test should be considered prior to CE in those at high risk of strictures (such as patients known to have CD or presenting with obstructive symptoms) to reduce the risk of capsule retention. CE also has a role in patients with coeliac disease, suspected small bowel tumours and other small bowel disorders. Since the advent of small bowel CE, dedicated oesophageal and colon capsule endoscopes have expanded the fields of application to include the investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. Oesophageal CE may be used to diagnose oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and varices but reliability in identifying gastroduodenal pathology is unknown and it does not have biopsy capability. Colon CE provides an alternative to conventional colonoscopy for symptomatic patients, while a possible role in colorectal cancer screening is a fascinating prospect. Current research is already addressing the possibility of controlling capsule movement and developing capsules which allow tissue sampling and the administration of therapy. PMID:24976712

Hale, Melissa F; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E

2014-01-01

104

Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer. PMID:23293721

Lambert, René

2012-01-01

105

Endoscopy in sharks.  

PubMed

The importance of the shark species as ambassadors for the ocean ecosystems within public aquariums, and an ever increasing understanding of their importance as keystone species in those ecosystems, has resulted in more and more opportunities for the veterinary profession to interact with these charismatic fish. Although still in its infancy in aquatic medicine, endoscopy has the potential to be a valuable tool in the management of captive and free-ranging sharks. When contemplating an endoscopic procedure in a shark, the clinician must consider the unique anatomy of the species, the nature of the immobilization planned, and the performance of the procedure itself. Endoscopy should be considered as an adjunct procedure in the clinical management of captive sharks, and may have an important role in the scientific monitoring of free-ranging shark populations. PMID:20381779

Murray, Michael J

2010-05-01

106

Evaluation and outcomes of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as recurrent or persistent bleeding or presence of iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation with a negative bidirectional endoscopy. OGIB accounts for 5% of gastrointestinal bleeding and presents a diagnostic challenge. Current modalities available for the investigation of OGIB include capsule endoscopy, balloon assisted enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy and computed tomography enterography. These modalities overcome the limitations of previous techniques. Following a negative bidirectional endoscopy, capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy remain the cornerstone of investigation in OGIB given their high diagnostic yield. Long-term outcome data in patients with OGIB is limited, but is most promising for capsule endoscopy. This article reviews the current literature and provides an overview of the clinical evaluation of patients with OGIB, available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25400992

Santhakumar, Cositha; Liu, Ken

2014-01-01

107

Screening for Precancerous Lesions of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: From the Endoscopists' Viewpoint  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are one of the most important leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Diagnosis at late stages always brings about poor outcome of these malignancies. The early detection of precancerous or early cancerous lesions of gastrointestinal tract is therefore of utmost importance to improve the overall outcome and maintain a good quality of life of patients. The desire of endoscopists to visualize the invisibles under conventional white-light endoscopy has accelerated the advancements in endoscopy technologies. Nowadays, image-enhanced endoscopy which utilizes optical- or dye-based contrasting techniques has been widely applied in endoscopic screening program of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. These contrasting endoscopic technologies not only improve the visualization of early foci missed by conventional endoscopy, but also gain the insight of histopathology and tumor invasiveness, that is so-called optical biopsy. Here, we will review the application of advanced endoscopy technique in screening program of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. PMID:23573079

Chung, Chen-Shuan; Wang, Hsiu-Po

2013-01-01

108

A Review of Current Disinfectants for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Reprocessing  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is gaining popularity for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, concerns over endoscope-related nosocomial infections are increasing, together with interest by the general public in safe and efficient endoscopy. For this reason, reprocessing the gastrointestinal endoscope is an important step for effective performance of endoscopy. Disinfectants are essential to the endoscope reprocessing procedure. Before selecting an appropriate disinfectant, their characteristics, limitations and means of use must be fully understood. Herein, we review the characteristics of several currently available disinfectants, including their uses, potency, advantages, and disadvantages. Most disinfectants can be used to reprocess gastrointestinal endoscopes if the manufacturer's guidelines are followed. The selection and use of a suitable disinfectant depends on the individual circumstances of each endoscopy suite. PMID:23964330

Park, Sanghoon; Koo, Ja Seol; Park, Jeong Bae; Lim, Yun Jeong; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai

2013-01-01

109

Extra-articular hip endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

2012-01-01

110

Gastrointestinal fistula  

MedlinePLUS

Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Blockage in the gastrointestinal tract Infection Inflammatory bowel disease (most often Crohn's ...

111

Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases  

PubMed Central

Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

2008-01-01

112

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract are generally detected by barium studies or endoscopy. Computed tomography remains the primary imaging modality for staging. Magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography may also play an increasing role in evaluating these tumors. PMID:8284355

Trenkner, S W; Halvorsen, R A; Thompson, W M

1994-01-01

113

[Learning gastroenterologic endoscopy].  

PubMed

1. Knowledge of the gastroenterological endoscopy and biopsy is necessary at all levels of medical education. 2. Knowledge of students: possible methods, diagnostic effectiveness, stress of the patients. Knowledge of the candidates for specialisation: indications, contraindications, possibilities of the method also in reference to the individual case. Persons interested in the subspecialisation gastro-enterology: theory, possibilities and limits, technical performance. Experienced endoscopists: regular refreshment and supplementation of knowledge and skill in highly specialised endoscopic centres. 3. Tested teaching methods are lecture, report, study of atlants and text-books, demonstrations of diapositives in connection with schematic figures, seminars with diapositives, film demonstrations, work at the patient under supervision of the tutor and use of a demonstration device as well as endoscopic demonstration by means of colour television. The centre is, however, the individual examination of the patient. 4. Knowledge of the subspecialist: History of endoscopy, knowledge of instruments, optics and endoscopic perspective, physical fundaments about light and photography, human macro- and microscopic anatomy, care of instruments and desinfection. Indications, contraindications, possibilities and limits of the method, emergency and intensive medicine, writing of the findings. PMID:1020386

Koelsch, K A

1976-11-01

114

Lasers in digestive endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.

Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

1997-01-01

115

Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn's disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn's disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn's disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score) for Crohn's disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn's ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing mucosal status, capsule endoscopy will provide important information about the course and outcome of Crohn's disease. PMID:23818810

Niv, Yaron

2013-01-01

116

Gastrointestinal bleeding in adult patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.  

PubMed

We investigated the clinical and endoscopic features of gastrointestinal lesions in adults with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) causing gastrointestinal bleeding. The study included 24 adult HSP patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage who underwent both upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy. The controls were 27 adult HSP patients without gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding showed higher frequencies of purpura on the upper extremities and trunk, and of elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP). The rate of concurrent lesions in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts was 91.7 %. The second portion of duodenum and terminal ileum were most frequently and severely involved. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was detected in severe lesions and was significantly associated with mucosal ischemic changes. Most lesions (95.7 %) dramatically improved after corticosteroid therapy. This study suggests that both upper and lower gastrointestinal examinations are necessary for proper evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with HSP. PMID:25321618

Nam, Eon Jeong; Kim, Gun Woo; Kang, Jong Wan; Im, Churl Hyun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang-Min; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young; Jang, Yun Jin; Kang, Young Mo

2014-11-01

117

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding: A practical guide for clinicians  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem encountered in the emergency department and in the primary care setting. Acute or overt gastrointestinal bleeding is visible in the form of hematemesis, melena or hematochezia. Chronic or occult gastrointestinal bleeding is not apparent to the patient and usually presents as positive fecal occult blood or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is recurrent bleeding when the source remains unidentified after upper endoscopy and colonoscopic evaluation and is usually from the small intestine. Accurate clinical diagnosis is crucial and guides definitive investigations and interventions. This review summarizes the overall diagnostic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding and provides a practical guide for clinicians. PMID:25400991

Kim, Bong Sik Matthew; Li, Bob T; Engel, Alexander; Samra, Jaswinder S; Clarke, Stephen; Norton, Ian D; Li, Angela E

2014-01-01

118

Capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis and follow-up of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by cutaneous and gastrointestinal vascular malformations.A 31-year-old man came under our observation with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemangiomas on his back and the multiple bluish vascular lesions in the distal ileum revealed by capsule endoscopy led to the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. The patient was treated with octreotide

M. De Bona; A. Bellumat; M. De Boni

2005-01-01

119

Patient satisfaction with the endoscopy experience and willingness to return in a central Canadian health region  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients’ willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients’ willingness to return. METHODS: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients’ overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. RESULTS: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients’ willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients’ willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. PMID:23712300

Loftus, Russell; Nugent, Zoann; Graff, Lesley A; Schumacher, Frederick; Bernstein, Charles N; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

120

Upper gastrointestinal Kaposi's sarcoma in patients positive for HIV antibody without cutaneous disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms of HIV infection but without cutaneous lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma underwent endoscopy. Four also underwent barium meal examination. In all six cases small lesions were seen in the stomach at endoscopy, and histological examination of biopsy specimens taken from the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of

I G Barrison; S Foster; J W Harris; A J Pinching; J G Walker

1988-01-01

121

Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges  

PubMed Central

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621

Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

2012-01-01

122

Diagnostic yield and clinical management after capsule endoscopy in daily clinical practice: A single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Capsule endoscopy is an effective method of examining the small bowel in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, suspected inflammatory mucosal diseases and neoplasms. We herein evaluate the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy and its effect on clinical management in daily clinical practice. Patients and Methods: One hundred and one capsule endoscopies performed at the Department of Endoscopy and Motility Unit of G. Gennimatas General Hospital of Thessaloniki from May 2007 to February 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical management following capsule endoscopy findings was evaluated. The most frequent indication was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n=56, overt=20). Results: The overall diagnostic yield was 47.5%. The diagnostic yield was 88.9% in patients with overt bleeding who underwent early capsule endoscopy (within 5 days), versus 36.4% in patients who underwent late capsule endoscopy (p=0.028). Moreover, it reached 81.8% in patients with abdominal pain, with/without diarrhea and abnormal biological markers, versus 8.3% in patients with normal biological markers (p<0.0001). Capsule endoscopy was diagnostic in all patients with symptomatic celiac disease. Adenomas were found in 9 of 14 familial adenomatous polyposis patients. Capsule retention (>72 hours) occurred in two patients. Forty-three of 48 (89.6%) patients with positive capsule endoscopy findings that received intervention or medical treatment had positive clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Capsule endoscopy has an important diagnostic role and contribution in the clinical management during routine clinical practice; however, it remains to be determined which patients are more likely to benefit from this expensive examination. PMID:21311636

Katsinelos, P; Fasoylas, K; Chatzimavroudis, Gr; Lazaraki, G; Zavos, C; Pilpilidis, I; Terzoudis, S; Kokonis, G; Patsis, I; Beltsis, A; Paroutoglou, G; Kountouras, J

2010-01-01

123

Gastroesophageal reflux disease after diagnostic endoscopy in the clinical setting  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the outcome of patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) referred for endoscopy at 2 and 6 mo post endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for upper endoscopy for assessment of GERD symptoms at two large metropolitan hospitals were invited to participate in a 6-mo non-interventional (observational) study. The two institutions are situated in geographically and socially disparate areas. Data collection was by self-completion of questionnaires including the patient assessment of upper gastrointestinal disorders symptoms severity and from hospital records. Endoscopic finding using the Los-Angeles classification, symptom severity and it’s clinically relevant improvement as change of at least 25%, therapy and socio-demographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline data were available for 266 patients and 2-mo and 6-mo follow-up data for 128 and 108 patients respectively. At baseline, 128 patients had erosive and 138 non-erosive reflux disease. Allmost all patient had proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in the past. Overall, patients with non-erosive GERD at the index endoscopy had significantly more severe symptoms as compared to patients with erosive or even complicated GERD while there was no difference with regard to medication. After 2 and 6 mo there was a small, but statistically significant improvement in symptom severity (7.02 ± 5.5 vs 5.9 ± 5.4 and 5.5 ± 5.4 respectively); however, the majority of patients continued to have symptoms (i.e., after 6 mo 81% with GERD symptoms). Advantaged socioeconomic status as well as being unemployed was associated with greater improvement. CONCLUSION: The majority of GORD patients receive PPI therapy before being referred for endoscopy even though many have symptoms that do not sufficiently respond to PPI therapy. PMID:23674853

Zschau, Nora B; Andrews, Jane M; Holloway, Richard H; Schoeman, Mark N; Lange, Kylie; Tam, William CE; Holtmann, Gerald J

2013-01-01

124

Small bowel capsule endoscopy in 2007: Indications, risks and limitations  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate, endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions).The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming, can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy. At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy). PMID:18069752

Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Mulder, Chris JJ; Jacobs, Maarten AJM; de Franchis, Roberto

2007-01-01

125

Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

2014-06-01

126

[Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].  

PubMed

This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:24160953

Lanas, Ángel

2013-10-01

127

Fluorescent Endoscopy of Tumors in Upper Part of Gastrointestinal Tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Angelov, I.; Avramov, L.

2007-04-01

128

Combined laparoscopy and transabdominal endoscopy: Case report of dislodged oesophageal stent retrieval  

PubMed Central

The patient is a 39-year-old male with a five-month history of progressive dysphagia and a 70 lb weight loss. On upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy he was found to have a near-obstructing mass in the lower oesophagus that was proven by biopsy to be oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Stricture caused by the adenocarcinoma mass was stented with a Cook Evolution 12.5 cm / 24 Fr stent, which dislodged subsequently. We report the first case of a dislodged Cook Evolution 12.5 cm / 24 Fr oesophageal stent that was retrieved using combined laparoscopic and transabdominal endoscopy. PMID:21523243

Chander, Rajiv K; Samuel, Kigongo; Katz, Valerie; Ingram, Mark

2011-01-01

129

Endoscopy in the elderly: risks, benefits, and yield of common endoscopic procedures.  

PubMed

There has been limited research examining the risks, benefits, and use of common endoscopic procedures in the elderly. Furthermore, gastroenterology training programs do not routinely incorporate elderly concerns when dealing with common gastrointestinal issues. There exists a broad array of endoscopic procedures with varying inherent risks that must be weighed with each elderly patient in mind. This article discusses the benefits and drawbacks of the most common procedures and indications for endoscopy including upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and deep enteroscopy. PMID:24267608

Razavi, Farid; Gross, Seth; Katz, Seymour

2014-02-01

130

Endoscopy of the deep infrapatellar bursa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopy of extraarticular cavities, clefts, and recesses is routinely performed today. Endoscopy of the deep infrapatellar bursa of the knee is an additional new field for minimal invasive exploration and surgery, the more so as this area can be penetrated without major additional tissue damage following arthroscopy of the knee. The indications for endoscopy of the infrapatellar recess are ossicle

Wilhelm Klein

1996-01-01

131

Small bowel endoscopy: cost-effectiveness of the different approaches.  

PubMed

Obscure gastrointestinal haemorrhage is defined the presence of overt or occult bleeding in the setting of a normal endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. While obscure bleeding is not common, the evaluation and management of these patients often incurs considerable expense. Potential options for small bowel evaluation include traditional radiographic studies, push enteroscopy, video capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy, tagged red blood cell scans, angiography, and enterography examinations with either computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. The decision regarding which modality to employ depends on the cost of the procedure, its effectiveness in rendering a diagnosis, and the potential for administration of therapy. This article will discuss determination of costs associated with technology for small bowel imaging, quality of life data associated with chronic GI haemorrhage, and available cost-effectiveness studies comparing the options for small bowel exploration. PMID:22704574

Gerson, Lauren B

2012-06-01

132

Scorecard endoscopy: a pilot study to assess basic skills in trainees for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The development of training models and structured training courses for endoscopic techniques provides practical experience. To assess individual performance and progress in this training we developed and tested a scorecard system. Methods. Three test groups were compared: group 1, ten physicians without previous endoscopic experience; group 2, ten students, without endoscopic experience; group 3, a control group of experienced

M. Neumann; T. Siebert; J. Rausch; T. Horbach; C. Ell; B. Manegold; W. Hohenberger; I. Schneider

2003-01-01

133

Guidelines for Bowel Preparation before Video Capsule Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The preparation for video capsule endoscopy (VCE) of the bowel suggested by manufacturers of capsule endoscopy systems consists only of a clear liquid diet and an 8-hour fast. While there is evidence for a benefit from bowel preparation for VCE, so far there is no domestic consensus on the preparation regimen in Korea. Therefore, we performed this study to recommend guidelines for bowel preparation before VCE. The guidelines on VCE were developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Four key questions were selected. According to our guidelines, bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution enhances small bowel visualization quality (SBVQ) and diagnostic yield (DY), but it has no effect on cecal completion rate (CR). Bowel preparation with 2 L of PEG solution is similar to that with 4 L of PEG in terms of the SBVQ, DY, and CR of VCE. Bowel preparation with fasting or PEG solution combined with simethicone enhances the SBVQ, but it does not affect the CR of VCE. Bowel preparation with prokinetics does not enhance the SBVQ, DY, or CR of VCE. PMID:23614124

Song, Hyun Joo; Do, Jae Hyuk; Cha, In Hye; Yang, Chang Hun; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Kim, Hyun Jung

2013-01-01

134

Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

2014-08-01

135

The value of biliary endoscopy.  

PubMed

The value of biliary endoscopy was determined in 100 consecutive patients undergoing choledochotomy. Using a compact, rigid, right-angled choledochoscope with a rod-lens optical system the biliary tract was inspected for residual stomes following conventional exploration. Completion operative cholangiography and postoperative T-tube cholangiography were performed in all patients. Of 52 patients undergoing primary choledocholithotomy, the duct was cleared of all calculi in 51. A small residual stone was found by postoperative cholangiography in one patient. Exploration revealed no calculi in the ducts of the remaining 30 patients. Biliary endoscopy was of benefit to the surgeon in the majority of patients. In 17 patients, calculi missed by standard exploration were detected; in five of these, the calculi could be retrieved only under endoscopic control. In 11 patients, interpretation of operative cholangiograms was aided, while in three the endoscopic findings clarified operative strategy. The use of biliary endoscopy did not increase the postoperative morbidity or mortality rates beyond those oridinarily encountered in choledocholithotomy. Current experience indicates that the new choledhchoscope overcomes limitations of previous endoscopes and should serve as the definitive diagnostic tool for operative biliary endoscopy. The addition of this technique to the armamentarium of the biliary surgeon will play a significant role in overcoming the age-old problem of the retained common duct stone. PMID:1129668

Shore, J M; Berci, G; Morgenstern, L

1975-04-01

136

Knot tying at flexible endoscopy.  

PubMed

Four new knotting techniques were developed for use at flexible endoscopy: (1) half hitches tied with knot-pusher, (2) thread-locking device, (3) self-tightening slip-knot, and (4) externally releasable knot. Remoteness from site of action, access through small-diameter orifice, and difficulty in applying lateral traction to tighten knots are problems met in knot tying at endoscopy. All four knotting techniques were studied in experiments on postmortem human stomachs and used for radio-telemetry studies and anti-reflux operations in survival studies in dogs using endoscopic sewing techniques. Half hitches tied at endoscopy with a knot-pusher were also used in human studies to treat esophageal reflux and secure pH radio-telemetry capsules for long-term measurements. Externally releasable knots were used to secure nasogastric tubes to the stomach of five patients for long-term nutrition. Knot tying is feasible at flexible endoscopy by a variety of new techniques. Endoscopically tied knots can be as secure as surgically hand-tied knots and have been used successfully in man. PMID:7859971

Swain, C P; Kadirkamanathan, S S; Gong, F; Lai, K C; Ratani, R S; Brown, G J; Mills, T N

1994-01-01

137

Management of gastrointestinal and liver diseases during pregnancy.  

PubMed

In the majority of patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease follow-up or disease control might necessitate endoscopy. Evidence on the safety of drugs and imaging techniques during pregnancy is scarce and sometimes difficult to interpret. In this review we summarise existing literature with the aim of optimising counselling of patients with common chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases who want to conceive. PMID:24429582

van der Woude, C Janneke; Metselaar, Herold J; Danese, Silvio

2014-06-01

138

Primary aortoesophageal fistula: presenting as massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Primary aortoesophageal fistula is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A six-year-old boy presented with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal bulge in the esophagus with an ulcer and clot at the top. Lateral skiagram of the chest showed a posterior mediastinal mass. CT scan of the chest revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm into the oesophagus, confirmed the diagnosis. The patient succumbed to the illness before he could be subjected to definitive treatment. PMID:10830043

Nijhawan, S; Patni, T; Agrawal, S; Vijayvergiya, R; Rai, R R

1996-01-01

139

[Gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAIDs, aspirin and anticoagulants].  

PubMed

The studies presented at the recent American Congress of Gastroenterology in the field of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (associated or not to NSAIDs or ASA use) have not been numerous but interesting. The key findings are: a) rabeprazole, the only PPI that had few studies in this field, is effective in the prevention of gastric ulcers; b) famotidine could also be effective in the prevention of complications by AAS; c) the new competitive inhibitors of the acid potassium pump are effective (as much as PPIs) on the recurrence of peptic ulcers by ASA; d) early endoscop (<8 h) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to offer no better results than those made in the first 24 h; e) endoscopic therapy in Forrest 1a ulcers does not obliterate the bleeding artery in 30% of cases and is the cause of bleeding recurrence; f) alternative therapies with glue or clotting products are being increasingly used in endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding; g) liberal administration of blood in the GI bleeding is associated with poor prognosis; h) lesions of the small intestine are frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding when upper endoscopy shows no positive stigmata; and i) capsule endoscopy studies have high performance in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, if performed early in the first two days after the beginning of the bleeding episode. PMID:25294267

Lanas, Ángel

2014-09-01

140

Electropermanent Magnetic Anchoring for Surgery and Endoscopy.  

PubMed

The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet off when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a centre lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in trans-abdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25361499

Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

2014-10-29

141

Role of over the scope clips in the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations.  

PubMed

Advances in endoscopic and surgical techniques have increased the frequency and complexity of these procedures and associated complications such as gastrointestinal perforation. With the advancements in the field of gastroenterology, the promising use of an over the scope clips (OTSC) has fulfilled the unmet need for a reliable endoscopic devise in approximation of gastrointestinal perforation. This novel approach has raised the level of confidence in endoscopist in dealing with this serious complication during endoscopy. Here we have shared our experience with OTSC to evaluate its efficacy and safety in managing iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations during endoscopy. PMID:25170237

Changela, Kinesh; Virk, Muhhamad A; Patel, Niravkumar; Duddempudi, Sushil; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Anand, Sury

2014-08-28

142

Role of over the scope clips in the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations  

PubMed Central

Advances in endoscopic and surgical techniques have increased the frequency and complexity of these procedures and associated complications such as gastrointestinal perforation. With the advancements in the field of gastroenterology, the promising use of an over the scope clips (OTSC) has fulfilled the unmet need for a reliable endoscopic devise in approximation of gastrointestinal perforation. This novel approach has raised the level of confidence in endoscopist in dealing with this serious complication during endoscopy. Here we have shared our experience with OTSC to evaluate its efficacy and safety in managing iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations during endoscopy. PMID:25170237

Changela, Kinesh; Virk, Muhhamad A; Patel, Niravkumar; Duddempudi, Sushil; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Anand, Sury

2014-01-01

143

Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

2011-03-01

144

Nabumetone Induces Less Gastrointestinal Mucosal Changes Than Diclofenac Retard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and the effects on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of nabumetone and diclofenac retard in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). An open, multicentre, randomised, comparative, endoscopy-blind parallel group study included 201 patients with nabumetone and 193 patients with diclofenac retard suffering from moderate to severe OA of the knee

R. Be?vá?; Z. Urbanová; V. Vlasáková; J. Vítová; I. Rybár; H. Maldyk; A. Filipowicz-Sosnowska; K. Bernacka; S. Mackiewicz; B. Gömör; B. Rojkovich; B. Siro; J. Bereczki; K. Toth; S. Sukenik; L. Green; M. Ehrenfeld; K. Pavelka

1999-01-01

145

Urban area GPS positioning accuracy using ASG-EUPOS POZGEO service as a function of session duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS observations carried out in a network of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) are a complex systems which offer post-processing as well as corrections sent in realtime. In Poland, such a system has been in operation since June 2008, known as the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-EUPOS). Usually the measurements performed in real time characterized lower accuracy than static measurements. For users who demand the highest precision results the post-processing services are provided. The paper presents an analysis of the position determination accuracy using ASG-EUPOS POZGEO service. It is well known that the final accuracy is e.g. the measuring conditions, time of observations or number of measured frequencies dependent. We processed 4 consecutive days of GPS data to determine how the accuracy of derived positional coordinates depends on the length of the observing session, the characteristics of horizon visibility on points and the used in post-processing observations (L1 or L1+L2). The POZGEO results show that horizontal accuracies of about 1-2 cm and vertical accuracies of 4 cm are achievable provided 0.5 hours dual frequency GPS data. The accuracy clearly decreases for point measured under conditions of strongly limited satellite availability

Dawidowicz, Karol; Krzan, Grzegorz; ?wi?tek, Krzysztof

2014-03-01

146

Gastrointestinal bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

Jensen DM. GI hemorrhage and occult GI bleeding. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ... Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 137. Savides TJ, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ...

147

Gastroenterologist-administered propofol versus meperidine and midazolam for advanced upper endoscopy: A prospective, randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Propofol is increasingly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy because of its rapid recovery profile. There has been no prospective, randomized comparison of gastroenterologist-administered propofol to meperidine and midazolam for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. Additionally, its cost-effectiveness has not been studied. Methods: Seventy-five randomized patients received either gastroenterologist-administered propofol (n = 38) or meperidine\\/midazolam (n = 37)

John J. Vargo; Gregory Zuccaro; John A. Dumot; Kenneth M. Shermock; J. Brad Morrow; Darwin L. Conwell; Patricia A. Trolli; Walter G. Maurer

2002-01-01

148

Update of endoscopy in liver disease: More than just treating varices  

PubMed Central

The management of complications in liver disease is often complex and challenging. Endoscopy has undergone a period of rapid expansion with numerous novel and specialized endoscopic modalities that are of increasing value in the investigation and management of the patient with liver disease. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to provide a brief overview and update of the current endoscopic management of patients with liver disease and portal hypertension. The main areas covered are safety of endoscopy in patients with liver disease, the use of standard endoscopy for the treatment of varices and the role of new endoscopic modalities such as endoscopic ultrasound, esophageal capsule, argon plasma coagulation, spyglass and endomicroscopy in the investigation and treatment of liver-related gastrointestinal and biliary pathology. It is clear that the role of the endoscopy in liver disease is well beyond that of just treating varices. As the technology in endoscopy expands, so does the role of the endoscopist in liver disease. PMID:22346246

Krystallis, Christoforos; Masterton, Gail S; Hayes, Peter C; Plevris, John N

2012-01-01

149

Fields of applications, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in 2400 Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To retrospectively analyze the fields of application, diagnostic yields and findings of OMOM capsule endoscopy in Chinese patients. METHODS: A database including 2400 Chinese patients who received OMOM capsule endoscopy in 27 endoscopy centers in China was retrieved from the Jianshan Science and Technology Ltd. OMOM capsule endoscopy database. The patient’s age, gender, fields of application, the potentially relevant findings, pyloric transit time (PTT), small bowel transit time (SBTT), and complete small-bowel examination rate (CSER) were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Two thousand four hundred patients aged 9-91 years (mean, 49 years), of whom 1510 were males (62.9%), underwent 2400 OMOM capsule endoscopy procedures. One thousand two hundred and thirty two (51.3%) were referred with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), 642 (26.8%) with abdominal pain, and 223 (9.3%) with chronic diarrhea. The overall diagnostic yield was 47.7% (1144/2400). The diagnostic yield of OMOM capsule endoscopy in OGIB subgroup was much higher than in the non-OGIB subgroup (62.4% vs 32.1%, P < 0.001). The most common findings of the small bowel in Chinese patients with OGIB were arteriovenous malformation (28.1%) and tumors (18.9%). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the male and female patients with OGIB. However, the diagnostic yield in patients aged more than 60 was higher than in patients aged less than 60 (69.8% vs 58.9%, P < 0.001). The median PTT was 41 min (range: 1-544 min) and the mean SBTT was 247.2 ± 88.9 min. The overall CSER was 86.8%. CONCLUSION: The OMOM capsule endoscopy is a valuable tool for small bowel evaluation with good overall diagnostic yield and CSER. PMID:20518090

Liao, Zhuan; Gao, Rui; Li, Feng; Xu, Can; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jin-Shan; Li, Zhao-Shen

2010-01-01

150

Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

2005-04-01

151

Future and Advances in Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The future of endoscopy will be dictated by rapid technological advances in the development of light sources, optical fibers, and miniature scanners that will allow for images to be collected in multiple spectral regimes, with greater tissue penetration, and in three dimensions. These engineering breakthroughs will be integrated with novel molecular probes that are highly specific for unique proteins to target diseased tissues. Applications include early cancer detection by imaging molecular changes that occur before gross morphological abnormalities, personalized medicine by visualizing molecular targets specific to individual patients, and image guided therapy by localizing tumor margins and monitoring for recurrence. PMID:21751414

Elahi, Sakib F.; Wang, Thomas D.

2012-01-01

152

Surveillance of FAP: a prospective blinded comparison of capsule endoscopy and other GI imaging to detect small bowel polyps  

PubMed Central

Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder characterized by polyposis along the gastrointestinal tract. Information on adenoma status below the duodenum has previously been restricted due to its inaccessibility in vivo. Capsule Endoscopy (CE) may provide a useful adjunct in screening for polyposis in the small bowel in FAP patients. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of CE in the assessment of patients with FAP, compared to other imaging modalities for the detection of small bowel polyps. Method 20 consecutive patients with previously diagnosed FAP and duodenal polyps, presenting for routine surveillance of polyps at The Royal Melbourne Hospital were recruited. Each fasted patient initially underwent a magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the abdomen, and a barium small bowel follow-through study. Capsule Endoscopy was performed four weeks later on the fasted patient. An upper gastrointestinal side-viewing endoscopy was done one (1) to two (2) weeks after this. Endoscopists and investigators were blinded to results of other investigations and patient history. Results Within the stomach, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found more polyps than other forms of imaging. SBFT and MRI generally performed poorly, identifying fewer polyps than both upper gastrointestinal and capsule endoscopy. CE was the only form of imaging that identified polyps in all segments of the small bowel as well as the only form of imaging able to provide multiple findings outside the stomach/duodenum. Conclusion CE provides important information on possible polyp development distal to the duodenum, which may lead to surgical intervention. The place of CE as an adjunct in surveillance of FAP for a specific subset needs consideration and confirmation in replication studies. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000616370 PMID:20361877

2010-01-01

153

Five years' experience with capsule endoscopy in a single center.  

PubMed

Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases. Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bidirectional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn's disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases. PMID:19399924

Kav, Taylan; Bayraktar, Yusuf

2009-04-28

154

Five years’ experience with capsule endoscopy in a single center  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases. Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bi-directional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn’s disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases. PMID:19399924

Kav, Taylan; Bayraktar, Yusuf

2009-01-01

155

The Potential Applications of Capsule Endoscopy in Pediatric Patients Compared with Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy (CE) avoids the ionizing radiation, deep sedation, and general anesthesia required by other imaging modalities, making it particularly valuable in the evaluation of gastrointestinal disease in pediatric patients. In examining the use of CE in pediatric and adult patients through a review of the literature, it was observed that CE is most frequently indicated for the evaluation of Crohn’s disease (CD) in pediatric patients and most frequently indicated for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) in adults, although OGIB is a more frequent indication than CD in pediatric patients younger than 8 years of age. Diagnostic accuracy has been good and comparable to that of magnetic resonance enterography, and capsule retention rates as well as other adverse events appear to be low in pediatric patients. Research is needed to explore broader indications and applications of CE in the diagnosis and monitoring of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:23983653

2013-01-01

156

Report of video-capsule endoscopy disruption producing episodic small bowel obstruction after prolonged retention  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Wireless video-capsule endoscopy is a procedure which provides direct visualization of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the jejunum and ileum. Capsule retention is the main risk associated with capsule endoscopy, occurring at a significantly elevated incidence in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE A case of a prolonged retained capsule with subsequent fragmentation producing a multicentric complete small bowel obstruction in a 39 year old male patient who had undergone wireless video capsule-endoscopy approximately three years prior. Management required surgical resection of the strictured jejunum and removal of retained capsule fragments under fluoroscopic guidance. DISCUSSION Although capsule endoscopy is capable of diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring inflammatory bowel disease, understanding the elevated risk for capsule retention is important in this population. Specifically, prolonged capsule retention appears to increase the risk of capsule disruption, and likely the potential for intestinal perforation. CONCLUSION Patients should therefore be carefully selected for monitoring based upon treatment compliance and offered early endoscopic or surgical intervention in the setting of questionable compliance due to the risk for capsule disruption and subsequent intestinal perforation. PMID:25460458

Royall, Nelson A.; Fiscina, Creighton D.

2014-01-01

157

Angiography in gastrointestinal bleeding in children  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven children aged 1 day to 16 years studied arteriographically for acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding were reviewed. Children with known esophageal varices and portal hypertension were excluded. Final diagnoses were made in 25 patients by means of surgery, endoscopy, biopsy, laboratory data, and clinical follow-up. Of these 25 cases, arteriography gave a correct diagnosis in 64% and was falsely negative in 36%. The common causes of bleeding in this study were gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, vascular malformations, and typhlitis. Transcatheter therapy was attempted in six acute bleeders, with success in three (50%).

Meyerovitz, M.F.; Fellows, K.E.

1984-10-01

158

Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... to screen for Barrett in men older than 50 years with more than 5 years of GERD symptoms ... of any age or in men younger than 50 years. If the initial screening endoscopy results are negative ...

159

Can the presence of endoscopic high-risk stigmata be predicted before endoscopy? A multivariable analysis using the RUGBE database  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Many aspects in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rely on pre-esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) stratification of patients likely to exhibit high-risk stigmata (HRS); however, data predicting the presence of HRS are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and laboratory predictors of HRS at the index EGD in patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding using retrospective data from a validated national database – the Canadian Registry in Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy registry. METHODS: Relevant clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated. HRS was defined as spurting, oozing, nonbleeding visible vessel or adherent clot after vigorous irrigation. Multivariable modelling was used to identify predictors of HRS including age, sex, hematemesis, use of antiplatelet agents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, nasogastric tube aspirate, hemoglobin level and elapsed time from the onset of bleeding to EGD. RESULTS: Of the 1677 patients (mean [± SD] age 66.2±16.8 years; 38.3% female), 28.7% had hematemesis, 57.8% had an ASA score of 3 to 5, and the mean hemoglobin level was 96.8±27.3 g/L. The mean time from presentation to endoscopy was 22.2±37.5 h. The best fitting multivariable model included the following significant predictors: ASA score 3 to 5 (OR 2.16 [95% CI 1.71 to 2.74]), a shorter time to endoscopy (OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.98 to 0.99]) and a lower initial hemoglobin level (OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.99 to 0.99]). CONCLUSION: A higher ASA score, a shorter time to endoscopy and lower initial hemoglobin level all significantly predicted the presence of endoscopic HRS. These criteria could be used to improve the optimal selection of patients requiring more urgent endoscopy. PMID:24945183

Chen, Yen-I; Wyse, Jonathan; Barkun, Alan; Bardou, Marc; Gralnek, Ian M; Martel, Myriam

2014-01-01

160

Long-time octreotide in an adolescent with severe haemorrhagic gastrointestinal vascular malformation  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are a rare cause of acute or chronic blood loss. Usually they are treated by endoscopic obliteration or surgical resection. When such a therapy is inapplicable, pharmacotherapy may be required. At the age of 15 years, our female patient suffered from transfusion dependent recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to multiple gastrointestinal vascular malformations. Gastroscopy, coloscopy and capsule endoscopy revealed numerous foci making both endoscopic obliteration and complete surgical resection impossible. Neither regular transfusions nor substitution with coagulation factors were helpful. However, subcutaneous octreotide resulted in immediate stop of bleeding. Initial treatment by daily subcutaneous injections was followed by monthly depot application. Over 3 years only 2 transfusions had to be given. The patient required thyroxin substitution, otherwise, no side effects occurred and the girl had a good quality of life. The authors conclude that octreotide is safe and effective in gastrointestinal angiodysplasias inaccessible to endoscopy or surgery. PMID:22688939

Classen, Carl Friedrich; Haffner, Dieter; Hauenstein, Christina; Wolf, Ricarda; Kyank, Ulrike

2011-01-01

161

Ruling in or out a source of gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The search for a source of gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with two distinct approaches of trying to rule in a specific diagnosis or rule out any potential source of bleeding. The study aim was to understand the conceptual differences underlying the two searches. Methods The performance of endoscopy as diagnostic test is analyzed in terms of Bayes’ formula. Results The performance of gastrointestinal endoscopy to rule in a suspected lesion is mostly influenced by its underlying specificity. Because the specificity of endoscopy is less likely to be affected by procedural exigencies, the demands on pre-procedural prep and general quality can be more relaxed. In contradistinction, the performance of endoscopy to rule out a suspected bleeding site is mostly influenced by its sensitivity, which can easily be compromised by suboptimal procedural conditions. Conclusions Paradoxically, the more urgent, focused, and important search (to rule in a bleeding site), carries less stringent criteria for its execution than the more general and aimless search (to rule out a bleeding site) that frequently ends up just empty handed. PMID:25436110

2014-01-01

162

Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) is a rare fungal infection with few reported cases worldwide. We report here the first case diagnosed in Oman in a previously healthy 5-year-old Omani female child who had been thought initially to have an abdominal malignancy. The case was referred to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in July 2012. She was treated successfully with surgical resection and prolonged antifungal therapy (voriconazole). Physicians, including clinicians, radiologists and pathologists, should have a high index of suspicion for GIB when a patient presents with an abdominal mass and fever. PMID:24790749

Al-Maani, Amal S.; Paul, George; Jardani, Amina; Nayar, Madhavan; Al-Lawati, Fatma; Al-Baluishi, Sheikha; Hussain, Ibrahim B.

2014-01-01

163

A case of idiopathic gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma and its disappearance observed by endoscopy.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man was hospitalized due to hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a very large and dark red mass in the cardiac region of the stomach that extended from the upper esophagus. A biopsy specimen showed hemorrhagic tissue and no malignant cells. The tumor-like region ulcerated at 5 days after the administration of intravenous lansoprazole at a dose of 30 mg twice a day and resolved with scar formation at 2 months after a change to oral rabeprazole at a dose of 10 mg/day.We diagnosed the patient with gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma. Gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma is a rare complication. In this case, we could follow the process of its disappearance by endoscopy. PMID:24930876

Oe, Shinji; Watanabe, Tatsuyuki; Kume, Keiichiro; Shibata, Michihiko; Hiura, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Harada, Masaru

2014-06-01

164

[Report on 16 cases of small intestine ascariasis diagnosed by capsule endoscopy].  

PubMed

The clinical data and capsule endoscopy image of 16 adult patients with small intestine ascariasis were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively from June 2006 to June 2012 in West China Hospital. Among the 16 patients, 15 cases manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding, 15 cases showed anemia (3 severe, 10 moderate, and 2 mild), 2 had hypoalbuminemia, 1 had peripheral blood eosinophilia. All the cases were found to be fecal occult blood positive, but no Ascaris eggs found in the feces. Capsule endoscopy showed they were infected with Ascaris worms. The worms were found in the proximal small intestine in 14 patients and 2 in the distal intestine. Mucosal erythema and erosions around the worm were observed in 3 cases, and 7 cases were found with active bleeding or old haemorrhage in small intestine. PMID:24812868

Wang, Pu; Li, Rong-Zhi; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Cheng-Wei

2013-06-01

165

Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

2012-01-01

166

Gastrointestinal complications of systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive skin thickening and tightness. Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and kidney damage are the most important indicators for mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly damaged system. Virtually all parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be involved, although the esophagus is the most frequently reported. The mechanisms that cause such extensive damage are generally unclear, but vascular changes, immunological abnormalities, excessive accumulation of collagen in the submucosa, smooth muscle atrophy and neuropathy may participate because these are the most common histological findings in biopsies and autopsies. Most patients with GI tract involvement complain about dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating/distension, and fecal incontinence. These symptoms are generally mild during the early stage of the disease and are likely ignored by physicians. As the disease becomes more advanced, however, patient quality of life is markedly influenced, whereby malnutrition and shortened survival are the usual consequences. The diagnosis for systemic sclerosis is based on manometry measurements and an endoscopy examination. Supportive and symptomatic treatment is the main therapeutic strategy; however, an early diagnosis is critical for successful management. PMID:24222949

Tian, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Xuan

2013-01-01

167

Geometric endoscopy and mirror symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric Langlands correspondence has been interpreted as the mirror symmetry of the Hitchin fibrations for two dual reductive groups. This mirror symmetry, in turn, reduces to T-duality on the generic Hitchin fibers, which are smooth tori. In this paper, we study what happens when the Hitchin fibers on the B-model side develop orbifold singularities. These singularities correspond to local systems with finite groups of automorphisms. In the classical Langlands program, local systems of this type are called endoscopic. They play an important role in the theory of automorphic representations, in particular, in the stabilization of the trace formula. Our goal is to use the mirror symmetry of the Hitchin fibrations to expose the special role played by these local systems in the geometric theory. The study of the categories of A-branes on the dual Hitchin fibers allows us to uncover some interesting phenomena associated with the endoscopy in the geometric Langlands correspondence. We then follow our predictions back to the classical theory of automorphic functions. This enables us to test and confirm them. The geometry we use is similar to that which is exploited in recent work by Ngô, a fact which could be significant for understanding the trace formula.

Frenkel, Edward; Witten, Edward

168

Guidelines for designing a digestive disease endoscopy unit: report of the World Endoscopy Organization.  

PubMed

A dedicated digestive disease endoscopy unit is structurally and functionally differentiating rapidly as a result of increasing diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in the last 10-20 years. Publications with practical details are scarce, imposing a challenge in the construction of such a unit. The lack of authoritative information about endoscopy unit design means that architects produce their own design with or without consulting endoscopists working in such a unit. A working group of the World Endoscopy Organization discussed and outlined a practical approach fordesign and construction of a modern endoscopy unit. Designing the layout is extremely important, necessitating thoughtful planning to provide comfort to the endoscopy staff and patients, and efficient data archiving and transmission during endoscopic services. PMID:23701732

Mulder, Chris J J; Jacobs, Maarten A J M; Leicester, Roger J; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Shepherd, Libby E A; Axon, Anthony T; Waye, Jerome D

2013-07-01

169

System for clinical photometric stereo endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric stereo endoscopy is a technique that captures information about the high-spatial-frequency topography of the field of view simultaneously with a conventional color image. Here we describe a system that will enable photometric stereo endoscopy to be clinically evaluated in the large intestine of human patients. The clinical photometric stereo endoscopy system consists of a commercial gastroscope, a commercial video processor, an image capturing and processing unit, custom synchronization electronics, white light LEDs, a set of four fibers with diffusing tips, and an alignment cap. The custom pieces that come into contact with the patient are composed of biocompatible materials that can be sterilized before use. The components can then be assembled in the endoscopy suite before use. The resulting endoscope has the same outer diameter as a conventional colonoscope (14 mm), plugs into a commercial video processor, captures topography and color images at 15 Hz, and displays the conventional color image to the gastroenterologist in real-time. We show that this system can capture a color and topographical video in a tubular colon phantom, demonstrating robustness to complex geometries and motion. The reported system is suitable for in vivo evaluation of photometric stereo endoscopy in the human large intestine.

Durr, Nicholas J.; González, Germán.; Lim, Daryl; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Parot, Vicente

2014-02-01

170

Capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: concise up-to-date overview  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area. PMID:21694834

Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Douglas, Sarah

2009-01-01

171

Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

2011-03-01

172

Performance of static positioning for medium distances based on data from a virtual reference station and ASG-PL Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a network of reference stations instead of a single reference station allows the modelling of some systematic errors in a region and allows a user to increase the distance between the rover receiver and reference stations. In some countries, GPS reference stations exist and GPS observations are available for users in real-time mode and in post-processing. Observations from several GPS reference stations in a regional network enable modelling spatially-correlated errors and their modelling on an epoch-by-epoch and satellite-by-satellite basis. As a result, observations of a virtual reference station can be created at a rover's approximate position and its observations can be used in the precise baseline positioning of the rover. This paper presents the performance of the static positioning of a rover station, its quality and reliability for two different baselines. Single-baseline and network static solutions are presented and compared. Network solutions are based on data from a virtual reference station (VRS) obtained by the Wasoft/Virtuall software. In both cases, the same strategy of ambiguity resolution was used. These approaches have been tested with the use of 24-hour GPS data from the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-PL). The data from three reference stations with medium-range separation were used in the process of generating VRS data. GPS data of the rover station were divided into 20, 10 and 5-min. sessions with a sampling interval of 5 sec. Practical calculations and analyses of horizontal and vertical accuracy of coordinates clearly show the improvement of static positioning in terms of time observation span and ambiguity reliability.

Bakula, M.

173

Gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

174

Dynamic Distortion Correction for Endoscopy Systems with Exchangeable Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic images are strongly afiected by lens distortion caused by the use of wide angle lenses. In case of endoscopy systems with exchangeable optics, e.g. in bladder endoscopy or sinus endoscopy, the camera sensor and the optics do not form a rigid system but they can be shifted and rotated with respect to each other during an examina- tion. This

Thomas Stehle; Michael Hennes; Sebastian Gross; Alexander Behrens; Jonas Wulff; Til Aach

2009-01-01

175

Treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy  

PubMed Central

Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care for the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic stroke, especially after coronary intervention. However, this therapy is associated with bleeding complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, which is one of the most common life-threatening complications. Early endoscopy is recommended for most patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After successful endoscopic hemostasis, immediate resumption of antiplatelet therapy with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended to prevent further ischemic events. PPI prophylaxis during antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The potential negative metabolic interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel is still unclear.

Yasuda, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasumasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Sun-ichiro; Ishigooka, Shinya; Yamashita, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio

2015-01-01

176

Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy.  

PubMed

We report a case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy. It was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The patient is a 58-year-old Malaysian woman who lives in a rural area, where uncontrolled populations of stray and semidomesticated dogs live in close proximity with humans. PMID:24891471

Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Lim, Kie Nyok; Mahmud, Rohela

2014-07-01

177

Simulation of quantum-state endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of quantum-state endoscopy [P. J. Bardroff, E. Mayr, and W. P. Schleich, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4963 (1995)] to measure the complete quantum state of a single mode of the electromagnetic field in a cavity. We perform numerical simulations of an experiment in progress.

Bardroff, P. J.; Mayr, E.; Schleich, W. P.; Domokos, P.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.

1996-04-01

178

Room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode by ?-valley transport.  

PubMed

Group-IV materials for monolithic integration with silicon optoelectronic systems are being extensively studied. As a part of efforts, light emission from germanium has been pursued with the objective of evolving germanium into an efficient light source for optical communication systems. In this study, we demonstrate room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode without any complicated manipulation for alternating material properties of germanium. Electroluminescence peaks were observed near 1550 nm and the energy around this wavelength corresponds to that emitted from direct recombination at the ?-valley of germanium. PMID:22772186

Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook; Yang, Changjae; Cheung, Stanley; Yoon, Euijoon; Kamins, Theodore I; Yoo, S J Ben; Harris, James S

2012-07-01

179

What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... of the gastrointestinal system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes food for energy and rids the body ...

180

A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.  

PubMed

The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846

Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

2014-06-01

181

OMOM capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the diagnostic efficiency of OMOM capsule endoscopy (CE) in a group of patients with different indications. Methods: Data from 89 consecutive patients (49 males, 40 females) with suspected small bowel disease who underwent OMOM CE (Jinshan Science and Technology Company, Chongqing, China) examination were obtained by retrospective review. The patients’ indications of the disease consisted of the following: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), abdominal pain or diarrhea, partial intestinal obstruction, suspected inflammatory bowel disease, tumor of unknown origin, hypoproteinemia, constipation, weight loss, and elevated tumor markers. Results: CE failed in one patient. Visualization of the entire small bowel was achieved in 75.0%. Capsules were naturally excreted by all patients. The detection rate of abnormalities was 70.5% for patients with suspected small bowel disease, and the diagnostic yield for patients with OGIB was higher than that for patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (85.7% vs 53.3%, P<0.005). Angiodysplasia was the most common small bowel finding. Active bleeding sites were noted in the small intestine in 11 cases. Conclusion: OMOM CE is a useful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of variably suspected small bowel disease, whose diagnostic efficiency is similar to that of the Pillcam SB (small bowel) CE (Given Imaging, Yoqneam, Israel). PMID:18988304

Li, Chen-yi; Zhang, Bing-ling; Chen, Chun-xiao; Li, You-ming

2008-01-01

182

ASGE: Find a Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, The Dem Rep Of The Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote ... Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Republic ...

183

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

184

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-11-15

185

Clinical multiphoton endoscopy with FLIM capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton endoscopy can be applied for intra-corporeal imaging as well as to examine otherwise hard-to-access tissue areas like chronic wounds. Using high-NA (NA = 0.8) gradient-index (GRIN) lens-based endoscopes with a diameter of 1.4 mm and effective lengths of 7 mm and 20 mm, respectively, two-photon excitation of endogenous fluorophores and second-harmonic generation (SHG) is used for multimodal in vivo imaging of human skin. A further imaging modality is fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) which allows functional imaging to investigate the healing mechanism of chronic wounds and the corresponding cell metabolism. We performed first in vivo measurements using FLIM endoscopy with the medically-certified multiphoton tomograph MPTflex® in combination with a computer-controlled motorized scan head and a GRIN-lens endoscope.

Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

2013-02-01

186

Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy.  

PubMed

We present a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) for use in endoscopy to reduce speckle contrast, increase signal collection and depth of field. The DCFC is made by fusing and tapering two all silica double-clad fiber (DCF) and allows achromatic transmission of >95% of core illumination (1265nm - 1325nm) as well as collection of >42% of inner cladding diffuse light. Its potential for endoscopy is demonstrated in a spectrally encoded imaging setup which shows speckle reduction by a factor 5, increased signal collection by a factor 9 and enhanced depth of field by 1.8 times. Separation by the DCFC of single- and multi-mode signals allows combining low-speckle reflectance images (25.5 fps) with interferometrically measured depth profiles (post-processed) for of small three-dimensional (3D) features through an all-fiber low loss instrument. PMID:20588826

Lemire-Renaud, Simon; Rivard, Maxime; Strupler, Mathias; Morneau, Dominic; Verpillat, Frédéric; Daxhelet, Xavier; Godbout, Nicolas; Boudoux, Caroline

2010-05-10

187

Aspects of computer vision in surgical endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is related to a project of medical robotics applied to surgical endoscopy, led in collaboration with Doctor Berreni from the Saint Roch nursing-home in Perpignan, France). After taking what Doctor Berreni advises, two aspects of endoscopic color image processing have been brought out: (1) The help to the diagnosis by the automatic detection of the sick areas after a learning phase. (2) The 3D reconstruction of the analyzed cavity by using a zoom.

Rodin, Vincent; Ayache, Alain; Berreni, N.

1993-09-01

188

Reducing redundancy in wireless capsule endoscopy videos.  

PubMed

We eliminate similar frames from a wireless capsule endoscopy video of the human intestines to maximize spatial coverage and minimize the redundancy in images. We combine an intensity correction method with a method based an optical flow and features to detect and reduce near-duplicate images acquired during the repetitive backward and forward egomotions due to peristalsis. In experiments, this technique reduced duplicate image of 52.3% from images of the small intestine. PMID:23668342

Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Chul

2013-07-01

189

Chromoendoscopy in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia via conventional endoscopy is characterized by low interobserver agreement and poor correlation with histopathologic findings. Chromoendoscopy significantly enhances the visibility of mucosa irregularities, like metaplasia and dysplasia mucosa. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) offers an alternative technology for upper GI examination. We expect the difficulties of diagnosis of neoplasm in conventional endoscopy to transfer to MGCE. Thus, we aim to chart a path for the application of chromoendoscopy on MGCE via an ex-vivo animal study. Methods We propose a modified preparation protocol which adds a staining step to the existing MGCE preparation protocol. An optimal staining concentration is quantitatively determined for different stain types and pathologies. To that end 190 pig stomach tissue samples with and without lesion imitations were stained with different dye concentrations. Quantitative visual criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the staining with respect to mucosa and lesion visibility. Thusly determined optimal concentrations are tested in an ex-vivo pig stomach experiment under magnetic guidance of an endoscopic capsule with the modified protocol. Results We found that the proposed protocol modification does not impact the visibility in the stomach or steerability of the endoscopy capsule. An average optimal staining concentration for the proposed protocol was found at 0.4% for Methylene blue and Indigo carmine. The lesion visibility is improved using the previously obtained optimal dye concentration. Conclusions We conclude that chromoendoscopy may be applied in MGCE and improves mucosa and lesion visibility. Systematic evaluation provides important information on appropriate staining concentration. However, further animal and human in-vivo studies are necessary. PMID:23758801

2013-01-01

190

High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing  

PubMed Central

High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

2015-01-01

191

Processing Power Estimation of Encoders for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy.  

E-print Network

??This particular project deals with video capture and compression of Capsule Endoscopy (CE). Most video compression algorithms are of high-complexity with heavy processing, substantial storage… (more)

Mannan, Swarnalatha

2011-01-01

192

Gastrointestinal motility disorders and gastrointestinal prokinetic therapy.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility may result in accelerated transit, delayed transit, impaired relaxation, or inappropriate relaxation. The delayed transit disorders are the most important motility disorders of companion animals and may involve the esophagus (hypomotility and megaesophagus), stomach (delayed gastric emptying), small intestine (postoperative ileus and intestinal pseudo-obstruction), or colon (constipation and megacolon). PMID:14552159

Washabau, Robert J

2003-09-01

193

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis: clinical and endoscopic correlations.  

PubMed Central

The clinical data of 180 episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 168 patients with cirrhosis of the liver are examined. The source of bleeding had been determined by early endoscopy in all cases. In men under the age of 50 years, and without symptoms of liver failure, bleeding was due to ruptured gastro-oesophageal varices in 84% of cases. Severe liver failure was associated with acute lesions of gastric mucosa in many cases. No presumptive diagnosis of the source of haemorrhage could be based on the examination of other clinical data (presence of ascites, mode of presentation and pattern of bleeding, history of ulcer disease, alcoholism, and previous medication. PMID:1083824

Terés, J; Bordas, J M; Bru, C; Diaz, F; Bruguera, M; Rodes, J

1976-01-01

194

Analyzing the Impact of Different Pcv Calibration Models on Height Determination Using Gps/Glonass Observations from Asg-Eupos Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of GPS with GLONASS is very important in satellite-based positioning because it can clearly improve reliability and availability. However, unlike GPS, GLONASS satellites transmit signals at different frequencies. This results in significant difficulties in modeling and ambiguity resolution for integrated GNSS positioning. There are also some difficulties related to the antenna Phase Center Variations (PCV) problem because, as is well known, the PCV is dependent on the received signal frequency dependent. Thus, processing simultaneous observations from different positioning systems, e.g. GPS and GLONASS, we can expect complications resulting from the different structure of signals and differences in satellite constellations. The ASG-EUPOS multifunctional system for precise satellite positioning is a part of the EUPOS project involving countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The number of its users is increasing rapidly. Currently 31 of 101 reference stations are equipped with GPS/GLONASS receivers and the number is still increasing. The aim of this paper is to study the height solution differences caused by using different PCV calibration models in integrated GPS/GLONASS observation processing. Studies were conducted based on the datasets from the ASG-EUPOS network. Since the study was intended to evaluate the impact on height determination from the users' point of view, a so-called "commercial" software was chosen for post-processing. The analysis was done in a baseline mode: 3 days of GNSS data collected with three different receivers and antennas were used. For the purposes of research the daily observations were divided into different sessions with a session length of one hour. The results show that switching between relative and absolute PCV models may cause an obvious effect on height determination. This issue is particularly important when mixed GPS/GLONASS observations are post-processed.

Dawidowicz, Karol

2014-12-01

195

Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The capability to image tissue motion such as blood flow through an endoscope could have many applications in medicine. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a recently introduced technique that utilizes a single optical fiber and miniature diffractive optics to obtain endoscopic images through small diameter probes. Using spectral-domain interferometry, SEE is furthermore capable of three-dimensional volume imaging at video rates. Here we show that by measuring relative spectral phases, this technology can additionally measure Doppler shifts. Doppler SEE is demonstrated in flowing Intralipid phantoms and vibrating middle ear ossicles. PMID:18795020

Yelin, Dvir; Bouma, B. E.; Rosowsky, J. J.; Tearney, G. J.

2009-01-01

196

Gastrointestinal Disorders after Renal Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal complications after renal transplantation continue to be of considerable concern. Among the commonly used immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and azathioprine are mostly responsible for gastrointestinal side effects. The direct gastrointestinal toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs only rarely necessitates the discontinuation of the respective agent. Exceptionally dangerous gastrointestinal disorders are intestinal perforation and acute pancreatitis. The most prominent gastrointestinal infections

Hans-Peter Marti; Felix J. Frey

1997-01-01

197

Successful endoscopic treatment of an unusual cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding using the OVESCO system.  

PubMed

The great majority of foreign bodies swallowed and entering the stomach are usually passed through the entire gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. The ones that remain can cause perforation, obstruction or bleeding. The risk of perforation is increased with long sharp metal objects, animal bones, in subjects with intestinal diseases (Crohn's disease, intestinal stenosis), and in patients with adhesions due to prior abdominal surgery. For a long time, toothpick impaction in the lower gastrointestinal tract has been managed by surgery. Nowadays with the development of endoscopy, a variety of ingested foreign bodies have been successfully managed by endoscopy. We report the case of a male patient, with a toothpick impacted in the rectosigmoid junction, which was diagnosed and successfully managed by colonoscopy. PMID:21451804

Strain, Mihnea H; Chisevescu, Dorina M; Potopea, Sorin

2011-03-01

198

Accuracy of transnasal endoscopy with a disposable esophagoscope compared to conventional endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess feasibility of unsedated esophagoscopy using a small-caliber disposable transnasal esophagoscopy and to compare its accuracy with standard endoscopy. METHODS: We prospectively included subjects who were referred for upper endoscopy. All subjects underwent transnasal endoscopy with E.G. Scan™. The disposable probe has a 3.6 mm gauge and at its distal end there is a 6 mm optical capsule, with a viewing angle of 125°. Patients underwent conventional endoscopy after the completion of E.G. Scan™. We describe the findings detected by the E.G. Scan™ and calculate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for esophageal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients (54 women), mean age of 50.12 years (14 to 79), were evaluated. In all cases we were able to perform esophagoscopy with E.G. Scan™. The average realization time was 5 min. A total of 58 alterations were detected in the esophagus, 49 gastric abnormalities and 13 duodenal abnormalities. We found that for esophageal varices, E.G. Scan™ has sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 95%, 97% and 97%, respectively. Kappa coefficients were 0.32 for hiatal hernia, 0.409 for erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease, 0.617 for Barrett’s esophagus, and 0.909 for esophageal varices. CONCLUSION: Esophagoscopy with E.G. Scan™ is a well-tolerated, fast and safe procedure. It has an appropriate diagnostic accuracy for esophageal varices when compared with conventional endoscopy. PMID:24748920

Aedo, María R; Zavala-González, Miguel Á; Meixueiro-Daza, Arturo; Remes-Troche, José María

2014-01-01

199

Specialist investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed Central

The investigation and treatment of 131 patients with 'obscure' gastrointestinal bleeding has been reviewed. One hundred and six patients were assessed electively for recurrent haemorrhage, 25 presented as emergencies. The major presenting feature was melaena (55 patients), anaemia (35), rectal bleeding (34), haematemesis (six) and ileostomy bleeding (one). The lesions responsible for haemorrhage were colonic angiodysplasia (52 patients), small bowel vascular anomalies (16), Meckel's diverticula (nine), small bowel smooth muscle tumours (seven), gastric vascular anomalies (four), chronic pancreatitis (three), colonic diverticular disease (three) and 16 other miscellaneous lesions. No lesion was found in 21 cases. Lesions were first shown by visceral angiography (69 patients), at laparotomy (23), on endoscopy (11), on gastrointestinal contrast radiological studies (four), and at ERCP (three). Lesions which were undetectable at operation increased markedly with age (p less than 0.0001). Expert visceral angiography is strongly recommended before surgery in patients over 45 years of age and after laparotomy when no cause has been found. Exploratory laparotomy is recommended at an early stage for younger patients, and for older patients after non-diagnostic angiography. PMID:3493190

Thompson, J N; Salem, R R; Hemingway, A P; Rees, H C; Hodgson, H J; Wood, C B; Allison, D J; Spencer, J

1987-01-01

200

Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

2014-01-01

201

Early administration of terlipressin plus glyceryl trinitrate to control active upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryUpper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major complication in cirrhotic patients. Endoscopy and oesophageal sclerosis are reference treatments and must be done as soon as possible. However, such treatment is not possible unless the patient is admitted to hospital.In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial, we compared the efficacy of terlipressin combined with glyceryl trinitrate (TER-GTN), administered as early as possible

S Levacher; M Blaise; J-L Pourriat; P Letoumelin; C Lapandry; D Pateron

1995-01-01

202

[Argon plasma coagulation in endoscopic therapy of CREST syndrome associated upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage].  

PubMed

We report on the case of a 55-year-old patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). The patient was sent to our department when clinical symptoms of an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred. Upper endoscopy showed a watermelon stomach and fresh blood in the stomach. The presence of teleangiectasias in the antrum could be proved histologically. Since the teleangiectasias found in the antrum were the only possible source of the hemorrhage three sessions of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation were performed. Macroscopically, a nearly complete disappearance of teleangiectasias could be achieved. After a follow-up of six months, there have been no clinical signs of another hemorrhage episode. This case shows that the existence of gastrointestinal teleangiectasias should be considered when chronic anemia or acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage occur in patients with PSS. Further it is demonstrated that even extended gastrointestinal teleangiectasias can be successfully treated by endoscopically performed argon plasma coagulation. PMID:9281240

Klump, B; Schneider, G A; Fierlbeck, G; Hoeft, S; Gregor, M; Porschen, R

1997-06-01

203

Method for continuous guidance of endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has indicated that use of guidance systems during endoscopy can improve the performance and decrease the skill variation of physicians. Current guidance systems, however, rely on computationally intensive registration techniques or costly and error-prone electromagnetic (E/M) registration techniques, neither of which fit seamlessly into the clinical workflow. We have previously proposed a real-time image-based registration technique that addresses both of these problems. We now propose a system-level approach that incorporates this technique into a complete paradigm for real-time image-based guidance in order to provide a physician with continuously-updated navigational and guidance information. At the core of the system is a novel strategy for guidance of endoscopy. Additional elements such as global surface rendering, local cross-sectional views, and pertinent distances are also incorporated into the system to provide additional utility to the physician. Phantom results were generated using bronchoscopy performed on a rapid prototype model of a human tracheobronchial airway tree. The system has also been tested in ongoing live human tests. Thus far, ten such tests, focused on bronchoscopic intervention of pulmonary patients, have been run successfully.

Merritt, Scott A.; Rai, Lav; Gibbs, Jason D.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

2007-03-01

204

Small bowel capsule endoscopy: Where are we after almost 15 years of use?  

PubMed

The development of capsule endoscopy (CE) in 2001 has given gastroenterologists the opportunity to investigate the small bowel in a non-invasive way. CE is most commonly performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but other indications include diagnosis or follow-up of Crohn's disease, suspicion of a small bowel tumor, diagnosis and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small bowel lesions and celiac disease. Almost fifteen years have passed since the release of the small bowel capsule. The purpose of this review is to offer the reader a brief but complete overview on small bowel CE anno 2014, including the technical and procedural aspects, the possible complications and the most important indications. We will end with some future perspectives of CE. PMID:25610531

Van de Bruaene, Cedric; De Looze, Danny; Hindryckx, Pieter

2015-01-16

205

Small bowel capsule endoscopy: Where are we after almost 15 years of use?  

PubMed Central

The development of capsule endoscopy (CE) in 2001 has given gastroenterologists the opportunity to investigate the small bowel in a non-invasive way. CE is most commonly performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but other indications include diagnosis or follow-up of Crohn’s disease, suspicion of a small bowel tumor, diagnosis and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small bowel lesions and celiac disease. Almost fifteen years have passed since the release of the small bowel capsule. The purpose of this review is to offer the reader a brief but complete overview on small bowel CE anno 2014, including the technical and procedural aspects, the possible complications and the most important indications. We will end with some future perspectives of CE. PMID:25610531

Van de Bruaene, Cedric; De Looze, Danny; Hindryckx, Pieter

2015-01-01

206

Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastrointestinal cancers are heterogeneous and can overexpress several protein targets that can be imaged simultaneously on endoscopy using multiple molecular probes. We aim to demonstrate a multispectral scanning fiber endoscope for wide-field fluorescence detection of colonic dysplasia. Excitation at 440, 532, and 635 nm is delivered into a single spiral scanning fiber, and fluorescence is collected by a ring of light-collecting optical fibers placed around the instrument periphery. Specific-binding peptides are selected with phage display technology using the CPC;Apc mouse model of spontaneous colonic dysplasia. Validation of peptide specificity is performed on flow cytometry and in vivo endoscopy. The peptides KCCFPAQ, AKPGYLS, and LTTHYKL are selected and labeled with 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC), 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), and CF633, respectively. Separate droplets of KCCFPAQ-DEAC, AKPGYLS-TAMRA, and LTTHYKL-CF633 are distinguished at concentrations of 100 and 1 ?M. Separate application of the fluorescent-labeled peptides demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenomas. The average target/background ratios are 1.71+/-0.19 and 1.67+/-0.12 for KCCFPAQ-DEAC and AKPGYLS-TAMRA, respectively. Administration of these two peptides together results in distinct binding patterns in the blue and green channels. Specific binding of two or more peptides can be distinguished in vivo using a novel multispectral endoscope to localize colonic dysplasia on real-time wide-field imaging.

Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron M.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Gaustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.

2012-02-01

207

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver cirrhosis may develop upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from a variety of lesions, which include those that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy and other lesions seen in the general population. Do patients with liver cirrhosis, hemorrhage from varices and other lesions equally, or are they more likely to bleed from varices? The aim of this study is to determine predominant causes of bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 40 patients with liver cirrhosis based on the clinical and biochemical parameters of the Child-Pugh score, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding was carried out at an inner city hospital. Endoscopy diagnoses were documented. RESULTS: Of 40 patients, 38 patients had cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption. Twelve of the above 38 patients who consumed alcohol also had hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eleven patients had only varices on endoscopic examination, 17 had varices plus coexisting lesions. From these 17 patients, nine were found to have bled from varices, and eight were found to have bled from coexisting lesions. Twelve patients who had no varices bled from other lesions. Of 40 patients, 28 had varices, and 20 actually bled from varices. In this study there was no correlation between severity of liver cirrhosis as determined by the Child-Pugh score and the absence or presence of varices. CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding hemorrhage from a variety of lesions. In this study of 40 patients, (70%) had gastroesophageal varices diagnosed at upper endoscopy, while 50% actually bled from varices. PMID:12152928

Odelowo, Olajide O.; Smoot, Duane T.; Kim, Kyungsook

2002-01-01

208

The effect of GI endoscopy nurse experience on screening colonoscopy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of gastrointestinal endoscopy nursing experience on colonoscopy outcomes is unknown. Objective To determine whether nurse experience was associated with screening colonoscopy complications, procedure length, and cecal intubation. Design Retrospective analysis of screening colonoscopies performed by attending physicians between August 2003 and August 2005. Nurse experience was measured in weeks. Setting University of North Carolina Hospitals. Subjects Twenty-nine nurses were employed during the study period, 19 of whom were newly hired. A total of 3,631 eligible screening colonoscopies were analyzed. Interventions N/A Main outcome measurements The primary outcome was any immediate complication; secondary outcomes included time to cecum, total procedure time, and cecal intubation rate. Results In procedures staffed by nurses with 2 weeks of experience or less, 3.2% had complications compared with 0.3% for procedures with more experienced nurses (OR 10.4, 95% CI 3.55, 30.2). For nurses with 6 months of experience or less, 18% of procedures had cecal intubation times greater than one standard deviation above the mean compared with 12% for more experienced nurses (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30, 1.97). Similar results were seen for total procedure duration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.32, 1.97) and cecal intubation rates (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.37, 2.39). All relationships held after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Limitations Retrospective, single center study. Conclusions Gastrointestinal endoscopy nurse inexperience is associated with an increase in immediate complications, prolonged procedure times, and decreased cecal intubation rates for screening colonoscopies. These findings have implications for nurse training, procedure efficiency, colonoscopy quality assessment, and patient safety. PMID:19500788

Dellon, Evan S.; Lippmann, Quinn Kerr; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

2009-01-01

209

The Gastrointestinal Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major “hallmarks” of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.

2013-01-01

210

The gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major hallmarks of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C; Greten, Florian R

2013-07-01

211

Effect of endoscopy screening on stage at gastric cancer diagnosis: results of the National Cancer Screening Programme in Korea.  

PubMed

Background:Although gastric cancer screening is common among countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer, there is little data to support the effectiveness of this screening. This study was designed to determine the differences in stage at diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the screening history and screening method (upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) vs endoscopy).Methods:The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP), a nationwide organised screening programme in Korea. The study cohort consisted of 19?168 gastric cancer patients who had been diagnosed in 2007 and who were invited to undergo gastric cancer screening via the NCSP between 2002 and 2007.Results:Compared with never-screened patients, the odds ratios for being diagnosed with localised gastric cancer in endoscopy-screened patients and UGIS-screened patients were 2.10 (95% CI=1.90-2.33) and 1.24 (95% CI=1.13-1.36), respectively.Conclusions:Screening by endoscopy was more strongly associated with a diagnosis of localised stage gastric cancer compared with screening by UGIS.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 9 December 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.608 www.bjcancer.com. PMID:25490528

Choi, K S; Jun, J K; Suh, M; Park, B; Noh, D K; Song, S H; Jung, K W; Lee, H-Y; Choi, I J; Park, E-C

2014-12-01

212

Modern treatment of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare mesenchymal smooth muscle sarcomas that can arise anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract. Sporadic mutations within the tyrosine kinase receptors of the interstitial cells of Cajal have been identified as the key molecular step in GIST carcinogenesis. Although many patients are asymptomatic, the most common associated symptoms include: abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastric outlet obstruction, and anorexia. Rarely, GIST can perforate causing life-threatening hemoperitoneum. Most are ultimately diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging studies (i.e., computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging in combination with upper endoscopy. Endoscopic ultrasonographic localization of these tumors within the smooth muscle layer and acquisition of neoplastic spindle cells harboring mutations in the c-KIT gene is pathognomonic. Curative treatment requires a complete gross resection of the tumor. Both open and minimally invasive operations have been shown to reduce recurrence rates and improve long-term survival. While there is considerable debate over whether GIST can be benign neoplasms, we believe that all GIST have malignant potential, but vary in their propensity to recur after resection and metastasize to distant organ sites. Prognostic factors include location, size (i.e., > 5 cm), grade (> 5-10 mitoses per 50 high power fields and specific mutational events that are still being defined. Adjuvant therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate, has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence after one year of therapy. Treatment of locally-advanced or borderline resectable gastric GIST with neoadjuvant imatinib has been shown to induce regression in a minority of patients and stabilization in the majority of cases. This treatment strategy potentially reduces the need for more extensive surgical resections and increases the number of patients eligible for curative therapy. The modern surgical treatment of gastric GIST combines the novel use of targeted therapy and aggressive minimally invasive surgical procedures to provide effective treatment for this lethal, but rare gastrointestinal malignancy. PMID:23239909

Roggin, Kevin K; Posner, Mitchell C

2012-12-14

213

Enhanced magnification endoscopy: A new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is not identifiable by standard endoscopy. Acetic acid instillation enhances the ability to detect columnar epithelium at the squamocolumnar union. Enhanced magnification endoscopy involves the combined use of magnification endoscopy with acetic acid. This study assessed the value of enhanced magnification endoscopy in detecting SIM in patients with BE. Methods: Patients

Moises Guelrud; Idamys Herrera; Harold Essenfeld; Julio Castro

2001-01-01

214

Miniature Grating for Spectrally-Encoded Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an ultraminiature endoscopy technology that acquires high-definition images of internal organs through a sub-mm endoscopic probe. In SEE, a grating at the tip of the imaging optics diffracts the broadband light into multiple beams, where each beam with a distinctive wavelength is illuminated on a unique transverse location of the tissue. By encoding one transverse coordinate with the wavelength, SEE can image a line of the tissue at a time without using any beam scanning devices. This feature of the SEE technology allows the SEE probe to be miniaturized to sub-mm dimensions. While previous studies have shown that SEE has the potential to be utilized for various clinical imaging applications, the translation of SEE for medicine has been hampered by challenges in fabricating the miniature grating inherent to SEE probes. This paper describes a new fabrication method for SEE probes. The new method uses a soft lithographic approach to pattern a high-aspect-ratio grating at the tip of the miniature imaging optics. Using this technique, we have constructed a 500-?m-diameter SEE probe. The miniature grating at the tip of the probe had a measured diffraction efficiency of 75%. The new SEE probe was used to image a human finger and formalin fixed mouse embryos, demonstrating the capability of this device to visualize key anatomic features of tissues with high image contrast. In addition to providing high quality imaging SEE optics, the soft lithography method allows cost-effective and reliable fabrication of these miniature endoscopes, which will facilitate the clinical translation of SEE technology. PMID:23503940

Kang, Dongkyun; Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.

2013-01-01

215

Role of endoscopy in the management of esophageal diseases.  

PubMed

Endoscopy plays a major role in diseases of the esophagus. Endoscopic findings alone can suggest or confirm a variety of diagnoses, especially with newer imaging modalities, which can be confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Endoscopic ultrasound allows accurate staging for the management of esophageal malignancies. In the area of therapeutics, endoscopy allows for dilation of strictures, resection and ablation of premalignant lesions and placement of stents for benign and malignant diseases. This article will summarize the latest advances in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. PMID:19047982

Baron, T H

2008-12-01

216

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

217

Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

2014-06-11

218

Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD. PMID:23886379

Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

2014-01-01

219

Role of colon capsule Pillcam 2 in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding - case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding have always been a challenge to clinicians. In most patients, the source of bleeding is easily identified during conventional upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopies. A significant progress in the evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was brought by the advent of capsule endoscopy. Since colonoscopy is not always technically feasible, colon VCE might be useful where the conventional procedure poses substantial risks to patients or it is refused by them. Case-report: We present the case of a 58-year-old patient, with severe anemia caused by bleeding from a gastrointestinal source. The patient was diabetic, hypertensive and with impaired heart function, aggravated by anemia. We used the Pillcam Colon 2 capsule to investigate the colon and we found 2 tumors in the cecum and transverse colon. Conclusion: Pillcam Colon 2 capsule turned out to be an additional patient-friendly method to complement colonoscopy for colon visualization and colorectal cancer screening. PMID:24146688

Babiuc, RD; Purcarea, M; Sadagurschi, R; Negreanu, L; Nastasescu, T

2013-01-01

220

Asbestos and gastrointestinal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, the authors listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, summary SMRs were calculated for total gastrointestinal tract cancer for three occupational groups: asbestos factory workers, insulators/shipyard workers and asbestos miners. Statistically significant elevations in summary SMRs were found for esophageal, stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer in all asbestos-exposed workers. Esophageal cancer summary SMR remained significantly elevated when data were reanalyzed to include only those cohorts with death certificate diagnoses for cause of observed deaths. However, summary SMRs were not statistically significant for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer after reanalysis. Summary SMRs by occupational group showed a significant elevation for total gastrointestinal cancer in insulators/shipyard workers. The elevation was not significant after reanalysis. 59 references, 5 tables.

Morgan, R.W.; Foliart, D.E.; Wong, O.

1985-07-01

221

Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have Changed?  

PubMed Central

Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of acute upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509

Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.

2011-01-01

222

Magnification endoscopy, high resolution endoscopy, and chromoscopy; towards a better optical diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, optical magnification endoscopy and chromoscopy have gained renewed interest in the West as a means for the early detection of minute lesions in patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in patients referred for colonic cancer screening. In Barrett's oesophagus, the vast majority of data on the use of chromoscopy deals with the application of methylene blue. Conventional videoendoscopy in combination with methylene blue staining improves the detection of Barrett's mucosa. A correlation has been shown between variation and intensity of staining and histologically verified stages of dysplasia or cancer. Magnification endoscopy and chromoscopy improve the detection of colonic non-polypoid lesions associated with neoplasia and carcinoma. Pitt pattern analysis enables the distinction of non-neoplastic non-polypoid lesions (type I and II) from neoplastic type non-polypoid lesions (type III-V) with great accuracy. It is certain that "old fashioned" chromoscopy combined with advanced endoscopic technology carry a great diagnostic potential and should be further put to the test for use in daily clinical practice. PMID:12746262

Bruno, M

2003-01-01

223

Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain) as well as one of the more intriguing (cyclic vomiting). The most recent Pediatric Rome Working Group has modified the definitions of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Current studies have used these categorizations to understand better the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options for these disorders. As more data are available, children and their families will be offered a better understanding of the conditions and more effective treatments to overcome them. The importance of making an accurate diagnosis of a functional gastrointestinal disorder cannot be overemphasized. PMID:18595859

McOmber, Mark A.; Shulman, Robert J.

2010-01-01

224

Gastrointestinal Stent Update  

PubMed Central

The use of self-expanding metallic stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract, placed under radiologic imaging or endoscopic guidance, is the current treatment of choice for the palliation of malignant gastrointestinal outlet obstructions. Advances in metallic stent design and delivery systems have progressed to the stage where this treatment is now considered a minimally invasive therapy. Metallic stent placement will broaden further into the field of nonsurgical therapy for the gastrointestinal tract. To date, metallic stents placed in the esophagus, gastric outlet, colorectum, and bile ducts are not intended to be curative, but rather to provide a palliative treatment for obstructions. The evolution of metallic stent technology will render such procedures not only palliative but also therapeutic, by enabling local drug delivery, and the use of biodegradable materials will reduce procedure-related complications. PMID:21103290

2010-01-01

225

Biomarkers and molecular imaging in gastrointestinal cancers.  

PubMed

The best means to improve gastrointestinal cancer survival is screening and treatment of early lesions. In esophageal adenocarcinoma, it is believed that low-grade dysplasia and perhaps even high-risk Barrett's esophagus represent the most attractive targets for achieving a cure. An issue with Barrett's esophagus is that endoscopy alone cannot distinguish Barrett's esophagus from columnar-lined epithelium or from areas of low-grade dysplasia. Much effort, therefore, has been devoted to discover molecular biomarkers of high-risk states and to develop imaging tools for detecting these biomarkers in a manner that could assist real-time in vivo targeting of sites for biopsy. The strategy we have used is to generate stem cell clones from Barrett's esophagus biopsy specimens and to compare their gene expression profiles with patient-matched stem cell clones of the esophageal squamous epithelia and gastric cardia. It is anticipated that by mining the expression data sets of these Barrett's stem cell clones, we will be able to identify unique cell surface markers of the Barrett's stem cells against which cytotoxic antibodies or aptamers can be developed and used to aid the endoscopist in identifying regions of atypia for biopsy, perform a real-time diagnosis, stratify patients during the examination, and, ultimately, direct therapy in a preemptive manner. PMID:23978343

Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank; Ho, Khek Yu

2014-01-01

226

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover the whole space to explore; made of special polyurethane rigid foam with excellent attenuation performances, the prototypes are covered by flexible polyurethane electric resin. By multiplying the number of elementary receptors around the vertical axes and piling up each elementary sensor, a complete design of multi-azimuth and multi-offset has been concepted. In addition to this, a test site has been built in order to obtain a controlled medium at typical scales of interest for seismic endoscopy and dedicated to experiment near the conditions in the field. Various reflectors are placed in well known positions and filled in an homogeneous cement medium; the whole edifice (2.2 m in diameter and 8 metres in depth) also contains 4 PVC tubes to simulate boreholes. The second part of this instrumental developments concern the synthesis of input signals; indeed, many modern devices used in ultrasonic experiment have non linear output response outside their nominal range: this is especially true in geophysical acoustical experiments when high acoustical power is necessary to insonify deep geological targets. Thanks to the high speed electronic and computerised devices now available, it is possible to plug in experimental set-ups into non linear inversions algorithms like simulated annealing. First experiments showed the robustness of the method in case of non linear analogic architecture. Large wavelet families have or example been constructed thanks to the method and multiscale Non Destructive Testing Method have been performed as an efficient method to detect and characterise discontinuities or velocities variations of a material.

Conil, F.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.

2003-04-01

227

Protean manifestation of gastrointestinal tuberculosis: report on 130 patients.  

PubMed

Over the past 8 years, 820 patients with tuberculosis were seen at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 292 of these patients (35.6%) had pulmonary tuberculosis, and 130 patients (15.8%) had alimentary tract tuberculosis, making this the second commonest site of involvement. In these 130 patients, the disease was located in the upper gastrointestinal tract in 11 patients (8.5%), small bowel 44 patients (33.8%), large bowel 29 patients (22.3%), peritoneum 40 patients (30.7%), and liver 19 patients (14.6%). The diagnosis in most patients was made by specimens from endoscopy or laparoscopy, or liver or surgical specimens. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is not uncommon in developing countries, and its incidence is increasing in developed countries due to immigration and in patients with AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. It can mimic any diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract and may present with very different symptoms, so a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:7797832

al Karawi, M A; Mohamed, A E; Yasawy, M I; Graham, D Y; Shariq, S; Ahmed, A M; al Jumah, A; Ghandour, Z

1995-04-01

228

On-the-fly detection of images with gastritis aspects in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.

Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

2011-03-01

229

Magnifying endoscopy in upper gastroenterology for assessing lesions before completing endoscopic removal  

PubMed Central

Any prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is closely related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and en bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) have been performed as curative treatments for many early-stage GI lesions in recent years. The technologies have been widely accepted in many Asian countries because they are minimally invasive and supply thorough histopathologic evaluation of the specimens. However, before engaging in endoscopic therapy, an accurate diagnosis is a precondition to effecting the complete cure of the underlying malignancy or carcinoma in situ. For the past few years, many new types of endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI), have emerged in many countries because these methods provide a strong indication of early lesions and are very useful in determining treatment options before ESD or EMR. However, to date, there is no comparable classification equivalent to “Kudo’s Pit Pattern Classification in the colon”, for the upper GI, there is still no clear internationally accepted classification system of magnifying endoscopy. Therefore, in order to help unify some viewpoints, here we will review the defining optical imaging characteristics and the current representative classifications of microvascular and microsurface patterns in the upper GI tract under ME-NBI, describe the accurate relationship between them and the pathological diagnosis, and their clinical applications prior to ESD or en bloc EMR. We will also discuss assessing the differentiation and depth of invasion, defying the lateral spread of involvement and targeting biopsy in real time. PMID:22493543

Chai, Ning-Li; Ling-Hu, En-Qiang; Morita, Yoshinori; Obata, Daisuke; Toyonaga, Takashi; Azuma, Takeshi; Wu, Ben-Yan

2012-01-01

230

Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Prevention in the Endoscopy Practitioner  

PubMed Central

Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

2014-01-01

231

Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article will review the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases. Ingested polyphenols are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and are not well absorbed into the rest of the body. Thus, the high luminal concentrations achieved support a potential for therapeutic uses in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there is great interest from the general public in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent findings Dietary polyphenols are a major source of antioxidants consumed by humans. Polyphenols possess not only antioxidant properties but also antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as the ability to modulate certain signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-?B activation. Green tea polyphenols have been shown to have efficacy in various models of inflammatory bowel disease. Silymarin, or milk thistle, is hepatoprotective against many forms of experimental liver injury and is widely used in human liver diseases, such as hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis, with an excellent safety profile (but with unclear efficacy). Summary Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents. PMID:16462174

Dryden, Gerald W.; Song, Ming; McClain, Craig

2014-01-01

232

Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

Eichner, Edward R.

1989-01-01

233

Gastrointestinal cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis upon which this study was based is that there is a relationship between mortality from gastrointestinal cancer and living standards. On this basis we found significant correlations between the intake of animal proteins and the mortality rates for gastric and intestinal cancer. The negative correlation coefficient (r = ? 0·85) is an expression of the inverse relationship between

O. Gregor; R. Toman; F. Prušová

1969-01-01

234

Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

235

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it

A Rasquin-Weber; P E Hyman; S Cucchiara; D R Fleisher; J S Hyams; P J Milla; A Staiano

1999-01-01

236

Coincidence of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia with hereditary haemorrhagic telengiectasia in a man with gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Here we report a case of a 57-year-old man referred to our hospital with weakness, lethargy, melena, and rectorrhalgia. His physical examination and past medical history showed gingival bleeding, several episodes of epistaxis and post-surgery bleeding. Primary laboratory evaluation revealed only anaemia. Gastrointestinal findings including upper endoscopy and colonoscopy documented normal status, but balloon endoscopy illustrated telengiectasia-like lesions in the mid-jejunum. The case was suspected to be haemophilia due to the past medical history, although complete haemostatic evaluation demonstrated Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. The diagnosis of co-occurrence of hereditary haemorrhagic telengiectasia and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia was confirmed. This case revealed the coincidence of two bleeding tendencies, which, although rare, is a possible phenomenon. We recommend carrying out both primary and secondary haemostatic profiles for every patient with bleeding diathesis. PMID:25083772

Khosravi, Ahmad; Rahimi, Hossein; Mansouritorghabeh, Hassan

2015-01-01

237

Wireless capsule endoscopy years after Michelassi stricturoplasty for Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

The use of wireless capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease has been a matter of debate. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman operated for Crohn's disease with a Michelassi stricturoplasty presenting with anaemia. We tested the patient with a patency capsule before undertaking a wireless capsule endoscopy. Although the absorbable capsule was successfully expelled, the wireless capsule was retained next to the distal edge of the Michelassi stricturoplasty, where it revealed an otherwise undetected stenotic recurrence. We successfully treated the recurrence with a Heineke-Mikulicz stricturoplasty on the stenotic outlet of the previous Michelassi, extracting the capsule. We found our treatment effective. We believe that capsule endoscopy can be performed in patients operated on for Crohn's disease, although further studies are needed to clarify its role in patients with long-stricturoplasties and to establish which examination could be the most effective in selecting patients. PMID:20514837

Sciaudone, G; Pellino, G; Guadagni, I; Pezzullo, A; Selvaggi, F

2010-01-01

238

Survey of management in acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage1  

PubMed Central

The answers to a questionnaire concerning attitudes of members of the British Society of Gastroenterology to the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are analysed. In the majority of cases patients were admitted to general wards under the care of physicians. Use of intensive therapy units and venous pressure monitoring varied widely. Emergency endoscopy appeared readily available and was usually the first diagnostic procedure. Double contrast radiology and emergency angiography were available in relatively few centres. Specific nonoperative treatments (angiographic and endoscopic) were scarcely employed. Most respondents agreed that elderly patients fared badly, but there was little agreement concerning other factors which influence re-bleeding or outcome. There was a wide divergence of opinion concerning the need for surgical intervention in certain hypothetical clinical situations. Despite the difficulties involved, we believe that controlled trials are necessary to improve the management of bleeding patients. PMID:6971943

Thomas, G E; Cotton, P B; Clark, C G; Boulos, P B

1980-01-01

239

Angiosarcoma Involving Solid Organs and the Gastrointestinal Tract with Life-Threatening Bleeding  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of angiosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lung and vertebrae, as well as bulky dissemination in the pleuroperitoneal membranes. A 72-year-old man with no history of illness became aware of melena. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple reddish nodules in the stomach and duodenum. However, biopsy specimens showed no evidence of histological features. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed space-occupying lesions in the spleen, liver and vertebrae. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen and repeated endoscopic biopsy of the stomach. We performed laparoscopic splenectomy to avoid rupture of the involved spleen. Due to continuous gastrointestinal bleeding, double balloon endoscopy was performed and multiple bleeding lesions were detected throughout the small intestine. Surgical hemostasis was performed by partial enterectomy, but anemia continued to worsen. Therefore, we conducted transcatheter arterial embolization. Despite attempting several modalities and frequent daily blood transfusion, the anemia did not improve, and the patient expired due to hemorrhagic shock. Subsequent autopsy revealed the cause of death as rupture and bleeding due to disseminated involvement of the small intestine. PMID:23341800

Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Uemura, Naomi

2012-01-01

240

Glomus Tumor of the Stomach: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Glomus tumors (GTs) are benign neoplasm originating from the glomus body, commonly described in subungual region. The involvement abdominal is rare. Our aim is to describe a case of glomus tumor of the stomach that presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A 34-year-old woman was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent an upper endoscopy that showed bleeding arising from an ulcerated lesion, treated by sclerosis therapy. A new endoscopy confirmed a submucosal lesion in upper portion of the stomach. During the laparotomy, a tumor at the upper anterior wall of gastric body was found and resected by a vertical gastrectomy. The pathological exam revealed hyperplastic smooth muscle fibers of the muscularis propria of the stomach wall, surrounded by hyaline stroma. The immunohistochemistry panel was positive for smooth muscle actin and type IV collagen, with low rate of mitosis studied by Ki-67 which allowed the final diagnosis of a gastric glomus tumor. Discussion. The majority of intraperitoneal glomus tumors occur in the stomach, and it is phenotypically similar to those localized in peripheral sites. Gastric GT generally is a benign tumor although it can be malignant and have the potential to metastasize. Conclusion. Even though gastric glomus tumor is rarely described, it should be considered as a possible cause of a major upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:22606576

Nascimento, Enzo Fabrício Ribeiro; Fonte, Fábio Piovezan; Mendonça, Roberta Laís; Nonose, Ronaldo; de Souza, Carlos Alberto Fonte; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

2011-01-01

241

Management of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory–Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include ?-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant. PMID:25177367

Ribeiro, Suzane

2014-01-01

242

Gastrointestinal Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections are caused by a wide variety of fungi, viruses, and bacteria, and all areas of the\\u000a GI tract are affected. Infections range from mild, where disease is self-limited and supportive care is the treatment, to\\u000a severe, where hospitalization and intravenous fluids and antibiotics are required for survival. In recent years, the increasing\\u000a antibiotic resistance of various

Robert E. Post; Barry L. Hainer

243

Other gastrointestinal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal polyp is a descriptive concept—observation of an elevated broad-based or stalked lesion which can be defined exactly only when examined histologically. Therefore, all polyps must, in principle, be snared or excised to achieve a final diagnosis. Nonneoplastic polyps or tumor-like lesions were formerly considered innocent findings with no malignant potential, while neoplastic adenomas with dysplasia are well-known premalignant lesions.

Heikki J. Järvinen

1991-01-01

244

Micronutrients in gastrointestinal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of micronutrients and the relationship between dietary intake and micronutrient status prior to and after surgery in patients with histologically proven gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, both weight-stable and weight-losing (> 7.5% of their pre-illness weight) has been studied and the results compared to controls. Plasma vitamin C and red blood cell thiamine levels were significantly lower in weight-losing cancer patients

SN Georgiannos; PMT Weston; AW Goode

1993-01-01

245

Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: (Re)evaluation of the Current State in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland 2010.  

PubMed

Background and Aims. The study was a repeated evaluation of the experience of capsule endoscopy (CE) in patients with cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Patients and Methods. A standardized questionnaire was sent by the manufactors Given Imaging and Olympus to all centers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland providing capsule endoscopy service. The questionnaire covers the number of examined patients, monitoring during CE, check of the electric implants before and after CE, occurrence of arrhythmia, quality of CE video, complications, indication of CE, and type of institution. Results. Overall 580 questionnaires were sent to the users. 26/5% (Germany/Austria + Switzerland) of the questionnaires were sent back anonymously to the authors. 114 centers (82 hospitals, 11 surgeries, 21 without specification) replied. In 58 centers (51%), patients with cardiac pacemaker (n = 300) and ICDs (n = 80) underwent uneventful capsule endoscopy. The predominant indication (patients with CP 97%, patients with ICD 100%) was mid gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusion. The results of our inquiry show that in spite of formal contraindication CE is increasingly applied in bleeding patients with cardiac pacemakers/ICDs and seems to be safe even in a large cohort. PMID:22253620

Bandorski, Dirk; Jakobs, Ralf; Brück, Martin; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Wieczorek, Marcus; Keuchel, Martin

2012-01-01

246

Bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using adaptive colour histogram model and support vector classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a colour imaging technology that enables detailed examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. A typical WCE examination takes ~ 8 hours and captures ~ 40,000 useful images. After the examination, the images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a clinician over an hour to analyse. The manufacturers of the WCE provide certain automatic image analysis functions e.g. Given Imaging offers in their Rapid Reader software: The Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), which is designed to report the location in the video of areas of active bleeding. However, this tool has been reported to have insufficient specificity and sensitivity. Therefore it does not free the specialist from reviewing the entire footage and was suggested only to be used as a fast screening tool. In this paper we propose a method of bleeding detection that uses in its first stage Hue-Saturation-Intensity colour histograms to track a moving background and bleeding colour distributions over time. Such an approach addresses the problem caused by drastic changes in blood colour distribution that occur when it is altered by gastrointestinal fluids and allow detection of other red lesions, which although are usually "less red" than fresh bleeding, they can still be detected when the difference between their colour distributions and the background is large enough. In the second stage of our method, we analyse all candidate blood frames, by extracting colour (HSI) and texture (LBP) features from the suspicious image regions (obtained in the first stage) and their neighbourhoods and classifying them using Support Vector Classifier into Bleeding, Lesion and Normal classes. We show that our algorithm compares favourably with the SBI on the test set of 84 full length videos.

Mackiewicz, Michal W.; Fisher, Mark; Jamieson, Crawford

2008-03-01

247

A visibility determination algorithm for interactive virtual endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new visibility determination algorithm for interactive virtual endoscopy. The algorithm uses a modified version of template-based ray casting to extract a view dependent set of potentially visible voxels from volume data. The voxels are triangulated by Marching Cubes and the triangles are rendered onto the display by a graphics accelerator. Early ray termination and space leaping are

Rami Hietala; Jarkko Oikarinen

2000-01-01

248

Quantitative ENT endoscopy: the future in the new millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Otorhinolaryngology the endoscopic appraisal of luminal dimensions of the nose, the throat, the larynx and the trachea is a daily problem. Those concerned with endoscopy know, that endoscopes distort dimensions of examined anatomical structures. To draw conclusions on luminal dimensions from the endoscopic pictures additional measuring devices are required. We developed a new method of measuring luminal dimensions in rigid or flexible endoscopy. For this a laser beam directed radially marks the anatomical lumen of interest in the videoendoscopic vision. The laser ring becomes deformed according to the form of the cavity explored. By keeping the distance defined between the laser ring and the top of the endoscope, the endoscopic video image can be measured. A piece of software developed by us calculates from the pictures the cross sectional area as well as the extension of benign or malign stenosis of the cavity explored. The result of the endoscopic measuring procedure can be visualized 3D on a PC-monitor. We are going to demonstrate the result of our clinical experience in different otorhinolaryngological diseases with the new endoscopic measuring kit in comparison to standard endoscopy. A further perspective is the endoscopic measuring kit in comparison to standard endoscopy. A further perspective is the endoscopic assisted manufacturing (EAM) of anatomical adapted stents, tubes and cannules.

Mueller, Andreas; Schubert, Mario

1999-06-01

249

Virtual Endoscopy for Planning Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual endoscopy was used to plan 10 endoscopic third ventriculostomy procedures in 9 patients suffering from occlusive hydrocephalus due to idiopathic aqueductal stenosis and tumors. The patients were 4 children (4–14 years, mean age: 9 years) and 5 adults (21–38 years, mean age: 29 years). The aim of the study was to preoperatively evaluate the individual intraventricular and vascular endoscopic

J. Burtscher; A. Dessl; R. Bale; W. Eisner; A. Auer; K. Twerdy; S. Felber

2000-01-01

250

Automatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos  

E-print Network

.00. A human digestive system consists of a series of several different organs including the esophagus, stomach such as gastroscopy, push enteroscopy colonoscopy have been used for the visualization of digestive system. HoweverAutomatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos Jeongkyu Lee1

Lee, Jeongkyu

251

A large-sized phytobezoar located on the rare site of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Bezoars are concretions of undigested material and are most often observed in the stomach. They can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract; however, duodenal localization is very rare. We report the case of a 71-year-old male who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy with gastroduodenostomy and experienced severe epigastric discomfort, abdominal pain, and vomiting for a few days. An approximately 7×8 cm-sized mass was found on an abdominal computed tomography scan. On following endoscopy, a large bezoar was revealed in the duodenum and was removed using an endoscopic removal technique, assisted by a large amount of Coca-Cola infusion. PMID:23964339

Yang, Jee Eun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Kim, Gi Ae; Kim, Ga Hee; Yoon, Da Lim; Jeon, Sung Jin; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-07-01

252

[Gastrointestinal hemorrhage after operation for dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 45-year-old man who underwent surgical repair of a dissecting aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. 25 days postoperatively, the patient unexpectedly developed hematemesis and hypovolemic shock. Emergency gastroscopy was performed and a suspected aortoesophageal fistula was diagnosed. Unfortunately, the patient died prior to emergency surgery. Aneurysms of the aorta or of aortic grafts occasionally lead to the development of fistulae to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Once this rare, but life-threatening complication is suspected, endoscopy must be performed immediately. Emergency surgery is associated with a high risk, but represents the only possibly chance of survival for the patient. PMID:9553205

Kirchgatterer, A; Punzengruber, C; Zisch, R; Balon, R; Knoflach, P

1998-02-13

253

Fibre-Optic Endoscopy In Clinical Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Man's curiosity has led him to seek methods of investigating the inner workings of the human body, but it is only recently that it has become possible to properly visualise the inner cavities of the human frame. Physiologists such as William Beaumont have occasionally had the opportunity to see the function of the gastrointestinal tract, in this case the gastric fistula of Alexis St Martin who was injured following an accidental firearm explosion. Rigid instruments, down which lights are shone, can be used to visualise the respiratory passages, the gullet, the rectum, and the bladder, and in the past artists were employed to record what was seen. Such instruments are still in use, although light from a powerful source is now conducted down the instrument using a fibreoptic bundle. The first semi-flexible instrument which could be inserted into the stomach and used to visualise its walls was developed by Schindler and Wolf in Germany in 1932. The optics consisted of a series of convex-lenses, transmitting an image back to the eye, but again the view obtained was limited and since its optics were side viewing, the gullet could not be viewed. The advent of fibre-optics revolutionised the situation, and the first fibrescope conducting the image up a fibreoptic bundle was a side-viewing instrument, developed by Hirschowitz, Curtiss, Peters and Pollard by 1958, and used for viewing the stomach. Since those pioneering days, the development of fibrescopes for viewing every potential cavity in the human body has proceeded in leaps and bounds.

Jourdan, Martin H.

1985-08-01

254

Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy*  

PubMed Central

Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition of simethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and simethicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the small intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and small bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal small intestines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no effect on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean small intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side effects observed. PMID:19198022

Fang, You-hong; Chen, Chun-xiao; Zhang, Bing-ling

2009-01-01

255

Protein C deficiency related obscure gastrointestinal bleeding treated by enteroscopy and anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommonly encountered and difficult-to-treat clinical problem in gastroenterology, but advancements in endoscopic and radiologic imaging modalities allow for greater accuracy in diagnosing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Ectopic varices account for less than 5% of all variceal bleeding cases, and jejunal variceal bleeding due to extrahepatic portal hypertension is rare. We present a 47-year-old man suffering from obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple vascular tufts around the proximal jejunum but no evidence of cirrhosis, and a visible hypodense filling defect suggestive of thrombus was visible in the superior mesenteric vein. Enteroscopy revealed several serpiginous varices in the proximal jejunum. Serologic data disclosed protein C deficiency (33.6%). The patient was successfully treated by therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy and long-term anticoagulant therapy, which is normally contraindicated in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnostic modalities for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, such as capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, magnetic resonance enterography, and enteroscopy, were also reviewed in this article.

Hsu, Wei-Fan; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chung, Chen-Shuan

2015-01-01

256

A clinically viable capsule endoscopy video analysis platform for automatic bleeding detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic bleeding detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos for GI tract run about 8 hours and are manually reviewed by physicians to locate diseases such as bleedings and polyps. As a result, the process is time consuming and is prone to disease miss-finding. While researchers have made efforts to automate this process, however, no clinically acceptable software is available on the marketplace today. Working with our collaborators, we have developed a clinically viable software platform called GISentinel for fully automated GI tract bleeding detection and classification. Major functional modules of the SW include: the innovative graph based NCut segmentation algorithm, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant features, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling various GI tract scenes (e.g. normal tissue, food particles, bubbles, fluid, and specular reflection). Initial evaluation results on the SW have shown zero bleeding instance miss-finding rate and 4.03% false alarm rate. This work is part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. While the overall SW framework is designed for intelligent finding and classification of major GI tract diseases such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos, this paper will focus on the automatic bleeding detection functional module.

Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Xie, Jean; Mui, Peter; Leighton, Jonathan A.; Pasha, Shabana; Rentz, Lauri; Abedi, Mahmood

2013-02-01

257

GISentinel: a software platform for automatic ulcer detection on capsule endoscopy videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic ulcer detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos take about 8 hours. They have to be reviewed manually by physicians to detect and locate diseases such as ulcers and bleedings. The process is time consuming. Moreover, because of the long-time manual review, it is easy to lead to miss-finding. Working with our collaborators, we were focusing on developing a software platform called GISentinel, which can fully automated GI tract ulcer detection and classification. This software includes 3 parts: the frequency based Log-Gabor filter regions of interest (ROI) extraction, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant feature, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling "ulcer vs. non-ulcer" cases. After the experiments, this SW gave descent results. In frame-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 69.65% (319/458). In instance-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 82.35%(28/34).The false alarm rate is 16.43% (34/207). This work is a part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. The final goal of this SW is to find and classification of major GI tract diseases intelligently, such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos. This paper will mainly describe the automatic ulcer detection functional module.

Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Meng, Fan; Leighton, Jonathon A.; Shabana, Pasha; Rentz, Lauri

2014-03-01

258

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

259

Effects of the Oral Administration of Mosapride Citrate on Capsule Endoscopy Completion Rate  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In capsule endoscopy (CE), the capsule does not always reach the cecum within its battery life, which may reduce its diagnostic yield. We evaluated the effect of mosapride citrate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 agonist that increases gastrointestinal motility, on CE completion. Methods In a retrospective study, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses for 232 CE procedures performed at our hospital. To identify factors that affect CE completion, the following data were systematically collected: gender, age, gastric transit time (GTT), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, previous abdominal surgery, hospitalization, use of a polyethylene glycol solution, use of mosapride citrate (10 mg), body mass index (BMI), and total recording time. Results The univariate analysis showed that oral mosapride citrate, GTT, and BMI were associated with improved CE completion. Multivariate analyses showed that oral mosapride citrate (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.91) and GTT (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.87) were significant factors for improving the CE completion. Oral mosapride citrate significantly shortened the GTT and small bowel transit time (SBTT). Conclusions Oral mosapride citrate reduced the GTT and SBTT during CE and improved the CE completion rate. PMID:22844562

Ida, Yosuke; Hosoe, Naoki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Bessho, Rieko; Ichikawa, Riko; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori; Hibi, Toshifumi

2012-01-01

260

Small Bowel Endoscopy Diagnostic Yield and Reasons of Obscure GI Bleeding in Chinese Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the diagnostic yield and etiologies of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) using capsule endoscopy (CE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Method. We studied the data of 532 consecutive patients with OGIB that were referred to Xinqiao Hospital in Chongqing from December 2005 to January 2012. A lesion that was believed to be the source of the bleeding (ulceration, mass lesion, vascular lesion, visible blood, inflammation, or others) was considered to be a positive finding. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of CE and SBE and the etiologies of OGIB. Result. CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields, at 71.9% (196/231) and 71.8% (251/304), respectively. The most common etiology was erosions/ulceration (27.1%) followed by mass lesion (19.4%) and angiodysplastic/vascular lesions (13.9%). By stratified analysis, we found that erosions/ulceration (27.1%) was the most common etiology for the 21–40-year age group. Mass lesion was the most common etiology in the 41–60-year age group. However, in the >60 years age group, angiodysplastic/vascular lesions were significantly increased compared with the other groups, even though erosions/ulceration was most common. Conclusion. In this study, we found that CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields and erosions/ulceration was the most common reason for OGIB, followed by mass lesion and angiodysplasias. PMID:25183969

He, Ya-Fei; Hao, Ning-Bo; Yang, Wu-Chen; Yang, Li; Liao, Zhong-Li; Fan, Chao-Qiang; Yu, Jin; Bai, Jian-Ying; Yang, Shi-Ming; Guo, Hong

2014-01-01

261

Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo  

PubMed Central

Presently, clinicians routinely apply ultrasound endoscopy in a variety of interventional procedures which provide treatment solutions for diseased organs. Ultrasound endoscopy not only produces high resolution images, it is also safe for clinical use and broadly applicable. However, for soft tissue imaging, its mechanical wave-based image contrast fundamentally limits its ability to provide physiologically-specific functional information. By contrast, photoacoustic endoscopy possesses a unique combination of functional optical contrast and high spatial resolution at clinically-relevant depths, ideal for soft tissue imaging. With these attributes, photoacoustic endoscopy can overcome the current limitations of ultrasound endoscopy. Moreover, the benefits of photoacoustic imaging do not come at the expense of existing ultrasound functions; photoacoustic endoscopy systems are inherently compatible with ultrasound imaging, enabling multi-modality imaging with complementary contrast. Here, we present simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasonic dual-mode endoscopy and demonstrate its ability to image internal organs in vivo, illustrating its potential clinical application. PMID:22797808

Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

2013-01-01

262

Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.  

PubMed

A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

2012-09-01

263

Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome occurs most frequently in young adults in response to emotional and other factors. The 20th century western epidemic of diverticular disease may be linked to low dietary fiber intake. Peptic ulceration is determined by genetic and environmental factors including tobacco and coffee. Aspirin specifically predisposes to gastric ulcer. The incidence of peptic ulcer is declining. Crohn's disease is increasing in frequency although the incidence of ulcerative colitis is fairly steady. Gastrointestinal cancer is closely related to dietary factors including ingested procarcinogens, excessive carbohydrate, fat and animal protein. There is potential for control of some intestinal cancers. PMID:21301548

Smith, E. R.

1978-01-01

264

Upper Gastrointestinal Stent  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as well as malignant obstruction. In this review, the types, method of insertion, indications and clinical outcomes of stent in the upper GI tract would be discussed. PMID:23251886

Kim, Sang Gyun

2012-01-01

265

Imaging of gastrointestinal malignancies.  

PubMed

Many advancements in the imaging of gastrointestinal malignancies have been seen in the past year. Endorectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging with an endorectal surface coil allow for more accurate staging of the depth of bowel wall invasion by rectal carcinoma. Monoclonal antibody imaging may detect metastases not found by other modalities while computed tomography arterial portography and intraoperative ultrasound improve our ability to identify liver metastases. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in the preoperative assessment of esophageal cancer and pancreatic endocrine tumors. PMID:1511029

Trenkner, S W; Thompson, W M

1992-08-01

266

Small bowel tumors detected and missed during capsule endoscopy: Single center experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterize small bowel (SB) tumors detected by capsule endoscopy (CE), and identify missed tumors. METHODS: The study included 145 consecutive patients in whom 150 CEs were performed. Following CE, the medical records of the study population were reviewed. Results of double- or single-balloon enteroscopy performed after CE and the results of surgery in all patients operated on were retrieved. The patients were contacted through telephone interviews or postal mail. In addition, the national cancer registry and the polish clinical gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) Registry were searched to identify missed neoplasms. RESULTS: Indications for CE included overt and occult obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 81, 53.7%), anemia (n = 19, 12.7%), malabsorption (n = 18, 12%), abnormal CB follow through (n = 9, 6%), abdominal pain (n = 7, 5%), celiac disease (n = 5, 3%), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 3, 2%), Crohn’s disease (n = 2, < 2%), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (n = 2, < 2%), other polyposes (n = 2, < 2%), and diarrhea (n = 2, < 2%). The capsule reached the colon in 115 (76.6%) examinations. In 150 investigations, CE identified 15 SB tumors (10%), 14 of which were operated on or treated endoscopically. Malignancies included metastatic melanoma (n = 1), adenocarcinoma (n = 2), and GIST (n = 3). Benign neoplasms included dysplastic Peutz-Jeghers polyps (n = 4). Non-neoplastic masses included venous malformation (n = 1), inflammatory tumors (n = 2), and a mass of unknown histology (n = 1). During the follow-up period, three additional SB tumors were found (2 GISTs and one mesenteric tumor of undefined nature). The National Cancer Registry and Polish Clinical GIST Registry revealed no additional SB neoplasms in the post-examination period (follow-up: range 4.2-102.5 mo, median 39 mo). The sensitivity of CE for tumor detection was 83.3%, and the negative predictive value was 97.6%. The specificity and positive predictive value were both 100%. CONCLUSION: Neoplasms may be missed by CE, especially in the proximal SB. In overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, complementary endoscopic and/or radiologic diagnostic tests are indicated. PMID:24379629

Zagorowicz, Edyta S; Pietrzak, Anna M; Wronska, Ewa; Pachlewski, Jacek; Rutkowski, Piotr; Kraszewska, Ewa; Regula, Jaroslaw

2013-01-01

267

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A rare complication of acute cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Haemobilia is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis and may present as upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe two patients with acute cholecystitis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to haemobilia. Bleeding from the duodenal papilla was seen at endoscopy in one case but none in the other. CT demonstrated acute cholecystitis with a pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery in both cases. Definitive control of intracholecystic bleeding was achieved in both cases by embolisation of the cystic artery. Both patients remain symptom free. One had subsequent laparoscopic cholecystostomy and the other no surgery. DISCUSSION Pseudoaneurysms of the cystic artery are uncommon in the setting of acute cholecystitis. OGD and CT angiography play a key role in diagnosis. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) is effective in controlling bleeding. TAE followed by interval cholecystectomy remains the treatment of choice in surgically fit patients. CONCLUSION We highlight an unusual cause of upper GI haemorrhage. Surgeons need to be aware of this rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Immediate non-surgical management in these cases proved to be safe and effective. PMID:23856254

Nana, Gael R.; Gibson, Matthew; Speirs, Archie; Ramus, James R.

2013-01-01

268

Gastrointestinal medications and breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Medications used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms are increasingly being used as more have been gained nonprescription status. Most of the gastrointestinal medications, such as laxatives, antacids, and antidiarrheal agents, are used short term. Women who breastfeed should be aware of the risks of taking any medications, whether prescription or nonprescription. There is little information describing transfer into breast milk for many of these products. Cimetidine, atropine, cascara, cisapride, loperamide, magnesium sulfate, and senna are the only products identified by the AAP as compatible with breast feeding. Metoclopramide is listed by the AAP as a drug whose effect on nursing infants is unknown but may be of potential concern, although studies published to date have not reported any adverse effects. The safest laxatives and antidiarrheals are those that are not absorbed and should be considered first-line therapy for conditions of constipation or loose stools. Famotidine and nizatidine are excreted into breast milk to a lesser extent than cimetidine or ranitidine and may be the preferred histamine antagonists. Despite the limited data on the use of cisapride in nursing women, it is considered safe by the AAP and may be preferred over metoclopramide for first-line prescription treatment of heartburn. Although most of these agents appear safe in the nursing infant, caretakers should be aware of the potential adverse reactions that may occur in infants whose mothers require these products. PMID:10205441

Hagemann, T M

1998-09-01

269

Gastrointestinal complications of gastrocystoplasty.  

PubMed Central

The cases are reported of five children with chronic renal failure who underwent gastrocystoplasty for a variety of urological disorders. Gastrocystoplasty comprises the transplantation of a vascularised segment of stomach to the bladder to form an augmented neobladder. The patients had gastrointestinal complications after the operation, including considerable weight loss in all five patients, accompanied by marked failure to thrive in four of the five patients, and food aversion, feeding intolerance, dumping syndrome, delayed gastric emptying, and oesophagitis in two patients. Three of the five patients developed severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic cystitis secondary to gastric acid secretion in the neobladder from the transplanted gastric pedicle. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions were used to manage the gastrointestinal problems. Explanations are offered for the pathophysiology of the observed complications of gastrocystoplasty. It is believed that the use of this procedure in infants and children, particularly those with chronic renal failure and uraemia, warrants caution until successful long term follow up and experience with this procedure have been reported. PMID:1444527

Gold, B D; Bhoopalam, P S; Reifen, R M; Harvey, E; Marcon, M A

1992-01-01

270

Gastrointestinal manifestations of chagas' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease is an infectious disease that affects millions of people in Latin America and is increasingly seen outside endemic areas. A substantial number of patients develop gastrointestinal disorders secondary to lesions of the enteric nervous system. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge about gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas' disease, including disorders other than the well-known

Ricardo Brandt de Oliveira; LuizErnesto A. Troncon; Roberto Oliveira Dantas; Ulysses G. Meneghelli

1998-01-01

271

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal motility disorders encompass a wide array of signs and symptoms that can occur anywhere throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract. Motility disorders are often chronic in nature and dramatically affect patients’ quality of life. These prevalent disorders cause a tremendous impact both to the individual patient and to society as a whole. Significant progress has been made over the last

Brian E. Lacy; Kirsten Weiser

2006-01-01

272

Is Surveillance Endoscopy Necessary after Colectomy in Ulcerative Colitis?  

PubMed Central

The role of surveillance endoscopic followup in colectomized patients with long standing total colitis is controversial. Here, we aimed to clarify its usefulness for the early detection of dysplasia and cancer in this group of patients. Ninety-seven colectomised UC patients followedup by surveillance endoscopy were retrospectively investigated by reviewing the pathological reports. Patients had received either subtotal colectomy and ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA) or total proctocolectomy and ileal anal anastomosis (IPAA). Definite dysplasia was diagnosed in 4 patients, who had received IRA; among them, 2 were carcinoma with submucosal invasion, and one was a high-grade dysplasia. Postoperative surveillance endoscopy is useful for the detection of early cancer in the remaining colonic mucosa of UC patients, and those receiving IRA, in which rectal mucosa is left intact, would be good candidates. However, its effectiveness for patients receiving IPAA, in which the rectal mucosa is resected, needs further investigation. PMID:21991515

Shuno, Yasutaka; Hata, Keisuke; Sunami, Eiji; Shinozaki, Masaru; Kawai, Kazushige; Kojima, Tetsu; Tsurita, Giichiro; Hiyoshi, Masaya; Tsuno, Nelson H.; Kitayama, Joji; Nagawa, Hirokazu

2011-01-01

273

[Clinical nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases].  

PubMed

The association between nutrition and intestinal function is based on facts. The main function of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal diseases commonly result in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function. Parenteral and enteral nutritions are effective therapeutic modalities in several diseases. In cases of gastrointestinal malfunctions, nutrition has a direct therapeutic role. The benefit of nutrition therapy is similar to medical treatment in patients with pancreatitis, Crohn disease, hepatic failure, and in those with gastrointestinal fistulas. Nutrition has both supportive and therapeutic roles in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases can be reduced. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(51), 2034-2040. PMID:25497153

Hamvas, József

2014-12-01

274

Diagnosis of colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The magnifying colonoscope allows 100-fold magnified viewing of the colonic surface. Methods: We examined 2050 colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy, stereomicroscopy, and histopathology and classified these lesions according to pit pattern. Based on stereomicroscopy, lesions with a type 1 or 2 pit pattern were nontumors, whereas lesions with types 3s, 3L, 4, and\\/or 5 pit patterns were neoplastic

Shin-ei Kudo; Satoru Tamura; Takashi Nakajima; Hiro-o Yamano; Hisashi Kusaka; Hidenobu Watanabe

1996-01-01

275

Closing Perforations and Postperforation Management in Endoscopy: Esophagus and Stomach.  

PubMed

Luminal perforation after endoscopy is a dreaded complication that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, longer and more costly hospitalization, and the specter of potential future litigation. The management of such perforations requires a multidisciplinary approach. Until recently, surgery was required. However, nowadays the endoscopist has a burgeoning armamentarium of devices and techniques that may obviate surgery. This article discusses the approach to endoscopic perforations in the esophagus and stomach. PMID:25442956

Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Modayil, Rani; Friedel, David

2015-01-01

276

Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite  

PubMed Central

The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:16815798

Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

2006-01-01

277

Small-bowel capsule endoscopy: A ten-point contemporary review  

PubMed Central

The introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) in clinical practice increased the interest for the study of the small-bowel. Consequently, in about 10 years, an impressive quantity of literature on indications, diagnostic yield (DY), safety profile and technical evolution of CE has been published as well as several reviews. At present time, there are 5 small-bowel capsule enteroscopy (SBCE) models in the worldwide market. Head-to-head trials have showed in the great majority of studies comparable results in terms of DY, image quality and completion rate. CE meta-analyses formed the basis of national/international guidelines; these guidelines place CE in a prime position for the diagnostic work-up of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, known and/or suspected Crohn’s disease and possible small-bowel neoplasia. A 2-L polyethylene glycol-based purge, administered the day before the procedure, is the most widely practiced preparation regimen. Whether this regimen can be further improved (i.e., by further decreasing its volume, changing the timing of administration, coupling it with prokinetics and/or other factors) or if it can really affect the DY, is still under discussion. Faecal calprotectin has been used in SBCE studies in two settings: in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to evaluate the type and extent of mucosal damage and, more importantly from a clinical point of view, in patients with known or suspected Crohn’s disease for assessment of inflammation activity. Although there is still a lot of debate around the exact reasons of SBCE poor performance in various small-bowel segments, it is worth to remember that the capsule progress is non-steerable, hence more rapid in the proximal than in lower segments of the small-bowel. Capsule aspiration, a relatively unexpected complication, has been reported with increasing frequency. This is probably related with the increase in the mean age of patients undergoing CE. CE video review is a time-consuming procedure. Therefore, several attempts have been made to develop technical software features, in order to make CE video analysis easier and shorter (without jeopardizing its accuracy). Suspected Blood Indicator, QuickView and Fujinon Intelligent Chromo Endoscopy are some of the software tools that have been checked in various clinical studies to date. PMID:23840112

Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Karargyris, Alexandros

2013-01-01

278

Dual modality optoacoustic and laser ultrasound endoscopy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound endoscopy has been proven effective in identifying and staging relatively advanced tumors in esophageal or colon wall lining. When combined with optoacoustic imaging modality, the endoscopy examination may prove beneficial in detecting also early stage tumors as well as more accurate staging of advanced tumors based on functional - anatomical maps. Here we present a prototype of a dual-modality optoacoustic - laser ultrasound (OA-LUS) endoscopy system with enhanced imaging capabilities. The system consists of a rotating 90° off-axis parabolic reflector which is acoustically coupled to a flat 8-element transducer array. A parabolic mirror serves dual purpose of directing light towards a sample and reflecting incoming optically generated ultrasound signals towards a detector. LUS modality is enabled by placing an optically absorbing and acoustically transparent polymeric membrane in the path of laser light to generate broadband and non-reverberating transient ultrasound waves propagating towards the sample. Focused system detects ultrasound signals and reconstructs the image similar to optoacoustic mode. Presence of a delay between optically generated and reflected acoustic signals allows concurrent image acquisition in OA and LUS modalities.

Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

2014-03-01

279

Combined optical resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence micro-endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new micro-endoscopy system combining real-time C-scan optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy (OR-PAME), and a high-resolution fluorescence micro-endoscopy system for visualizing fluorescently labeled cellular components and optically absorbing microvasculature simultaneously. With a diode-pumped 532-nm fiber laser, the OR-PAM sub-system is capable of imaging with a resolution of ~ 7?m. The fluorescence sub-system consists of a diode laser with 445 nm-centered emissions as the light source, an objective lens and a CCD camera. Proflavine, a FDA approved drug for human use, is used as the fluorescent contrast agent by topical application. The fluorescence system does not require any mechanical scanning. The scanning laser and the diode laser light source share the same light path within an optical fiber bundle containing 30,000 individual single mode fibers. The absorption of Proflavine at 532 nm is low, which mitigates absorption bleaching of the contrast agent by the photoacoustic excitation source. We demonstrate imaging in live murine models. The system is able to provide cellular morphology with cellular resolution co-registered with the structural and functional information given by OR-PAM. Therefore, the system has the potential to serve as a virtual biopsy technique, helping researchers and clinicians visualize angiogenesis, effects of anti-cancer drugs on both cells and the microcirculation, as well as aid in the study of other diseases.

Shao, Peng; Shi, Wei; Hajireza, Parsin; Zemp, Roger J.

2012-02-01

280

Gesture analysis and immersive visualization for virtual endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve diagnosis and therapy planning with additional information in an easy to use and fast way a virtual endoscopy system was developed. From a technical viewpoint, virtual endoscopy can be generated using image sequencies acquired with CT or MRI. It requires appropriate software for image processing and endoluminal visualization and hardware capabilities for immersive virtual reality. This includes that firstly the intuitive user interaction is supported by data gloves, position tracking systems and stereo display devices. Secondly the virtual environment requires real time visualization supported by high end graphic engines to enable the continuous operation and interaction. To enable the endoluminal view, the precise segmentation of the inner lumina like tracheobronchial tree, inner ear or vessels is necessary. In addition to this pathological findings must be defined. We use automatic segmentation techniques like volume growing as well as semiautomatic techniques like deformable models in a virtual environment. After that the surfaces of the segmented volume are reconstructed. This is the basis for our multidimensional display system which visualizes volumes, surfaces and computation results simultaneously. Our developed method of virtual endoscopy enables the interactive, immersive and endoluminal inspection of complex anatomical structures. It is based on intensive image processing like 3D-segmentation and a so called hybrid technique which displays all the information by volume and surface rendering. The system was applied on virtual bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, angioscopy as well as endoluminal representation of the inner ear.

Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; Bruening, Roland; Scheidler, Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian

2001-05-01

281

Mosapride in gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

Mosapride was effective in improving overall symptoms in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, including chronic gastritis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and functional dyspepsia. Mosapride was more effective than teprenone in improving gastric stasis symptoms and gastric pain after 2 weeks of therapy (p < 0.001) in an open-label trial in 1042 patients with functional dyspepsia. Mosapride was as effective as famotidine and itopride, but more effective than tandospirone, in improving overall or individual symptoms of functional dyspepsia in randomized trials. However, in one randomized, double-blind trial in patients with mild to severe disease, the improvement in overall symptoms of functional dyspepsia did not differ significantly between mosapride or placebo treatment. Mosapride was well tolerated, with diarrhoea/loose stools, dry mouth, malaise and headache being reported in <5% of patients. PMID:18457463

Curran, Monique P; Robinson, Dean M

2008-01-01

282

Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

2013-01-01

283

Fulminant gastrointestinal bleeding caused by EBV-triggered hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and often fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, cytopenia, dramatically increased ferritin and hepatosplenomegaly. Here, we describe a previously healthy 39 year old pregnant woman in 30th week of her pregnancy with diarrhoea, intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding and fever of unknown focus. After cesarean section of twins in the 31st week she deteriorated with fulminant upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Gastro-, ileocolonoscopy and capsule endoscopy identified multiple bleeding punched ulcerations in the stomach, the entire small bowel and in parts of the colon. Emergency surgery with intraoperative endoscopy for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock resulted in the resection of actively bleeding ulcers in the jejunum which temporally stabilized the critically ill patient. Jejunal histology and in situ hybridisation showed extensive ulcerations, focal lymphohistiocytic infiltration and EBV-positive immunoblasts. The diagnosis fulminant EBV-related HLH was confirmed based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria and through detection of a reactivated EBV infection (up to 3?×?10(7) DNA copies/mL serum). Despite immunosuppressive therapy with steroids, cyclosporine A and etoposide in combination with Rituximab, the patient died from this sepsis-like, hyper-inflammatory syndrome in multiorgan failure with uncontrolled bleeding. PMID:24718941

Klein, S; Schmidt, C; La Rosée, P; Pletz, M; Harz, S; Dirsch, O; Fritzenwanger, M; Stallmach, A

2014-04-01

284

Occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Causes and diagnostic approach in 2009  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal bleeding can be obscure or occult (OGIB), the causes and diagnostic approach will be discussed in this editorial. The evaluation of OGIB consists on a judicious search of the cause of bleeding, which should be guided by the clinical history and physical findings. The standard approach to patients with OGIB is to directly evaluate the gastrointestinal tract by endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, angiography, radionuclide scanning, capsule endoscopy. The source of OGIB can be identified in 85%-90%, no bleeding sites will be found in about 5%-10% of cases. Even if the bleedings originating from the small bowel are not frequent in clinical practice (7.6% of all digestive haemorrhages, in our casuistry), they are notoriously difficult to diagnose. In spite of progress, however, a number of OGIB still remain problematic to deal with at present in the clinical context due to both the difficulty in exactly identifying the site and nature of the underlying source and the difficulty in applying affective and durable diagnostic approaches so no single technique has emerged as the most efficient way to evaluate OGIB. PMID:21160643

Bresci, Giampaolo

2009-01-01

285

Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

1986-11-01

286

Bringing Top-End Endoscopy to Regional Australia: Hurdles and Benefits  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on recent experience in setting up an endoscopy unit in a large regional hospital. The mix of endoscopy in three smaller hospitals, draining into the large hospital endoscopy unit, has enabled the authors to comment on practical and achievable steps towards creating best practice endoscopy in the regional setting. The challenges of using what is available from an infrastructural equipment and personnel setting are discussed. In a fast moving field such as endoscopy, new techniques have an important role to play, and some are indeed cost effective and have been shown to improve patient care. Some of the new techniques and technologies are easily applicable to smaller endoscopy units and can be easily integrated into the practice of working endoscopists. Cost effectiveness and patient care should always be the final arbiter of what is essential, as opposed to what is nice to have. Close cooperation between referral and peripheral centers should also guide these decisions. PMID:22991487

Van Den Bogaerde, J.; Sorrentino, D.

2012-01-01

287

Greek results of the “ENERGIB” European study on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background Non-variceal upper gastro-intestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common and challenging emergency situation. We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with NVUGIB in Greece. Methods ENERGIB (NCT00797641) was an epidemiological survey conducted in 7 European countries including Greece. It included adult patients with overt NVUGIB from 10 tertiary hospitals across Greece. Data for each patient were collected on admission and up to 30 days thereafter. Results 201 patients were enrolled. A previous history of NVUGIB was reported by 14% of patients, while 61% had ? 1 co-morbidities. At presentation, 59% were on therapy that could harm the gastrointestinal mucosa, 14% on anticoagulant(s) and 42% had sign(s) of hemodynamic instability. 54% of patients showed stigmata of recent hemorrhage. Therapeutic endoscopy was performed in 25% and blood product(s) transfusions were required in 86% of cases. Proton pump inhibitors were administered before and after endoscopy in 70% and 95% of patients, respectively. Uncontrolled bleeding or rebleeding was observed in 11% being more common in elderly, hospitalized patients and patients with ?1 co-morbidities. Second-look endoscopy was performed in 20%, angiographic intervention in 1.5% and surgical intervention in 4% of patients. Only 5/201 (2.5%) patients died during hospitalization and none died during the 30-day post-hospitalization period. Conclusions The majority of patients with NVUGIB in tertiary Greek hospitals are elderly, with co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability and required transfusion(s), while one fourth undergoes therapeutic endoscopic interventions. However, NVUGIB is associated with moderate degrees of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, low surgical rates and, most importantly, low mortality. PMID:24714268

Papatheodoridis, George; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Evgenidis, Nikolaos; Kapetanakis, Anargyros; Karamanolis, Demetrios; Kountouras, Jannis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Potamianos, Spyros; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalambos

2012-01-01

288

Negative surveillance endoscopy occurs frequently in patients with short-segment non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Surveillance endoscopy of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE) that fails to detect intestinal metaplasia (IM), or negative surveillance, is known to occur in clinical practice, although the frequency and possible outcomes in a large cohort in clinical practice is not well described. The goals of this study were to define frequency in which negative surveillance occurs and endoscopic outcomes in a screening cohort of short segment NDBE. A retrospective cohort (n = 184) of patients newly diagnosed with short segment NDBE at an outpatient academic tertiary care center between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed. Only those with one or more surveillance endoscopies were included to define a frequency of negative surveillance. Included patients were further assessed if they had two or more surveillance endoscopies and were classified into groups as sampling error or negative IM on consecutive surveillances based on the results of their surveillance endoscopies. The frequency of a negative surveillance endoscopy in all short-segment NDBE patients was 19.66% (92 endoscopic exams were negative for IM of 468 total surveillance exams). A negative surveillance endoscopy occurred in 40.76% (n = 75) patients. Sampling error occurred in 44.12% and negative IM on consecutive surveillance endoscopies in 55.88% of those with ?2 surveillance endoscopies and an initially negative surveillance exam. The frequency of negative IM on consecutive surveillances was 19.00% of all patients who had two surveillance endoscopies. When the index diagnostic Barrett's esophagus segment length was <1?cm, 32.14% (18/56) of all patients (with ?2 surveillance endoscopies) had negative IM on consecutive surveillance endoscopies. Negative surveillance occurs frequently in short-segment NDBE. When an initial negative surveillance endoscopy occurs, it may be due to either a sampling error or lack of detectable IM on surveillance exam. When a <1?cm segment of NDBE is diagnosed, a significant proportion of patients may go on to have continuously undetected IM on consecutive surveillance endoscopic exams without intervention. PMID:24943293

Melson, J; Desai, V; Greenspan, M; Yau, S; Abdalla, M; Dhanekula, R; Mobarhan, S; Shapiro, D; Losurdo, J; Jakate, S

2014-06-18

289

Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.  

PubMed

Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with abnormalities found in many other microcirculatory vascular beds. Gastrointestinal mucosal microcirculatory perfusion deficits have been associated with gut injury and a decrease in gut barrier function, possibly causing augmentation of systemic inflammation and distant organ dysfunction. A range of techniques have been developed and used to quantify these gastrointestinal perfusion abnormalities. The following techniques have been used to study gastrointestinal perfusion in humans: tonometry, laser Doppler flowmetry, reflectance spectrophotometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, orthogonal polarisation spectral imaging, indocyanine green clearance, hepatic vein catheterisation and measurements of plasma D-lactate. Although these methods share the ability to predict outcome in septic shock patients, it is important to emphasise that the measurement results are not interchangeable. Different techniques measure different elements of gastrointestinal perfusion. Gastric tonometry is currently the most widely used technique because of its non-invasiveness and ease of use. Despite all the recent advances, the usefulness of gastrointestinal perfusion parameters in clinical decision-making is still limited. Treatment strategies specifically aimed at improving gastrointestinal perfuision have failed to actually correct mucosal perfusion abnormalities and hence not shown to improve important clinical endpoints. Current and future treatment strategies for septic shock should be tested for their effects on gastrointestinal perfusion; to further clarify its exact role in patient management, and to prevent therapies detrimental to gastrointestinal perfusion being implemented. PMID:17933153

van Haren, F M P; Sleigh, J W; Pickkers, P; Van der Hoeven, J G

2007-10-01

290

Zn concentration in plasma and gastric fluid in patients with upper gastrointestinal disease  

SciTech Connect

Very few data are available about Zn in gastrointestinal fluids in humans. To obtain data in one such fluid Zn was measured in plasma and gastric fluid, obtained by direct visual aspiration through an endoscope placed into the gastric fundus, in 36 subjects with normal gastrointestinal mucosa (N) and in 36 patients with the following upper gastrointestinal pathology confirmed by endoscopy: 13 with esophagitis (E), 9 with gastritis (G) and 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Plasma and gastric fluid Zn were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean plasma Zn was significantly lower than normal in patients with E (N, 87 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl, M +/- SEM; E, 75 +/- 4, p < 0.01) but plasma values were similar to normal in the other patient groups (G, 89 +/- 4; DU, 87 +/- 2). Mean gastric fluid zinc in G was significantly higher than in normal subjects (G, 664 +/- 159 ..mu..g/L; N, 360 +/- 43, p < 0.02) but not significantly different from normal in patients with DU or E (DU, 402 +/- 76; E, 307 +/- 55). Mean gastric fluid Zn in women with DU was approximately 45% higher than in men with DU, although it was 17% lower in normal women than in normal men. Compared to other normal tissues gastric fluid Zn is about 1/3 that in serum and about 3 times that in saliva. These results indicate that Zn in plasma and gastric fluid is altered in some upper gastrointestinal diseases.

Kadakia, S.C.; Wong, R.H.K.; Maydonovitch, C.; Johnson, L.F.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

1986-03-05

291

Gastrointestinal complications after ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Stroke is associated with various non-neurological medical complications, including infections and thrombosis. Gastrointestinal complications after stroke are also common, with over half of all stroke patients presenting with dysphagia, constipation, fecal incontinence or gastrointestinal bleeding. These complications are associated with increased hospital length of stay, the development of further complications and even increased mortality. In this article we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of the most common gastrointestinal complications associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:25214444

Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Ibarra-Yruegas, Beatriz E; Gongora-Rivera, Fernando

2014-11-15

292

Comparison of esophageal capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy for diagnosis of esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of esophageal varices. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for variceal screening or surveillance underwent capsule endoscopy. Two separate blinded investigators read each capsule endoscopy for the following results: variceal grade, need for treatment with variceal banding or prophylaxis with beta-blocker therapy, degree of portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric varices. RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent both capsule and EGD. Forty-eight patients had both procedures on the same day, and 2 patients had capsule endoscopy within 72 h of EGD. The accuracy of capsule endoscopy to decide on the need for prophylaxis was 74%, with sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 82%. Inter-rater agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.56). Agreement between EGD and capsule endoscopy on grade of varices was 0.53 (moderate). Inter-rater reliability was good (kappa = 0.77). In diagnosis of portal hypertensive gastropathy, accuracy was 57%, with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 17%. Two patients had gastric varices seen on EGD, one of which was seen on capsule endoscopy. There were no complications from capsule endoscopy. CONCLUSION: We conclude that capsule endoscopy has a limited role in deciding which patients would benefit from EGD with banding or beta-blocker therapy. More data is needed to assess accuracy for staging esophageal varices, PHG, and the detection of gastric varices. PMID:18680226

Frenette, Catherine T; Kuldau, John G; Hillebrand, Donald J; Lane, Jill; Pockros, Paul J

2008-01-01

293

Can we improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel video-capsule endoscopy?  

PubMed Central

Video-capsule endoscopy has revolutionized the examination of small bowel mucosa. However, this modality is relatively young and its diagnostic yield is low. Herein, we discuss different approaches to improve examination’s diagnostic yield. There are strong data supporting some of them while there is speculation about the rest. As capsule endoscopy continues to evolve there is also a strong belief that technology will overcome at least some of the obstacles that hamper capsule endoscopy’s diagnostic yield sometime in the near future. PMID:21160741

Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

2010-01-01

294

Effect of pregnancy on gastrointestinal transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the possible effects of pregnancy-associated sex steroids on gastrointestinal function, we determined gastrointestinal transit times and sex steroid levels in 15 women during the third trimester of their pregnancies and again 4–6 weeks following delivery when gastrointestinal function had symptomatically returned to normal. Gastrointestinal transit time from ingestion of a liquid lactulose meal to its delivery

Arnold Wald; David H. Van Thiel; Leah Hoechstetter; Judith S. Gavaler; Kimberly M. Egler; Ray Verm; Larry Scott; Roger Lester

1982-01-01

295

Automatic small bowel tumor diagnosis by using multi-scale wavelet-based analysis in wireless capsule endoscopy images  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless capsule endoscopy has been introduced as an innovative, non-invasive diagnostic technique for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract, reaching places where conventional endoscopy is unable to. However, the output of this technique is an 8 hours video, whose analysis by the expert physician is very time consuming. Thus, a computer assisted diagnosis tool to help the physicians to evaluate CE exams faster and more accurately is an important technical challenge and an excellent economical opportunity. Method The set of features proposed in this paper to code textural information is based on statistical modeling of second order textural measures extracted from co-occurrence matrices. To cope with both joint and marginal non-Gaussianity of second order textural measures, higher order moments are used. These statistical moments are taken from the two-dimensional color-scale feature space, where two different scales are considered. Second and higher order moments of textural measures are computed from the co-occurrence matrices computed from images synthesized by the inverse wavelet transform of the wavelet transform containing only the selected scales for the three color channels. The dimensionality of the data is reduced by using Principal Component Analysis. Results The proposed textural features are then used as the input of a classifier based on artificial neural networks. Classification performances of 93.1% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity are achieved on real data. These promising results open the path towards a deeper study regarding the applicability of this algorithm in computer aided diagnosis systems to assist physicians in their clinical practice. PMID:22236465

2012-01-01

296

Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ) - Bowel Obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... making a picture of areas inside the body. Barium enema : A series of x-rays of the lower gastrointestinal tract . A liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) is put into ...

297

Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

298

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children  

PubMed Central

The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

Ambartsumyan, Lusine

2014-01-01

299

Gastrointestinal complications of oncologic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal complications are common in patients undergoing various forms of cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and molecular-targeted therapies. Many of these complications are life-threatening and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. Complications of oncologic therapy can occur in the esophagus (esophagitis, strictures, bacterial, viral and fungal infections), upper gastrointestinal tract (mucositis, bleeding, nausea and vomiting), colon (diarrhea, graft–versus–host disease, colitis

Marta Davila; Robert S Bresalier

2008-01-01

300

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

PubMed

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

301

Feline gastrointestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

The close relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its host has an impact on the health status of an animal that reaches beyond the GI tract. A balanced microbiome stimulates the immune system, aids in the competitive exclusion of transient pathogens and provides nutritional benefits to the host. With recent rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, molecular approaches have become the routinely used tools for ecological studies of the feline microbiome, and have revealed a highly diverse and complex intestinal ecosystem in the feline GI tract. The major bacterial groups are similar to those found in other mammals, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting more than 99% of intestinal microbiota. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that the feline microbiota can be modulated by the amount of soluble fibers (i.e., prebiotics) and macronutrients (i.e., protein content) in the diet. Initial clinical studies have suggested the presence of a dysbiosis in feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, metagenomic approaches have attempted to characterize the microbial gene pool. However, more studies are needed to describe the phylogenetic and functional changes in the intestinal microbiome in disease states and in response to environmental and dietary modulations. This paper reviews recent studies cataloging the microbial phylotypes in the GI tract of cats. PMID:22853923

Minamoto, Yasushi; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

2012-06-01

302

Evaluation of gastric submucosal tumors using endoscopically visualized features with submucosal endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Although the macroscopic characteristics of submucosal tumors (SMTs), such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), have been characterized, the assessment of SMTs by their endoscopically visualized features (EVF; which are observed by endoscopic imaging under direct view) remains unevaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of endoscopic diagnostics for SMTs using EVF. The EVF of 26 gastric SMT cases, in which the final pathological diagnosis was obtained by core biopsy using the submucosal endoscopy with mucosal flap method, were retrospectively reviewed. Each type of SMT was classified according to the following five EVF: Color, clarity, shape, tumor coating and solidity. Additionally, the EVF of 13 low-risk GISTs and 13 benign submucosal tumors (BSTs) were comparatively evaluated for the five abovementioned EVF. Similar trends were identified between the low-risk GISTs, granular cell tumors and the schwannoma with regard to EVF. However, while these tumors exhibited cloudy EVF, the leiomyomas tended to exhibit clear EVF. Among SMTs of the heterotopic pancreas type, the EVF demonstrated particularly small nodules of the pancreatic tissue itself. Although the sample size included in the present study is small, a classification system for gastric SMTs was proposed according to the EVF. When compared with the BST group, the GIST group demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tumors that exhibited a combination of three EVF (white, cloudy and rigid) that are consistent with all gastric GISTs (P<0.05). Gastric SMTs may be classified based on the EVF, which indicates that the EVF possess potential diagnostic value for the differentiation of GISTs from BSTs. PMID:24959238

KOBARA, HIDEKI; MORI, HIROHITO; RAFIQ, KAZI; MATSUNAGA, TAE; FUJIHARA, SHINTARO; NISHIYAMA, NORIKO; AYAKI, MAKI; YACHIDA, TATSUO; TANI, JOHJI; MIYOSHI, HISAAKI; KATO, KIYOHITO; KAMADA, HIDEKI; YONEYAMA, HIROHITO; MORISHITA, ASAHIRO; TSUTSUI, KUNIHIKO; IWAMA, HISAKAZU; HABA, REIJI; MASAKI, TSUTOMU

2014-01-01

303

Evaluation of gastric submucosal tumors using endoscopically visualized features with submucosal endoscopy.  

PubMed

Although the macroscopic characteristics of submucosal tumors (SMTs), such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), have been characterized, the assessment of SMTs by their endoscopically visualized features (EVF; which are observed by endoscopic imaging under direct view) remains unevaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of endoscopic diagnostics for SMTs using EVF. The EVF of 26 gastric SMT cases, in which the final pathological diagnosis was obtained by core biopsy using the submucosal endoscopy with mucosal flap method, were retrospectively reviewed. Each type of SMT was classified according to the following five EVF: Color, clarity, shape, tumor coating and solidity. Additionally, the EVF of 13 low-risk GISTs and 13 benign submucosal tumors (BSTs) were comparatively evaluated for the five abovementioned EVF. Similar trends were identified between the low-risk GISTs, granular cell tumors and the schwannoma with regard to EVF. However, while these tumors exhibited cloudy EVF, the leiomyomas tended to exhibit clear EVF. Among SMTs of the heterotopic pancreas type, the EVF demonstrated particularly small nodules of the pancreatic tissue itself. Although the sample size included in the present study is small, a classification system for gastric SMTs was proposed according to the EVF. When compared with the BST group, the GIST group demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tumors that exhibited a combination of three EVF (white, cloudy and rigid) that are consistent with all gastric GISTs (P<0.05). Gastric SMTs may be classified based on the EVF, which indicates that the EVF possess potential diagnostic value for the differentiation of GISTs from BSTs. PMID:24959238

Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Matsunaga, Tae; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kato, Kiyohito; Kamada, Hideki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Iwama, Hisakazu; Haba, Reiji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2014-07-01

304

[Upper gastrointestinal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock at the end of the holidays: pre-hospital and in-hospital management of a gastrointestinal emergency].  

PubMed

Upon returning from holidays, a 55-year-old patient presenting with melena and haemorrhagic shock was admitted to a University hospital after receiving first emergency medical care in a German InterCity train. In an interdisciplinary effort, haemodynamics were stabilised and the airway and respiratory function were secured. Under emergency care conditions the patient then underwent an emergency upper GI endoscopy where a spurting arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Forrest 1a) was found. While the bleeding could not be controlled with endoscopic techniques, definitive haemostasis was achieved with a surgical laparotomy. While not commonly established for patients with severe GI bleeding, by spontaneous implementation of an interdisciplinary trauma room approach following established trauma algorithms the team was able to achieve stabilisation of vital functions and final control of bleeding in this highly unstable patient. Although the majority of upper gastrointestinal bleedings spontaneously cease, emergency care algorithms should be developed and implemented for patients with severe gastrointestinal bleedings in shock. Following the case vignette, we discuss a potential approach and develop an exemplary protocol for shock room management in this patient subgroup. PMID:24824909

Nguyen-Tat, M; Hoffman, A; Marquardt, J U; Buggenhagen, H; Münzel, T; Kneist, W; Galle, P R; Kiesslich, R; Rey, J W

2014-05-01

305

Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images’ identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results: The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent. PMID:24179399

Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

2011-01-01

306

A new suspension device for laryngeal endoscopy in developing countries.  

PubMed

In view of the various technical and electricity maintainance problems with endoscopes in any developing country, a new suspension device for laryngeal endoscopy with a straight-bladed anaesthetic laryngoscope has been described. The advantages of this system are its small size, cheap cost, lack of a chest piece and the use of a non-failing battery source. It also makes use of bipod stands already available in a tonsillectomy set. It can be used in the countryside, and in out-patient and mobile clinics. PMID:3723000

Ijaduola, T G

1986-06-01

307

Colon capsule endoscopy: Current status and future directions  

PubMed Central

Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE; PillCam Colon; Given Imaging; Yoqneam, Israel) is a minimally invasive wireless technique for the visualization of the colon. With the recent introduction of the second generation colon capsule the diagnostic accuracy of CCE for polyp detection has significantly improved and preliminary data suggest it may be useful to monitor mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Limitations include the inability to take biopsies and the procedural costs. However, given the potentially higher acceptance within an average risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening population, its usefulness as a screening tool with regard to CRC prevention should be further evaluated. PMID:25469027

Tal, Andrea O; Vermehren, Johannes; Albert, Jörg G

2014-01-01

308

A low prevalence of H pylori and endoscopic fi ndings in HIV positive Chinese patients with gastrointestinal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract AIM: To compare the prevalence of H pylori infection, peptic ulcer, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and Candida esophagitis,in human,immunodeficiency virus,(HIV)- positive and HIV-negative patients, and evaluate the impact of CD4 lymphocyte,on H pylori and,opportunistic infections. METHODS:A total of 151 patients (122 HIV-positive and 29HIV-negative) with,gastrointestinal symptoms,were examined,by upper,endoscopy,and biopsy. Samples were assessed to determine the prevalence of H pylori infection,

Fu-Jing Lv; Xiao-Lan Luo; Xin Meng; Rui Jin; Hui-Guo Ding; Shu-Tian Zhang

2007-01-01

309

State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by microscopic techniques. In this respect, the challenging combination of autofluorescence imaging and confocal endomicroscopy seems promising, and further research is awaited. PMID:24868168

Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

2014-01-01

310

Probiotics and gastrointestinal health.  

PubMed

Evidence for positive health benefits of Lactobacilli applies to only a few strains used for commercial applications. It is generally agreed that a probiotic must be capable of colonizing the intestinal tract to influence human health; this requirement disqualifies many of the strains currently used in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus GG, a variant of L. casei sps rhamnosus, has been studied extensively in adults and children. When consumed as a dairy product or as a lyophilized powder, LGG colonizes the gastrointestinal tract for 1-3 days in most individuals and up to 7 days in about 30% of subjects. Traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis are improved with LGG. In infantile diarrhea, the severity and duration of the attack is reduced. LGG-fermented milk lessens the intestinal permeability defects caused by exposure to cows milk or rotavirus infection. LGG has proven beneficial effects on intestinal immunity. It increases the numbers of IgA and other immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. LGG stimulates local release of interferon. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. LGG also acts as an immunoadjuvant for oral vaccines. In an animal model of colon cancer, LGG reduced the incidence of chemically induced tumors in the large bowel of rodents. Extensive safety testing has shown no pathogenic potential in humans or animals. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacilli have the potential to bring substantial health benefits to the consumer. The purported benefits for any probiotic must pass the highest standards of scientific scrutiny before the claims can be accepted. PMID:10634218

Gorbach, S L

2000-01-01

311

Narrow-band imaging system with magnifying endoscopy for superficial esophageal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBy assessing the intrapapillary capillary loop in esophageal mucosa, magnifying endoscopy can play an important role in the evaluation of superficial esophageal lesions. A newly developed narrow-band imaging system was applied to magnifying endoscopy in a clinical setting; the benefit of the narrow-band imaging system was evaluated.

Tatsuya Yoshida; Haruhiro Inoue; Shinsuke Usui; Hitoshi Satodate; Norio Fukami; Shin-ei Kudo

2004-01-01

312

Second-Look Endoscopy after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Reducing Delayed Postoperative Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims This stuy evaluated the role of a second-look endoscopy after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients without signs of bleeding. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, 407 patients with gastric neoplasms who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for 445 lesions were retrospectively reviewed. After the patients had undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection, they were allocated to two groups (with or without second-look endoscopy) according to the following endoscopy. The postoperative bleeding risk of the lesions was not considered when allocating the patients. Results The delayed postoperative bleeding rates did not differ between the two groups (with vs without second-look endoscopy, 3.0% vs 2.1%; p=0.546). However, a tumor in the upper-third of the stomach (odds ratio [OR], 5.353; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075 to 26.650) and specimen size greater than 40 mm (OR, 4.794; 95% CI, 1.307 to 17.588) were both independent risk factors for delayed postoperative bleeding. Additionally, second-look endoscopy was not related to reduced delayed postoperative bleeding. However, delayed postoperative bleeding in the patients who did not undergo a second-look endoscopy occurred significantly earlier than that in patients who underwent a second-look endoscopy (4.5 and 14.0 days, respectively, p=0.022). Conclusions A routine second-look endoscopy after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection is not necessary for all patients. PMID:25170062

Park, Chan Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

2015-01-01

313

Current status of capsule endoscopy through a whole digestive tract.  

PubMed

More than a decade has passed since small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) was first reported. Small-bowel CE is a non-invasive tool that allows visualization of the entire small-intestinal mucosa and facilitates detection of small-intestinal abnormalities. Several studies have shown benefit of small-bowel CE for certain disorders. Because it is non-invasive, CE has been applied to other organs including the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The main indications for esophageal CE (ECE) are screening for gastroesophageal reflux disease/Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal varices. However, the clinical benefit of ECE is unconfirmed. Magnetically guided CE (MGCE) was developed to visualize the gastric mucosa. MGCE is a new concept with room for improvement of capsule navigation and the preparation protocol. Recently, two new small-bowel CE tools were released. First-generation colon CE (CCE-1) has moderate sensitivity and specificity compared with colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia surveillance. To obtain higher accuracy, a second-generation CCE (CCE-2) was developed with a high sensitivity for detecting clinically relevant polypoid lesions. A possible application of CCE is for inflammatory bowel disease. In the near future, CE may include diagnostic and therapeutic functions such as magnifying endoscopy systems, targeted biopsy forceps, and drug delivery systems. PMID:25208463

Hosoe, Naoki; Naganuma, Makoto; Ogata, Haruhiko

2014-09-11

314

Role of small bowel capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in elderly: A comprehensive review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common and often under recognized problem in the elderly. It may be the result of multiple factors including a bleeding lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty percent of elderly patients with IDA have a negative upper and lower endoscopy and two-thirds of these have a lesion in the small bowel (SB). Capsule endoscopy (CE) provides direct visualization of entire SB mucosa, which was not possible before. It is superior to push enteroscopy, enteroclysis and barium radiography for diagnosing clinically significant SB pathology resulting in IDA. Angioectasia is one of the commonest lesions seen on the CE in elderly with IDA. The diagnostic yield of CE for IDA progressively increases with advancing age, and is highest among patients over 85 years of age. Balloon assisted enteroscopy is used to treat the lesions seen on CE. CE has some limitations mainly lack of therapeutic capability, inability to provide precise location of the lesion and false positive results. Overall CE is a very safe and effective procedure for the evaluation of IDA in elderly. PMID:25024599

Muhammad, Adnan; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; Brady, Patrick

2014-01-01

315

Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis Presenting with Multiple Episodes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.

Kim, Sang Hyeon, E-mail: g4439@naver.com; Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Department of Pathology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

316

A Case of an Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Ruptured Dissection of a Right Aortic Arch  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a rare underlying cause. The patient was unconscious when he was admitted to the hospital. No chest radiogram was performed. Routine diagnostic measures, including endoscopy, failed to reveal the origin of the bleeding, which was believed to originate from the esophagus secondary to a peptic ulcer or varices. Exploratory laparotomy added no further information, but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the chest showed dextroposition of the widened aortic arch with a ruptured type-B dissection and a consecutive aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF). The patient died on the day of admission. Noninvasive MSCT angiography gives rapid diagnostic information on patients with occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding and should be considered before more invasive conventional angiography or surgery.

Born, Christine; Forster, Andreas; Rock, Clemens; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Rieger, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Ziemssenstrasse 1, D-80336 Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2003-09-15

317

Therapeutic Vaccines for Gastrointestinal Cancers  

PubMed Central

Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccine development, and we review most of the published trials on gastrointestinal cancer vaccines that have been conducted over the last decade. Many antigens and various treatment approaches have already been tested in colon, pancreatic, and other cancers. Some of these approaches have already shown some clinical benefit. In this paper, we discuss these different strategies and some of the future directions for targeting gastrointestinal malignancies with vaccines. PMID:22298988

Rahma, Osama E.

2011-01-01

318

Malakoplakia of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and pathological features of 3 cases of colonic malakoplakia are documented thereby bringing to 34 the total of recorded cases of malakoplakia involving the gastrointestinal tract. This is therefore the most common site of involvement outside the urogenital tract. A comprehensive review of the world literature on gastrointestinal malakoplakia has been made and the characteristic features of the condition have been delineated. There was a bimodal age incidence with a small cluster of cases occurring in childhood and associated with significant additional systemic disease. In the adult cases the average age was 57 years with a slight excess of males. The most commonly involved part of the gastrointestinal tract was the colon and colonic carcinoma was the most common associated disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7267514

McClure, J.

1981-01-01

319

Gastro-intestinal vascular emergencies.  

PubMed

Gastro-Intestinal Vascular Emergencies include all digestive ischaemic injuries related to acute or chronic vascular and/or haemodynamic diseases. Gastro-intestinal ischaemic injuries can be occlusive or non-occlusive, arterial or venous, localized or generalized, superficial or transmural and share the risks of infarction, organ failure and death. The diagnosis must be suspected, at the initial presentation of any sudden, continuous and unusual abdominal pain, contrasting with normal physical examination. Risk factors are often unknown at presentation and no biomarker is currently available. The diagnosis is confirmed by abdominal computed tomography angiography identifying intestinal ischaemic injury, either with vascular occlusion or in a context of low flow. Recent knowledge in the pathophysiology of acute mesenteric ischaemia, clinical experience and existing recommendations have generated a multimodal and multidisciplinary management strategy. Based on the gastro-intestinal viability around a simple algorithm, and coordinated by gastroenterologists, the dual aim is to avoid large intestinal resections and death. PMID:24160929

Corcos, Olivier; Nuzzo, Alexandre

2013-10-01

320

Gastrointestinal changes after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24359701

Quercia, I; Dutia, R; Kotler, D P; Belsley, S; Laferrère, B

2014-04-01

321

Targeted therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Increased understanding of cancer pathogenesis has identified several pathways that serve as potential targets for novel targeted agents in development. The selection of targeted cancer therapy based on biomarkers has instigated a new era of personalized medicine and changed the way we practice oncology. Many targeted agents are approved for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies most targeting tumor angiogenesis, and many more are in different phases of development. Here we briefly summarize nine different targeted agents that are approved currently in the U.S. and several other agents currently being studied in various gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24737952

Chhatrala, Ravi; Thanavala, Yasmin; Iyer, Renuka

2014-01-01

322

Motion management in gastrointestinal cancers  

PubMed Central

The presence of tumor and organ motions complicates the planning and delivery of radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Without proper accounting of the movements, target volume could be under-dosed and the nearby normal critical organs could be over-dosed. This situation is further exacerbated by the close proximity of abdominal tumors to many normal organs at risk (OARs). A number of strategies have been developed to deal with tumor and organ motions in radiotherapy. This article presents a review of the techniques used in the evaluation, quantification, and management of tumor and organ motions for radiotherapy of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24982771

Abbas, Hassan; Chang, Bryan

2014-01-01

323

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is not associated with proton pump inhibitors: A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the development of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. METHODS: All patients who were more than 20 years old and who had received a prescription for PPIs among those who visited Seoul National University Hospital from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009 were identified. Due to the low sensitivity of the microbiologic test and the nonspecific pathologic findings, the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis was confirmed through the presence of active ulcerations and the responses to anti-tuberculosis medications. The patients were divided into two groups according to treatment duration (group 1: ? 3 mo; group 2: > 3 mo) and were followed up from the time they took the first prescription of PPIs until their last visit. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the relative risks (RR) and 95%CI, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Among the 61??834 patients exposed to PPIs (50??534 in group 1; 11??300 in group 2), 21 patients were diagnosed with PPI-associated gastrointestinal tuberculosis during 124??274 person-years of follow-up. Of 21 patients, the 12 who revealed only scar changes in the colonoscopy were excluded from the statistical analyses. Of those who remained, 2 were excluded because they underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy within 4 wk of the first prescription for PPIs. Longer exposure to PPI was associated with a higher mean age (55.0 ± 14.5 in group 1 vs 58.2 ± 13.3 in group 2, P < 0.001) and a higher Charlson co-morbidity index (0.50 ± 0.93 in group 1 vs 0.77 ± 1.14 in group 2, P < 0.001). The true incidence of active gastrointestinal tuberculosis was 0.65 per 1000 person-years in group 1 and 0.03 per 1 000 person-years in group 2. Like the less-than-three-month PPI treatment period in group 1, the over-three-month PPI therapy period in group 2 was not associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis, after adjusting for age and co-morbidities, whereas the Charlson co-morbidity index was associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis based on the score [RR: (reference 1) in group 1 vs 1.518 in group 2; 95% CI: 1.040-2.216, P = 0.03]. CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI therapy does not seem to be associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis, but a higher Charlson co-morbidity index is associated with such. PMID:23345949

Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kang, Seung Joo; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Kim, Ju Han; Seo, Heewon; Lee, Suehyun; Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kim, Joo Sung

2013-01-01

324

Preoperative and intraoperative localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin.  

PubMed Central

In the past six years, 37 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin had their bleeding sites localised preoperatively or intraoperatively. Preoperative investigations followed a regime consisting of endoscopy, barium meal and follow through, small bowel enema, 99mTc pertechnetate scan, 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scan and selective coeliac and mesenteric angiography. Bleeding lesions were localised preoperatively in 36 patients. In one patient, diagnostic laparotomy had to be carried out immediately before any investigation because the bleeding was severe. At operation, angiosarcoma of ileum was found. Unless preoperative investigations showed the lesions to be in anatomically fixed organs like the duodenum or colon, the lesions had still to be found at operation. Palpation and transillumination detected the lesion intraoperatively in 21 patients while only some lesions were found in three patients with multiple lesions. Sigmoidoscopy through enterotomies was required in one patient. Intraoperative enteroscopy was done for small lesions not found grossly at operation in nine patients, to detect additional lesions in three patients or to rule out suspicious lesion shown on preoperative tests in one patient. In another patient with diffuse lymphoma of small bowel with bleeding from only a small segment of jejunum, injection of methylene blue intraoperatively through a previously placed angiographic catheter stained the bleeding segment of jejunum blue. This segment was identified easily and resected. These preoperative and intraoperative localisation procedures were simple and effective and we recommend them to be used more freely. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3498667

Lau, W Y; Fan, S T; Wong, S H; Wong, K P; Poon, G P; Chu, K W; Yip, W C; Wong, K K

1987-01-01

325

Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

2013-07-01

326

Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

2013-01-01

327

Development of enterohepatic fistula after embolization in ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with the formation of fistulas to adjacent organs in few case reports. However, GIST with enterohepatic fistula has not been reported. Here we report the case of an enterohepatic fistula that occurred after embolization of a liver mass originating in the distal ileum. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. On initial conventional endoscopy, a bleeding focus in the gastrointestinal tract was not found. Because of massive hematochezia, enteroscopy was performed through the anus. A protruding, ulcerative mass was found in the distal ileum that was suspected to be the source of the bleeding; a biopsy sample was taken. Electrocoagulation was not successful in controlling the bleeding; therefore, embolization was performed. After embolization, the patient developed a high fever and severe abdominal tenderness with rebound tenderness. Follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed an enterohepatic fistula between the liver and distal ileum. The fistula was treated surgically by segmental resection of the distal ileum and unlooping of the liver mass. PMID:24282371

Lee, Yun Ho; Koo, Ja Seol; Jung, Chang Ho; Chung, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jae Joong; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Choung, Rok Seon; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun

2013-11-21

328

Pediatric and Adolescent Gastrointestinal Motility & Pain Program  

E-print Network

Pediatric and Adolescent Gastrointestinal Motility & Pain Program Department of Pediatrics combinations of repeated audible swallows, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive gas, and/or excessive burping the abdomen flat by morning. The diagnosis of a pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorder like aerophagia

329

Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left heart assist devices  

PubMed Central

According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation. PMID:24714370

Bandorski, Dirk; Höltgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

2014-01-01

330

Automatic detection of small bowel tumors in capsule endoscopy based on color curvelet covariance statistical texture descriptors.  

PubMed

Traditional endoscopic methods do not allow the visualization of the entire Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (CE) is a diagnostic procedure that overcomes this limitation of the traditional endoscopic methods. The CE video frames possess rich information about the condition of the stomach and intestine mucosa, encoded as color and texture patterns. It is known for a long time that human perception of texture is based in a multi-scale analysis of patterns, which can be modeled by multi-resolution approaches. Furthermore, modeling the covariance of textural descriptors has been successfully used in classification of colonoscopy videos. Therefore, in the present paper it is proposed a frame classification scheme based on statistical textural descriptors taken from the Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT) domain, a recent multi-resolution mathematical tool. The DCT is based on an anisotropic notion of scale and high directional sensitivity in multiple directions, being therefore suited to characterization of complex patterns as texture. The covariance of texture descriptors taken at a given detail level, in different angles, is used as classification feature, in a scheme designated as Color Curvelet Covariance. The classification step is performed by a multilayer perceptron neural network. The proposed method has been applied in real data taken from several capsule endoscopic exams and reaches 97.2% of sensitivity and 97.4% specificity. These promising results support the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:19964706

Barbosa, Daniel J C; Ramos, Jaime; Correia, José Higino; Lima, Carlos S

2009-01-01

331

Intravital microscopy of subpleural alveoli via transthoracic endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer of too high mechanical energy from the ventilator to the lung's alveolar tissue is the main cause for ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To investigate the effects of cyclic energy transfer to the alveoli, we introduce a new method of transthoracic endoscopy that provides morphological as well as functional information about alveolar geometry and mechanics. We evaluate the new endoscopic method to continuously record images of focused subpleural alveoli. The method is evaluated by using finite element modeling techniques and by direct observation of subpleural alveoli both in isolated rat lungs as well as in intact animals (rats). The results confirm the overall low invasiveness of the endoscopic method insofar as the mechanical influences on the recorded alveoli are only marginal. It is, hence, a suited method for intravital microscopy in the rat model as well as in larger animals.

Schwenninger, David; Runck, Hanna; Schumann, Stefan; Haberstroh, Jörg; Meissner, Sven; Koch, Edmund; Guttmann, Josef

2011-04-01

332

Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to manipulate light in subwavelength photonic and plasmonic structures has shown great potentials in revolutionizing how information is generated, transformed and processed. Chemically synthesized nanowires, in particular, offers a unique toolbox not only for highly compact and integrated photonic modules and devices, including coherent and incoherent light sources, waveguides, photodetectors and photovoltaics, but also for new types of nanoscopic bio-probes for spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy and sensing. Such nanowire probes would enable us to carry out intracellular imaging and probing with high spatial resolution, monitor in-vivo biological processes within single living cells and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of cell functions, intracellular physiological processes, and cellular signal pathways. My work is aimed at developing a material and instrumental platform for such single nanowire probe. Successful optical integration of Ag nanowire plasmonic waveguides, which offers deep subwavelength mode confinement, and conventional photonic waveguides was demonstrated on a single nanowire level. The highest plasmonic-photonic coupling efficiency coupling was found at small coupling angles and low input frequencies. The frequency dependent propagation loss was observed in Ag nanowire and was confirmed by quantitative measurement and in agreement with theoretical expectations. Rational integration of dielectric and Ag nanowire waveguide components into hybrid optical-plasmonic routing devices has been demonstrated. This capability is essential for incorporating sub-100nm Ag nanowire waveguides into optical fiber based nanoprobes for single cell endoscopy. The nanoprobe system based on single nanowire waveguides was demonstrated by optically coupling semiconductor or metal nanowire with an optical fiber with tapered tip. This nanoprobe design requires minimal instrumentation which makes it cost efficient and readily adaptable to average bio-lab environment. These probes are mechanically robust and flexible and can withstand repeated bending and deformation without significant deterioration in optical performance, which offers an ideal instrumental platform for out subsequent effort of using these nanoprobes in chemical sensing as well as single cell endoscopy and spot delivery. Parameters affecting the coupling efficiency and output power of the nanoprobe were studied and chemical etched of single mode fiber with small cone angle was established to be optimized for highly effective optical nanoprobes. The versatility of the nanoprobe design was first tested by transforming the nanowire probe into a pH sensor with near-field photopolymerization of a copolymer containing pH sensitive dye on the tip of the nanowire. The pH-sensitive nanoprobe was able to report the pH difference in micro-droplets containing buffer solution with the excitation of light waveguided on the nanoprobe with internal calibration, fast response time and good photostability and reversibility. Such nanoprobe sensors are ideal for high definition spatial and temporal sensing of concentration profile, especially for the kinetic processes in single cell studies for which chemical probes of minute sizes and fast response are desired. The nanoprobe was then applied into spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy. It was demonstrated that nanowire-based optical probe can deliver payloads into the cell with a high spatiotemporal precision, guide and confine visible light into intracellular compartments selectively and detect optical signals from the subcellular regions with high spatial resolution. The nanoprobe was proven to be biocompatible and non-invasive. The effective optical coupling between the fiber optics and the nanowire enables highly localized excitation and detection, limiting the probe volume to the close proximity of the nanowire. None the less, this versatile technique does not rely on any expensive or bulky instrumentation, and relies only on micromanipulator and optical microscope th

Yan, Ruoxue

333

Electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for medical endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for endoscopy imaging is presented. The devices are supported by a single actuating cantilever to achieve a high fill factor, the ratio of mirror area to the combined mirror and actuator area. The largest fill factor devices (74%) achieved 10° mechanical scan range at +/?10V with a 300 ?m long cantilever. The largest angular displacement of 30° mechanical scan range was obtained with a 500 ?m long cantilever device with a 63% fill factor driven at 40 Vpp. A systematic investigation of device performance (displacement and speed) as a function of fabrication and operational parameters including the stress balance in the cantilever revealed unexpectedly large displacements with lack of inversion at the coercive field. An interpretation of the results is presented based on piezoelectric film domain orientation and clamping with supporting piezoelectric film characterization measurements. PMID:22773894

Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Dausch, David E.; Grego, Sonia

2012-01-01

334

Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests. PMID:25082182

Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

2014-10-01

335

Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

The present paper offers a detailed review of the oral manifestations of various gastrointestional diseases or conditions, with suggestions on how they may be relevant to the practice of gastroenterology. The review includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malabsorption conditions related to hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal malignancy metastatic to the jaws, jaundice and gastric reflux diseases. PMID:17431513

Daley, Tom D; Armstrong, Jerrold E

2007-01-01

336

Gastrointestinal Candidiasis: Fact or Fiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Candida albicans has long been acknowledged as a cause of vulvovaginitis, the clinical significance of gastrointestinal candidiasis (GIC) has been a subject of controversy. Although it is acknowledged that GIC can produce a disease state in immuno-compromised patients, it now appears pathologic GIC may be more prevalent than has been generally acknowledged. In recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, there is ample

Timothy C. Birdsall

337

Diagnosis of Adult Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Can Nasal Endoscopy Predict Intrasinus Disease?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To define the role of endoscopic evaluation of middle meatus in adult patients clinically diagnosed to have chronic rhino-sinusitis and its ability to predict intra-sinus mucosal involvement as compared to CT scan. Methods This prospective analytical study was conducted on consecutive patients with diagnosis of chronic rhino-sinusitis who were symptomatic and fulfilled the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Task Force criteria. The patients were enrolled prospectively and were subjected to rigid diagnostic nasal endoscopy and classified as defined by the revised Sinus Allergy Health Partnership Task Force criteria. The patients then underwent non contrast CT sinuses on the same day. Results were analyzed as a diagnostic test evaluation using CT as a gold standard. Results Among the 75 study patients with symptom based chronic rhino-sinusitis, nasal endoscopy was abnormal in 65 patients (87%). Of these patients, 60/65 (92%) showed positive findings on CT scan. Ten patients had normal endoscopy, of these 6/10 (60%) had abnormal CT scan. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic nasal endoscopy against CT scan were 91% (95% CI: 81-97) and 44% (95% CI: 14-79), respectively. The likelihood ratio for positive nasal endoscopy to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis was 1.6 and the likelihood ratio to rule out chronic rhino-sinusitis when endoscopy was negative was 0.2. Conclusion Nasal endoscopy is a valid and objective diagnostic tool in the work up of patients with symptomatic chronic rhino-sinusitis. When clinical suspicion is low (<50%) and endoscopy is negative, the probability of rhino-sinusitis is very low (<17%) and there is no need to perform a CT scan to reconfirm this finding routinely. Endoscopy alone is able to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis in >90% of patients when clinical suspicion is high (88%) as defined in this study by AAO-HNS Task Force criteria. Negative endoscopy, however, does not totally exclude the sinus disease in patients fulfilling task force criteria. CT scan may be needed on follow-up if there is clinical suspicion in 10% of these patients who are negative on endoscopy if symptoms persists. It is thus possible to reduce the number of CT scans if patients are carefully selected based on clinical criteria and endoscopy is done initially as part of their evaluation. PMID:24223247

Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Paul, Roshna Rose; Kurien, Mary; Kumar, Shyam; Al Abri, Rashid; Thomas, Kurien

2013-01-01

338

Impact of Endoscopy on Management of Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Endoscopy is performed frequently in children with chronic abdominal pain (CAP), but its impact on clinical management is\\u000a unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  We aimed to examine the frequency of changes in immediate medical management resulting from endoscopy with biopsy evaluating\\u000a CAP in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study to assess the frequency and determinants of management change in children\\u000a who underwent endoscopy

Kalpesh Thakkar; Faith Dorsey; Mark A. Gilger

2011-01-01

339

[Approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic anemia secondary to gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can cause asthenia, cognitive and functional impairment, and decompensation of underlying diseases. Iron deficiency anemia is not a disease but is the result of a potentially serious medical problem. Consequently, patients should always undergo investigation of the underlying cause. In men and postmenopausal women, the condition is caused by gastrointestinal loss and malabsorption of iron. In this group, recommended procedures are gastroscopy, colonoscopy and serological testing for celiac disease. If the results of these tests are negative, repeat examinations and iron therapy should be considered. In treatment-refractory or recurrent anemia, the small intestine should be investigated. In this case, the procedure of choice is capsule endoscopy. Iron deficiency anemia should always be treated until iron deposits have returned to normal levels. A wide variety of preparations are available, in both oral and parental formulations. PMID:25443541

Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Rodríguez-Alonso, Lorena; Guardiola Capón, Jordi

2014-10-16

340

Gastrointestinal bleeding as presentation of small bowel metastases of malignant melanoma: Is surgery a good choice?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Melanoma shows a particular predilection in involving small intestine both in a single site and in multiple localization and acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleedings are often the first sign of tumour. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report two cases of GI metastases of malignant melanoma, one presented with only a big mass that cause intestinal obstruction and the other with a tumour spread throughout the small intestine that produce enterorrhagia. DISCUSSION Diagnosis and follow-up are very difficult: CT scan, PET-CT scan and capsule endoscopy should be complementary for the assessment of patients with GI symptoms and melanoma history. CONCLUSION What is the role of surgery? Several studies suggest metastasectomy to achieve both R0 results and palliative resolutions of acute symptoms, such as obstruction, pain, and bleeding. PMID:25262323

Conversano, Angelica; Macina, Simona; Indellicato, Rocco; Lacavalla, Domenico; D’Abbicco, Dario

2014-01-01

341

[The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders].  

PubMed

Endoscopic ultrasound is one of those diagnostic methods in gastrointestinal endoscopy which has developed rapidly in the last decade and has became exceedingly available to visualize the walls of the internal organs in details corresponding to histological layers, or analyze the adjacent structures. Fine needles and other endoscopic accessories can be introduced into the neighbouring tissues under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound, and diagnostic and minimally invasive therapeutic interventions can be performed. The endoscopic ultrasound became more widely available in Hungary in recent years. This review focuses on the indications, benefits and complications of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. We recommend this article to gastroenterologists, surgeons, internists, pulmonologists, and to specialists in oncology and radiology. This recommendation was based on the consensus of the Board members of the Endoscopic Ultrasound Section of the Hungarian Gastroenterological Society. PMID:24681675

Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Hamvas, József; Pakodi, Ferenc; Szepes, Attila; Szepes, Zoltán

2014-04-01

342

Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy: A novel technique for in vivo cellular characterization of gastrointestinal lesions  

PubMed Central

While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:24976717

Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

2014-01-01

343

Prompt endoscopic diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: its value for specific diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

From July 1, 1973 to June 30, 1976 789 patients admitted as upper gastrointestinal bleeders had endoscopies performed within 24 hours after preliminary resuscitation and preparation. More than one lesion was found in approximately 45% of the patients. Erosive hemorrhagic gastritis was the most common lesion, being present in 27.3--48.2% of the subjects (the latter precentage was found in those with a history of intake of both alcohol and ulcerogenic drugs). Gastric ulcer was the next most common lesion, present in 16.3--18.42%; the higher percentage represents the patients who were taking ulcerogenic drugs. The highest incidence of gastric ulcer (19.59%) or duodenal ulcer (10.5%) was among the patients in a group who had no apparent definite cause for the bleeding. A small number of patients had rare causes for the bleeding and in only a small percentage of the patients was the cause not diagnosed. These data suggest that early endoscopy is of diagnostic value in upper G.I. bleeders leading to prompt, lifesaving management and prevention of prolonged morbidity. PMID:310287

Iglesias, M C; Dourdourekas, D; Adomavicius, J; Villa, F; Shobassy, N; Steigmann, F

1979-01-01

344

The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study. PMID:25381842

Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

2014-11-01

345

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal obstruction in sleep disordered breathing patients, evaluated by sleep endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of our study were to demonstrate the patterns and sites of the upper airway (UA) collapse in obstructive sleep\\u000a apnea\\/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients, utilizing the sleep endoscopy technique, and to describe the technique and summarize\\u000a our experience in a large series of patients. UA findings during sleep endoscopy with midazolam were examined prospectively\\u000a in 55 surgical candidates with

Gideon Bachar; Raphael Feinmesser; Thomas Shpitzer; Eitan Yaniv; Benny Nageris; Leonid Eidelman

2008-01-01

346

Consent, Common Adverse Events, and Post-Adverse Event Actions in Endoscopy.  

PubMed

Endoscopy constitutes a wide range of procedures with many indications. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and enteroscopy comprise the most commonly performed procedures. These examinations all carry risk to the patient, and incumbent in this is some legal risk with regard to how the procedure is conducted, decisions made based on the intraprocedure findings, and the postprocedure results, in addition to events that occur following the procedure. This article provides an overview of consent and complications of endoscopy. PMID:25442954

Adler, Douglas G

2015-01-01

347

Utilisation d'un laser argon ionis en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lsions hmorragiques  

E-print Network

of this system is to induce through endoscopy the hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the digestive tract. The blue385 Utilisation d'un laser à argon ionisé en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lésions'hémostase des lésions digestives hémorragiques. Il est réalisé avec un laser à argon ionisé dont le faisceau est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

[Familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis].  

PubMed

Twenty-seven cases of familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis are reported. There was no difference in pathology between 11 cases with familial involvement and 16 cases without. Juvenile, lymphoid as well as hyperplastic polyps coexisting with adenomas were found in a few cases. The risk of developing cancer in adenomas of 0.5 cm, 0.5-0.9 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm and 2.0 cm were 0%, 1.1%, 9% and 75%, respectively. Size seems to be the most critical and reliable indicator of malignant transformation. Proctectomy and colectomy of distal colon combined with removal of the adenomas equal to or larger than 1.0 cm through endoscope might be the better surgical intervention to avoid carcinomatous change. The term "familial polyposis coli" is suggested to be designated as "familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis". PMID:2855057

Li, L

1988-11-01

349

Primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumour  

PubMed Central

Primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare tumours and can be included as a differential for an expanding intraabdominal mass. We present the case, in our institution, of a 72-year-old male who presented with non-specific symptoms and was diagnosed with a primary mesenteric GIST following resection. We report his follow-up and discuss the current theories as to the origins of these rare tumours and current treatment modalities. PMID:24876518

Kirby, R.; Rajasagaram, N.; Ghusn, M.

2014-01-01

350

Detailed features of palisade vessels as a marker of the esophageal mucosa revealed by magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging.  

PubMed

The palisade vessels present at the distal end of the esophagus are considered to be a landmark of the esophagogastric junction and indispensable for diagnosis of columnar-lined esophagus on the basis of the Japanese criteria. Here we clarified the features of normal palisade vessels at the esophagogastric junction using magnifying endoscopy. We prospectively studied palisade vessels in 15 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using a GIF-H260Z instrument (Olympus Medical Systems Co., Tokyo, Japan). All views of the palisade vessels were obtained at the maximum magnification power in the narrow band imaging mode. We divided the area in which palisade vessels were present into three sections: the area from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) to about 1 cm orad within the esophagus (Section 1); the area between sections 1 and 3 (Section 2); and the area from the upper limit of the palisade vessels to about 1 cm distal within the esophagus (Section 3). In each section, we analyzed the vessel density, caliber of the palisade vessels, and their branching pattern. The vessel density in Sections 1, 2, and 3 was 9.1 ± 2.1, 8.0 ± 2.6, and 3.3 ± 1.3 per high-power field (mean ± standard deviation [SD]), respectively, and the differences were significant between Sections 1 and 2 (P= 0.0086) and between Sections 2 and 3 (P < 0.0001). The palisade vessel caliber in Sections 1, 2, and 3 was 127.6 ± 52.4 µm, 149.6 ± 58.6 µm, and 199.5 ± 75.1 µm (mean ± SD), respectively, and the differences between Sections 1 and 2, and between Sections 2 and 3, were significant (P < 0.0001). With regard to branching form, the frequency of branching was highest in Section 1, and the 'normal Y' shape was observed more frequently than in Sections 2 and 3. Toward the oral side, the frequency of branching diminished, and the frequency of the 'upside down Y' shape increased. The differences in branching form were significant among the three sections (P < 0.0001). These results indicate that the density of palisade vessels is highest near the SCJ, and that towards their upper limit they gradually become more confluent and show an increase of thickness. Within a limited area near the SCJ, observations of branching form suggest that palisade vessels merge abruptly on the distal side. We have demonstrated that palisade vessels are a useful marker for endoscopic recognition of the lower esophagus. PMID:22098187

Kumagai, Y; Yagi, M; Aida, J; Ishida, H; Suzuki, S; Hashimoto, T; Amanuma, Y; Kusano, M; Mukai, S; Yamazaki, S; Iida, M; Ochiai, T; Matsuura, M; Iwakiri, K; Kawano, T; Hoshihara, Y; Takubo, K

2012-08-01

351

Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal tissue, inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release, peristalsis, and cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions of longitudinal or circular smooth muscle. These are contractions evoked electrically or by agents that are thought to stimulate contractile transmitter release either in tissue taken from morphine pretreated animals (naloxone) or in unpretreated tissue (?-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine). The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastric emptying and intestinal transit are mediated to some extent by CB1 receptors in the brain as well as by enteric CB1 receptors. Gastric acid secretion is also inhibited in response to CB1 receptor activation, although the detailed underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Cannabinoid receptor agonists delay gastric emptying in humans as well as in rodents and probably also inhibit human gastric acid secretion. Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. Findings that the CB1 selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A produces in vivo and in vitro signs of increased motility of rodent small intestine probably reflect the presence in the enteric nervous system of a population of CB1 receptors that are precoupled to their effector mechanisms. SR141716A has been reported not to behave in this manner in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation (MPLM) of human ileum unless this has first been rendered cannabinoid tolerant. Nor has it been found to induce "withdrawal" contractions in cannabinoid tolerant guinea pig ileal MPLM. Further research is required to investigate the role both of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists and of non-CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent to which the effects on gastrointestinal function of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists can be exploited therapeutically has yet to be investigated as has the extent to which these drugs can provoke unwanted effects in the gastrointestinal tract when used for other therapeutic purposes.?? PMID:11358910

PERTWEE, R

2001-01-01

352

A general framework for wireless capsule endoscopy study synopsis.  

PubMed

We present a general framework for analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) studies. The current available workstations provide a time-consuming and labor-intense work-flow for clinicians which requires the inspection of the full-length video. The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) CE workstation will have a great potential to reduce the diagnostic time and improve the accuracy of assessment. We propose a general framework based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) for study synopsis that forms the computational engine of our CAD workstation. Color, edge and texture features are first extracted and analyzed by a Support Vector Machine classifier, and then encoded as the observations for the HMM, uniquely combining the temporal information during the assessment. Experiments were performed on 13 full-length CE studies, instead of selected images previously reported. The results (e.g. 0.933 accuracy with 0.933 recall for detection of polyps) show that our framework achieved promising performance for multiple classification. We also report the patient-level CAD assessment of complete CE studies for multiple abnormalities, and the patient-level validation demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods. PMID:24974010

Zhao, Qian; Mullin, Gerard E; Meng, Max Q-H; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Kumar, Rajesh

2014-06-10

353

Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: A 10-years journey.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE's diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations. PMID:25469028

Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

2014-11-28

354

Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: A 10-years journey  

PubMed Central

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE’s diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations. PMID:25469028

Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

2014-01-01

355

Molecular targeting as a contrast agent mechanism for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several mechanisms of action can be employed for a molecular imaging contrast agent for use with endoscopy. Targeting of cell surface molecules that are up regulated at an early disease stage, with a fluorescent labelled vector is one attractive approach. However, it suffers from the inherent limitation that the concentration of agent available is fundamentally limited by the concentration of receptor molecules available. Simple models indicate that for successful imaging with a targeting approach, the imaging system should be able to adequately image concentrations in the nanomolar region. Such low reporter molecule concentrations have implications for the choice of contrast agent. Target tissue size and location, the tissue native fluorescence contribution, the brightness of the reporter molecule, and photobleaching thresholds are all factors which contribute to the choice of reporter. For endoscopic imaging of millimetre sized target tissue volumes close to the surface Cy5 TM (650-700nm) wavelengths are preferable to Cy3 TM (550-600nm) and Cy7 TM (750-800nm). We have constructed a system optimised for sensitivity by tailoring light delivery, collection, filtering and detection, in order to address the fundamental technical performance limits for endoscopic applications. It is demonstrated through imaging system calibration, phantom based measurement and animal imaging data that low nanomolar concentrations of Cy5 based fluorescent contrast agent in millimetre sized superficial lesions are adequately imaged with a clinically relevant endoscope system in real time. It is concluded that targeting is a technically viable approach for endoscopic applications.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Tornes, A.; Johannesen, E.

2007-07-01

356

Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

2011-01-01

357

Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

2008-02-01

358

Validity of Self-Reported Endoscopies of the Large Bowel and Implications for Estimates of Colorectal Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-bowel endoscopy with removal of polyps strongly reduces colorectal cancer risk. In epidemiologic studies, ascertainment of large-bowel endoscopies often relies on self-reports and might be prone to imperfect recall. In 2003-2004, the authors assessed the validity of self-reported colorectal endoscopies in a population-based case- control study including 540 cases and 614 controls from southwest Germany and calculated odds ratios of

Michael Hoffmeister; Jenny Chang-Claude; Hermann Brenner

359

Endoscopic clipping in the lower gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic clipping has been established as a safe and effective method for the treatment of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in numerous randomized studies. Recently, clipping has been applied to various lesions in the lower gastrointestinal tract, including diverticular bleeding, postpolypectomy bleeding, and repair of perforations with successful outcomes. We review the safety and efficacy of this maneuver for the management of diseases in the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21160644

Hokama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kazuto; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

2009-01-01

360

Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains

Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

2009-01-01

361

Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.  

PubMed

Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

2013-09-01

362

Gastrointestinal problems at high altitude.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) problems at high altitude are commonplace. The manifestations differ considerably in short-term visitors, long-term residents and native highlanders. Ethnic food habits and social norms also play a role in causing GI dysfuntion. Symptoms like nausea and vomiting are common manifestations of acute mountain sickness and are seen in 81.4% short-term visitors like mountaineers. Anorexia is almost universal and has a mutifactorial causation including effect of hormones like leptin and cholecystokinin and also due to hypoxia itself. Dyspepsia and flatulence are other common symptoms. Diarrhoea, often related to poor hygiene and sanitation is also frequently seen especially among the short-term visitors. Peptic ulceration and upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage are reported to be common in native highlanders in the' Peruvian Andes (9.6/10000 population per year) and also from Ladakh in India. A hig h incidence o f gastriccarcinoma is also reported, especially from Bolivia (138.2 cases per 10000 population per year). Megacolon and sigmoid volvulus are common lower GI disorders at high altitude. The latter accounted for 79% of all intestinal obstructions at a Bolivian hospital. Thrombosis of the portosystemic vascultature and splenic hematomas has been reported from India. Malnutrition is multifactorial and mainly due to hypoxia. Fat malabsorption is probably significant only at altitudes > 5000m. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was found to be four times more common in babies born at high altitude in Colorado than at sea level. Gall stones disease is common in Peruvian highlands. A high seroprevalence of antibodies to H pylori (95%) has been found in Ladakh but its correlation to the prevalence of upper gastro-intestinal disease has not been proven. PMID:17542291

Anand, A C; Sashindran, V K; Mohan, Latika

2006-01-01

363

Clinicopathological features of narrow-band imaging endoscopy and immunohistochemistry in ultraminute esophageal squamous neoplasms.  

PubMed

To reveal clinicopathological features of narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy and immunohistochemistry in ultraminute esophageal squamous neoplasms. If a lesion diameter was smaller or same compared with a width of closed biopsy forceps, a lesion was defined to be an ultraminute lesion. Twenty-five consecutive patients with 33 ultraminute esophageal lesions that were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection were included in the present study. We conducted two questionnaire surveys of six endoscopists by their retrospective review of endoscopic still images. The six endoscopists evaluated the endoscopic findings of the ultraminute lesions on still images taken by conventional white-light imaging endoscopy and non-magnified NBI endoscopy in the first questionnaire, and taken by magnified NBI endoscopy in the second questionnaire. An experienced pathologist who was unaware of any endoscopic findings made histological diagnosis and evaluated immunoexpression of p53 and Ki67. The 33 ultraminute lesions were all determined to be either 11 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (HGIENs) or 22 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (LGIENs). The tumor diameters were histologically confirmed to be <3?mm. All of the ultraminute tumors were visualized as unstained areas and brownish areas by real-time endoscopy with Lugol dye staining and non-magnified NBI endoscopy, respectively. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as brownish areas by real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. Three of the 25 patients with the ultraminute IENs (12%) had multiple brownish areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as unstained areas by real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. Twenty of the 25 patients (80%) had multiple unstained areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. The first questionnaire survey revealed that a significantly higher detection rate of the ultraminute IENs on non-magnified NBI endoscopy images compared with conventional white-light imaging endoscopy ones (100% vs. 72%, respectively: P < 0.0001). The second questionnaire survey revealed that presence rates of any magnified NBI endoscopy findings were not significantly different between HGIENs and LGIENs. Proliferation, dilation, and various shapes of intrapapillary capillary loops indicated remarkably high presence rates of more than 90% in both HGIENs and LGIENs. Six of 22 LGIENs (27%) and 3 of 11 HGIENs (27%) show a positive expression for p53. None of peri-IEN epithelia was positive for p53. A mean of Ki67 labeling index of LGIENs was 33% and that of HGIENs 36%. Ki67 labeling index was significantly greater in the LGIENs and HGIENs compared with that in the peri-IEN epithelia. There were no significant differences in p53 expression and Ki67 labeling index between the HGIENs and LGIENs. Non-magnified/magnified NBI endoscopy could facilitate visualization and characterization of ultraminute esophageal squamous IENs. The ultraminute HGIENs and LGIENs might have comparable features of magnified NBI endoscopy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:23796261

Goda, K; Dobashi, A; Yoshimura, N; Chiba, M; Fukuda, A; Nakao, Y; Ohya, T R; Sasaki, Y; Kato, M; Aihara, H; Sumiyama, K; Toyoizumi, H; Kato, T; Tajiri, H; Ikegami, M

2014-04-01

364

Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray(®)), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper(®). Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

2014-08-15

365

Endoscopic features of gastro-intestinal lymphomas: From diagnosis to follow-up  

PubMed Central

Many progresses have been done in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas during last decades, especially after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori-dependent lymphoma development. The stepwise implementation of new endoscopic techniques, by means of echoendoscopy or double-balloon enteroscopy, enabled us to more precisely describe the endoscopic features of GI lymphomas with substantial contribution in patient management and in tailoring the treatment strategy with organ preserving approaches. In this review, we describe the recent progresses in GI lymphoma management from disease diagnosis to follow-up with a specific focus on the endoscopic presentation according to the involved site and the lymphoma subtype. Additionally, new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the management of gastrointestinal lymphomas are reported. We here discuss the two most common subtypes of GI lymphomas: the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and the diffuse large B cell lymphoma. A general outline on the state-of-the-art of the disease and on the role of endoscopy in both diagnosis and follow-up will be performed. PMID:25278693

Vetro, Calogero; Romano, Alessandra; Amico, Irene; Conticello, Concetta; Motta, Giovanna; Figuera, Amalia; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Bonanno, Giacomo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

2014-01-01

366

Endoscopic features of gastro-intestinal lymphomas: from diagnosis to follow-up.  

PubMed

Many progresses have been done in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas during last decades, especially after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori-dependent lymphoma development. The stepwise implementation of new endoscopic techniques, by means of echoendoscopy or double-balloon enteroscopy, enabled us to more precisely describe the endoscopic features of GI lymphomas with substantial contribution in patient management and in tailoring the treatment strategy with organ preserving approaches. In this review, we describe the recent progresses in GI lymphoma management from disease diagnosis to follow-up with a specific focus on the endoscopic presentation according to the involved site and the lymphoma subtype. Additionally, new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the management of gastrointestinal lymphomas are reported. We here discuss the two most common subtypes of GI lymphomas: the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and the diffuse large B cell lymphoma. A general outline on the state-of-the-art of the disease and on the role of endoscopy in both diagnosis and follow-up will be performed. PMID:25278693

Vetro, Calogero; Romano, Alessandra; Amico, Irene; Conticello, Concetta; Motta, Giovanna; Figuera, Amalia; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Bonanno, Giacomo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

2014-09-28

367

Upper Gastrointestinal Mucosal Injury and Symptoms in Elderly Low-Dose Aspirin Users  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated the prevalence, symptoms, and QOL impact of esophageal (EI), gastric (GI), and duodenal mucosal injury (DI) individually between low-dose aspirin (LDA) users and nonusers to reveal the clinical features of LDA-related mucosal injury. Methods. Data were extracted from the records of subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at our department between April 2008 and December 2013. Responses from 3162 elderly patients on Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and SF-8 QOL questionnaires (SF-8) were analyzed. FSSG items were classified into total score (TS), reflux score (RS), and dyspepsia score (DS). The SF-8 questionnaire consisted of the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Results. Prevalence among LDA users and nonusers, respectively, was 9.6% and 10.0% (P = 0.83) for EI, 35.9% and 27.5% (P = 0.0027) for GI, 3.3% and 3.4% (P = 0.84) for DI, and 8.2% and 5.2% (P = 0.036) for mucosal injury in 2 or more organs. LDA users diagnosed with EI had significantly lower PCS, LDA users diagnosed with GI had significantly lower DS, and LDA users diagnosed with DI had significantly lower RS and significantly lower MCS. Conclusion. These results provide important clinical information indicating that symptom-based management is not appropriate in LDA users regarding upper gastrointestinal mucosal injury.

Shimada, Yuji; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Asaoka, Daisuke; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Watanabe, Sumio

2015-01-01

368

Efficacy of ankaferd blood stopper application on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To prospectively assess the hemostatic efficacy of the endoscopic topical use of ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) in active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system (GIS) bleeding. METHODS: Endoscopy was performed on 220 patients under suspiciency of GIS bleeding. Patients with active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) with a spurting or oozing type were included. Firstly, 8-10 cc of isotonic saline was sprayed to bleeding lesions. Then, 8 cc of ABS was applied on lesions in which bleeding continued after isotonic saline application. The other endoscopic therapeutic methods were applied on the lesions in which the bleeding did not stop after ABS. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had an active NVUGIB with a spurting or oozing type and 193 patients were excluded from the study since they did not have non-variceal active bleeding. 8 cc of ABS was sprayed on to the lesions of 26 patients whose bleeding continued after isotonic saline and in 19 of them, bleeding stopped after ABS. Other endoscopic treatment methods were applied to the remaining patients and the bleeding was stopped with these interventions in 6 of 7 patients. CONCLUSION: ABS is an effective method on NVUGIB, particularly on young patients with no coagulopathy. ABS may be considered as part of a combination treatment with other endoscopic methods. PMID:23293725

Gungor, Gokhan; Goktepe, M Hakan; Biyik, Murat; Polat, Ilker; Tuna, Tuncer; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali

2012-01-01

369

Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors: in vitro studies and in vivo clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenges and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different levels of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. Fluorescence imaging has been one of the most promising technologies in this area. The technique is very topical with its practical application in intra-operative, image-guided resection of tumors, because it permits minimal surgery intervention and friendly therapeutic conditions. The investigations presented here are based on in vitro measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) for GIT neoplasia and in vivo measurements in the frames of initial clinical trial for tumor fluorescence spectra detection, applied for introduction of spectroscopic diagnostic system for optical biopsy of GIT tumors in the daily clinical practice of the University Hospital "Queen Jiovanna - ISUL"- Sofia. Autofluorescence and exogenous fluorescence signals are detected from normal mucosa, inflammation, dysphasia and carcinoma and main spectral features are evaluated. The systems and methods developed for diagnosis and monitoring could open new dimensions in diagnostic and real-time tumor resection. This will make the entire procedure more personal, patient friendly and effective and will help for further understanding of the tumor nature.

Angelova, L.; Borisova, E.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Keremedchiev, M.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

2013-11-01

370

Emergency single-balloon enteroscopy in overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

We aimed to evaluate the impact of emergency single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) on the diagnosis and treatment for active overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods SBE procedures for OGIB were retrospectively reviewed and sub-divided according to the bleeding types: active-overt and inactive-overt bleeding. The patient’s history, laboratory results, endoscopic findings and therapeutic interventions were registered. Emergency SBE was defined as an endoscopy that was performed for active-overt OGIB, within 24 hours of clinical presentation. Results Between January 2010 and February 2013, 53 SBEs were performed in 43 patients with overt OGIB. Seventeen emergency SBEs were performed in 15 patients with active overt-OGIB procedures (group A), which diagnosed the bleeding source in 14: angiodysplasia (n?=?5), ulcers/erosions (n?=?3), bleeding tumors (gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), n?=?3; neuroendocrine tumor, n?=?1), and erosioned polyps (n?=?2). Endoscopic treatment was performed in nine patients, with one or multiple hemostatic therapies: argon plasma coagulation (n?=?5), epinephrine submucosal injection (n?=?5), hemostatic clips (n?=?3), and polypectomy (n?=?2). Twenty-eight patients with inactive bleeding (group B) were submitted to 36 elective SBEs, which successfully diagnosed 18 cases. The diagnostic yield in group A (93.3%) was significantly higher than in group B (64.3%)—Fisher’s exact test, p?=?0.038. Conclusion This study revealed an important role of emergency SBE in the diagnosis of bleeding etiology in active overt OGIB. PMID:25452844

Pinho, Rolando; Rodrigues, Adélia; Fernandes, Carlos; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Fraga, José; Carvalho, João

2014-01-01

371

Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray®), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper®. Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

2014-01-01

372

Acute cholecystitis with massive upper gastrointestinal bleed: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication following cholecystitis. Its presentation with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is even rarer. Thirteen patients with cystic artery pseudoaneurysm have been reported in the literature but only 2 of them presented with UGIH alone. Case presentation We report a 43-year-old woman who developed a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm following an episode of acute cholecystitis. She presented with haematemesis and melaena associated with postural symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal ulcer with adherent clots in the first part of the duodenum. Ultrasonography detected gallstones and a pseudoaneurysm at the porta hepatis. Selective hepatic angiography showed two small pseudoaneurysms in relation to the cystic artery, which were selectively embolized. However, the patient developed abdominal signs suggestive of gangrene of the gall bladder and underwent an emergency laparotomy. Cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration along with repair of the duodenal rent, and pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy was done. Conclusion This case illustrates the occurrence of a rare complication (pseudoaneurysm) following cholecystitis with an unusual presentation (UGIH). Cholecystectomy, ligation of the pseudoaneurysm and repair of the intestinal communication is an effective modality of treatment. PMID:17386110

Saluja, Sundeep S; Ray, Sukanta; Gulati, Manpreet S; Pal, Sujoy; Sahni, Peush; Chattopadhyay, Tushar K

2007-01-01

373

Use of Provocative Angiography to Localize Site in Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Background. While the source of most cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding may be diagnosed with modern radiological and endoscopic techniques, approximately 5% of patients remain who have negative endoscopic and radiological investigations.Clinical Problem. These patients require repeated hospital admissions and blood transfusions, and may proceed to exploratory laparotomy and intraoperative endoscopy. The personal and financial costs are significant. Method of Diagnosis and Decision Making. The technique of adding pharmacologic agents (anticoagulants, vasodilators, fibrinolytics) during standard angiographic protocols to induce a prohemorrhagic state is termed provocative angiography. It is best employed when significant bleeding would otherwise necessitate emergency surgery. Treatment. This practice frequently identifies a bleeding source (reported success rates range from 29 to 80%), which may then be treated at the same session. We report the case of a patient with chronic lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage with consistently negative endoscopic and radiological workup, who had an occult source of bleeding identified only after a provocative angiographic protocol was instituted, and who underwent succeeding therapeutic coil embolization of the bleeding vessel.

Johnston, Ciaran, E-mail: ciaranjohnston@yahoo.co.uk; Tuite, David [St. James' Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland); Pritchard, Ruth; Reynolds, John [St. James' Hospital, Department of Surgery (Ireland); McEniff, Niall; Ryan, J. Mark [St. James' Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

2007-09-15

374

Method for tracking camera motion of real endoscope by using virtual endoscopy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method for tracking the camera motion of the real endoscope by using the virtual endoscopy system. One of the most important advantages of the virtual endoscopy is that the virtual endoscopy can visualize information of other organs that are existing under the wall of the target organ. If it is possible to track the viewpoint and the view direction of real endoscopy (fiberscope) in the examination of the patient and to display various information obtained by the virtual endoscopy onto the real endoscopic image, we construct a very useful system for assisting examination. When a sequence of real endoscopic images is inputted, tracking is performed by searching a sequence of viewpoints and view directions of virtual endoscope that correspond to camera motions of the real endoscope. First we roughly specify initial viewpoints and view directions that correspond to the first frame of the real endoscopic image. The method searches the best viewpoint and view direction by calculating matching ratio between a generated virtual endoscopic image and a real endoscopic image within the defined search area. Camera motion is also estimated by analyzing video images directly. We have applied the proposed method to video images of real bronchoscopy and X-ray CT images. The result showed that the method could track the camera motion of real endoscope.

Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Katada, Kazuhiro; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Natori, Hiroshi

2000-04-01

375

Targeting metastatic upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and biliary tree, have traditionally been difficult to treat with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. There has been little drug development success in treating these cancers over the last 20 years, perhaps a reflection of a combination of the aggressive biology of these tumors, the void in effective and specific drug development for these varied tumors, and the lack of properly designed, biologically-based clinical trials. Recently, so called “targeted agents” have risen to the forefront in the care of cancer patients and have made strong impacts in many areas of oncology, particularly gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), colon, breast, and lung cancers. Unfortunately, slow progress has been made using such agents in upper GI tumors. However, more recently, trials in some tumor types have demonstrated gains in progression free survival and overall survival. In this review, we discuss the drugs and pathways that have been most successful in the treatment of upper GI tumors and present the relevant data supporting their use for each tumor site. Additionally, we will explore a few novel pathways that may prove effective in the treatment of upper GI malignancies in the near future. PMID:21611088

Spratlin, Jennifer L; Chu, Quincy; Koski, Sheryl; King, Karen; Mulder, Karen

2011-01-01

376

Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

1992-01-01

377

Use of small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with chronic kidney disease: experience from a University Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Background There are only few reports on the diagnostic yield (DY) of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to report our SBCE experience in patients with CKD. Methods Retrospective study; case notes of patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) who underwent SBCE (March 2005-August 2012) for anemia and/or obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) were retrieved and abstracted. Severity of CKD was defined according to Renal Association recommendations as: stage 3 (eGFR: 30-59); stage 4 (eGFR: 15-29); and stage 5 (eGFR <15 or on dialysis). Results In the aforementioned period, 69 patients with CKD [stage 3: 65/69 (92.8%), stage 4 or 5:4/69 (7.2%)] had SBCE. 51/65 (78.5%) patients with stage 3 CKD had SBCE due to unexplained anemia and/or OGIB [43 (66.1%) and 8 (12.3%), respectively]. In 25/51 (49%), the SBCE was normal and in 17/51 (33.3%) showed small-bowel angiectasias. Other findings were active bleeding (n=2), fold edema (n=2), ileal erosions (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), and inconclusive/videos not available (n=3). All patients (n=4) with CKD grade 4 or 5 were referred due to unexplained anemia; 3/4 (75%) had angiectasias and 1 normal SBCE. Fecal calprotectin (FC) was measured in 12 patients with CKD stage 3 and unexplained anemia prior to their SBCE; no significant small-bowel inflammation was found in this subgroup. Conclusion SBCE has limited DY in CKD patients referred for unexplained anemia. Sinister SB pathology is rare, while the most common finding is angiectasias. Furthermore, FC measurement prior to SBCE -in this cohort of patients- is not associated with increased DY. PMID:25608445

Docherty, Emily; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Douglas, Sarah; Plevris, John N.

2015-01-01

378

Fecal calprotectin in patients with suspected small bowel disease - a selection tool for small bowel capsule endoscopy?  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Fecal calprotectin (FC) has been proposed as a selection tool for gastrointestinal examinations, but the use of FC in the diagnosis of small bowel disease in particular is less studied. The aim of this study was to assess if FC could be used to predict findings on small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). Material and methods. We retrospectively collected FC values, SBCE findings and clinical data in 161 patients with suspected small bowel disease referred for SBCE. Findings on SBCE were correlated with FC levels and the diagnostic value of FC was assessed. Results. Of the 161 patients, 37.3% had a positive FC and 29.8% had a finding on SBCE. Overall there was a significant difference in FC values between patients with any finding on SBCE and patients with a normal SBCE, but patients with ulcers/erosions was the only subgroup of patients with FC values significantly higher than patients with a normal SBCE. The proportion of patients with findings on SBCE increased with increasing FC value. A positive FC (?50 mg/kg) had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 54.2%, 69.9%, 43.3% and 78.2%, respectively, for predicting findings on SBCE. Conclusions. FC alone cannot be used as a selection tool for SBCE in patients with suspected small bowel disease in a specialist setting. However, a high FC value implies a higher probability of finding significant pathology on SBCE, and thus strengthens the indication for performing the examination. PMID:25591948

Olsen, Paul A S; Fossmark, Reidar; Qvigstad, Gunnar

2015-03-01

379

What Are the Key Statistics about Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the key statistics about gastrointestinal stromal tumors? Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ... They are slightly more common in men. Survival statistics for GIST are discussed in the section, “ Survival ...

380

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning.  

PubMed

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu Tian

2010-04-01

381

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning  

PubMed Central

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

2010-01-01

382

Gastrointestinal Manifestations of AIDS in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal manifestations of AIDS in children are related to opportunistic infections, lymphoproliferative disease, and cancer. The infections that affect the gastrointestinal tract at different sites also occur in patients without AIDS. However, in children with AIDS, the infections are more severe, often relapse, and are harder to eradicate. Candidiasis is the most common infection in the esophagus, but infections

Harris L. Cohen

383

Gastrointestinal nematodes, trace elements, and immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The exploration of the scientific literature on the interrelationship among trace ele- ments, gastrointestinal nematodes, and their requisite Th2 immunity demonstrates extensive literature but regrettably, research remains inadequate and sparse, with far fewer studies having investigated the interrelationship among trace elements and host immunity in infected hosts. Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, require activation

Kristine G. Koski; Marilyn E. Scott

2003-01-01

384

The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

2008-01-01

385

Pediatric and Adolescent Gastrointestinal Motility & Pain Program  

E-print Network

Pediatric and Adolescent Gastrointestinal Motility & Pain Program Department of Pediatrics pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders that prompt parents to bring their child to the doctor it is. Constipation is defined by a reduced stool frequency, or by painful bowel movements, even when

386

[Skin changes as signs of gastrointestinal disorders].  

PubMed

In many gastrointestinal disorders associated skin diseases and cutaneous signs can be seen as first manifestations and make a diagnosis of the internal disease possible. Gastrointestinal disorders with characteristic skin lesions include various tumors, inflammatory and vascular diseases. Knowledge of the clinical presentations and their associations is important both for dermatologists and gastroenterologists. PMID:24983198

Kulichová, D; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T

2014-07-01

387

Management of Antithrombotic Therapy for Gastroenterological Endoscopy from a Cardio-Cerebrovascular Physician's Point of View  

PubMed Central

Periprocedural management of antithrombotics for gastroenterological endoscopy is a common clinical issue. To decide how to manage the use of antithrombotics in patients undergoing endoscopy, the risk for hemorrhage and thromboembolism during the procedure must be considered. For low-risk procedures, no adjustments in antithrombotics are needed. For high-risk procedures with a low thromboembolic risk, discontinuation of warfarin at 5 days, and clopidogrel at 5 to 7 days before the procedure has been recommended. However, it is better to continue aspirin use even during high-risk procedures. A heparin bridging therapy may be considered before endoscopy in patients with a high thromboembolic risk. The management of patients taking antithrombotics remains complex, especially in high-risk settings. PMID:25133118

2014-01-01

388

Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review  

PubMed Central

Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule’s performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases. PMID:25278694

Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

2014-01-01

389

Endoprobe: A system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy  

SciTech Connect

Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5-mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a previously acquired positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) image of the phantom. The detection system successfully acquired estimates of the beta flux emitted from areas chosen by the user. Indeed, Endoprobe was able to assist in distinguishing simulated FDG-avid areas as small as 3.5 mm in diameter from normal esophagus (p value <0.025). In addition to FDG, Endoprobe can be used with other positron or electron-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 11}C or {sup 131}I. The next phase of this project will focus on modification of the prototype to make it more suitable for clinical use.

Raylman, Raymond R.; Srinivasan, Amarnath [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9236 (United States)

2004-12-01

390

Gastrointestinal manifestations in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

CFTR, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the gene product that is defective in cystic fibrosis, is present in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells from the stomach to the colon. In the foregut, the clinical manifestations are not directly related to the primary defect of the CFTR chloride channel. The most troublesome complaints and symptoms originate from the oesophagus as peptic oesophagitis or oesophageal varices. In the small intestinal wall, the clinical expression of CF depends largely on the decreased secretion of fluid and chloride ions, the increased permeability of the paracellular space between adjacent enterocytes and the sticky mucous cover over the enterocytes. As a rule, the brush border enzyme activities are normal and there is some enhanced active transport as shown for glucose and alanine. The results of continuous enteral feeding of CF patients clearly show that the small intestinal mucosa, in the daily situation, is not functioning at maximal capacity. Although CFTR expression in the colon is lower, the large intestine may be the site of several serious complications such as rectal prolapse, meconium ileus equivalent, intussusception, volvulus and silent appendicitis. In recent years colonic strictures, after the use of high-dose pancreatic enzymes, are being increasingly reported; the condition has recently been called CF fibrosing colonopathy. The CF gastrointestinal content itself differs mainly from the normal condition by the lower acidity in the foregut and the accretion of mucins and proteins, eventually resulting in intestinal obstruction, in the ileum and colon. Better understanding of the CF gastrointestinal phenotype may contribute to improvement of the overall wellbeing of these patients. PMID:8864667

Eggermont, E

1996-08-01

391

Neuroplasticity and dysfunction after gastrointestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by several distinct populations of neurons, whose cell bodies either reside within (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the gastrointestinal wall. Normally, most individuals are unaware of the continuous, complicated functions of these neurons. However, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and IBS, altered gastrointestinal motility, discomfort and pain are common, debilitating symptoms. Although bouts of intestinal inflammation underlie the symptoms associated with IBD, increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that infection and inflammation are also key risk factors for the development of other gastrointestinal disorders. Notably, a strong correlation exists between prior exposure to gut infection and symptom occurrence in IBS. This Review discusses the evidence for neuroplasticity (structural, synaptic or intrinsic changes that alter neuronal function) affecting gastrointestinal function. Such changes are evident during inflammation and, in many cases, long after healing of the damaged tissues, when the nervous system fails to reset back to normal. Neuroplasticity within distinct populations of neurons has a fundamental role in the aberrant motility, secretion and sensation associated with common clinical gastrointestinal disorders. To find appropriate therapeutic treatments for these disorders, the extent and time course of neuroplasticity must be fully appreciated. PMID:25001973

Brierley, Stuart M; Linden, David R

2014-10-01

392

A benign gastric ulcer eroding into a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.  

PubMed

Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding secondary to a ruptured splenic artery (SA) pseudoaneurysm into the stomach is a rare but a life-threatening condition. Owing to the low prevalence, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A frail 77-year-old Caucasian female presented with epigastric pain and hematemesis. Endoscopy was non-diagnostic for an etiology. She then underwent diagnostic angiography that revealed an SA pseudoaneurysm with active contrast extravasation into the stomach. Subsequent transcatheter arterial coil embolization was conducted of the SA. The patient was subsequently taken for a partial gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Diagnosis of an UGI bleeding secondary to a ruptured SA pseudoaneurysm into the stomach remains difficult. However, we report that in a hemodynamically stable patient, a multidisciplinary approach can be taken, with interval optimization of the patient prior to definitive surgery for a satisfactory outcome. PMID:25413998

Syed, Shareef M; Moradian, Simon; Ahmed, Mohammed; Ahmed, Umair; Shaheen, Samuel; Stalin, Vasanth

2014-01-01

393

A pedunculated polyp-shaped small-bowel lymphangioma causing gastrointestinal bleeding and treated by double-balloon enteroscopy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of a small-bowel lymphangioma causing massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding that we successfully diagnosed and treated using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). An 81-year-old woman suffering from repeated GI bleeding of unknown origin underwent a capsule endoscopy at a previous hospital. She was suspected of having bleeding from the jejunum, and was referred to our department for diagnosis and treatment. An oral DBE revealed a 20 mm × 10 mm, regularly surfaced, white to yellowish, elongated, pedunculated jejunal polyp with small erosions at 10 cm distal to the ligament of Treiz. Since no other source of bleeding was identified by endoscopy in the deep jejunum, an endoscopic polypectomy (EP) was performed for this lesion. A subsequent histopathological examination of the resected polyp showed clusters of lymphatic vessels with marked cystic dilatation in the submucosa and the deep layer of the lamina propria mucosae. These characteristics are consistent with the typical features of small-bowel lymphangioma with erosions. Although clipping hemostasis was performed during EP, re-bleeding occurred. Finally, a complete hemostasis was achieved by performing an additional argon plasma coagulation. PMID:23002353

Kida, Akihiko; Matsuda, Koichiro; Hirai, Satoshi; Shimatani, Akiyoshi; Horita, Yousuke; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Matsuda, Mitsuru; Ogino, Hidero; Ishizawa, Shin; Noda, Yatsugi

2012-01-01

394

Subject-friendly entire gastrointestinal screening with a single capsule endoscope by magnetic navigation and the Internet.  

PubMed

Ever since capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced into clinical practice, we gastroenterologists have been dreaming of using this less invasive modality to explore the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To realize this dream, we have developed a magnetic navigation system which includes real-time internet streaming of endoscopic video and some useful gadgets (position detection by means of magnetic impedance (MI) sensors and a modified capsule that is "weightless" in water). The design of the weightless capsule made it possible with 0.5T (Tesla) extracorporeal magnets to control the capsule beyond 20cm. A pair of MI sensors on the body surface could detect subtle magnetic flux generated by an intra-capsular magnet in the GI tract by utilizing the space diversity effect which eliminated the interference of terrestrial magnetism. Subjects underwent CE, during which they were free from confinement in the hospital, except for 1 hour when the capsule was manipulated in the stomach and colon. This study had a completion rate of 97.5%. The high completion rate indicates that our system (single capsule endoscopy-SCE) with further improvements could become a viable modality for screening of the entire GI tract. PMID:25571606

Ohta, Hidetoshi; Katsuki, Shinichi

2014-08-01

395

Single-center experience of 309 consecutive patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy (CE) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), and to determine whether the yield was affected by different bleeding status. METHODS: Three hundred and nine consecutive patients (all with recent negative gastric and colonic endoscopy results) were investigated with CE; 49 cases with massive bleeding and 260 cases with chronic recurrent overt bleeding. Data regarding OGIB were obtained by retrospective chart review and review of an internal database of CE findings. RESULTS: Visualization of the entire small intestine was achieved in 81.88% (253/309) of cases. Clinically positive findings occurred in 53.72% (166/309) of cases. The positivity of the massive bleeding group was slightly higher than that of the chronic recurrent overt bleeding group but there was no significant difference (59.18% vs 52.69%, P > 0.05) between the two groups. Small intestinal tumors were the most common finding in the entire cohort, these accounted for 30% of clinically significant lesions. In the chronic recurrent overt bleeding group angioectasia incidence reached more than 29%, while in the massive bleeding group, small intestinal tumors were the most common finding at an incidence of over 51%. Increasing patient age was associated with positive diagnostic yield of CE and the findings of OGIB were different according to age range. Four cases were compromised due to the capsule remaining in the stomach during the entire test, and another patient underwent emergency surgery for massive bleeding. Therefore, the complication rate was 1.3%. CONCLUSION: In this study CE was proven to be a safe, comfortable, and effective procedure, with a high rate of accuracy for diagnosing OGIB. PMID:19960574

Zhang, Bing-Ling; Fang, You-Hong; Chen, Chun-Xiao; Li, You-Ming; Xiang, Zun

2009-01-01

396

Prediction scores or gastroenterologists’ Gut Feeling for triaging patients that present with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several prediction scores for triaging patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding have been developed, yet these scores have never been compared to the current gold standard, which is the clinical evaluation by a gastroenterologist. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of prediction scores to gastroenterologists’ Gut Feeling in patients with a suspected upper GI bleeding. Methods We prospectively evaluated Gut Feeling of senior gastroenterologists and asked them to estimate: (1) the risk that a clinical intervention is needed; (2) the risk of rebleeding; and (3) the risk of mortality in patients presenting with suspected upper GI bleeding, subdivided into low, medium, or high risk. The predictive value of the gastroenterologists’ Gut Feeling was compared to the Blatchford and Rockall scores for various outcomes. Results We included 974 patients, of which 667 patients (68.8%) underwent a clinical intervention. During the 30-day follow up, 140 patients (14.4%) developed recurrent bleeding and 44 patients (4.5%) died. Gut Feeling was independently associated with all studied outcomes, except for the predicted mortality after endoscopy. Predictive power, based on the AUC of the Blatchford and Rockall prediction scores, was higher than the Gut Feeling of the gastroenterologists. However, combining both the Blatchford and Rockall scores and the Gut Feeling yielded the highest predictive power for the need of an intervention (AUC 0.88), rebleeding (AUC 0.73), and mortality (AUC 0.71 predicted before and 0.77 predicted after endoscopy, respectively). Conclusions Gut Feeling is an independent predictor for the need of a clinical intervention, rebleeding, and mortality in patients presenting with upper GI bleeding; however, the Blatchford and Rockall scores are stronger predictors for these outcomes. Combining Gut Feeling with the Blatchford and Rockall scores resulted in the most optimal prediction. PMID:25360303

van Oijen, MGH; Kessels, K; Hemmink, M; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Hazen, WL; van Lelyveld, N; Vermeijden, JR; Curvers, WL; Baak, LC; Verburg, R; Bosman, JH; de Wijkerslooth, LRH; de Rooij, J; Venneman, NG; Pennings, M; van Hee, K; Scheffer, RCH; van Eijk, RL; Meiland, R; Siersema, PD; Bredenoord, AJ

2014-01-01

397

An improved YEF-DCT based compression algorithm for video capsule endoscopy.  

PubMed

Video capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive technique to receive images of intestine for medical diagnostics. The main design challenges of endoscopy capsule are accruing and transmitting acceptable quality images by utilizing as less hardware and battery power as possible. In order to save wireless transmission power and bandwidth, an efficient image compression algorithm needs to be implemented inside the endoscopy electronic capsule. In this paper, an integer discrete-cosine-transform (DCT) based algorithm is presented that works on a low-complexity color-space specially designed for wireless capsule endoscopy application. First of all, thousands of human endoscopic images and video frames have been analyzed to identify special intestinal features present in those frames. Then a color space, referred as YEF, is used. The YEF converter is lossless and takes only a few adders and shift operation to implement. A low-cost quantization scheme with variable chroma sub-sampling options is also implemented to achieve higher compression. Comparing with the existing works, the proposed transform coding based compressor performs strongly with an average compression ratio of 85% and a high image quality index, peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 52 dB. PMID:25570486

Mostafa, Atahar; Khan, Tareq; Wahid, Khan

2014-08-01

398

The role of contact endoscopy in screening for premalignant laryngeal lesions: a study of 141 patients.  

PubMed

At their earliest stage, pathologic lesions of the laryngeal epithelium are macroscopically invisible. Ideally, these lesions should be detected before their clinical manifestations appear so that prompt management can be initiated. However, most diagnostic modalities are unable to detect early premalignant lesions. We conducted a retrospective study of the use of contact endoscopy in analyzing the vocal fold mucosal epithelium in adults who had been operated on at our hospital under general anesthesia for various nonlaryngeal diseases. After we identified 71 such patients who were smokers, we chose an almost equal number of nonsmokers (n = 70) for comparison purposes. In all, our study population was made up of 141 patients--51 men and 90 women, aged 21 to 78 years (mean: 52). All patients had normal findings on preoperative laryngeal endoscopy. Our goal was to determine if the routine use of this diagnostic modality is justified in selected cases. Contact endoscopy identified dysplastic vocal fold lesions in 4 patients and chronic laryngitis in 3; all 7 of these patients were smokers. Since early laryngeal lesions are not macroscopically evident, early detection of these changes by other means is associated with a better prognosis and easier management. Our study demonstrates that the use of contact endoscopy during general anesthesia as a standard diagnostic method in long-time cigarette smokers is fully justified. PMID:24817233

Klan?nik, Marisa; Glun?i?, Ivo; Cikojevi?, Draško

2014-01-01

399

Topical anesthetic preparations for rigid and flexible endoscopy: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Transnasal endoscopy can cause pain or discomfort for the patient. Topical anesthetic has been used in an attempt to reduce this. However, there is no consensus on whether topical anesthetic is effective in optimizing patient experience during the procedure. The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy of topical anesthetic on pain and comfort outcomes during endoscopy. Two authors independently searched the databases from inception to September 2013. Studies comparing topical anesthetic with placebo where the outcomes of interest were pain, comfort, or side effect outcomes were included. Sufficient data for meta-analysis were retrieved for ten trials with a total of 837 patients. The evidence suggests that local anesthetic alone or in combination with a vasoconstrictor is beneficial to patients' pain [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.21; p = 0.045] and comfort (SMD = -0.51; p < 0.001) outcomes when performing transnasal endoscopy. However, the topical anesthetic caused unpleasant sensation with respect to an unpleasant taste (SMD = 0.77; p < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference between a topical anesthetic spray and cotton type in pain and discomfort values. Applying topical anesthetic during transnasal endoscopy could reduce pain and discomfort. The spray and cotton type methods of topical anesthetic preparation showed no significant difference in terms of pain and discomfort during the procedure. However, further trials with good research methodology should be conducted to confirm our results. PMID:24682602

Hwang, Se Hwan; Park, Chan-Soon; Kim, Byung Guk; Cho, Jin Hee; Kang, Jun Myung

2015-02-01

400

Implementation, Calibration and Accuracy Testing of an Image-Enhanced Endoscopy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for image-guided surgery called image-enhanced endoscopy. Registered real and virtual endoscopic images (perspective volume renderings generated from the same view as the endoscope camera using a preoperative image) are displayed simultaneously; when combined with the ability to vary tissue transparency in the virtual images, this provides surgeons with the ability to see beyond visible

Ramin Shahidi; Michael R. Bax; Calvin R. Maurer Jr.; Jeremy A. Johnson; Eric P. Wilkinson; Bai Wang; Jay B. West; Martin J. Citardi; Kim H. Manwaring; Rasool Khadem

2002-01-01

401

Implementation of HACCP in the risk management of medical waste generated from endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical waste poses health hazards, increases the environmental load and is costly to dispose of. To solve the above problems, we applied the hazard analysis and critical control point system (HACCP) to the management of wastes generated from endoscopy. First, the wastes in three hospitals were quantified. The number and weight of waste per case differed significantly among the three

Shinji Kojima; Masahiko Kato; Noriko Sakano; Masafumi Fujii; Keiki Ogino

2008-01-01

402

The relationship between AHI, Epworth scores and sleep endoscopy in patients with OSAS.  

PubMed

This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep endoscopy findings, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or the Epworth sleepiness scale in patients and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Patients with symptoms of OSAS were searched, and their polysomnography findings, Epworth sleepiness scales and sleep endoscopy findings were recorded. Those who were diagnosed with mild, moderate or heavy OSAS were included in the study. Patients included in the study were observed under sedative-induced sleep in the operation room using flexible nasopharyngoscopy. The obstruction levels and degrees were recorded and compared with other variables. Of the 88 patients included in the study, 67 (76.1 %) were male, and 21 (23.9 %) were female. The mean age (±standard deviation) of all 88 patients was 43.77 ± 10.07 years (range 21-65 years). Sleep endoscopy findings were classified as uvulopalatal, lateral pharyngeal, tongue base and laryngeal collapses. The Epworth sleepiness scale showed no significant correlation with the sleep endoscopy findings. No significant relationship was found between the AHI and collapses in the uvulopalatal, lateral and laryngeal zones (p > 0.05). However, tongue base collapse was correlated with AHI (p < 0.05). AHI increased with the degree of collapse in the tongue base. No meaningful relationship was noted among the Epworth sleepiness scale, AHI, and number of involved zones (p > 0.05). The degree of collapse in the related zones was not meaningfully associated with AHI, which is accepted as the indicator of disease severity. PMID:25091323

Belgü, Ayfer Ulçay; Erdo?an, Bar??; San, Turhan; Gürkan, Emre

2015-01-01

403

Kinematic modeling of an EAP actuated continuum robot for active micro-endoscopy  

E-print Network

Kinematic modeling of an EAP actuated continuum robot for active micro-endoscopy Mohamed Taha Chikhaoui, Kanty Rabenorosoa, and Nicolas Andreff Abstract An active micro-endoscope based on concentric three flexible, telescopic, and actuated tubes. The actuators are based on Electro-Active Polymer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Fluorescence lifetime imaging of biological tissue: microscopy, endoscopy and complex decay profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied fluorescence lifetime imaging to the study of biological tissue using both microscopy and endoscopy. We describe the complex decay by the stretched exponential function and we extract the resulting continuous lifetime distribution. © 2002 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 170.2520 170.6920 Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is based on the measurement of the temporal decay in fluorescence

J. Siegel; K. C. Benny Lee; A. Vlandas; G. L. Gambaruto; S. E. D. Webb; S. Lévêque-Fort; D. S. Elson; P. J. Tadrous; G. W. H. Stamp; A. L. Wallace; M. J. Lever; P. M. W. French; F. Alvarez

405

Tree-branch-searching multiresolution approach to skeletonization for virtual endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks for virtual endoscopy is path planning for viewing the lumen of hollow organs. For geometry complex objects, for example the lungs, it remains an unsolved problem. While alternative visualization modes have been proposed, for example, cutting and flattening the hollow wall, a skeleton of the lumen is still necessary as a reference for the

Dongqing Chen; Bin Li; Zhengrong Liang; Ming Wan; Arie E. Kaufman; Mark Wax

2000-01-01

406

The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry. PMID:22853945

Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

2012-06-01

407

Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ? 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

2014-01-01

408

Detection of Mucosal Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas After Radiotherapy With Narrow-Band Imaging Endoscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of screening mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma with narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and six patients were enrolled. All patients underwent conventional white-light (WL) endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx followed by NBI endoscopy. Biopsies were performed if recurrence was suspected. Results: We identified 32 suspected lesions by endoscopy in WL and/or NBI mode. Scattered brown spots (BS) were identified in 22 patients, and 4 of the 22 who had negative MRI findings were histopathologically confirmed to be neoplasias that were successfully removed via endoscopy. A comparison of the visualization in NBI closer view corresponded to histopathological findings in 22 BS, and the prevalence rates of neoplasias in tail signs, round signs, and irregularities signs were 0% (0/6), 0% (0/7), and 44.4% (4/9), respectively (p = 0.048). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic capability were 37.5%, 92.9% and 0.652 for WL, 87.5%, 74.5% and 0.810 for NBI, and 87.5%, 87.8%, and 0.876 for NBI closer view, respectively. NBI closer view was effective in increasing specificity compared with NBI alone (87.8% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05), and in increasing sensitivity and diagnostic capability compared to WL alone (87.5% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.05; 0.876 vs. 0.652, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Although NBI in endoscopy can improve sensitivity of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal neoplasias, false-positive (nonneoplasia BS) results may be obtained in areas with nonspecific inflammatory changes due to postradiation effects. NBI closer view not only can offer a timely, convenient, and highly reliable assessment of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, it can also make endoscopic removal possible.

Wang, Wen-Hung [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yen-Chun, E-mail: sarah_travel@hotmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Cheng [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kam-Fai [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2012-07-15

409

General anesthetic versus light sedation: Effect on pediatric endoscopy wait times  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Wait times are an important measure of health care system effectiveness. There are no studies describing wait times in pediatric gastroenterology for either outpatient visits or endoscopy. Pediatric endoscopy is performed under light sedation or general anesthesia. The latter is hypothesized to be associated with a longer wait time due to practical limits on access to anesthesia in the Canadian health care system. OBJECTIVE: To identify wait time differences according to sedation type and measure adverse clinical outcomes that may arise from increased wait time to endoscopy in pediatric patients. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective review of medical charts of all patients <18 years of age who had been assessed in the pediatric gastroenterology clinic and were scheduled for an elective outpatient endoscopic procedure at McMaster Children’s Hospital (Hamilton, Ontario) between January 2006 and December 2007. The primary outcome measure was time between clinic visit and date of endoscopy. Secondary outcome measures included other defined waiting periods and complications while waiting, such as emergency room visits and hospital admissions. RESULTS: The median wait time to procedure was 64 days for general anesthesia patients and 22 days for patients who underwent light sedation (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the number of emergency room visits or hospital admissions, both pre- and postendoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the lack of pediatric anesthetic resources, patients who were administered general anesthesia experienced a longer wait time for endoscopy compared with patients who underwent light sedation. This did not result in adverse clinical outcomes in this population. PMID:24078936

Edwards, Christine; Kapoor, Vikram; Samuel, Christopher; Issenman, Robert; Brill, Herbert

2013-01-01

410

Is a Second-Look Endoscopy Necessary after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Neoplasm?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Second-look endoscopy is performed to check for the possibility of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) bleeding and to perform prophylactic hemostasis in most hospitals; however, there is little evidence about the efficacy of second-look endoscopy. We investigated whether second-look endoscopy after ESD is useful in the prevention of post-ESD bleeding. Methods A total of 550 lesions with gastric epithelial neoplasms in 502 patients (372 men and 130 women) were treated with ESD between August 18, 2009 and August 18, 2010. After the exclusion of three lesions of post-ESD bleeding within 24 hours, 547 lesions (335 early gastric cancers and 212 gastric adenomas) were included for the final analysis. Results The occurrence rate of delayed post-ESD bleeding was not significantly different between the second-look group and the no second-look group (1% vs 2.5%, p>0.05). The only predictor of delayed bleeding was tumor size, regardless of second-look endoscopy after ESD (22.8±9.87 vs 15.1±10.47, p<0.05). There was no difference between the prophylactic hemostasis and nonprophylactic hemostasis groups, including the occurrence rate of delayed bleeding. In the second-look group with prophylactic hemostasis, the hospital stay was more prolonged than in the second-look group without prophylactic hemostasis, but there was no significant difference (p=0.08). Conclusions Second-look endoscopy to prevent delayed bleeding after ESD provides no significant medical benefits. PMID:25071070

Kim, Eun Ran; Kim, Jung Ha; Kang, Ki Joo; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Jae J.

2015-01-01

411

Does asbestos exposure cause gastrointestinal cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between asbestos exposure and gastrointestinal</