The former editor of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy reflects on the history of endoscopy, which reveals much about the mechanisms whereby innovation occurred, and attempts to forecast the future. Endoscopic technological development in most industrialised countries will be determined largely by various combinations of many external factors together with the further development of virtual imaging
Sivak, M V
AIM: To determine the predictability of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guideline with regard to appropriate endoscopic practice in children, positive endoscopic findings and contributive yield in clinical practice. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective analysis, conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. All children who had esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy from January 2008 to June 2011 were included. An endoscopy was considered appropriate when its indication complied with the NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline. All endoscopic findings were classified as either positive (presence of any endoscopic or histologic abnormality) or negative (no or minor abnormality, normal histology); effecting a positive contributive (a change in therapeutic decisions or prognostic consequences) or non-contributive yield (no therapeutic or prognostic consequences). RESULTS: Overall, 76% of the 345 procedures (231 EGD alone, 26 colonoscopy alone, 44 combined EGD and colonoscopy) performed in 301 children (median age 7.0 years, range 3 months to 18 years) had a positive endoscopic finding. Based on the NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline, 99.7% of the procedures performed were considered as appropriate. The only inappropriate procedure (0.3%) was in a child who had EGD for assessment of the healing of gastric ulcer following therapy in the absence of any symptoms. The overall positive contributive yield for a change in diagnosis and/or management was 44%. The presence of a positive endoscopic finding was more likely to effect a change in the therapeutic plan than an alteration of the initial diagnosis. A total of 20 (5.8%) adverse events were noted, most were minor and none was fatal. CONCLUSION: The NASPGHAN and ASGE guideline is more likely to predict a positive endoscopic finding but is less sensitive to effect a change in the initial clinical diagnosis or the subsequent therapeutic plan.
Lee, Way Seah; Zainuddin, Hafizah; Boey, Christopher CM; Chai, Pei Fan
The past decade has seen the development of an array of complex flexible fibreoptic instruments for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and an increasing use of these for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been recognised more recently that the use of contaminated endoscopic equipment can lead to serious and occasionally fatal infections. Infection with a wide variety of micro-organisms has been reported following oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP).
O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T
Following the recent success of the Second International Symposium on Complications in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (17-18 June 2011, Hannover, Germany), it would be worth reminding ourselves of the key points and highlights of the first symposium held in Hannover in June 2009. The congress, which is endorsed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) under the patronage of the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), is designed to bring together endoscopists and support staff to present and discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of complications associated with gastrointestinal endoscopy, including effective communication strategies and management in particular patient groups. This current report is a brief summary of topics discussed at the inaugural symposium in 2009. PMID:21818735
Meier, P N
Sedation allows patients to tolerate unpleasant endoscopic procedures by relieving anxiety, discomfort, or pain. It also reduces a patient's risk of physical injury during endoscopic procedures, while providing the endoscopist with an adequate setting for a detailed examination. Sedation is therefore considered by many endoscopists to be an essential component of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic sedation by nonanesthesiologists is a worldwide practice and has been proven effective and safe. Moderate sedation/analgesia is generally accepted as an appropriate target for sedation by nonanesthesiologists. This focused review describes the general principles of endoscopic sedation, the detailed pharmacology of sedatives and analgesics (focused on midazolam, propofol, meperidine, and fentanyl), and the multiple regimens available for use in actual practice.
PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting. PMID:22389230
Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G
About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, or dilated choledochus. ERCP should be performed by an expert endoscopist, with informed consent about fetal radiation risks, minimizing fetal radiation exposure, and using an attending anesthesiologist. Endoscopy is likely most safe during the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24891928
Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S
About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, or dilated choledochus. ERCP should be performed by an expert endoscopist, with informed consent about fetal radiation risks, minimizing fetal radiation exposure, and using an attending anesthesiologist. Endoscopy is likely most safe during the second trimester of pregnancy.
Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S
Background In gastrointestinal bleeding, a physician often has to make a decision between two possible choices. Endoscopic management of the bleeding could be initiated immediately, or it could be delayed until the patient has become haemodynamically stable or the conditions for a successful endoscopy have otherwise improved. Objective The present article serves to present such situations and highlights their characteristic features. Methods The choice between immediate and delayed endoscopy is analysed in terms of a decision tree, comparing the expected results of the two management alternatives. The decision tree is applied to three different clinical scenarios associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, where performing endoscopy later rather than sooner represents the preferred management option. Results The work up of chronic iron-deficient anaemia in patients with serious cardiac problems should be deferred until resolution of their reduced cardiovascular status. It is also recommended that, even in acute bleeding, endoscopy is deferred until the patient has become haemodynamically stable. Lastly, for nonemergency treatment of oesophageal varices bleeding, a long rather than short interval between consecutive banding sessions appears more beneficial. Conclusions The results illustrate how to use threshold analysis as a simple bedside tool to solve seemingly complex decisions associated with management of gastrointestinal bleeding.
INTRODUCTION: The importance of quality indicators has become increasingly recognized in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patient safety requires the identification and monitoring of occurrences associated with harm or the potential for harm. The identification of relevant indicators of safety compromise is, therefore, a critical element that is key to the effective implementation of endoscopy quality improvement programs. OBJECTIVE: To identify key indicators of safety compromise in gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Safety and Quality Indicators in Endoscopy Consensus Group was formed to address issues of quality in endoscopy. A subcommittee was formed to identify key safety indicators. A systematic literature review was undertaken, and articles pertinent to safety in endoscopy were identified and reviewed. All complications and measures used to document safety were recorded. From this, a preliminary list of 16 indicators was compiled and presented to the 35-person consensus group during a three-day meeting. A revised list of 20 items was subsequently put to the consensus group for vote for inclusion on the final list of safety indicators. Items were retained only if the consensus group highly agreed on their importance. RESULTS: A total of 19 indicators of safety compromise were retained and grouped into the three following categories: medication-related – the need for CPR, use of reversal agents, hypoxia, hypotension, hypertension, sedation doses in patients older than 70 years of age, allergic reactions and laryngospasm/bronchospasm; procedure-related early – perforation, immediate postpolypectomy bleeding, need for hospital admission or transfer to emergency department from the gastroenterology unit, instrument impaction, severe persistent abdominal pain requiring evaluation proven to not be perforation; and procedure-related delayed – death within 30 days of procedure, 14-day unplanned hospitalization, 14-day unplanned contact with a health provider, gastrointestinal bleeding within 14 days of procedure, infection or symptomatic metabolic complications. CONCLUSIONS: The 19 indicators of safety compromise in endoscopy, identified by a rigorous, evidence-based consensus process, provide clear outcomes to be recorded by all facilities as part of their continuing quality improvement programs.
Borgaonkar, Mark R; Hookey, Lawrence; Hollingworth, Roger; Kuipers, Ernst J; Forster, Alan; Armstrong, David; Barkun, Alan; Bridges, Ronald; Carter, Rose; de Gara, Chris; Dube, Catherine; Enns, Robert; MacIntosh, Donald; Forget, Sylviane; Leontiadis, Grigorios; Meddings, Jonathan; Cotton, Peter; Valori, Roland
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Operation teams for developing the guideline were organized into four areas: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel preparation, Crohn's disease, and small bowel tumor. A total of 20 key questions were selected. In preparing this guideline, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, KMbase, KISS, and KoreaMed literature searches were performed. After writing a draft of the guideline, opinions from various experts were reflected before approving the final document. The guideline should be regarded as recommendations only to gastroenterologists in providing care to their patients. These are not absolute rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care. Although further revision may be necessary as new data appear, this guideline is expected to play a role for adequate diagnostic approaches of various small bowel diseases.
Shim, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chang, Dong Kyung; Do, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Min, Byung Hoon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Choi, Myung-Gyu
We investigated the indications for and findings of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in all children < or = 16 years old referred for the procedure to the endoscopy unit at Soba University Hospital, Khartoum from January 2004 to January 2006. Thus 113 children were enrolled; 73% underwent upper GI endoscopy, 27% lower GI endoscopy (15% colonoscopy, 12% flexible sigmoidoscopy). Indications for upper GI endoscopy included haematemesis (24%), portal hypertension (21%), abdominal pain (16%) and vomiting (15%). Diagnoses included oesophageal varices (16%), gastritis (7%) and hiatus hernia (6%). Indications for lower GI endoscopy included rectal bleeding (87%), diarrhoea (19%) and anaemia (10%). PMID:20187556
Mudawi, H M Y; El Tahir, M A; Suleiman, S H; Eltaybe, N H; Gamer, N M; Abdallha, F A; Ibrahim, S Z
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies show that immediate endoscopies do not affect outcomes in patients; however, endoscopic interventions have evolved. The present retrospective review of endoscopies performed at a large teaching hospital assessed the timing of endoscopy with respect to the morbidity and mortality of UGIB. METHODS Diagnostic billing codes were used to assess all inpatients of gastroenterologists at the University Hospital of the London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, from July 2004 to June 2006, using a centralized data recording system. Time to endoscopy (within 6 h, 6 h to 24 h and beyond 24 h) were compared for the outcomes of mortality, need for surgery and transfusion requirements. RESULTS From July 2004 to June 2006, there were 502 upper endoscopies performed for the indication of suspected UGIB and 375 for overt acute nonvariceal UGIB. Approximately 10% of cases revealed variceal bleeding. When comparing endoscopy within 6 h with endoscopy at 6 h to 24 h, there were no significant differences in mortality, need for surgery (OR 3.6 and 2.8, respectively, compared with endoscopy beyond 24 h) or transfusion requirements. Even when assessing the group that received endoscopic hemostasis, time to endoscopy was not associated with better outcomes. Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate any advantages for early endoscopy (less than 6 h) compared with endoscopy within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS Most patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding can be effectively managed with endoscopy within 24 h.
Sarin, Nitin; Monga, Neerav; Adams, Paul C
The volume of outpatient gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has grown dramatically in the past three decades, fueled by advancing technologies and evolving payment policies. This magnifies the need to ensure high-quality, safe, and cost-effective endoscopic services. In recent years, publicized breaches in standards of care for GI endoscopy have intensified the focus on patient safety. Because of these patient safety concerns and changes in regulatory policies, some ambulatory surgery center surveyors and inspectors have held GI endoscopy suites to the same standards as hospital ORs. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and other endorsing organizations drafted the Guidelines for Safety in the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, which published in January 2014. These safety guidelines relevant to sedation, infection control, staffing, training, technical equipment, traffic patterns, and personal protective equipment differ from other published guidelines for the outpatient surgical setting. PMID:24581646
Deas, Tom; Sinsel, Lisa
Numerous scientific publications explore the field of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy (a Pubmed search currently yields > 73000 results). Therefore, guidelines have become an indispensable tool for incorporating up-to-date knowledge into daily clinical care. Since the 1990 s, the issuing of guidelines has been a central task of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). Here, the ESGE clarifies the types of policy documents that it issues and the methodology used to produce them, taking into account recent methodological developments. PMID:22370700
Dumonceau, J-M; Hassan, C; Riphaus, A; Ponchon, T
Endoscopy is the primary diagnostic and therapeutic tool for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The performance of endoscopic therapy depends on findings of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). For peptic ulcer disease-the most common etiology of UGIB-endoscopic therapy is indicated for findings of major SRH, such as active bleeding, oozing, or the presence of a nonbleeding visible vessel, but not indicated for minor SRH, such as a pigmented flat spot or a simple ulcer with a homogeneous clean base. Endoscopic therapies include injection, ablation, and mechanical therapy. Monotherapy reduces the risk of rebleeding in patients with peptic ulcer disease with major SRH to about 20%. Combination therapy, especially injection followed by either ablation or mechanical therapy, is generally recommended to further reduce the risk of rebleeding to about 10%. Endoscopic dual hemostasis by an experienced endoscopist reduces the risk of rebleeding, the need for surgery, the number of blood transfusions required, and the length of hospital stay. This Review article comprehensively analyzes the principles, indications, instrumentation, techniques, and efficacy of endoscopic hemostasis. PMID:20212504
Cappell, Mitchell S
The safe sedation of patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures requires a combination of properly trained physicians and suitable facilities. Additionally, appropriate selection and preparation of patients, suitable sedative technique, application of drugs, adequate monitoring, and proper recovery of patients is essential. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) vary widely. The majority of GIE patients are ambulatory cases. Most of this procedure requires a short time. So, short acting, rapid onset drugs with little adverse effects and improved safety profiles are commonly used. The present review focuses on commonly used regimens and monitoring practices in GIE sedation. This article is to discuss the decision making process used to determine appropriate pre-sedation assessment, monitoring, drug selection, dose of sedative agents, sedation endpoint and post-sedation care. It also reviews the current status of sedation and monitoring for GIE procedures in Thailand.
AIM: To determine the sedation practices and preferences of Nigerian endoscopists for routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: A structured questionnaire containing questions related to sedation practices and safety procedures was administered to Nigerian gastrointestinal endoscopists at the 2011 annual conference of the Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria which was held at Ibadan, June 23-35, 2011. RESULTS: Of 35 endoscopists who responded, 17 (48.6%) used sedation for less than 25% of procedures, while 14 (40.0%) used sedation for more than 75% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. The majority of respondents (22/35 or 62.9%) had less than 5 years experience in gastrointestinal endoscopy. The sedative of choice was benzodiazepine alone in the majority of respondents (85.7%). Opioid use (alone or in combination with benzodiazepines) was reported by only 5 respondents (14.3%). None of the respondents had had any experience with propofol. Non-anaesthesiologist-directed sedation was practiced by 91.4% of endoscopists. Monitoring of oxygen saturation during sedation was practiced by only 57.1% of respondents. Over half of the respondents (18/35 or 51.4%) never used supplemental oxygen for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. CONCLUSION: Sedation for routine diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Nigeria is characterized by lack of guidelines, and differs markedly from that in developed countries.
Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Obienu, Olive
AIM: To study the current application situation of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in mainland China. METHODS: From 12 August, 2011 to 15 February, 2012, draft questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 289 hospital-based GI endoscopy units, including units with three levels (provincial, prefecture and county level) in mainland China. All the surveyed GI endoscopy units were state-owned and hospital-based. Proportions were compared using ?2 tests. Comparisons between groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability of P < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. RESULTS: Based on satisfactory replies, 169/279 (60.6%) of units were enrolled in the survey, which covered 28 provinces (90.3%, 28/31) in mainland China. Compared with published survey data, the number of GI endoscopes per unit has increased by nearly three times (from 2.9 to 9.3) in the past decade. About 33 of 169 (19.5%) endoscopy units possessed an X-ray machine, which was mainly owned by provincial endoscopy units (43.2%, 19/44). Video capsule endoscopes, which were almost unavailable ten years ago, were owned by 20.7% (35/169) of GI endoscopy units. Endoscopic submucosal dissection could be performed by 36.4% (19/44) of the provincial units, which was significantly higher than the prefecture level (9.9%, P < 0.01) and county level (0.0%, P < 0.01) units, respectively. CONCLUSION: Rapid development in GI endoscopy has been made in mainland China, and major diagnostic endoscopes and therapeutic endoscopy procedures are predominantly used in large endoscopy units.
Zhang, Xiu-Li; Lu, Zhong-Sheng; Tang, Ping; Kong, Jin-Yan; Yang, Yun-Sheng
Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature.
Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E
Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a rare disease that shows multiple cystic gastric glands dispersed within the submucosa of the stomach. GCP occurs most commonly in patients who have undergone previous gastric surgery and presents as subepithelial tumor or a polypoid lesion. Here, we report the case of GCP in a 79-year-old patient who had undergone Billroth II gastric resection. During upper gastrointestinal endoscopy multiple lesions like tiny holes in the mucosa were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound showed cystic structures in the gastric submucosa. Biopsies finally proved the dispersed mucosal glands in the submucosa, which are pathognomonic for GCP. So far, in all published cases, GCP presented as polypoid lesions with no mucosal damage in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It is for the first time that GCP has been diagnosed with cystic lesions connected to the gastric lumen with a porus in each of the cysts. PMID:24743500
Effenberger, Maria; Steinle, Hartmut; Offner, Felix A; Vogel, Wolfgang; Millonig, Gunda
Historically, the evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been often suboptimal, due to the limited ability to adequately image the small bowel. However, over the past several years, significant improvements have been made in small-bowel imaging techniques, both endoscopically and radiologically. Since the introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) in particular, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to OGIB have improved significantly. Capsule-based technology has enabled a more rapid and accurate diagnosis of many small-bowel disorders. Capsule endoscopy is safe and well tolerated. Many prospective comparative studies have shown that the diagnostic yield of CE is superior compared to other endoscopic and radiologic modalities. Numerous other studies have also shown that CE leads to a significant change in management and improved outcomes.
Li, Feng; Leighton, Jonathan A.
Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415
Kovaleva, Julia; Peters, Frans T M; van der Mei, Henny C; Degener, John E
SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection.
Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.
Background\\/Aim: Data on informed consent procedures in endoscopy centers in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to record the current status of informed consent procedures in four tertiary endoscopy centers in China. Methods: All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations in four tertiary endoscopy centers in China from August 2006 to October 2006. Data on patients’ age,
Yu Bai; Jun Gao; Yuanping Yang; Feiwu Long; Hai Jin; Changqing Li; Duo-Wu Zou; Zhao-Shen Li
AIM: To describe the trend in duodenal biopsy performance during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an adult Spanish population, and to analyze its value for the diagnosis of celiac disease in clinical practice. METHODS: A 15 year-trend (1990 to 2004) in duo- denal biopsy performed when undertaking upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was studied. We analysed the prevalence of celiac disease in
S Riestra; F Domínguez; E Fernández-Ruiz; E García-Riesco; R Nieto; E Fernández; L Rodrigo
AIM: To investigate the clinical impact of capsule endoscopy (CE) after an obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) episode, focusing on diagnostic work-up, follow-up and predictive factors of rebleeding. METHODS: Patients who were referred to Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009 for OGIB who underwent a CE were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, current treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammtory drugs or anticoagulant drugs, hemoglobin levels, transfusion requirements, previous diagnostic tests for the bleeding episode, as well as CE findings (significant or non-significant), work-up and patient outcomes were analyzed from electronic charts. Variables were compared by ?2 analysis and Student t test. Risk factors of rebleeding were assessed by Log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model. RESULTS: There were 105 patients [45.7% women, median age of 72 years old (interquartile range 56-79)] and a median follow-up of 326 d (interquartile range 123-641) included in this study. The overall diagnostic yield of CE was 58.1% (55.2% and 63.2%, for patients with occult OGIB and overt OGIB, respectively). In 73 patients (69.5%), OGIB was resolved. Multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels lower than 8 g/dL at diagnosis [hazard ratios (HR) = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.9-6.3], patients aged 70 years and above (HR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-6.1) and significant findings in CE (HR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.1-5.8) were independent predictors of rebleeding. CONCLUSION: One third of the patients presented with rebleeding after CE; risk factors were hemoglobin levels < 8 g/dL, age ? 70 years or the presence of significant lesions.
Canas-Ventura, Alex; Marquez, Lucia; Bessa, Xavier; Dedeu, Josep Maria; Puigvehi, Marc; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Ibanez, Ines Ana; Seoane, Agustin; Barranco, Luis; Bory, Felipe; Andreu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Suarez, Begona
AIM: To investigate in a prospective study whether a simplified clinical score prior to endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients was able to predict endoscopic findings at urgent endoscopy. METHODS: All consecutive UGIB patients referred to a single endoscopic center during a 16 mo period were enrolled. Before endoscopy patients were strati- fied according to a simple clinical score
Leonardo Tammaro; Maria Carla Di Paolo; Angelo Zullo; Cesare Hassan; Sergio Morini; Sebastiano Caliendo; Lorella Pallotta
AIM: To compare outcomes using the novel portable endoscopy with that of nasogastric (NG) aspiration in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Patients who underwent NG aspiration for the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding were eligible for the study. After NG aspiration, we performed the portable endoscopy to identify bleeding evidence in the UGI tract. Then, all patients underwent conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as the gold-standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the portable endoscopy for confirming UGI bleeding were compared with those of NG aspiration. RESULTS: In total, 129 patients who had GI bleeding signs or symptoms were included in the study (age 64.46 ± 13.79, 91 males). The UGI tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) was the most common site of bleeding (81, 62.8%) and the cause of bleeding was not identified in 12 patients (9.3%). Specificity for identifying UGI bleeding was higher with the portable endoscopy than NG aspiration (85.4% vs 68.8%, P = 0.008) while accuracy was comparable. The accuracy of the portable endoscopy was significantly higher than that of NG in the subgroup analysis of patients with esophageal bleeding (88.2% vs 75%, P = 0.004). Food material could be detected more readily by the portable endoscopy than NG tube aspiration (20.9% vs 9.3%, P = 0.014). No serious adverse effect was observed during the portable endoscopy. CONCLUSION: The portable endoscopy was not superior to NG aspiration for confirming UGI bleeding site. However, this novel portable endoscopy device might provide a benefit over NG aspiration in patients with esophageal bleeding.
Choi, Jong Hwan; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hyung Ki; Choi, Wang Yong; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok
European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, European Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Nurses and Associates, and the European Society of Anaesthesiology Guideline: Non-anesthesiologist administration of propofol for GI endoscopy.
Propofol sedation by non-anesthesiologists is an upcoming sedation regimen in several countries throughout Europe. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy and safety of this sedation regimen in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Nevertheless, this issue remains highly controversial. The aim of this evidence- and consensus-based set of guideline is to provide non-anesthesiologists with a comprehensive framework for propofol sedation during digestive endoscopy. This guideline results from a collaborative effort from representatives of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Nurses and Associates (ESGENA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). These three societies have endorsed the present guideline. PMID:21072716
Dumonceau, J M; Riphaus, A; Aparicio, J R; Beilenhoff, U; Knape, J T A; Ortmann, M; Paspatis, G; Ponsioen, C Y; Racz, I; Schreiber, F; Vilmann, P; Wehrmann, T; Wientjes, C; Walder, B
This special May issue of Clinical Endoscopy discusses the tutorial contents dealing with either the diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy that contain very fundamental and essential points in this filed. The seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) had positioned as one of prime educational seminars covering the very beginner to advanced experts of GI endoscopy. Besides of four rooms allocated for each lecture, two additional rooms were open for either live demonstration or hands-on course, covering totally 20 sessions including one special lecture. Among these prestigious lectures, 12 lectures were selected for the current review articles in this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy journal. Basic course for beginner to advanced tips to expert were all covered in this seminar. This introductory review prepared by four associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy contained core contents divided into four sessions-upper gut, lower gut, pancreaticobiliary, and specialized topic session part-to enhance understandings not covered by enlisted review articles in this issue.
Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Eun Young; Dong, Seok Ho
Patient evaluation and preparation is the first and mandatory step to ensure safety and quality of endoscopic procedures. This begins and ends with identifying the patient, procedure type, and indication. Every patient has the right to be fully informed about risks and benefits of what is to be performed on them, and the medical personnel should respect the decision made by the patients. Thoroughly performed history taking and physical examination will guide the endoscopists to better stratify risk and plan sedation. Special attention should be given to higher-risk patients with higher-risk condition undergoing higher-risk procedures. Making preparations to monitor the patients and being ready to handle emergency situations throughout the endoscopic procedure are sine qua non to warrant safe endoscopy.
Kang, Seong Hee
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235
Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan
European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, European Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Nurses and Associates, and the European Society of Anaesthesiology Guideline: Non-anaesthesiologist administration of propofol for GI endoscopy.
Propofol sedation by non-anaesthesiologists is an upcoming sedation regimen in several countries throughout Europe. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy and safety of this sedation regimen in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Nevertheless, this issue remains highly controversial. The aim of this evidence- and consensus-based set of guideline is to provide non-anaesthesiologists with a comprehensive framework for propofol sedation during digestive endoscopy. This guideline results from a collaborative effort from representatives of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Nurses and Associates (ESGENA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). These three societies have endorsed the present guideline.The guideline is published simultaneously in the Journals Endoscopy and European Journal of Anaesthesiology. PMID:21068575
Dumonceau, J M; Riphaus, A; Aparicio, J R; Beilenhoff, U; Knape, J T A; Ortmann, M; Paspatis, G; Ponsioen, C Y; Racz, I; Schreiber, F; Vilmann, P; Wehrmann, T; Wientjes, C; Walder, B
With the increasing use of antiplatelet agents (APA), their management during the periendoscopic period has become a more common and more difficult problem. The increase in use is due to the availability of new drugs and the widespread use of drug-eluting coronary stents. Acute coronary syndromes can occur when APA therapy is withheld for noncardiovascular interventions. Guidelines about APA management during the periendoscopic period are traditionally based on assessments of the procedure-related risk of bleeding and the risk of thrombosis if APA are stopped. New data allow better assessment of these risks, of the necessary duration of APA discontinuation before endoscopy, of the use of alternative procedures (mostly for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP]), and of endoscopic methods that can be used to prevent bleeding (following colonic polypectomy). This guideline makes graded, evidence-based, recommendations for the management of APA for all currently performed endoscopic procedures. A short summary and two tables are included for quick reference. PMID:21547880
Boustière, C; Veitch, A; Vanbiervliet, G; Bulois, P; Deprez, P; Laquiere, A; Laugier, R; Lesur, G; Mosler, P; Nalet, B; Napoleon, B; Rembacken, B; Ajzenberg, N; Collet, J P; Baron, T; Dumonceau, J-M
An 8-year-old male Shiba dog presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed severe enteritis and infection of the duodenal mucosa with Echinostoma hortense. We performed therapy for parasites and enteritis. The therapy was successful for deworming and temporarily improved the symptoms, but the dog died soon thereafter. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of an antemortem diagnosis of E. hortense infection in a dog. PMID:23449463
Okanishi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Jun; Nogami, Sadao; Kagawa, Yumiko; Watari, Toshihiro
Endoscopic procedures continue to play an emerging role in diagnosing and treating upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In particular, the introduction of colonoscopy in bowel cancer screening has underlined its promising role in decreasing the incidence of colorectal cancer and reducing tumour related mortality. To achieve these goals patients need to contemplate endoscopic examinations as painless and fearless procedures. The use of carbon dioxide (CO?) as an alternative insufflation gas in comparison to air has been considered as an essential key to improving patients' acceptance in undergoing endoscopic procedures. CO? is absorbed quickly through the bowel mucosa causing less luminal distension and potentially less abdominal pain. However, its exact role has not been defined completely. In particular, the beneficial use of CO? in upper GI endoscopy and in sedated patients is still conflicting. In the present review, we aimed to assess the current evidence for using CO? in endoscopy and to evaluate its potential role in the future. PMID:24605018
Lord, Amy C; Riss, Stefan
Over the past two decades, the bulk of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures has shifted away from diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for symptomatic disease toward cancer prevention in asymptomatic patients. This shift has resulted largely from a decrease in the incidence of peptic ulcer disease in the era of antisecretory medications coupled with emerging evidence for the efficacy of endoscopic detection and eradication of dysplasia, a histopathological biomarker widely accepted as a precursor to cancer. This shift has been accompanied by a drive toward minimally-invasive, in situ optical diagnostic technologies that help assess the mucosa for cellular changes that relate to dysplasia. Two competing but complementary approaches have been pursued. The first approach is based on broad-view targeting of “areas of interest” or “red flags.” These broad-view technologies include standard white light endoscopy (WLE), high-definition endoscopy (HD), and “electronic” chromoendoscopy (narrow-band-type imaging). The second approach is based on multiple small area or point-source (meso/micro) measurements, which can be either machine (spectroscopy) or human-interpreted (endomicroscopy, magnification endoscopy), much as histopatholgy slides are. In this paper we present our experience with the development and testing of a set of familiar but “smarter” standard tissue-sampling tools that can be routinely employed during screening/surveillance endoscopy. These tools have been designed to incorporate fiberoptic probes that can mediate spectroscopy or endomicroscopy. We demonstrate the value of such tools by assessing their preliminary performance from several ongoing clinical studies. Our results have shown promise for a new generation of integrated optical tools for a variety of screening/surveillance applications during GI endoscopy. Integrated devices should prove invaluable for dysplasia surveillance strategies that currently result in large numbers of benign biopsies, which are of little clinical consequence, including screening for colorectal polyps and surveillance of “flat” dysplasia such as Barrett’s esophagus and chronic colitis due to inflammatory bowel diseases.
Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; Bigio, Irving J.; Singh, Satish K.
At present, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines on endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling are almost complete and express state of the art developments. However, future developments are anticipated. This editorial focuses on a few recently published papers with some additional information and on two important additional techniques, elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which are mentioned, but not explained in detail in the current ESGE guidelines. Elastography and CEUS might be of importance in the near future to improve the biopsy techniques. PMID:24949378
Dietrich, Christoph F; Jenssen, C
At present, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines on endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling are almost complete and express state of the art developments. However, future developments are anticipated. This editorial focuses on a few recently published papers with some additional information and on two important additional techniques, elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which are mentioned, but not explained in detail in the current ESGE guidelines. Elastography and CEUS might be of importance in the near future to improve the biopsy techniques.
Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, C.
Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) are both patient-related and procedure-related. Identification of patients at high risk for PEP is important in order to target prophylactic measures. Prevention of PEP includes administration of nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), use of specific cannulation techniques, and placement of temporary pancreatic stents. The aim of this guideline commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to provide practical, graded, recommendations for the prevention of PEP. PMID:20506068
Dumonceau, J-M; Andriulli, A; Deviere, J; Mariani, A; Rigaux, J; Baron, T H; Testoni, P A
The first issue of World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (WJGE), whose preparatory work was initiated on October 13, 2008, will be published on October 15, 2009. The WJGE Editorial Board has now been established and consists of 97 distinguished experts from 24 countries. Our purpose of launching WJGE is to publish peer-reviewed, high-quality articles via an open-access online publishing model, thereby acting as a platform for communication between peers and the wider public, and maximizing the benefits to editorial board members, authors and readers.
AIM: To investigate stepwise sedation for elderly patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. METHODS: Eighty-six elderly patients with mild/moderate COPD and 82 elderly patients without COPD scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of the following two sedation methods: stepwise sedation involving three-stage administration of propofol combined with midazolam [COPD with stepwise sedation (group Cs), and non-COPD with stepwise sedation (group Ns)] or continuous sedation involving continuous administration of propofol combined with midazolam [COPD with continuous sedation (group Cc), and non-COPD with continuous sedation (group Nc)]. Saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2), blood pressure, and pulse rate were monitored, and patient discomfort, adverse events, drugs dosage, and recovery time were recorded. RESULTS: All endoscopies were completed successfully. The occurrences of hypoxemia in groups Cs, Cc, Ns, and Nc were 4 (9.3%), 12 (27.9%), 3 (7.3%), and 5 (12.2%), respectively. The occurrence of hypoxemia in group Cs was significantly lower than that in group Cc (P < 0.05). The average decreases in value of SpO2, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in group Cs were significantly lower than those in group Cc. Additionally, propofol dosage and overall rate of adverse events in group Cs were lower than those in group Cc. Finally, the recovery time in group Cs was significantly shorter than that in group Cc, and that in group Ns was significantly shorter than that in group Nc (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The stepwise sedation method is effective and safer than the continuous sedation method for elderly patients with mild/moderate COPD during upper GI endoscopy.
Xu, Can-Xia; Chen, Xiong; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Ding-Hua; Zou, Hui-Fang; Guo, Qin; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Shou-Rong; Tong, Ling-Ling; Cao, Ke; Liu, Xiao-Ming
Background. The small intestine has been considered to be a highly difficult organ to visualize in imaging examinations due to its anatomical location compared with the stomach and the colon. In recent years, many imaging modalities have become available, such as CT enterography, MR enterography, capsule endoscopy (CE), and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). Patients and Methods. DBE was performed in the postoperative intestines of 91 patients (128 DBE examinations) at Iwate Medical University between 2004 and 2010. There were 61 male and 30 female patients, and their mean age was 69.7 years (range: 30–80 years). Results. A total of 124 DBE examinations were performed with endoscope insertion into the reconstructed intestines. The endoscope reached the blind end in 115 of 124 examinations, (92.7%). There were 17 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in whom 30 DBE examinations were performed. The bleeding site was identified in 12 patients (70.6%). Nine patients underwent endoscopic treatment. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Conclusion. DBE is very useful modality for the assessment and application of endotherapy to areas of the small bowel which have been altered by surgery.
Endo, Masaki; Abiko, Yukito; Oana, Syuhei; Kudara, Norihiko; Kosaka, Takashi; Chiba, Toshimi; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu
There are an estimated 500 million obese individuals worldwide. Currently, bariatric surgery has been shown to result in clinically significant weight loss. With increasing demand for bariatric surgery, endoscopic techniques used intra and postoperatively continue to evolve. Endoscopic evaluation of anastomotic integrity following RYGB allows for early detection of anastomotic leaks. Furthermore, endoscopy is a valuable tool to diagnose and treat RYGB postoperative surgical complications such as anastomotic leakage, hemorrhage and stricture formation. Early evidence suggests that endoscopic management of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage following RYGB is effective. In addition, endoscopic balloon dilatation is able to effectively treat obstruction in the setting of gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures. With successful endoscopic management of these complications, bariatric patients may avoid more invasive surgical procedures.
Gill, Richdeep S; Whitlock, Kevin A; Mohamed, Rachid; Sarkhosh, Koroush; Birch, Daniel W
Previous reports suggest that sex differences may exist in dreaming under anesthesia, but their results were inconclusive. The current study explored sex differences in the incidence and content of dreams during short propofol sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and investigated whether sex differences or dream content affect patient satisfaction with sedation. A total of 200 patients (100 men and 100 women) undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy participated in this study. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnaire about the incidence and the content of dreams, and satisfaction with sedation was assessed. The results showed that the incidence of dreaming was significantly higher in men (31%) than in women (17%) (P=0.02), but recovery time was similar. In men, 45% (14/31) of dreamers reported positive emotional content and only 6% (2/31) reported negative emotional content. In contrast, in women, 18% (3/17) reported positive and 29% (5/17) reported negative content (P=0.04). Men reported dreams that were more vivid, meaningful, familiar, and memorable (P<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed in the emotional intensity of dreams, and emotional content did not influence patients' satisfaction. In sum, sex differences existed in dreaming during short propofol sedation despite similar recovery time and matching in terms of age. Men reported dreaming more frequently and had a higher incidence of recall for their dream narratives. In particular, men reported significantly more positive emotional content, less negative emotional content, and more meaningful content. Dreamer satisfaction with sedation was not influenced by sex or dream content. PMID:23863717
Xu, Guanghong; Liu, Xuesheng; Sheng, Qiying; Yu, Fengqiong; Wang, Kai
AIM: To identify patients’ characteristics associated with double balloon endoscopy (DBE) outcomes in investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS: Retrospective study performed at an academic tertiary referral center. Evaluated endpoints were clinical factors associated with no diagnostic yield or non-therapeutic intervention of DBE performed for OGIB evaluation. RESULTS: We included fifty-five DBE between August 2010 and April 2012. The mean age of the sample was 67 with 32 males (58.2%). Twenty-four DBE had no diagnostic yield and 30 DBE did not require therapy. Non-diagnostic yield was associated with performing two or more DBE studies in one day [odds ratio (OR): 13.72, P = 0.008], absence of blood transfusions within a year of the DBE (OR: 7.16, P = 0.03) and absence of ulcers or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) on prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or colonoscopy (OR: 19.30, P = 0.033). Non-therapeutic DBE was associated with performing two or more DBE per day (OR: 18.579, P = 0.007), gastrointestinal bleeding episode within a week of the DBE (OR: 11.48, P = 0.003), fewer blood transfusion requirements prior to DBE (OR: 4.55, P = 0.036) and absence of ulcers or AVMs on prior EGD or colonoscopy (OR: 8.47, P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Predictors of DBE yield and therapeutic intervention on DBE include blood transfusion requirements, previous endoscopic findings and possibly endoscopist fatigue.
Hussan, Hisham; Crews, Nicholas R; Geremakis, Caroline M; Bahna, Soubhi; LaBundy, Jennifer L; Hachem, Christine
It is essential for young physicians in municipal hospitals to be familiar with the technique of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Endoscopy is an exciting subspecialty in primary care medicine. Endoscopic procedures are primarily performed by general physicians in Japan. However, a standardized strategy for teaching diagnostic GI endoscopy is still lacking, and there is not sufficient time for young physicians to effectively learn the upper GI endoscopy technique. To elucidate how young physicians can be trained in the skills of GI endoscopy in a short time period, we initiated a 12-week training course. Two young physicians performed upper GI endoscopies for outpatients and inpatients 2 or 3 days a week from April 2010 to March 2012. The total number of cases undergoing GI endoscopy during the training course in each year was 117 and 111, respectively. The young physicians were trained in this technique by the attending physician. The short-term training course included four phases. During these phases, the young physicians learned how to insert the endoscope through the nasal cavity or oral cavity into the esophageal inlet, how to pass the endoscope from the esophageal inlet into the duodenum, how to take pictures with the endoscope, and how to stain the gastric and duodenal mucosa and take mucosal biopsy samples. The young physicians experienced 20–30 cases in each phase. In week five, they performed endoscope insertion into the duodenum along the folds of the greater curvature of the stomach. They viewed the entire stomach and took pictures until week ten of the course. The pictures taken in week ten were of a better quality for examining the disease lesions than those taken in week six. In the last 2 weeks of the training course, the young physicians stained the gastric and duodenal mucosa and took mucosal biopsy samples. The short-term training course of 100–120 cases in 12 weeks was effective for teaching young physicians how to perform GI endoscopies independently.
Soma, Takako; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yasufumi; Nakano, Tomoko; Kamiuttanai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Masaki
AIM: To compare deep sedation with propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl regimens during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: After obtaining approval of the research ethics committee and informed consent, 200 patients were evaluated and referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were randomized to receive propofol-fentanyl or midazolam-fentanyl (n = 100/group). We assessed the level of sedation using the observer’s assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score and bispectral index (BIS). We evaluated patient and physician satisfaction, as well as the recovery time and complication rates. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software and included the Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test, measurement of analysis of variance, and the ? statistic. RESULTS: The times to induction of sedation, recovery, and discharge were shorter in the propofol-fentanyl group than the midazolam-fentanyl group. According to the OAA/S score, deep sedation events occurred in 25% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 11% of the midazolam-fentanyl group (P = 0.014). Additionally, deep sedation events occurred in 19% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 7% of the midazolam-fentanyl group according to the BIS scale (P = 0.039). There was good concordance between the OAA/S score and BIS for both groups (? = 0.71 and ? = 0.63, respectively). Oxygen supplementation was required in 42% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 26% of the midazolam-fentanyl group (P = 0.025). The mean time to recovery was 28.82 and 44.13 min in the propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl groups, respectively (P < 0.001). There were no severe complications in either group. Although patients were equally satisfied with both drug combinations, physicians were more satisfied with the propofol-fentanyl combination. CONCLUSION: Deep sedation occurred with propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl, but was more frequent in the former. Recovery was faster in the propofol-fentanyl group.
Lera dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Chaves, Dalton Marques; Matuguma, Sergio Eiji; Ide, Edson; Luz, Gustavo de Oliveira; de Souza, Thiago Ferreira; Pessorrusso, Fernanda C Simoes; de Moura, Eduardo Guimaraes Hourneaux; Sakai, Paulo
Background: Since the institution of open access endoscopy units there has been a considerable increase of referrals for UGI examinations. Therefore, guidelines for the appropriate use of UGI endoscopy are needed.Methods: The outcome of first diagnostic UGI endoscopy was prospectively assessed for several referral indications in a consecutive series of 2900 patients. Indications were judged “appropriate” when significantly ( p
Rob P. Adang; Jon F. J. F. E. Vismans; Jan L. Talmon; Arie Hasman; Anton W. Ambergen; Reinhold W. Stockbrügger
Objective To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex. Participants The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Methods The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed. Results Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE.
Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette
Background Current capsule endoscopy (CE) provides minimally invasive technology for gastrointestinal imaging, but has limited ability to discriminate different polyp types. Near Infrared Fluorescent (NIRF) probes activated by biomarkers upregulated in adenomas (e.g., cathepsin B) are potentially powerful tools to distinguish premalignant or malignant lesions from benign or inflammatory lesions. Objectives To examine whether CE can be integrated with NIRF probes to detect adenomas, and whether cathepsin B activated NIRF probes are activated by benign or inflammatory ones. Design and Setting Mouse models of adenomas, hyperplastic/lymphoid polyps, and acute or chronic intestinal inflammation were injected intravenously with a cathepsin B activated probe (Prosense™ 680). Dissected intestine was imaged with CE under white or NIRF light. For NIRF, excitation (680 nm), dichroic and emission (700 nm) filters were combined with CE when images were recorded. Prosense™ 680 samples with or without protease were used as positive and negative controls. CE based imaging data was verified using an independent imaging system (Xenogen IVIS system). Main Outcome Measurements Proof of principle that CE integrated with NIRF probes can detect and discriminate adenomas from other lesions. Results CE based NIRF imaging with Prosense™ 680 readily visualized adenomas, including in the colitis model. NIRF signals of different intensities were detected. Prosense™ 680 was not activated by benign or inflammatory lesions. Limitations Optical filters external to capsule were used. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of principle of biochromoendoscopy, CE combined with molecular probes, provides a novel approach that differentiates adenomas from benign polyps and inflammatory lesions.
Zhang, Howard; Morgan, Douglas; Cecil, Gerald; Burkholder, Adam; Ramocki, Nicole; Scull, Brooks; Kay Lund, P.
Background Although gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation is increasingly performed in elderly patients, data on combined sedation with midazolam/propofol are very limited for this age group. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 454 endoscopic procedures in 347 hospitalized patients ? 70 years who had received combined sedation with midazolam/propofol. 513 endoscopic procedures in 397 hospitalized patients < 70 years during the observation period served as controls. Characteristics of endoscopic procedures, co-morbidity, complications and mortality were compared. Results Elderly patients had a higher level of co-morbidity and needed lower mean propofol doses for sedation. We observed no major complication and no difference in the number of minor complications. The procedure-associated mortality was 0%; the 28-day mortality was significantly higher in the elderly (2.9% vs. 1.0%). Conclusions In this study on elderly patients with high level co-morbidity, a favourable safety profile was observed for a combined sedation with midazolam/propofol with a higher sensitivity to propofol in the elderly.
This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy about endoscopic biliary stenting. The present Clinical Guideline describes short-term and long-term results of biliary stenting depending on indications and stent models; it makes recommendations on when, how, and with which stent to perform biliary drainage in most common clinical settings, including in patients with a potentially resectable malignant biliary obstruction and in those who require palliative drainage of common bile duct or hilar strictures. Treatment of benign conditions (strictures related to chronic pancreatitis, liver transplantation, or cholecystectomy, and leaks and failed biliary stone extraction) and management of complications (including stent revision) are also discussed. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technology Review describes the models of biliary stents available and the stenting techniques, including advanced techniques such as insertion of multiple plastic stents, drainage of hilar strictures, retrieval of migrated stents and combined stenting in malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions.The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes digestive endoscopists, gastroenterologists, oncologists, radiologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technology Review should be most useful to endoscopists who perform biliary drainage. PMID:22297801
Dumonceau, J-M; Tringali, A; Blero, D; Devière, J; Laugiers, R; Heresbach, D; Costamagna, G
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the role of advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and differentiation of colorectal neoplasia. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests the routine use of high definition white-light endoscopy systems for detecting colorectal neoplasia in average risk populations (weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 ESGE recommends the routine use of high definition systems and pancolonic conventional or virtual (narrow band imaging [NBI], i-SCAN) chromoendoscopy in patients with known or suspected Lynch syndrome (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2b ESGE recommends the routine use of high definition systems and pancolonic conventional or virtual (NBI) chromoendoscopy in patients with known or suspected serrated polyposis syndrome (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends the routine use of 0.1?% methylene blue or 0.1?%?-?0.5?% indigo carmine pancolonic chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies for neoplasia surveillance in patients with long-standing colitis. In appropriately trained hands, in the situation of quiescent disease activity and adequate bowel preparation, nontargeted, four-quadrant biopsies can be abandoned (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 4 ESGE suggests that virtual chromoendoscopy (NBI, FICE, i-SCAN) and conventional chromoendoscopy can be used, under strictly controlled conditions, for real-time optical diagnosis of diminutive (??5?mm) colorectal polyps to replace histopathological diagnosis. The optical diagnosis has to be reported using validated scales, must be adequately photodocumented, and can be performed only by experienced endoscopists who are adequately trained and audited (weak recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE suggests the use of conventional or virtual (NBI) magnified chromoendoscopy to predict the risk of invasive cancer and deep submucosal invasion in lesions such as those with a depressed component (0-IIc according to the Paris classification) or nongranular or mixed-type laterally spreading tumors (weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Conclusion Advanced imaging techniques will need to be applied in specific patient groups in routine clinical practice and to be taught in endoscopic training programs. PMID:24639382
Kami?ski, Micha? F; Hassan, Cesare; Bisschops, Raf; Pohl, Jürgen; Pellisé, Maria; Dekker, Evelien; Ignjatovic-Wilson, Ana; Hoffman, Arthur; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Heresbach, Denis; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; East, James E
Background. The purpose of study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy for NSAID-induced enteropathy and clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic characteristics of disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. 37 rheumatoid arthritis patients (30 women; mean age 55) treated with NSAIDs (>1 month), presented with anaemia and/or positive faecal occult blood testing, entered the study and underwent capsule endoscopy (EndoCapsule; Olympus), laboratory tests, and filled in questionnaires. Results. The prevalence of NSAID-induced enteropathy diagnosed by capsule endoscopy was 68% (25/37), classified as mild (red spots or erosions) in 18 (49%), moderate (10–20 erosions) in 4 (11%), and severe enteropathy (>20 erosions or ulcers) in 3 (8%) patients. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the enteropathy and gender, age, haemoglobin, leukocytes, albumin and CRP, or dyspepsia. The difference between subgroups of NSAIDs according to the COX specificity was not statistically significant. Conclusions. Capsule endoscopy is a highly accurate noninvasive method for evaluation of NSAID-induced enteropathy. It was revealed in a substantial section of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and occult gastrointestinal bleeding, mostly classified as mild damage. No simple clinical or laboratory markers of the presence or severity of NSAID-induced enteropathy were recognised. This trial is registered with DRKS00004940.
Tacheci, Ilja; Bradna, Petr; Douda, Tomas; Bastecka, Drahomira; Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan
These recommendations on video capsule endoscopy, an emerging technology with an impact on the practice of endoscopy, were developed by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guidelines Committee. The first draft of each section was prepared by one or two members of the writing team, who were selected as experts on the content of that section on the basis of their published work. They used evidence-based methodology, performing MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches to identify relevant clinical studies. Abstracts from scientific meetings were included only if there was no published full paper on a particular topic. If there was disagreement, the first author of the Guideline made the final decision. Recommendations were graded according to the strength of the supporting evidence. The draft guideline was critically reviewed by all authors and submitted to the ESGE councillors for their critical review before approval of the final document. The ESGE Guidelines Committee acknowledges that this document is based on a critical review of the data available at the time of preparation and that further studies may be needed to clarify some aspects. Moreover, this Guideline may be revised as necessary to account for changes in technology, new data, or other aspects of clinical practice. This document should be regarded as supplying recommendations only to gastroenterologists in providing care to their patients. It is not a set of rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care, or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment. These recommendations must be interpreted according to the clinician's knowledge, expertise, and clinical judgment in the management of individual patients and, if necessary, a course of action that varies from recommendations must be undertaken. PMID:20195992
Ladas, S D; Triantafyllou, K; Spada, C; Riccioni, M E; Rey, J-F; Niv, Y; Delvaux, M; de Franchis, R; Costamagna, G
This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended. PMID:25046348
Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc; Meisner, Søren; Repici, Alessandro; Saunders, Brian P; Vezakis, Antonios; Gonzalez, Jean Michel; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Fockens, Paul; Hassan, Cesare
AIM: To investigate long-term outcome in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative capsule endoscopy (CE) and identify risk factors for rebleeding. METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive patients underwent CE for OGIB from May 2003 to June 2010 at Seoul National University Hospital. Ninety-five patients (84.1%) with a subsequent follow-up after CE of at least 6 mo were enrolled in this study. Follow-up data were obtained from the patients’ medical records. The CE images were reviewed by two board-certified gastroenterologists and consensus diagnosis was used in all cases. The primary outcome measure was the detection of rebleeding after CE, and factors associated with rebleeding were evaluated using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the 95 enrolled patients (median age 61 years, range 17-85 years), 62 patients (65.3%) were male. The median duration of follow-up was 23.7 mo (range 6.0-89.4 mo). Seventy-three patients (76.8%) underwent CE for obscure-overt bleeding. Complete examination of the small bowel was achieved in 77 cases (81.1%). Significant lesions were found in 38 patients (40.0%). The overall rebleeding rate was 28.4%. The rebleeding rate was higher in patients with positive CE (36.8%) than in those with negative CE (22.8%). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative rebleeding rates between the two groups (log rank test; P = 0.205). Anticoagulation after CE examination was an independent risk factor for rebleeding (hazard ratio, 5.019; 95%CI, 1.560-16.145; P = 0.007), regardless of CE results. CONCLUSION: Patients with OGIB and negative CE have a potential risk of rebleeding. Therefore, close observation is required and alternative modalities should be considered in suspicious cases.
Koh, Seong-Joon; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae
(1) Safety and monitoring should be part of a quality assurance programme for endoscopy units. (2) Resuscitation equipment and drugs must be available in the endoscopy and recovery areas. (3) Staff of all grades and disciplines should be familiar with resuscitation methods and undergo periodic retraining. (4) Equipment and drugs necessary for the maintenance of airway, breathing, and circulation should
G D Bell; R F McCloy; J E Charlton; D Campbell; N A Dent; M W Gear; R F Logan; C H Swan
Adequate patient tolerance is essential for successful completion of safe endoscopic examination. Although there are many reported methods to increase patient tolerance, none of these fully resolve this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate whether relaxing the nasal airways increase patient tolerance to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE). A total of 300 patients scheduled for diagnostic UGE were randomized into three separate groups. Prior to the UGE procedure the first group was administered intranasal cortisone spray following nasal cleansing (INC). Patients in the second group were administered intranasal saline after nasal cleansing (INSP). The patients in the third group were treated with the standard endoscopic procedure alone (SEP). After the UGE procedure, both endoscopists and patients were asked to evaluate the ease of performing the procedure. Furthermore, patients who had undergone endoscopy before were asked to compare their current experience to their most recent endoscopy. Results shown that INC and INSP groups had significantly better tolerance than the SEP group. When comparing their current experience with the previous one, INC and INSP groups reported that the current experience was better. Conclusions: Taking measures to relax the nasal airways makes breathing more comfortable and increase patient tolerance during UGE.
Akbaba, Soner; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Bozk?rl?, Bahad?r Osman; Ak?n, Fatma Ebru; Gundogdu, R?za Haldun; Ersoy, Osman; Karakaya, Jale; Ersoy, Pamir Eren
Electrosurgery is used in the majority of endoscopic therapeutic procedures. An understanding of the fundamental electrosurgical principles and various settings available on electrosurgical units is essential for the safe and effective use of electrosurgery during endoscopy. The aims of these technical guidelines are to: (1) expose physical principles relevant to the understanding of electrosurgery during endoscopy; (2) describe and provide practical recommendations regarding electrosurgical units that are commonly in use; (3) discuss the clinical relevance of technologies recently implemented in newer electrosurgical units; and (4) review factors relevant to commonly performed therapeutic procedures, including polypectomy, sphincterotomy, contact thermal hemostasis, and argon plasma coagulation. PMID:20635311
Rey, J F; Beilenhoff, U; Neumann, C S; Dumonceau, J M
We have successfully implemented a focused ultrasonic transducer for photoacoustic endoscopy. The photoacoustic endoscopic probe's ultrasound transducer determines the lateral resolution of the system. By using a focused ultrasonic transducer, we significantly improved the endoscope's spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. This paper describes the technical details of the ultrasonic transducer incorporated into the photoacoustic endoscopic probe and the experimental results
Joon-Mo Yang; Christopher Favazza; Ruimin Chen; Konstantin Maslov; Xin Cai; Qifa Zhou; K. Kirk Shung; Lihong V. Wang
The Canadian Registry on Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE): Endoscopic Hemostasis and Proton Pump Inhibition are Associated with Improved Outcomes in a Real-Life Setting
OBJECTIVES:From the Canadian Registry of patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE), we determined clinical outcomes and explored the roles of endoscopic and pharmacologic therapies in a contemporary real-life setting.METHODS:Analysis of randomly selected patients endoscoped for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 18 community and tertiary care institutions between 1999 and 2002. Covariates and outcomes were defined a priori and
Alan Barkun; Sandrine Sabbah; Robert Enns; David Armstrong; Jamie Gregor; Richard N. N. Fedorak; Elham Rahme; Youssef Toubouti; Myriam Martel; Naoki Chiba; Carlo A. Fallone
OBJECTIVES:Due to its superior ability to examine the entire small bowel mucosa, capsule endoscopy (CE) has broadened the diagnostic evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Published studies have revealed a numerically superior performance of CE in determining a source of OGIB compared with other modalities, but due to small sample sizes, the overall magnitude of benefit is unknown.
Stuart L. Triester; Jonathan A. Leighton; Grigoris I. Leontiadis; David E. Fleischer; Amy K. Hara; Russell I. Heigh; Arthur D. Shiff; Virender K. Sharma
Background It has always been a challenge to distinguish between upper gastrointestinal symptoms due to gall stones or any other causes. The persistence of abdominal symptoms even after cholecystectomy is highly discouraging for surgeons. Objective To evaluate the value of preoperative (UGE) as a routine investigative tool in patients with gall stone disease and to assess the outcome of cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones on preoperative abdominal symptoms. Methods This is a prospective study conducted on 96 cases at the Department of Surgery, Dhulikhel Hospital among ultrasonographically proven gall bladder stones irrespective of age and sex. After the examination, all the patients were subjected to UGE, and biopsy were obtained for histopathology if required. The statistical analysis were performed using spss version 16. Results Out of total patients, 84(87.5%) were females and 12(12.5%) were males with a M: F ratio of 1:7. Both the sexes were comparable in age groups. Out of total 96 patients, 53(55.2%) presented with typical pain and 43(44.8%) presented with atypical pain. All the patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) and 53(55.2%) had normal findings and 43(44.8%) had various lesions. Patients with typical pattern of pain had normal endoscopic findings and those with atypical pain had pathology in upper gastroendoscopy (p<0.001). Serious pathology resulting to change of the planned treatment was found in three cases (3.12%). Among them two had gastric carcinoma and one had active peptic ulcer disease. The relief rate after the cholecystectomy was significant in patients with typical pain than among those with atypical pain (p<0.001). The commenest post cholecystectomy symptoms were heart burn (10%), abdominal discomfort (9%) and dyspepsia (7%). Conclusion Presence of atypical pain in patients with gall stones is highly likely to have other coexisting upper gastrointestinal pathologies. Hence, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy prior to elective cholecystectomy in patients with gall stones can be clinically helpful. PMID:24899324
Karmacharya, A; Malla, B R; Joshi, H N; Gurung, R B; Rajbhandari, M
Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the ileum is an extremely rare cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Case Report. An 89-year-old man was admitted with melana. He had extensive PMH of CAD post-CABG/AICD, AAA repair, chronic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lung cancer after resection, and recurrent GIB. Prior EGDs, colonoscopies, and upper device-assisted enteroscopy showed duodenal ulcer, A-V malformation s/p cauterization, and angioectasia. On admission, Hb was 6.0?g/dL. An endoscopic capsule study showed an ulcerated tumor in the ileum. CT showed no distant metastasis. The lesion was resected successfully and confirmed as a high-grade GIST. The patient was discharged with no further bleeding. Discussion. Early diagnosis for patients with ileal GIST is often challenging. Video capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy could be useful diagnostic tools. Surgical removal is the first line for a resectable GIST. Imatinib has become the standard therapy. Conclusion. This is a unique case of an ileal GIST in a patient with recurrent GIB which was diagnosed by video capsule. Complicated medical comorbidities often lead to a significant delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we recommend that if GIB does not resolve after appropriate treatments for known causes, the alternative diagnosis for occult GIB must be considered, including malignancy such as GIST.
Lamsen, Marie; Coron, Roger; Deliana, Danila; Rangraj, Madhu; Jesmajian, Stephen
(1) The number of endoscopic examinations performed is rising. Epidemiological data and the workload of well developed units show that annual requirements per head of population are approaching: Upper gastrointestinal 1 in 100 Flexible sigmoidoscopy 1 in 500 Colonoscopy 1 in 500 ERCP 1 in 2000 (2) Open access endoscopy to general practitioners is desirable and increasingly sought. For a district general hospital serving a population of 250,000, this workload entails about 3500 procedures annually, performed during 10 half day routine sessions plus emergency work. (3) High standards of training and experience are needed by all staff, who must work in purpose built accommodation designed to promote efficient and safe practice. (4) The endoscopy unit should be adjacent to day care facilities and near the x ray department. There should be easy access to wards. (5) An endoscopy unit needs at least two endoscopy rooms; a fully ventilated cleaning/disinfection area; rooms for patient reception, preparation, and recovery; and accommodation for administration, storage, and staff amenities. (6) The service should be consultant based. At least 10 clinical sessions are required, made up of six or more consultant sessions and two to four clinical assistant, hospital practitioner, or staff specialist sessions. Each consultant should be expected to commit at least two sessions weekly to endoscopy. Extra consultant sessions may be needed to provide an efficient service. (7) A specially trained nursing sister (grade G or H) and five other endoscopy nurses are needed to care for the patients; their work may be supplemented by care assistants. (8) A new post of endoscopy department assistant (analogous to an operating department assistant) is proposed to maintain and prepare instruments, and to give technical assistance during procedures. (9) A full time secretary should be employed. Records, appointments, and audit should be computer based. (10) ERCP needs the collaboration of an interventional radiologist working with high quality x ray equipment in a specially prepared radiology screening room. This facility may need to serve more than one hospital. (11) A gastrointestinal measurement laboratory can conveniently be combined with the endoscopy unit. In some hospitals one or more gastrointestinal measurement technicians may staff this laboratory. (12) An endoscopy unit is a service department analogous to a radiology department. It needs an annual budget.
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a transmissible form of spongiform encephalopathy believed to be contracted from the consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infected beef products. To date over 100 individuals have developed this incurable disease. There have been no documented cases of iatrogenic infection, but there is a theoretical risk that surgical procedures could transmit the disease. This review describes the background of the disease and assesses the possible risks of transmission through endoscopic procedures. The risk of transmission by endoscopy is small and probably negligible if suitable procedures are followed. The greatest potential danger arises from healthy individuals who are incubating the disease. Pathological prions (PrP(sc)) may be found in lymphatic tissue of these individuals (particularly tonsils), but smaller amounts have been identified in the appendix and Peyer's patches. These prions are resistant to all forms of conventional sterilization. There is a theoretical risk that biopsy forceps and the operating channel of endoscopes could become contaminated. This review gives recommendations as to how these small risks can be minimized. They include the employment of single-use forceps for biopsies taken from the terminal ileum, greater attention to the maintenance of endoscopic equipment and accessories, more rigorous manual cleaning of endoscopic equipment and the use of well designed, disposable cleaning brushes for the operating channel of the endoscope. PMID:11740649
Axon, A T; Beilenhoff, U; Bramble, M G; Ghosh, S; Kruse, A; McDonnell, G E; Neumann, C; Rey, J F; Spencer, K
The aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) findings with those of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) or conventional gastrointestinal radiography (CGR) in pediatric patients with small bowel Crohn’s disease. A total of 55 cases of small bowel Crohn’s disease that were diagnosed through clinical, laboratory, surgical and histopathological findings were reviewed. Prior to the examination, children suspected of having other types of diseases of the small intestinal were identified. The pulse sequences included coronal T2-true-fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) images, navigation axial and coronal T1-weighted images, T2-weighted fat-suppressed images and coronal fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo images, immediately followed by contrast-enhanced axial and coronal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images. Findings from MRE were compared with those of VCE (n=39) and CGR (n=37). MRE results exhibited a number of features characteristic to small bowel Crohn’s disease, including wall thickening, mesenteric fibrofatty changes and mesenteric vasculature changes. VCE, MRE and CGR demonstrated sensitivities of 94.6, 85.7 and 71.1% with specificities of 72.7, 70 and 40%; accuracies of 89.6, 82.2 and 61.1%; positive predictive values of 92.1, 90.9 and 59.6%; and negative predictive values of 80, 58.3 and 40%, respectively. VCE depicted mucosal pathologies missed by MRE in three patients. MRE revealed 83 extraenteric findings in 55 patients and CGR was able to show the dynamic evolution of the gastrointestinal function. MRE is a simple, safe, non-invasive and effective method for evaluating small bowel Crohn’s disease. VCE allows visualization and readily characterizes subtle mucosal lesions missed by MRE, whereas MRE yields additional mural, perienteric and extraenteric information. However, oral barium CGR utilizes radiation, which is not suitable for repeated use in children.
LAI, CAN; ZHOU, HAI-CHUN; MA, MING; ZHANG, HONG-XI; JIA, XUAN
AIM: To assess the rate of recurrent bleeding of the small bowel in patients with obscure bleeding already undergone capsule endoscopy (CE) with negative results. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records related to 696 consecutive CE performed from December 2002 to January 2011, focusing our attention on patients with recurrence of obscure bleeding and negative CE. Evaluating the patient follow-up, we analyzed the recurrence rate of obscure bleeding in patient with a negative CE. Actuarial rates of rebleeding during follow-up were calculated, and factors associated with rebleeding were assessed through an univariate and multivariate analysis. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of negative CE were calculated. RESULTS: Two hundred and seven out of 696 (29.7%) CE studies resulted negative in patient with obscure/overt gastrointestinal bleeding. Overall, 489 CE (70.2%) were positive studies. The median follow-up was 24 mo (range 12-36 mo). During follow-up, recurrence of obscure bleeding was observed only in 34 out of 207 negative CE patients (16.4%); 26 out of 34 with obscure overt bleeding and 8 out of 34 with obscure occult bleeding. The younger age (< 65 years) and the onset of bleeding such as melena are independent risk factors of rebleeding after a negative CE (OR = 2.6703, 95%CI: 1.1651-6.1202, P = 0.0203; OR 4.7718, 95%CI: 1.9739-11.5350, P = 0.0005). The rebleeding rate (CE+ vs CE-) was 16.4% vs 45.1% (?2 test, P = 0.00001). The sensitivity, specificity, and PPV and NPV were 93.8%, 100%, 100%, 80.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and negative CE had a significantly lower rebleeding rate, and further invasive investigations can be deferred.
Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Cianci, Rossella; Rizzo, Gianluca; D'Angelo, Luca; Marmo, Riccardo; Costamagna, Guido
Capsule endoscopy is the most recent innovation in gastrointestinal endoscopy. The capsule contains a video camera that photographs the bowel for 8 h after the capsule has been orally ingested and transmits the images for interpretation to a computerized workstation. Ethical considerations of the use of capsule endoscopy should cover the following main issues: justification of the procedure, its potential
Advances in endoscopy and anesthesia have enabled gastrointestinal endoscopy for children since 1960. Over the past decades, the number of endoscopies has increased rapidly. As specialized teams of pediatric gastroenterologists, pediatric intensive care physicians and pediatric endoscopy nurses are available in many medical centers, safe and effective procedures have been established. Therefore, diagnostic endoscopies in children are routine clinical procedures. The most frequently performed endoscopies are esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). Therapeutic interventions include variceal bleeding ligation, foreign body retrieval and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. New advances in pediatric endoscopy have led to more sensitive diagnostics of common pediatric gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease; likewise, new diseases, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, have been brought to light. Upcoming modalities, such as capsule endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and narrow band imaging, are being established and may contribute to diagnostics in pediatric gastroenterology in the future.
Endoscopy altered the practice of gastroenterology by providing nonoperative access to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and\\u000a the pancreaticobiliary system. The detection of microscopic and biochemical changes within the mucosa and submucosa, however,\\u000a has remained beyond the realm of routine endoscopy. Distinguishing hyperplastic from neoplastic polyps, differentiating malignant\\u000a from benign ulcers, and detecting mucosal dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Stephan M. Wildi; Michael B. Wallace
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of core and advanced adult gastroenterology training in Canada. METHODS: A survey consisting of 20 questions pertaining to core and advanced endoscopy training was circulated to 14 accredited adult gastroenterology residency program directors. For continuous variables, median and range were analyzed; for categorical variables, percentage and associated 95% CIs were analyzed. RESULTS: All 14 programs responded to the survey. The median number of core trainees was six (range four to 16). The median (range) procedural volumes for gastroscopy, colonoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and sigmoidoscopy, respectively, were 400 (150 to 1000), 325 (200 to 1500), 15 (zero to 250) and 60 (25 to 300). Eleven of 13 (84.6%) programs used endoscopy simulators in their curriculum. Eight of 14 programs (57%) provided a structured advanced endoscopy training fellowship. The majority (88%) offered training of combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography. The median number of positions offered yearly for advanced endoscopy fellowship was one (range one to three). The median (range) procedural volumes for ERCP, endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic mucosal resection, respectively, were 325 (200 to 750), 250 (80 to 400) and 20 (10 to 63). None of the current programs offered training in endoscopic submucosal dissection or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. CONCLUSION: Most accredited adult Canadian gastroenterology programs met the minimal procedural requirements recommended by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology during core training. However, a more heterogeneous experience has been observed for advanced training. Additional studies would be required to validate and standardize evaluation tools used during gastroenterology curricula.
Xiong, Xin; Barkun, Alan N; Waschke, Kevin; Martel, Myriam
OBJECTIVE:Small bowel pathology can be diagnosed using enteroscopy (which has limitations) and by x-ray (which is not sensitive for flat lesions). For the first time ever, we used a new technique, wireless-capsule video endoscopy, to diagnose small bowel pathology. Our aim was to prove the effectiveness and safety of this technology.METHODS:We used the Given (M2A) system in 35 patients, aged
Eitan Scapa; Harold Jacob; Shlomo Lewkowicz; Michal Migdal; Daniel Gat; Arkady Gluckhovski; Nurit Gutmann; Zvi Fireman
BACKGROUND: The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean ± SD, difference in mean, 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2±2.4 versus 3.9±2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI ?0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4±2.1 versus 3.2±2.8, respectively [?0.80; 95% CI ?1.54 to ?0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4±1.8 min versus 3.5±2.2 min, respectively [?1.10; 95% CI ?1.71 min to ?0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2±1.8 min versus 3.9±2.2 min, respectively [?0.70 min; 95% CI ?1.30 min to ?0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSIONS: LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required.
Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Bailey, Robert; Fedorak, Richard N; Morse, John; Millan, Mario; Guzowski, Tom; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen
Background and study aims The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE I) criteria were recently updated (EPAGE II), but no prospective studies have used these criteria in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to validate the EPAGE II criteria in an open-access endoscopy unit. Patients and methods A prospective observational study was conducted in an open-access endoscopy unit at the tertiary care referral center. Consecutive outpatients (n = 1004; mean age 58.9 ± 13.1 years; 45% men) were referred for diagnostic colonoscopy between September 2009 and February 2010. The appropriateness of colonoscopy was assessed based on EPAGE II criteria, and the relationship between appropriateness and both referral doctor and detection of significant lesions was examined. The effectiveness of EPAGE II criteria in assessing appropriateness was measured by means of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detecting significant lesions. Results Colonoscopic cecal intubation was achieved in 956 patients (95.2%). Most referral doctors were gastroenterologists (58.0%) and the most common indication was colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (35.2%). EPAGE II criteria were applicable in 968 patients (96.4%); of these patients, the indication was appropriate in 778 (80.4%), inappropriate in 102 (10.5%), and uncertain in 88 (9.1%). Patients with appropriate or uncertain indications based on EPAGE II criteria had more relevant endoscopic findings than those with inappropriate indications (38.8% vs. 24.5%; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22–3.13; P<0.005). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of EPAGE II criteria for detecting significant lesions were 93.1% (95% CI 90%–96%) and 75.5% (95% CI 67%–84%), respectively, whereas for advanced neoplastic lesions these values were 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%) and 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%), respectively. Adherence to EPAGE II recommendations was an independent predictor of finding a significant lesion (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.20–3.11; P = 0.007). Conclusions EPAGE II is a simple, valid score for detecting inappropriate colonoscopies in clinical practice.
Garcia, AZ Gimeno; Gonzalez, Y; Quintero, E; Nicolas-Perez, D; Adrian, Z; Romero, R; Fernandez, O Alarcon; Hernandez, M; Carrillo, M; Felipe, V; Diaz, J; Ramos, L; Moreno, M; Jimenez-Sosa, A
The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy.
Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng
Recently, placement of self-expandable metallic stents has been used for the treatment of colorectal obstruction. As domestic awareness of colorectal cancer has increased, the number of colorectal stenting procedures performed has also increased. We aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for colorectal stenting to aid gastroenterologists in making informed decisions regarding the management of patients who present with colorectal obstruction. The working group consisted of eight gastroenterologists who actively practice and conduct research in the field of colorectal stenting and are the members of the Stent Study Group of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, KoreaMed, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles published between January 2001 and June 2012. Based on the modified Delphi process, 10 recommendation statements regarding indications, usefulness, methodology and complications of colorectal stenting, and alternative treatments for malignant colorectal obstruction were determined. The contents will be widely distributed, and periodically revised to reflect the latest knowledge. These evidence-based recommendations for colorectal stenting will provide gastroenterologists and patients with appropriate and balanced information, and will improve the quality of care.
Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Bo-In; Keum, Bora; Cheung, Dae Young
Background/Aim. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) for diagnosing small-bowel lesions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been reported. Most reports have addressed the clinical features of overt OGIB, with few addressing occult OGIB. We aimed to clarify whether occult OGIB is a definite indication for CE. Methods. We retrospectively compared the cases of 102 patients with occult OGIB and 325 patients with overt OGIB, all having undergone CE. The diagnostic yield of CE and identification of various lesion types were determined in cases of occult OGIB versus overt OGIB. Results. There was no significant difference in diagnostic yield between occult and overt OGIB. The small-bowel lesions in cases of occult OGIB were diagnosed as ulcer/erosive lesions (n = 18, 18%), vascular lesions (n = 11, 11%), and tumors (n = 4, 3%), and those in cases of overt OGIB were diagnosed as ulcer/erosive lesions (n = 51, 16%), vascular lesions (n = 31, 10%), and tumors (n = 20, 6%). Conclusion. CE detection rates and CE identification of various small-bowel diseases do not differ between patients with occult versus overt OGIB. CE should be actively performed for patients with either occult or overt OGIB.
Tanaka, Shinji; Nakano, Makoto; Aoyama, Taiki; Chayama, Kazuaki
This article is the second of a two-part publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided Trucut biopsy. The first part (the Clinical Guideline) focused on the results obtained with EUS-guided sampling, and the role of this technique in patient management, and made recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. The current Technical Guideline discusses issues related to learning, techniques, and complications of EUS-guided sampling, and to processing of specimens. Technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation, needle diameter, microcore isolation for histopathological examination, and adequate number of needle passes) are discussed and recommendations are made for various settings, including solid and cystic pancreatic lesions, submucosal tumors, and lymph nodes. The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes gastroenterologists, oncologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technical Guideline should be most useful to endoscopists who perform EUS-guided sampling. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. PMID:22180307
Polkowski, M; Larghi, A; Weynand, B; Boustière, C; Giovannini, M; Pujol, B; Dumonceau, J-M
This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided trucut biopsy (EUS-TCB), of submucosal tumors, diffuse esophageal/gastric wall thickening, pancreatic solid masses and cystic-appearing lesions, mediastinal lesions unrelated to lung or esophageal cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and rectum, lymph nodes of unknown origin, adrenal gland masses, and focal liver lesions. False-positive cytopathological results and needle tract seeding are also discussed. The present Clinical Guideline describes the results of EUS-guided sampling in the different clinical settings, considers the role of this technique in patient management, and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technical Guideline describes the general technique of EUS-guided sampling, particular techniques to maximize the diagnostic yield depending on the nature of the target lesion, and sample processing. The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes gastroenterologists, oncologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technical Guideline should be most useful to endoscopists who perform EUS-guided sampling. PMID:21842456
Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A; Vilmann, P; Giovannini, M; Frossard, J-L; Heresbach, D; Pujol, B; Fernández-Esparrach, G; Vazquez-Sequeiros, E; Ginès, A
Endoscopic stents have evolved dramatically over the past 20 years. With the introduction of uncovered self-expanding metal stents in the early 1990s, they are primarily used to palliate symptoms of malignant obstruction in patients with inoperable gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. At present, stents have emerged as an effective, safe, and less invasive alternative for the treatment of malignant GI obstruction. Clinical decisions about stent placement should be made based on the exact understanding of the patient's condition. These recommendations based on a critical review of the available data and expert consensus are made for the purpose of providing endoscopists with information about stent placement. These can be helpful for management of patients with inoperable cancer or various nonmalignant conditions in the upper GI tract.
Jee, Sam Ryong; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Cho, Jun-Hyung
1. All patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy must be considered 'at risk' for HIV and appropriate cleaning/disinfection measures taken for endoscopes and accessories. 2. Thorough manual cleaning with detergent, of the instrument and its channels is the most important part of the cleaning/disinfection procedure. Without this, blood, mucus and organic material will prevent adequate penetration of disinfectant for inactivation of bacteria and viruses. 3. Aldehyde preparations (2% activated glutaraldehyde and related products) are the recommended first line antibacterial and antiviral disinfectant. A four minute soak is recommended as sufficient for inactivation of vegetative bacteria and viruses (including HIV and HBV). 4. Quaternary ammonium detergents (8% Dettox for two minutes for bacterial disinfection), followed by exposure of the endoscope shaft and channels to ethyl alcohol (70% for four minutes for viral inactivation), is an acceptable second-line disinfectant routine where staff sensitisation prevents the use of an aldehyde disinfectant. 5. Accessories, including mouthguards and cleaning brushes, require similarly careful cleaning/disinfection, before and after each use. Disposable products (especially injection needles) may be used and appropriate items can be sterilised by autoclaving and kept in sterile packs. 6. Closed circuit endoscope washing machines have advantages in maintaining standards and avoiding staff sensitisation to disinfectants. Improved ventilation including exhaust extraction facilities may be required. 7. Endoscopy staff should receive HBV vaccination, wear gloves and appropriate protective garments, cover wounds or abrasions and avoid needlestick injuries (including spiked forceps, etc). 8. Known HIV-infected or AIDS patients are managed as immunosuppressed, and require protection from atypical mycobacteria/cryptosporidia etc, by one hour aldehyde disinfection of endoscopic equipment before and after the procedure. A dedicated instrument is not required. 9. Increased funding is necessary for capital purchases of GI endoscopic equipment, including extra and immersible endoscopes with additional accessories to allow for safe practice. 10. Greater numbers of trained GI assistants are needed to ensure that cleaning/disinfection recommendations and safety precautions are followed, both during routine lists and emergency endoscopic procedures. 11. These recommendations are based on expert interpretation of current data on infectivity and disinfection; they may require future modification.
Emergency endoscopy has to be regarded as a method of high diagnostic value. Based on the resulting therapeutic consequences and with allowance for the prerequisites and contraindications, emergency endoscopy in chronic liver diseases is to be considered a purposeful method. If endoscopic treatment possibilities in bleedings of the gastrointestinal tract continue to improve, the demonstration of an improvement in prognosis by emergency endoscopy seems to be merely a question of time. PMID:3878773
Truckenbrodt, J; Bosseckert, H; Jorke, D; Eitner, K; Fritze, C; Koppe, P; Gross, V
This is one of a series of statements discussing the utilization of GI endoscopy in common clinical situations. The Standards of Practice Committee of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy prepared this text. In preparing this guideline, a MEDLINE literature search was performed, and additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of the identified articles and from recommendations of expert
William K. Hirota; Kathryn Petersen; Todd H. Baron; Jay L. Goldstein; Brian C. Jacobson; Jonathan A. Leighton; J. Shawn Mallery; J. Patrick Waring; Robert D. Fanelli; Jo Wheeler-Harbough; Douglas O. Faigel
Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn’s disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy.
Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G
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International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) is an international meeting covering scientific subjects of diverse topics about upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, colonoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and PB endoscopy. IDEN is organized by Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the Korean Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Research Foundation, and took its first step in 2011 in Seoul, Korea. IDEN inaugurated a new era of diagnostic and therapeutic GI endoscopy. IDEN 2012 was designed to offer participants from all over the world with opportunities to share up-to-date knowledge about basic and clinical aspects of GI endoscopy and to engage in in-depth discussion with worldwide well-known experts. During the 2 days of meeting, there were 62 invited lectures, 28 case-based discussions, 20 video lectures, and 6 breakfast with the experts. There were a total of 598 participants registered from 12 countries, including Asian countries, Europe, and USA as well as Korea.
While color video endoscopy has enabled wide-field examination of the gastrointestinal tract, it often misses or incorrectly classifies lesions. Many of these missed lesions exhibit characteristic three-dimensional surface topographies. An endoscopic system that adds topographical measurements to conventional color imagery could therefore increase lesion detection and improve classification accuracy. We introduce photometric stereo endoscopy (PSE), a technique which allows high spatial frequency components of surface topography to be acquired simultaneously with conventional two-dimensional color imagery. We implement this technique in an endoscopic form factor and demonstrate that it can acquire the topography of small features with complex geometries and heterogeneous optical properties. PSE imaging of ex vivo human gastrointestinal tissue shows that surface topography measurements enable differentiation of abnormal shapes from surrounding normal tissue. Together, these results confirm that the topographical measurements can be obtained with relatively simple hardware in an endoscopic form factor, and suggest the potential of PSE to improve lesion detection and classification in gastrointestinal imaging. PMID:23864015
Parot, Vicente; Lim, Daryl; González, Germán; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Durr, Nicholas J
The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180
Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania
Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)
Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods.
Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.
Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED).
Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778
Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Areia, M; de Vries, A C; Marcos-Pinto, R; Monteiro-Soares, M; O'Connor, A; Pereira, C; Pimentel-Nunes, P; Correia, R; Ensari, A; Dumonceau, J M; Machado, J C; Macedo, G; Malfertheiner, P; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Megraud, F; Miki, K; O'Morain, C; Peek, R M; Ponchon, T; Ristimaki, A; Rembacken, B; Carneiro, F; Kuipers, E J
Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED).
Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the European Helicobacter Study Group, the European Society of Pathology, and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach. A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia and the need for adequate staging in the case of high-grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22190006
Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Areia, M; de Vries, A C; Marcos-Pinto, R; Monteiro-Soares, M; O'Connor, A; Pereira, C; Pimentel-Nunes, P; Correia, R; Ensari, A; Dumonceau, J M; Machado, J C; Macedo, G; Malfertheiner, P; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Megraud, F; Miki, K; O'Morain, C; Peek, R M; Ponchon, T; Ristimaki, A; Rembacken, B; Carneiro, F; Kuipers, E J
\\u000a Since 1910, when Lespinasse  in Chicago was the first surgeon to use an endoscopic device for the treatment of a neurologic disease, various methods\\u000a of endoscopy have evolved into accepted diagnostic and therapeutic adjuncts of modern neurosurgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nevertheless, until recently technical shortcomings of the available endoscopes have prevented the widespread use of neuroendoscopy.\\u000a However, now, at the end of
G. Fries; A. Perneczky
Background New advances in endoscopic surgery make it imperative that future gastrointestinal surgeons obtain adequate endoscopy skills.\\u000a An evaluation of the 2001–02 general surgery residency endoscopy experience at the University of Missouri revealed that chief\\u000a residents were graduating with an average of 43 endoscopic cases. This met American Board of Surgery (ABS) and Accreditation\\u000a Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements
Mario P. Morales; Gregory J. Mancini; Brent W. Miedema; Nitin J. Rangnekar; Debra G. Koivunen; Bruce J. Ramshaw; W. Stephen Eubanks; Hugh E. Stephenson
The role of angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed. Three categories of gastrointestinal bleeding are considered: upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, upper gastrointestinal bleeding of arterial or capillary origin, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The advantages and disadvantages of angiography are compared with those of radionuclide scanning and endoscopy or colonoscopy. It is anticipated that, as radionuclide scans are more widely employed, angiography will eventually be performed only in those patients with positive scans.
Background: The risk of exacerbating subclinical hepatic encephalopathy associated with the administration of sedative drugs in patients with cirrhosis undergoing diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for portal hypertension remains to be determined. Methods: Ten adult patients with cirrhosis completed number connection tests before sedation for endoscopy and at discharge from the endoscopy unit 2 hours post-procedure. Control patients consisted of
Nimer Assy; Barry G. Rosser; Gordon R. Grahame; Gerald Y. Minuk
Gastrointestinal endoscopy is undergoing major improvements, which are driven by new available technologies and substantial refinements of optical features. In this Review, we summarize available and evolving imaging technologies that could influence the clinical algorithm of endoscopic diagnosis. Detection, characterization and confirmation are essential steps required for proper endoscopic diagnosis. Optical and nonoptical methods can help to improve each step;
Martin Goetz; Arthur Hoffman; Peter Robert Galle; Ralf Kiesslich
It is more difficult to achieve cooperation when conducting endoscopy in pediatric patients than adults. As a result, the sedation for a comfortable procedure is more important in pediatric patients. The sedation, however, often involves risks and side effects, and their prediction and prevention should be sought in advance. Physicians should familiarize themselves to the relevant guidelines in order to make appropriate decisions and actions regarding the preparation of the sedation, patient monitoring during endoscopy, patient recovery, and hospital discharge. Furthermore, they have to understand the characteristics of the pediatric patients and different types of endoscopy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the details of sedation in pediatric endoscopy.
Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon.
Romero-Vazquez, Javier; Arguelles-Arias, Federico; Garcia-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Alvarez, Angel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerias-Gutierrez, Juan Manuel
This article expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about radiation protection for endoscopic procedures, in particular endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Particular cases, including pregnant women and pediatric patients, are also discussed. This Guideline was developed by a group of endoscopists and medical physicists to ensure that all aspects of radiation protection are adequately dealt with. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. The target readership for this Guideline mostly includes endoscopists, anesthesiologists, and endoscopy assistants who may be exposed to X-rays during endoscopic procedures. PMID:22438152
Dumonceau, J-M; Garcia-Fernandez, F J; Verdun, F R; Carinou, E; Donadille, L; Damilakis, J; Mouzas, I; Paraskeva, K; Ruiz-Lopez, N; Struelens, L; Tsapaki, V; Vanhavere, F; Valatas, V; Sans-Merce, M
Advanced techniques, optimal patient care, and quality management are currently important topics in clinical medicine. The increasing numbers of minimally invasive procedures being carried out in gastroenterology and surgery, and the effects of the learning curve on complication rates with various procedures, have given rise a recently debate on training standards. Public awareness and increasing legal pressure to show and document competence have further contributed to the importance of training in interventional medicine. Although evidence-based medicine is rapidly becoming the gold standard for treatment modalities, responsibility for education-including the theoretical background, as well as acquiring and refining manual skills in gastrointestinal endoscopy--is still a matter for the individual physician. Practical skills are routinely acquired by practicing on patients, initially under the supervision of a senior endoscopist. The development of new endoscopy simulators has brought out the debate whether training in basic manual skills is better obtained outside the patient. This paper presents an overview of the training simulators currently available and issues associated with them. PMID:15476425
Ledro Cano, D
We report a case of recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding where the bleeding source was difficult to find during recurrent hospitalizations. Eventually videocapsule endoscopy was the modality that finally diagnosed an ulcerated lipoma within an area of intussuscepted jejunum. Segmental resection of small bowel was performed and no further bleeding episodes have occurred. Our case illustrates the value of capsule endoscopy and the rare potential of lipomas to cause serious gastrointestinal bleeding.
Wardi, Joram; Langer, Peter; Shimonov, Mordechai
Background: The small bowel is the most commonly affected site of Crohn’s disease (CD) although it may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The current methodologies for examining the small bowel are x ray and endoscopy.Aims: To evaluate, for the first time, the effectiveness of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected CD of the small bowel undetected by
Z Fireman; E Mahajna; E Broide; M Shapiro; L Fich; A Sternberg; Y Kopelman; E Scapa
Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract but is most frequently localized to the large and small bowel. Small bowel endoscopy helps with the differential diagnosis of CD in suspected CD patients. Early diagnosis of CD is preferable for suspected CD conditions to improve chronic inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis. Small bowel endoscopy can help with the early detection of active disease, thus leading to early therapy before the onset of clinical symptoms of established CD. Some patients with CD have mucosal inflammatory changes not in the terminal ileum but in the proximal small bowel. Conventional ileocolonoscopy cannot detect ileal involvement proximal to the terminal ileum. Small bowel endoscopy, however, can be useful for evaluating these small bowel involvements in patients with CD. Small bowel endoscopy by endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) enables the treatment of small bowel strictures in patients with CD. However, many practical issues still need to be addressed, such as endoscopic findings for early detection of CD, application compared with other imaging modalities, determination of the appropriate interval for endoscopic surveillance of small bowel lesions in patients with CD, and long-term prognosis after EBD.
Watanabe, Kenji; Kamata, Noriko; Sogawa, Mitsue; Arakawa, Tetsuo
Myxococcus xanthus has a complex life cycle that includes fruiting body formation. One of the first stages in development has been called A-signalling. The asg (A-signalling) mutants have been proposed to be deficient in producing A-signal, resulting in development arresting at an early stage. In this paper, we report the identification of a new asg locus asgD. This locus appears to be involved in both environmental sensing and intercellular signalling. Expression of asgD was undetected during vegetative growth, but increased dramatically within 1 h of starvation. The AsgD protein is predicted to contain 773 amino acids and to be part of a two-component regulatory system because it has a receiver domain located at the N-terminus and a histidine protein kinase at the C-terminus. An asgD null mutant was defective in fruiting body formation and sporulation on CF medium. However, the defects of the mutant were complemented extracellularly when cells were mixed with wild-type strains or with bsgA, csgA, dsgA or esgA mutants, but were not complemented extracellularly by asgA, asgB or asgC mutants. In addition, the mutant was rescued by a subset of A-factor amino acids. Surprisingly, when the mutant was plated on stringent starvation medium rather than CF, cells were able to form fruiting bodies. Thus, it appears that AsgD is directly or indirectly involved in sensing nutritionally limiting conditions. The discovery of the asgD locus provides an important sensory transduction component of early development in M. xanthus. PMID:10564471
Cho, K; Zusman, D R
Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to use a large national endoscopic database to determine why routine endoscopy is performed in diverse practice settings. Methods: A computerized endoscopic report generator was developed and disseminated to gastrointestinal (GI) specialists in diverse practice settings. After reports were generated, a data file was transmitted electronically to a central databank, where
David A. Lieberman; Patricia L. de Garmo; David E. Fleischer; Glenn M. Eisen; Mark Helfand
OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) recently published consensus recommendations for safety and quality indicators in digestive endoscopy. The present article focuses specifically on the identification of key elements that should be found in all electronic endoscopy reports detailing recommendations adopted by the CAG consensus group. METHODS: A committee of nine individuals steered the CAG Safety and Quality Indicators in Endoscopy Consensus Group, which had a total membership of 35 voting individuals with knowledge on the subject relating to endoscopic services. A comprehensive literature search was performed with regard to the key elements that should be found in an electronic endoscopy report. A task force reviewed all published, full-text, adult and human studies in French or English. RESULTS: Components to be entered into the standardized report include identification of procedure, timing, procedural personnel, patient demographics and history, indication(s) for procedure, comorbidities, type of bowel preparation, consent for the procedure, pre-endoscopic administration of medications, type and dose of sedation used, extent and completeness of examination, quality of bowel preparation, relevant findings and pertinent negatives, adverse events and resulting interventions, patient comfort, diagnoses, endoscopic interventions performed, details of pathology specimens, details of follow-up arrangements, appended pathology report(s) and, when available, management recommendations. Summary information should be provided to the patient or family. CONCLUSION: Continuous quality improvement should be the responsibility of every endoscopist and endoscopy facility to ensure improved patient care. Appropriate documentation of endoscopic procedures is a critical component of such activities.
Beaulieu, Daphnee; Barkun, Alan N; Dube, Catherine; Tinmouth, Jill; Halle, Pierre; Martel, Myriam
Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Patients of four endoscopists at similar experience levels were retrospectively identified and categorized into the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy before colonoscopy group (group 1) or the colonoscopy only group (group 2). The demographics, clinical data and the time to achieve cecal intubation for each patient were analyzed. The mean time to achieve cecal intubation in the first group that included 319 cases was 8.4 ± 0.93 minutes and the mean time in the second group that included 1672 cases was 8.56 ± 1.16 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was also no significant difference between the Group 1 and Group 2 when compared according to which of the four endoscopists performed the procedures. Performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to colonoscopy did not affect the time to achieve cecal intubation. Considering that performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to the colonoscopy is more advantageous in terms of patient comfort and analgesic requirement, beginning to BE with it seems more favorable.
Oner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gunduz, Umut R?za; Aslaner, Arif; Koc, Umit; Bulbuller, Nurullah
... the Public › Speech, Language and Swallowing › Swallowing Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy) Do you have problems swallowing? ... Some names you might hear are: Endoscopy Endoscopic Evaluation of swallowing FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) ...
GNSS observations in a network of permanent stations are a complex systems which offer both post-processing and corrections sent in real-time. In Poland such a system, known as the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-EUPOS), has been in operation since June 2008. The GNSS development forces also continuous modernization of ASG-EUPOS (e.g.: GPS/GLONASS receivers mounting, ASG+ project) which aims to improve the accuracy of position determination. One of the factors limiting the accuracy (especially the vertical component) is antenna phase center variations (PCV) problem. PCV problem is resolved using the antenna calibration process. As a result, antenna phase center corrections models (PCC) are created. So far three methods have been developed to determine GNSS antenna PCV. For this reason and because of some problems in introducing of absolute models at present we can speak of three models of receiver antennas PCV (so called: relative, absolute converted and absolute). The aim of this paper was to study the height differences caused by using different calibration models in GNSS observation processing done in the ASG-EUPOS POZGEO-D service. The analysis was done using 3 days of GNSS data, collected with four different receivers and antennas, divided by one hour observation sessions. The results of the calculations show that switching between PCV models may have a visible effect on height determination, particularly in high accuracy applications.
Endoscopy evolved from a hollow tube view of visually restricted areas into an expansive, distal representation of the anatomy. Rod lens telescopes, improved coherent imaging bundles, superior light sources, and other optical advances enhanced endoscopic observations. Yet complicated endoscopic procedures remained visible to the endoscopist alone, relegating assistance and consultation toverbal description of sophisticatedvisual observation. Instrumentational advances alone did not
George Berci; Margaret Paz-Partlow
ASG-EUPOS Network is the Polish part of the European Position Determination System consisting of more than 100 permanently working in Poland GNSS receivers. The main goal of the established ionospheric service is supporting positioning and navigation with high accuracy both in real-time and postprocessing. The primary products of the system are the daily variations of the TEC over stations and the daily maps of the TEC created using carrier phase leveled to code observations and spherical harmonic expansion as a mapping function. The maps are characterized by high temporal (0.5 hour) and spatial resolution (0.5 x 0.5 degree). In order to make possible taking into account observations with low elevation angles during the processing GNSS data, the final maps are extended using about 100 European GNSS stations belong to the IGS/EPN network. The final products are written in modified ionex file covering the area from -10 to 40 degree for longitude and from 35 to 60 degree for latitude. For the real-time application of the ionospheric TEC map in the GNSS positioning the predicted map using autocovariance and ARMA methods is created. The second part of the presented service is connected with monitoring of the different scale ionospheric irregularities. The detecting of the small-scale disturbances is done with two kind of high-rate GNSS receivers (50Hz): Septentrio POLARXS and JAVAD SIGMA. The scintillation indices for amplitude and phase are calculated in near real-time for each scintillation GNSS receiver. In order to monitor medium and large scale ionospheric irregularities the ROT (rate of TEC) time series for all ASG-EUPOS receivers are determined.
Sieradzki, Rafal; Zakharenkova, Irina; Sidorowicz, Tomasz; Krankowski, Andrzej
Background/Aims Capsule endoscopy (CE) has become an important tool for the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Although CE does not require the skill of endoscope insertion, the images should be interpreted by a person with experience in assessing images of the gastrointestinal mucosa. This investigation aimed to document the number of cases needed by trainees to gain the necessary experience for CE competency. Methods Fifteen cases were distributed to 12 trainees with no previous experience of CE during their gastroenterology training as clinical fellows. Twelve trainees and an expert were asked to read CE images from one patient each week for 15 weeks. The diagnosis was reported using five categories (no abnormalities detected, small bowel erosion or ulcer, small bowel tumor, Crohn disease, and active small bowel bleeding with no identifiable source). We then examined, using the ? coefficient, how the degree of mean agreements between the trainees and the expert changed as the training progressed each week. Results The agreement rate of CE diagnosis increased as the frequencies of interpretation increased. Most of the mean ? coefficients were >0.60 and >0.80 after week 9 and 11, respectively. Conclusions Experience with approximately 10 cases of CE is appropriate for trainees to attain CE competency.
Lim, Yun Jeong; Joo, Young Sung; Jung, Dae Young; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Seong Eun; Do, Jae Hyuk; Jang, Byung Ik; Moon, Jeong Seop; Kim, Jin Oh; Chun, Hoon Jae
Transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD) has recently become one of the frequently used methods of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in some countries. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation are smaller for TN-EGD than for conventional transoral esophagogastroduodenoscopy, making it a safer procedure. Lower pain and gag reflex enable TN-EGD to be performed without conscious sedation. TN-EGD is applied in various gastrointestinal (GI) procedures such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, nasoenteric feeding tube placement, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography with nasobiliary drainage and lithotripsy, long intestinal tube placement in small-bowel obstruction, esophageal manometry, foreign body removal, botulinum toxin injection for achalasia, esophageal varix evaluation with the aid of endoscopic ultrasonography, and the double-scope technique for endoscopic submucosal dissection. The establishment of standard training programs and nationwide guidelines, the dissemination of educational information, the improvement in endoscopy devices and accessories, and the availability of insurance coverage for the procedure will obviously further widen the adoption of TN-EGD.
Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed investigation of the small bowel providing a non-invasive, well tolerated means of accurately visualising the distal duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Since the introduction of small bowel CE thirteen years ago a high volume of literature on indications, diagnostic yields and safety profile has been presented. Inclusion in national and international guidelines has placed small bowel capsule endoscopy at the forefront of investigation into suspected diseases of the small bowel. Most commonly, small bowel CE is used in patients with suspected bleeding or to identify evidence of active Crohn’s disease (CD) (in patients with or without a prior history of CD). Typically, CE is undertaken after upper and lower gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy has failed to identify a diagnosis. Small bowel radiology or a patency capsule test should be considered prior to CE in those at high risk of strictures (such as patients known to have CD or presenting with obstructive symptoms) to reduce the risk of capsule retention. CE also has a role in patients with coeliac disease, suspected small bowel tumours and other small bowel disorders. Since the advent of small bowel CE, dedicated oesophageal and colon capsule endoscopes have expanded the fields of application to include the investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. Oesophageal CE may be used to diagnose oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and varices but reliability in identifying gastroduodenal pathology is unknown and it does not have biopsy capability. Colon CE provides an alternative to conventional colonoscopy for symptomatic patients, while a possible role in colorectal cancer screening is a fascinating prospect. Current research is already addressing the possibility of controlling capsule movement and developing capsules which allow tissue sampling and the administration of therapy.
Hale, Melissa F; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E
AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as bleeding from the digestive tract that persists or recurs without an obvious etiology after a normal gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. Nevertheless, capsule endoscopy sometimes reveals findings outside the small bowel, i.e., within reach of conventional endoscopes. In this retrospective single center study, 595 patients undergoing capsule endoscopy between 2003 and 2009 were studied. The incidence of non-small bowel abnormalities was defined as visible abnormalities detected by capsule endoscopy that are located within reach of conventional endoscopes. RESULTS: In 595 patients, referred for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or for suspected Crohn’s disease, abnormalities were found in 306 (51.4%). Of these 306 patients, 85 (27.7%) had abnormalities within reach of conventional endoscopes; 63 had abnormalities apparently overlooked at previous conventional endoscopies, 10 patients had not undergone upper and lower endoscopy prior to capsule endoscopy and 12 had abnormalities that were already known prior to capsule endoscopy. The most common type of missed lesions were vascular lesions (n = 47). Non-small-bowel abnormalities were located in the stomach (n = 15), proximal small bowel (n = 22), terminal ileum (n = 21), colon (n = 19) or at other or multiple locations (n = 8). Ten patients with abnormal findings in the terminal ileum had not undergone examination of the ileum during colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients undergoing small bowel capsule endoscopy had lesions within reach of conventional endoscopes, indicating that capsule endoscopy was unnecessarily performed.
Hoedemaker, Reinier A; Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K; Koornstra, Jan J
We report a rare case of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the small bowel that presented as a pedunculated epithelial polyp. A 60-year-old man with liver cirrhosis type B was treated for HCC (stage IVb) at our hospital. He had been admitted for melena and anemia. Capsule endoscopy was performed in this patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It showed a polypoid lesion with bleeding in the ileum. Double-balloon endoscopy was performed. The lesion was determined to be a pedunculated polyp in the ileum. Histological examination of biopsy specimens showed tumor cells resembling HCC. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection for the lesion by double-balloon endoscopy to prevent bleeding from the tumor. The patient had no melena or anemia and his condition improved after endoscopic mucosal resection. However, he died of liver failure 2 months later.
Igawa, A.; Oka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakano, M.; Aoyama, T.; Watari, I.; Aikata, H.; Arihiro, K.; Chayama, K.
Otilonium bromide is a calcium antagonist with a direct myolytic effect, that is indicated in spastic conditions and functional dyskinesias of the gastroenteric apparatus (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a premedication for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The present study assessed otilonium bromide 40 mg PO the night before and 40 mg PO the morning in 49 upper and 14 lower flexible endoscopies in 63 patients, to determine the presence or absence of peristalsis and relaxation of the pylorus. No side effects were observed due to the medication. In 46 (93.8%) upper endoscopies marked relaxation of the gastrointestinal tract and also pylorus relaxation were observed. In 13 (92.8%) lower endoscopies, marked relaxation of the colonic tract was also seen. All patients tolerated well the endoscopies. Otilonium bromide was useful as premedication in order to enable upper and lower endoscopic explorations, because of its spasmolytic effect. PMID:9412140
Gómez, N A; León, C J; Gutiérrez, J
...Designation of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (and Other Aliases) as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to...organization as a Foreign Terrorist Organization have not changed...organization as a Foreign Terrorist Organization,...
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-familial disorder with multiple gastrointestinal polyps and ectodermal changes. Adenomatous and carcinomatous changes have been reported. Video capsule endoscopy is a useful non-invasive tool to reveal polypoid lesions of the gastrointestinal tract suspicious for malignancy. We report a case of a patient with CCS with excessively elongated intestinal villi resembling dense sea grass under water as well as multiple polyps of the intestinal mucosa revealed by video capsule endoscopy. This report presents for the first time small bowel video sequences of CCS qualifying video capsule endoscopy for screening purposes and early detection of malignancy.
Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian; Domschke, Wolfram
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-familial disorder with multiple gastrointestinal polyps and ectodermal changes. Adenomatous and carcinomatous changes have been reported. Video capsule endoscopy is a useful non-invasive tool to reveal polypoid lesions of the gastrointestinal tract suspicious for malignancy. We report a case of a patient with CCS with excessively elongated intestinal villi resembling dense sea grass under water as well as multiple polyps of the intestinal mucosa revealed by video capsule endoscopy. This report presents for the first time small bowel video sequences of CCS qualifying video capsule endoscopy for screening purposes and early detection of malignancy. PMID:24729822
Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian; Domschke, Wolfram; Meister, Tobias
The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy.
Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.
The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.
Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub
Virtual endoscopy techniques have significant clinical promise for patient screening and may replace some real endoscopic examinations. Visualizations that mimic reality to an acceptable degree are a key factor for physician acceptance of virtual endoscopy. Clinicians must be able to interact with and quickly understand the visualizations. We are studying image generation paradigms and parameters within each paradigm to evaluate
Daniel J. Blezek; Richard A. Robb; Charlene M. Prather
Conventional endoscopy has reached a plateau in technical development, necessitating the exploration of bold new ideas in order to make further advances. One such idea is a self-navigating, independent, intelligent colonoscopic micro-robot. The design of a vehicle that can negotiate the difficult and hostile terrain of the colon is a complex task. Options include wheeled or tracked vehicles and pneumatically driven devices. The development of navigation and lesion recognition software to drive such a vehicle is also challenging. The various mathematical concepts involved in the development of such software are explored in this article. PMID:11030633
Goh, P; Krishnan, S M
Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.
Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique
AIM: To summarize the magnitude and time trends of endoscopy-related claims and to compare total malpractice indemnity according to specialty and procedure. METHODS: We obtained data from a comprehensive database of closed claims from a trade association of professional liability insurance carriers, representing over 60% of practicing United States physicians. Total payments by procedure and year were calculated, and were adjusted for inflation (using the Consumer Price Index) to 2008 dollars. Time series analysis was performed to assess changes in the total value of claims for each type of procedure over time. RESULTS: There were 1901 endoscopy-related closed claims against all providers from 1985 to 2008. The specialties include: internal medicine (n = 766), gastroenterology (n = 562), general surgery (n = 231), general and family practice (n = 101), colorectal surgery (n = 87), other specialties (n = 132), and unknown (n = 22). Colonoscopy represented the highest frequencies of closed claims (n = 788) and the highest total indemnities ($54 093 000). In terms of mean claims payment, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ranked the highest ($374??794) per claim. Internists had the highest number of total claims (n = 766) and total claim payment ($70??730??101). Only total claim payments for colonoscopy and ERCP seem to have increased over time. Indeed, there was an average increase of 15.5% per year for colonoscopy and 21.9% per year for ERCP after adjusting for inflation. CONCLUSION: There appear to be differences in malpractice coverage costs among specialties and the type of endoscopic procedure. There is also evidence for secular trend in total claim payments, with colonoscopy and ERCP costs rising yearly even after adjusting for inflation.
Hernandez, Lyndon V; Klyve, Dominic; Regenbogen, Scott E
Intracranial endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, or brain tumors has gained wide acceptance, but the use of endoscopy for intradural navigation in the pediatric spine has received much less attention. The aim of the authors' present study was to analyze their experience in using spinal endoscopy to treat various pathologies of the spinal canal. The authors performed a retrospective review of intradural spinal endoscopic cases at their institution. They describe 4 representative cases, including an arachnoid cyst, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, holocord syrinx, and split cord malformation. Intradural spinal endoscopy was useful in treating the aforementioned lesions. It resulted in a more limited laminectomy and myelotomy, and it assisted in identifying a residual spinal cord tumor. It was also useful in the fenestration of a multilevel arachnoid cyst and in confirming communication of fluid spaces in the setting of a complex holocord syrinx. Endoscopy aided in the visualization of the spinal cord to ensure the absence of tethering in the case of a long-length Type II split spinal cord malformation. Conclusions Based on their experience, the authors found intradural endoscopy to be a useful surgical adjunct and one that helped to decrease morbidity through reduced laminectomy and myelotomy. With advances in technology, the authors believe that intradural endoscopy will begin to be used by more neurosurgeons for treating diseases of this anatomical region. PMID:21721897
Chern, Joshua J; Gordon, Amber S; Naftel, Robert P; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Wellons, John C
Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Gastrointestinal obstruction Inflammatory processes, such as infection or inflammatory bowel disease (most ...
Advanced medical imaging and visualization has a strong impact on research and clinical decision making in gastroenterology. The aim of this paper is to show how imaging and visualization can disclose structural and functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Imaging methods such as ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopy, endosonography, and elastography will be outlined and visualization with Virtual
Odd Helge Gilja; Jan G Hatlebakk; Svein Ødegaard; Arnold Berstad; Ivan Viola; Christopher Giertsen; Trygve Hausken; Hans Gregersen
A variety of endoscopy simulators have been produced during the last several decades. Multiple factors have influenced the types of simulators that have been developed and the ongoing evolution of existing models. Realistic simulation is only one issue in providing simulation-based training in GI endoscopy. Details such as cost, technologic limitations, management and availability of training facilities, personnel, animal welfare and the procurement, handling, and disposal of animal parts are all major factors when considering the options available among existing endoscopy simulators. Table 1 summarizes the logistical factors for the different types of endoscopy simulator. These considerations clearly are of major importance in simulator design and development and in the conceptualization and organization of simulator-based curricula and courses. PMID:16876726
Cisler, Jason J; Martin, John A
Obesity is an increasingly serious health problem in nearly all Western countries. It represents an important risk factor for several gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, hiatal hernia, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, Helicobacter pylori infection, colorectal polyps and cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgery is the most effective treatment to date, resulting in sustainable and significant weight loss, along with the resolution of metabolic comorbidities in up to 80% of cases. Many of these conditions can be clinically relevant and have a significant impact on patients undergoing bariatric surgery. There is evidence that the chosen procedure might be changed if specific pathological upper gastrointestinal findings, such as large hiatal hernia or Barrett’s esophagus, are detected preoperatively. The value of a routine endoscopy before bariatric surgery in asymptomatic patients (screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy) remains controversial. The common indications for endoscopy in the postoperative bariatric patient include the evaluation of symptoms, the management of complications, and the evaluation of weight loss failure. It is of critical importance for the endoscopist to be familiar with the postoperative anatomy and to work in close collaboration with bariatric surgery colleagues in order to maximize the outcome and safety of endoscopy in this setting. The purpose of this article is to review the role of the endoscopist in a multidisciplinary obesity center as it pertains to the preoperative and postoperative management of bariatric surgery patients.
De Palma, Giovanni D; Forestieri, Pietro
This paper introduces a novel and simple topology for an efficient, miniaturized, low power but high data rate transmitter, suitable for implanted devices. The application envisaged is in capsular endoscopy, where high quality images of the gastro-intestinal tract need to be transmitted continuously through the human body to an external receiver. A 2Mbps Frequency Shift Keying transmitter is developed, consuming
J. Thoné; S. Radiom; D. Turgis; R. Carta; G. Gielen; R. Puers
Combining the narrow-band imaging (NBI) system and magnifying endoscopy allows simple and clear visualization of microscopic structures of the superficial mucosa and its capillary patterns, which may be useful for precise endoscopic diagnosis in the gastrointestinal tract, being more closely to histopathological diagnosis. In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, there have been reports showing a potential usefulness of magnifying NBI for
Masaaki Okubo; Tomomitsu Tahara; Tomoyuki Shibata; Masakatsu Nakamura; Yoshio Kamiya; Daisuke Yoshioka; Yoshiteru Maeda; Joh Yonemura; Takamitsu Ishizuka; Tomiyasu Arisawa; Ichiro Hirata
Capsule endoscopy is an emerging field in medical technology. Despite very promising innovations, some critical issues are yet to be addressed, such as the management and possible exploitation of the friction in the gastrointestinal environment in order to control capsule locomotion more actively. This paper presents the fabrication and testing of bio-inspired polymeric micro-patterns, which are arrays of cylindrical pillars
Elisa Buselli; Virginia Pensabene; Piero Castrataro; Pietro Valdastri; Arianna Menciassi; Paolo Dario
SYNOPSIS Gastrointestinal eosinophilia, as a broad term for abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the GI tract, involves many different disease identities. These diseases include primary eosinophil associated gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal eosinophilia in HES and all gastrointestinal eosinophilic states associated with known causes. Each of these diseases has its unique features but there is no absolute boundary between them. All three groups of GI eosinophila are described in this chapter although the focus is on primary gastrointestinal eosinophilia, i.e. EGID.
Zuo, Li; Rothenberg, Marc E.
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621
Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.
Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong
AIM: To study the endoscopic, pathological and immuno-histochemical features of esophageal mesenchymal tumors. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed as esophageal mysenchymal tumors by electronic endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) were observed under light microscopes, and all tissues were stained by the immunohistochemical method. The expression of CD117, CD34, SMA and desmin were measured by staining intensity of cells and positive cell ratios. RESULTS: Endoscopically, esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and leiomyomas (LMs) had similar appearances, showing submucosal protuberant lesions. They all showed low echo images originated from the muscularis propria or muscularis mucosa on EUS. Endoscopy and EUS could not exactly differentiate esophageal GISTs from LMs. Microscopically, there were two kinds of cells: spindle cell type and epitheloid cell type in esophageal GISTs. Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were only of spindle cell type. One malignancy was found in five cases of esophageal GISTs, and one malignancy in 24 cases of leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. Using Fisher’s exact method, the differences of malignant lesion proportion were not significant between esophageal LMs and GISTs, 1/5 vs 1/24 (P > 0.05). All cases of esophageal GISTs were positive for CD117, and 3 cases were also positive for CD34. The 24 cases of leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were all negative for CD117 and CD34. The differences of positive rates of CD117 and CD34 were significant between esophageal GISTs and LMs, 5/5 vs 0/24, 3/5 vs 0/24 (P < 0.005). All leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were positive for SMA, and desmin. Among 5 cases of esophageal GISTs, 2 cases were SMA positive, and 1 case was desmin positive. The differences in positive rates and expression intensity of SMA and desmin were significant between esophageal LMs and GISTs, 24/24 vs 2/5, 24/24 vs 1/5 (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: The most common esophageal mesenchymal tumors are leiomyomas, and esophageal GISTs are less common. Most of esophageal LMs and GISTs are benign. Endoscopy and EUS are the effective methods to diagnose esophageal mesenchymal tumors and they can provide useful information for the treatment of these tumors. However, they cannot exactly differentiate esophageal GISTs from LMs. Pathological, especially immunohistochemical features are useful to differentiate GISTs from leiomyomas.
Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Li, Bi-Min; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Kun-He; Chen, Jiang
Background Gastrointestinal illness may result from either an underlying structural abnormality (e.g. neoplastic obstruction), or a functional\\u000a disorder (e.g. motor diarrhea), or both (e.g. achalasia with squamous esophageal cancer).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims The purpose of this study was to highlight the potential value and role of endoscopy in the recognition and management of\\u000a patients with functional and motility disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We performed a literature review
Yael Kopelman; George Triadafilopoulos
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a life threatening condition in children. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children include variceal hemorrhage (most commonly extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction in our settings) and mucosal lesions (gastric erosions and ulcers secondary to drug intake). While most gastrointestinal bleeding may not be life threatening, it is necessary to determine the source, degree and possible cause of the bleeding. A complete and thorough history and physical examination is therefore vital. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy are currently considered the first-line diagnostic procedures of choice for upper and lower GI bleeding, respectively. The goals of therapy in a child with GI bleeding should involve hemodynamic resuscitation, cessation of bleeding from source and prevention of future episodes of GI bleeding. Antacids supplemented by H2- receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay in the treatment of bleeding from mucosal lesion. For variceal bleeds, therapeutic emergency endoscopy is the treatment of choice after initial hemodynamic stabilization of the patient. Independent prognostic factors are presence of shock and co-morbidities. Underlying diagnosis, coagulation disorder, failure to identify the bleeding site, anemia and excessive blood loss are other factors associated with poor prognosis. PMID:21153570
Bhatia, Vidyut; Lodha, Rakesh
Since the beginning of the millennium, the development of wireless capsule endoscopy has represented a major technological advance. The capsule is ingested by the patient and images are transmitted via several sensors positioned on the skin of the patient and downloaded in a computer system. The first applications were focused on the exploration of the small bowel which was previously considered as an obscure area for conventional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small bowel is now an established technique with many acknowledged indications for the diagnosis of obscure bleeding, anemia of presumed digestive origin, Crohn's disease and small bowel tumors. Recently, thanks to technological progresses, novel capsules have been developed for specific segments of the gut namely the oesophagus and the colon. Recent data suggest that these new capsules could have potential applications for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices, Barrett's oesophagus and for the screening and/or surveillance of polyps of the colon. However, further studies are required before such strategies could be approved for clinical use or even replace conventional endoscopic modalities. In the long-term, progresses in signal processing as well as in the miniaturisation of sensors or markers may lead to a new generation of endoscopic robots. This technological breakthrough may ultimately result in new concepts and change current practice of digestive endoscopy. PMID:19679416
Sacher-Huvelin, S; Bourreille, A; Le Rhun, M; Galmiche, J-P
Despite advances in our knowledge of celiac disease, the most current and authoritative recommendations conclude that diagnosis requires at least four biopsy specimens to be taken from the duodenal area. These recommendations are based on the perception that classic endoscopic markers are not adequate to target biopsy sampling to sites of villous damage in the duodenum. In the past few
Paolo Fedeli; Antonio Gasbarrini; Giovanni Cammarota
Background Few studies have evaluated patients’ perceived burden of cancer surveillance tests. Cancer screening and surveillance, however, require a large number of patients to undergo potentially burdensome tests with only some experiencing health gains from it. We investigated the determinants of patients’ reported burden of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy by comparing data from three patient groups. Patients and methods A total of 476 patients were included: 180 patients under regular surveillance for Barrett esophagus (BE), a premalignant disorder; 214 patients with non-specific upper GI symptoms (NS), and 82 patients recently diagnosed with upper GI cancer (CA). We assessed pain, discomfort and overall burden experienced during endoscopy, symptoms in the week afterwards and psychological distress over time (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and Impact of Event Scale). Results Two-thirds (66%) of patients reported discomfort and overall burden of upper GI endoscopy. Only 23% reported any pain. BE patients reported significantly less discomfort, pain and overall burden than the other patients: those with NS reported more discomfort, CA patients more pain, and both more overall burden. These differences could be statistically explained by the number of previous endoscopies and whether sedation was provided or not, but not by patient characteristics. Conclusion The perception of upper GI endoscopy varies by patient group, due to potential adaptation after multiple endoscopies and aspects of the procedure.
Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Bac, Dirk J.; Wismans, Pieter J.; ter Borg, Frank; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Siersema, Peter D.
BACKGROUND: Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality highlight the need for endoscopy facilities to review the quality of the service they offer. OBJECTIVE: To adapt the United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (UK-GRS) to develop a web-based and patient-centred tool to assess and improve the quality of endoscopy services provided. METHODS: Based on feedback from 22 sites across Canada that completed the UK endoscopy GRS, and integrating results of the Canadian consensus on safety and quality indicators in endoscopy and other Canadian consensus reports, a working group of endoscopists experienced with the GRS developed the GRS-Canada (GRS-C). RESULTS: The GRS-C mirrors the two dimensions (clinical quality and quality of the patient experience) and 12 patient-centred items of the UK-GRS, but was modified to apply to Canadian health care infrastructure, language and current practice. Each item is assessed by a yes/no response to eight to 12 statements that are divided into levels graded D (basic) through A (advanced). A core team consisting of a booking clerk, charge nurse and the physician responsible for the unit is recommended to complete the GRS-C twice yearly. CONCLUSION: The GRS-C is intended to improve endoscopic services in Canada by providing endoscopy units with a straightforward process to review the quality of the service they provide.
MacIntosh, Donald; Dube, Catherine; Hollingworth, Roger; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Daniels, Sandra; Ghattas, George
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) can be considered an example of disruptive technology since it represents an appealing alternative to traditional diagnostic techniques. This technology enables inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or need for sedation, thus preventing the risks of conventional endoscopy, and has the potential of encouraging patients to undergo gastrointestinal (GI) tract examinations. However, currently available clinical products are passive devices whose locomotion is driven by natural peristalsis, with the drawback of failing to capture the images of important GI tract regions, since the doctor is unable to control the capsule's motion and orientation. To address these limitations, many research groups are working to develop active locomotion devices that allow capsule endoscopy to be performed in a totally controlled manner. This would enable the doctor to steer the capsule towards interesting pathological areas and to accomplish medical tasks. This review presents a research update on WCE and describes the state of the art of the basic modules of current swallowable devices, together with a perspective on WCE potential for screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. PMID:22273791
Ciuti, Gastone; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.
Capsule endoscopy (CE) can be considered an example of "disruptive technology" since it represents a bright alternative to traditional diagnostic methodologies. If compared with traditional endoscopy, bowel cleansing procedure in CE becomes of greater importance, due to the impossibility to intraoperatively operate on unclean gastrointestinal tract areas. Considering the promising results and benefits obtained in the field of CE for gastrointestinal diagnosis and intervention, the authors approached the bowel cleansing issue with the final aim to propose an innovative and easy-to-use intraoperative cleansing system to be applied to an active locomotion softly-tethered capsule device, already developed by the authors. The system, that has to be intended as an additional tool for intraoperatively cleansing procedure of the colonic tract, is composed by a flexible tube with a metallic deflector attached to the distal end; it can be headed to the target area through the capsule operating channel. Performances of the colonoscopic capsule and intraoperative cleansing capabilities were successfully confirmed both in an in-vitro and ex-vivo experimental session. The innovative intraoperative cleansing system demonstrated promising results in terms of water injection, colonic wall cleansing procedure and subsequent water suction, thus guaranteeing to reduce the risk of inadequate visualization of the mucosa in endoscopic procedures. PMID:24110819
Ciuti, G; Tognarelli, S; Verbeni, A; Menciassi, A; Dario, P
Background: The risk factors for perforation from colorectal endoscopy have been well studied, but little is known about clinical outcomes beyond the immediate event. Objective: To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes of iatrogenic colorectal perforation following colorectal endoscopy. Design: Retrospective review over 16 years at a single tertiary care institution. Main Outcome Measures: Treatment interventions, morbidity and mortality rates, hospital length of stay, stoma closure rate, and long-term complications. Results: Of 132,259 colorectal endoscopies, 26 patients (0.02%) had a perforation (54% males; mean age, 67 years). The rectosigmoid colon was the most common site of perforation (65%). Thirty-eight percent of the perforations were recognized at the time of procedure, 31% presented within 24 hours, and 31% presented beyond 24 hours. Operative repair was undertaken in 85% of the patients, and 15% were managed with inpatient hospital observation. Primary repair was performed in 68% (defunctioning stoma in 18%). Mean hospital length of stay was 10.1 days. The overall postoperative complications rate was 55%, and wound complications were noted in 45%. The 30-day mortality rate was 19%. No death was observed beyond the first month. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes 3 and 4 were associated with mortality (p = 0.004). Of 7 patients who received a stoma, only 2 patients (29%) had stoma reversal. Long-term complications included incisional hernia (10%) and small-bowel obstruction (5%). Conclusions: Perforation following colorectal endoscopy was uncommon in this study but was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An increased risk of death was noted with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class.
Tam, Michael S; Abbas, Maher A
Background: The small bowel is the most commonly affected site of Crohn’s disease (CD) although it may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The current methodologies for examining the small bowel are x ray and endoscopy. Aims: To evaluate, for the first time, the effectiveness of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected CD of the small bowel undetected by conventional modalities, and to determine the diagnostic yield of the M2A Given Capsule. Patients: Seventeen patients (eight males, mean age 40 (15) years) with suspected CD fulfilled study entry criteria: nine had iron deficiency anaemia (mean haemoglobin 10.5 (SD 1.8) g%), eight had abdominal pain, seven had diarrhoea, and three had weight loss. Small bowel x ray and upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were normal. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.3 (SD 2.2) years. Methods: Each subject swallowed an M2A Given Capsule containing a miniature video camera, batteries, a transmitter, and an antenna. Recording time was approximately eight hours. The capsule was excreted naturally in the patient’s bowel movement, and the data it contained were retrieved and interpreted the next day. Results: Of the 17 study participants, 12 (70.6%, six males, mean age 34.5 (12) years) were diagnosed as having CD of the small bowel according to the findings of the M2A Given Capsule. Conclusions: Wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosed CD of the small bowel (diagnostic yield of 71%). It was demonstrated as being an effective modality for diagnosing patients with suspected CD undetected by conventional diagnostic methodologies.
Fireman, Z; Mahajna, E; Broide, E; Shapiro, M; Fich, L; Sternberg, A; Kopelman, Y; Scapa, E
Optical fibers transmit high-intensity illumination for viewing internal organs and tissue. Remote viewing is obtained by relays of lenses or graded-index-of-refraction rods in rigid endoscopes and by precisely aligned fiber-optic bundles in flexible fiberscopes. Endoscopy is considered for routine examinations, such as in colonoscopy. Lasers are used as surgical tools through endoscopes for cutting and coagulation. They may also be used to provide illumination for the efficient transmission of light through thin optical fibers.
The case of a postmenopausal woman with a congenital aortic stenosis is presented. She presented with severe iron deficiency anemia. After negative extensive gastrointestinal analysis, she was treated with octreotide for six months. After cessation of octreotide, anemia rapidly recurred. A second capsule endoscopy and a double balloon enteroscopy were performed, and an intestinal vascular malformation was found. After surgical segment resection, the patient had stable, normal levels of hemoglobin and no complaints after 14 months of follow-up.
den Ouden, Henk; van Tuyl, SAC; Groenen, Marcel; Stolk, Mark FJ; Kuipers, Ernst J
In the majority of patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease follow-up or disease control might necessitate endoscopy. Evidence on the safety of drugs and imaging techniques during pregnancy is scarce and sometimes difficult to interpret. In this review we summarise existing literature with the aim of optimising counselling of patients with common chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases who want to conceive. PMID:24429582
van der Woude, C Janneke; Metselaar, Herold J; Danese, Silvio
Gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and are frequently detected on routine endoscopy. Although only ?10–30% of GISTs are clinically malignant, all may have some degree of malignant potential. Preoperative determination of malignancy risk can be estimated from tumor size and location, but reliable histopathologic criteria are not currently available. Given
Paul S. Sepe; William R. Brugge
Pediatric endoscopy has evolved from a purely observational modality into one with the potential for many therapeutic applications.\\u000a Common therapeutic uses of endoscopy in children now include treatment of variceal bleeds and foreign body retrieval and newer\\u000a procedures such as endoluminal gastroplication and endoscopic pyloromyotomy. Continuing research in pediatric endoscopy will\\u000a allow pediatric gastroenterologists to perfect existing interventional endoscopic techniques
Steven Liu; Petar Mamula; Chris A. Liacouras
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A vasculitis (IgAV), previously known as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a systemic IgA-mediated leukocytoclastic vasculitis that usually affects children. We report the usefulness of video capsule endoscopy in 2 adolescent patients with IgAV having gastrointestinal involvement. Both patient 1, a 15-year-old girl, and patient 2, a 14-year-old boy, presented with purpuric rash and abdominal pain. Video capsule endoscopy showed multiple areas of purpuric erythema throughout the small bowel in both patients and showed multiple ulcers with bleeding in patient 2. Patient 1 responded well to oral prednisolone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day. However, in patient 2, prednisolone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day failed to control the symptoms; therefore, the dose was increased to 1 mg/kg/day to provide relief. Video capsule endoscopy was safe in both cases and produced no side effects. In conclusion, video capsule endoscopy is a useful tool for evaluating small bowel lesions in patients with IgAV and provides valuable information for the treatment of IgAV with gastrointestinal involvement. PMID:24805100
Li, Min; Omi, Tokuya; Matano, Yoko; Fujimori, Shunji; Kawana, Seiji
Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.
Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay
Shewanella spp. are an uncommon cause of human infection, with exposure to water being the commonest source. We report a patient with a malignancy and upper gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent a gastric lavage followed by an endoscopy as part of her investigations. She subsequently developed Shewanella spp. bacteraemia without any clinical source of infection. PMID:17454904
Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Riesenberg, Klaris; Schlaeffer, Francisc
Bleeding in the digestive tract is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases, as well as the complication\\u000a of some fatal diseases. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), which is widely applied in the clinical field, allows physicians\\u000a to noninvasively examine the entire GI tract. However, it is very laborious and time-consuming to detect the huge amount of\\u000a WCE images,
Guo-bing Pan; Guo-zheng Yan; Xin-shuai Song; Xiang-ling Qiu
Background & Aims: Propofol is increasingly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy because of its rapid recovery profile. There has been no prospective, randomized comparison of gastroenterologist-administered propofol to meperidine and midazolam for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. Additionally, its cost-effectiveness has not been studied. Methods: Seventy-five randomized patients received either gastroenterologist-administered propofol (n = 38) or meperidine\\/midazolam (n = 37)
John J. Vargo; Gregory Zuccaro; John A. Dumot; Kenneth M. Shermock; J. Brad Morrow; Darwin L. Conwell; Patricia A. Trolli; Walter G. Maurer
A 45-year-old male with dilatative cardiomyopathy was supported with an Incor (Berlin-Heart AG) axial flow magnetically levitated bearings pump. Due to constant anemization in late follow-up, gastrointestinal bleeding was suspected and a PillCamtrade mark Capsule Endoscopy (Given Imaging) was performed. No interference between the devices was detected and full small bowel visualization was achieved. PMID:17670498
Garatti, Andrea; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Girelli, Carlo; Vitali, Ettore
Optical fibers transmit high-intensity illumination for viewing internal organs and tissue. Remote viewing is obtained by relays of lenses or graded-index-of-refraction rods in rigid endoscopes and by precisely aligned fiber-optic bundles in flexible fiberscopes. Endoscopy is considered for routine examinations, such as in colonoscopy. Lasers are used as surgical tools through endoscopes for cutting and coagulation. They may also be used to provide illumination for the efficient transmission of light through thin optical fibers. PMID:7423188
The future of endoscopy will be dictated by rapid technological advances in the development of light sources, optical fibers, and miniature scanners that will allow for images to be collected in multiple spectral regimes, with greater tissue penetration, and in three dimensions. These engineering breakthroughs will be integrated with novel molecular probes that are highly specific for unique proteins to target diseased tissues. Applications include early cancer detection by imaging molecular changes that occur before gross morphological abnormalities, personalized medicine by visualizing molecular targets specific to individual patients, and image guided therapy by localizing tumor margins and monitoring for recurrence.
Elahi, Sakib F.; Wang, Thomas D.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an inherited, autosomal dominant disorder characterised by haematomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and mucocutaneus hyperpigmentation. A girl 15 years of age presented with microcytic, hypochrome anaemia. Endoscopy revealed several polyps in the stomach and colon. The patient was later operated due to an intussusception from polyps in the jejunum. Histology proved the polyps to be haematomatous as seen in PJS. Patients with PJS have an increased risk of developing both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal cancers. Screening recommendation for PJS is outlined. PMID:22040664
Christiansen, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Rasmus
Background and Aims Two out of three patients with Coeliac Disease (CD) in Australia are undiagnosed. This prospective clinical audit aimed to determine how many CD patients would be undiagnosed if duodenal biopsy had only been performed if the mucosa looked abnormal or the patient presented with typical CD symptoms. Methods All eligible patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (OGD) in a regional center from 2004–2009 underwent prospective analysis of presenting symptoms and duodenal biopsy. Clinical presentations were defined as either Major (diarrhea, weight loss, iron deficiency, CD family history or positive celiac antibodies- Ab) or Minor Clinical Indicators (CI) to duodenal biopsy (atypical symptoms). Newly diagnosed CD patients had follow up celiac antibody testing. Results Thirty-five (1.4%) new cases of CD were identified in the 2,559 patients biopsied at upper endoscopy. Almost a quarter (23%) of cases presented with atypical symptoms. There was an inverse relationship between presentation with Major CI’s and increasing age (<16, 16–59 and >60: 100%, 81% and 50% respectively, p?=?0.03); 28% of newly diagnosed CD patients were aged over 60 years. Endoscopic appearance was a useful diagnostic tool in only 51% (18/35) of CD patients. Coeliac antibodies were positive in 34/35 CD patients (sensitivity 97%). Conclusions Almost one quarter of new cases of CD presented with atypical symptoms and half of the new cases had unremarkable duodenal mucosa. At least 10% of new cases of celiac disease are likely to be undiagnosed at routine upper endoscopy, particularly patients over 60 years who more commonly present atypically. All new CD patients could be identified in this study by performing pre-operative celiac antibody testing on all patients presenting for OGD and proceeding to biopsy only positive antibody patients and those presenting with either Major CI or abnormal duodenal mucosa for an estimated cost of AUS$4,629 and AUS$3,710 respectively.
Robson, Kathryn; Alizart, Michelle; Martin, Jarad; Nagel, Robyn
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited disease. It is clinically characterized by the development of gastrointestinal hamartomas, mainly located in the small bowel. These hamartomas are prone to complications such as intussusceptions, abdominal complaints and anaemia. Furthermore, patients are at increased risk for developing small bowel cancer. Therefore, regular surveillance of the small bowel is indicated. However, the optimal strategy for surveillance has not been determined yet. This review gives an overview of the different techniques that have been described to examine the small bowel of PJS patients. First, a number of radiologic and endoscopic imaging modalities with diagnostic value are discussed. Secondly, recently developed advanced endoscopy techniques are described that can serve both as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the surveillance of the small bowel. Finally, a recommendation is given how to apply these individual techniques for small bowel surveillance in a step-up approach. PMID:22704569
Korsse, Susanne E; Dewint, Pieter; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E
CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated to mucosal and transmural inflammation of the bowel wall. It is well known that CD can affect the entire gastrointestinal. Therefore, ileocolonoscopy and biopsies of the terminal ileum as well as of each colonic segment to look for microscopic evidence of CD are the first-line procedures to establish the diagnosis. However, it has been observed that up to 30% of the patients have only small bowel involvement. Evaluation of the small bowel has been made with radiological procedures, barium radiography, and abdominal computed tomography or by ileocolonoscopy or enteroscopy, but they have many recognized limitations. CE is undoubtedly a very useful diagnostic tool proposed to observe small-bowel lesions undetectable by conventional endoscopy or radiologic studies. We review different studies that have been published reporting the use of CE in suspected and evaluation of the extension or the recurrence in CD and also its use in pediatric population and its complications.
Arguelles-Arias, Federico; Rodriguez-Oballe, Juan; Duarte-Chang, Calixto; Castro-Laria, Luisa; Garcia-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Alvarez, Angel; Herrerias-Gutierrez, Juan Manuel
Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract that persists or recurs after a negative initial evaluation using bidirectional endoscopy and radiologic imaging with small-bowel radiograph. The main challenges related to evaluation of OGIB include the high miss rate for lesions on initial evaluation with standard endoscopy and the limited capacity of older diagnostic modalities to effectively examine the small bowel. The introduction of capsule endoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy, and computed tomography (CT) enterography have served to overcome the limitations of older diagnostic tests. Capsule endoscopy is currently recommended as the third test of choice in the evaluation of patients with OGIB, after a negative bidirectional endoscopy. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy is useful for both the diagnosis and endoscopic management of OGIB. CT enterography is superior to small-bowel radiograph for luminal and extraluminal small-bowel examination. These advances in small-bowel diagnostics and the capacity to successfully perform endoscopic therapeutics have largely replaced surgical procedures and resulted in a trend toward noninvasive evaluation and endoscopic management of OGIB.
Hara, Amy K.; Leighton, Jonathan A.
Recent advances in endoscopic imaging technology have enabled the visualization of early-stage cancer and its precursors in the gastrointestinal tract. Chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, endoscopic optical coherent tomography, spectroscopy, and various combinations of these technologies, are all important for the recognition of small and unclear lesions. To observe cancer cells in vivo, two types of ultra-high magnifying endoscope—'laser-scanning confocal endoscopy series'
Shin-ei Kudo; Akira Shiokawa; Haruhiro Inoue
Endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders. Chromoendoscopy has proven to be superior to white light endoscopy for early detection of various GI lesions. This has however been fraught with problems. The use of color stains, time taken to achieve an effect and the learning curve associated with the technique has been some of the pitfalls. Narrow band imaging (NBI) particularly in combination with magnifying endoscopy may allow the endoscopist to accomplish a fairly accurate diagnosis with good histological correlation similar to results achieved with chromoendoscopy. Such enhanced detection of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract should allow better targeting of biopsies and could ultimately prove to be cost effective. Various studies have been done demonstrating the utility of this novel technology. This article will review the impact of NBI in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:24368933
Singh, Rajvinder; Hussain, Asif; Loong, Cheong Kuan
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, affecting about 2% of the population. Most cases of Meckel's diverticula are asymptomatic. The diagnosis of symptomatic MD is often difficult to make. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with GI bleeding due to MD. The diagnostic difficulties after an initial negative endoscopic evaluation and the diagnostic value of the various endoscopic procedures are discussed. The patient had suffered from bright red stools for 20 h before hospital admission. GI scintigraphy with 99mTc-Na-pertechnetate was negative for heterotopic gastric tissue in the small bowel area. Colonoscopy performed in order to exclude Crohn's disease was also negative. He was placed on ranitidine at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight twice daily. The patient remained asymptomatic over a period of 6 months before he was readmitted due to macroscopic rectal bleeding. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy used to investigate the source of bleeding showed normal macroscopic findings. Radiolabeling of blood constituents with 99mTc on delayed imaging showed radionucleotide concentration in the ascending and transverse colon suggestive of a lesion in the ileocecal area. Further investigation with the use of wireless capsule endoscopy revealed a MD. Wireless capsule endoscopy may thus be indicated for patients with GI blood loss when other diagnostic methods, such as upper and lower endoscopy and colonoscopy, have failed to identify the source of bleeding.
Xinias, I.; Mavroudi, A.; Fotoulaki, M.; Tsikopoulos, G.; Kalampakas, A.; Imvrios, G.
... People's Dem Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia Madagascar Malawi ... Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, R.O.C Tajikistan Tanzania, United ...
Background The changing epidemiology of a disease often provides valuable insight into possible etiopathogenic mechanisms. There have been significant changes over the last several decades in disease manifestations of the foregut in Western Europe, North America and Asia. This time trend analysis was carried out to determine if any changes have occurred in the prevalence of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract in Nigeria. Method Records of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during two time periods (1995 to 1999 and 2006 to 2010) in Enugu, South-East Nigeria were analyzed with regard to biodata of patients, indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic findings. Results During the two time periods, 1,365 patients had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (575 patients in the period 1995-1999 and 790 in the period 2006-2010). Dyspepsia was the commonest indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for both periods (81.9% and 72.9%, respectively; p= 0.9052). Heartburn and dysphagia were more frequent during the second time period (p<0.0001). Duodenal ulcer was more common in the first time period (p<0.0001), while esophagitis, gastric ulcer and bile reflux were significantly more common in the second period (p<0.0001, p=0.0007 and p=0.0019, respectively). Conclusion Over the 15-year period, the prevalence of duodenal ulcer has declined while that of gastric ulcer has increased. There has also been an increase in the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Putative explanations for this trend may include widespread availability and use of very potent acid suppressant drugs, increasing use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, change towards western diet and increasing obesity.
Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Ijoma, Uchenna; Obienu, Olive; Picardo, Neri
The origin, subtypes, physiology and pharmacology of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) have been discussed in other chapters.\\u000a In this chapter, some of the current applications of BTX in gastroenterology are discussed. BTX has been used for a large\\u000a number of gastrointestinal disorders, however, this chapter is confined to those conditions for which the best data are available\\u000a (achalasia, gastroparesis,
Shayan Irani; Frank K. Friedenberg
\\u000a Gastrointestinal and hepatic complications are common in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patient. The agents\\u000a used in the conditioning regimen induce direct disruption of the intestinal barrier as well as indirect damage from cytokine\\u000a release and generalized inflammatory state. These events lead to permeation of bacteria and endotoxins through the bowel wall,\\u000a with subsequent organ damage and increased risk
Dieulafoy’s-like lesions (DLs-like) represent a cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, enteroscopy being the main diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Frequently, more than one enteroscopy is needed to identify the bleeding vessel. In our practice, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) identified and guided therapy in four cases of DLs-like; three of them were localized on the small bowel. We report, for the first time, a diagnosis of colonic DL-like performed by colon capsule endoscopy. Two patients presented with severe cardiovascular disorders, being hemodynamically unstable during VCE examination. Based on the VCE findings, only one invasive therapeutic procedure per patient was necessary to achieve hemostasis. VCE and enteroscopy may be regarded as complementary procedures in patients with gut DLs-like.
Ciobanu, Lidia; Pascu, Oliviu; Diaconu, Brindusa; Matei, Daniela; Pojoga, Cristina; Tantau, Marcel
From the endoscopists' point of view, although the main focus of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination is the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (usually bulb and 2nd portion including ampulla of Vater), the portions of the upper airway may also be observed during insertion and withdrawal of the endoscope, such as pharynx and larynx. Thus, a variety of pathologic lesions of the upper airway can be encountered during upper endoscopy. Among these lesions, an epiglottic cyst is relatively uncommon. The cyst has no malignant potential and mostly remains asymptomatic in adults. However, if large enough, epiglottic cysts can compromise the airway and can be potentially life-threatening when an emergency endotracheal intubation is needed. Thus, patients may benefit from early detection and treatment of these relatively asymptomatic lesions. In this report, we present a case of epiglottic cyst in an asymptomatic adult incidentally found by family physician during screening endoscopy, which was successfully removed without complication, using a laryngoscopic carbon dioxide laser.
Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Seo, Sang-Wook; Park, Young-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Min; Choi, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Un; Lee, Dong-Ryul
A human Echinostoma hortense infection was diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy. An 81-year-old Korean male, living in Yeongcheon-shi, Gyeongsangbuk-do and with epigastric discomfort of several days duration, was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. He was in the habit of eating fresh water fish. Two live worms were found in the duodenal bulb area and were removed using an endoscopic forcep. Based on their morphological characteristics, the worms were identified as E. hortense. The patient was treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg as a single dose. The source of the infection in this case remains unclear, but the fresh water fish consumed, including the loach, may have been the source. This is the second case of E. hortense infection diagnosed by endoscopy in Korea.
Cho, Chang-Min; Tak, Won-Young; Kweon, Young-Oh; Kim, Sung-Kook; Choi, Yong-Hwan; Kong, Hyun-Hee
Twenty-seven children aged 1 day to 16 years studied arteriographically for acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding were reviewed. Children with known esophageal varices and portal hypertension were excluded. Final diagnoses were made in 25 patients by means of surgery, endoscopy, biopsy, laboratory data, and clinical follow-up. Of these 25 cases, arteriography gave a correct diagnosis in 64% and was falsely negative in 36%. The common causes of bleeding in this study were gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, vascular malformations, and typhlitis. Transcatheter therapy was attempted in six acute bleeders, with success in three (50%).
Meyerovitz, M.F.; Fellows, K.E.
Photometric stereo endoscopy is a technique that captures information about the high-spatial-frequency topography of the field of view simultaneously with a conventional color image. Here we describe a system that will enable photometric stereo endoscopy to be clinically evaluated in the large intestine of human patients. The clinical photometric stereo endoscopy system consists of a commercial gastroscope, a commercial video processor, an image capturing and processing unit, custom synchronization electronics, white light LEDs, a set of four fibers with diffusing tips, and an alignment cap. The custom pieces that come into contact with the patient are composed of biocompatible materials that can be sterilized before use. The components can then be assembled in the endoscopy suite before use. The resulting endoscope has the same outer diameter as a conventional colonoscope (14 mm), plugs into a commercial video processor, captures topography and color images at 15 Hz, and displays the conventional color image to the gastroenterologist in real-time. We show that this system can capture a color and topographical video in a tubular colon phantom, demonstrating robustness to complex geometries and motion. The reported system is suitable for in vivo evaluation of photometric stereo endoscopy in the human large intestine.
Durr, Nicholas J.; González, Germán.; Lim, Daryl; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Parot, Vicente
Anisakiasis is a parasitic infestation, infrequent in Spain, due to ingestion of raw or underdone by Anisakis larvae. Also it can appear after consumption of smoked, salted or dried salt fish. The disease can show under different clinical forms, depending on the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the larva settles. We report two cases of anisakiasis diagnosed in Valladolid. Both patients were women that had eaten some days before anchovies marinated with vinegar. The diagnosis was made by endoscopic examination and the problem was solved by extraction of the parasite. It worthy to note that both cases appeared in a short time interval, showing perhaps some seasonal character. Finally some hygienic-dietetic measures are proposed for combating the disease. PMID:11218992
del Olmo Martínez, L; González de Canales, P; Sanjosé González, G
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD). METHODS: We identified 8 patients with GI GVHD following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell trans-plantation (HSCT). GVHD was defined histologically as the presence of gland apoptosis, not explained by other inflammatory or infectious etiologies. RESULTS: The symptoms of GI GVHD included anorexia, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, GI bleeding, etc. Upper endoscopic appearance varied from subtle mucosal edema, hyperemia, erythema to obvious erosion. Colonoscopic examination showed diffuse edema, hyperemia, patchy erosion, scattered ulcer, sloughing and active bleeding. Histological changes in GI GVHD included apoptosis of crypt epithelial cells, dropout of crypts, and lymphocytic infiltration in epithelium and lamina propria. The involvement of stomach and rectocolon varied from diffuse to focal. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy may play a significant role in early diagnosis of GI GVHD patients following allogeneic HSCT, and histologic examination of gastrointestinal biopsies is needed to confirm the final diagnosis.
Xu, Chun-Fang; Zhu, Lan-Xiang; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Wei-Chang; Wu, De-Pei
Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) is a rare fungal infection with few reported cases worldwide. We report here the first case diagnosed in Oman in a previously healthy 5-year-old Omani female child who had been thought initially to have an abdominal malignancy. The case was referred to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in July 2012. She was treated successfully with surgical resection and prolonged antifungal therapy (voriconazole). Physicians, including clinicians, radiologists and pathologists, should have a high index of suspicion for GIB when a patient presents with an abdominal mass and fever.
Al-Maani, Amal S.; Paul, George; Jardani, Amina; Nayar, Madhavan; Al-Lawati, Fatma; Al-Baluishi, Sheikha; Hussain, Ibrahim B.
We prospectively evaluated 139 consecutive children presenting to the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (Lucknow, India) with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from January 1991 to November 1994. Our aims were to find out whether the causes of GI bleeding in a developing country differed from developed countries and how the application of newer diagnostic techniques would help in the diagnosis of GI bleeding. Barium studies, endoscopy, technetium-99m-labelled (erythrocytes and pertechnetate) scans, selective abdominal angiography using a digital subtraction technique and rectal endoscopic ultrasonography were performed. Upper GI bleeding (n = 75) was variceal in 71 (95%) children (extrahepatic portal venous obstruction in 65, cirrhosis in six) and non-variceal in four (5%) cases (Henoch-Schonlein purpura, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, drug-induced gastric erosions and pseudoaneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery due to idiopathic chronic calcific pancreatitis). Causes of lower GI bleeding (n = 64) were colitis (27 cases; 42%), colorectal polyps (26 cases; 41%), enteric fever (n = 3), solitary rectal ulcer (n = 3), portal hypertensive colopathy (n = 2), colonic arteriovenous malformation (n = 1) and internal haemorrhoids (n = 1). One patient remained undiagnosed. Angiography performed in four children was diagnostic in two. In one child with massive lower GI bleeding from portal colopathy, the bleeding site (caecum) was localized by intra-operative colonoscopy, while in the other child with portal colopathy, rectal endoscopic ultrasonography was performed to substantiate the diagnosis. We conclude that the causes of upper GI bleeding in children in developing countries are different from those in developed countries (variceal bleeding due to extrahepatic portal venous obstruction is the most common cause, while peptic ulcer is rare). However, the spectrum of lower GI bleeding is similar to that of developed countries. Application of newer diagnostic techniques is helpful and safe in the identification of the cause of GI bleeding in children. PMID:8912124
Yachha, S K; Khanduri, A; Sharma, B C; Kumar, M
A 55-year old male patient was diagnosed with strongy- loides hyper-infection with stool analysis and intestinal biopsy shortly after his chemotherapy for myeloma. He was commenced on albendazole anthelmintic therapy. After initiation of the treatment he suffered life- threatening gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Repeated endoscopies showed diffuse multi-focal intestinal bleeding. The patient required huge amounts of red blood cells and plasma
Lajos Csermely; Hassan Jaafar; Jorgen Kristensen; Antonio Castella; Waldemar Gorka; Ahmed Ali Chebli; Fawaz Trab; Hussain Alizadeh; Béla Hunyady; Chebli AA; Hunyady B. Strongyloides
Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive skin thickening and tightness. Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and kidney damage are the most important indicators for mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly damaged system. Virtually all parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be involved, although the esophagus is the most frequently reported. The mechanisms that cause such extensive damage are generally unclear, but vascular changes, immunological abnormalities, excessive accumulation of collagen in the submucosa, smooth muscle atrophy and neuropathy may participate because these are the most common histological findings in biopsies and autopsies. Most patients with GI tract involvement complain about dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating/distension, and fecal incontinence. These symptoms are generally mild during the early stage of the disease and are likely ignored by physicians. As the disease becomes more advanced, however, patient quality of life is markedly influenced, whereby malnutrition and shortened survival are the usual consequences. The diagnosis for systemic sclerosis is based on manometry measurements and an endoscopy examination. Supportive and symptomatic treatment is the main therapeutic strategy; however, an early diagnosis is critical for successful management.
Tian, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Xuan
The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.
Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay
Background: Many abstracts submitted to annual scientific meetings never come to full publication in peer-reviewed journals. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with the fate of endoscopic research abstracts submitted to the annual scientific meeting of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). Methods: All abstracts (n = 461) submitted to the annual meeting of the
Mohamad A. Eloubeidi; Steven B. Wade; Dawn Provenzale
Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area.
Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Douglas, Sarah
Since the advent of capsule endoscopy (CE) more than one decade has passed. During this time, extensive efforts have been made to proof the relevance of CE for diagnosis of various disease entities within the esophagus, small bowel, and colon. To date, the most common indications for CE are obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndromes and evaluation of patients with complicated celiac disease. In this review we will focus on the current clinical applications of CE for imaging of the esophagus, small bowel and colon and will additionally give an outlook on future concepts and developments of CE. PMID:23306733
Neumann, Helmut; Fry, Lucía C; Neurath, Markus F
Complaints related to gastrointestinal gas are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Various therapies have been proposed, yet none has appeared to be extremely effective. A review of the literature revealed little hard evidence to support the use of simethicone, pancreatic enzymes, anticholinergic agents or antibiotics. Evidence supporting the use of prokinetic agents has been the strongest, and there may be a pathophysiologic basis for the use of these agents if the complaints are related to abnormal intestinal motility. The use of activated charcoal for adsorbing intestinal gas has been effective in healthy subjects but has not been properly investigated in patients with gas complaints. Dietary modification may be beneficial in certain cases. Additional controlled trials are necessary to clarify the issues in the treatment of this common problem. PMID:3058280
Fardy, J; Sullivan, S
We report a case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy. It was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The patient is a 58-year-old Malaysian woman who lives in a rural area, where uncontrolled populations of stray and semidomesticated dogs live in close proximity with humans. PMID:24891471
Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Lim, Kie Nyok; Mahmud, Rohela
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The biological pattern of these tumors ranges from benign-appearing small lesions to malignant sarcomas. Only 3%–5% of GISTs are found in the duodenum. A duodenal GIST is a rare source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A remarkable percentage of duodenal GISTs are localized in the third and fourth part of the duodenum and may not be noticed on standard upper endoscopy. Push enteroscopy is sometimes advisable to find these lesions. Surgical resection either limited or pancreaticoduodenectomy can be the treatment of choice. In general, adjuvant therapy with imatinib has been proved to extend survival in patients with GIST.The current case, a 24-year-old male, presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a submucosal ulcerated tumor located in the distal third part of the duodenum, 3 cm distal from the papilla of Vater. After primary care and blood transfusion in a local hospital, partial resection of the duodenum was performed as a definitive surgical therapy. Histopathology showed a GIST with a diameter of 3 cm and moderately malignant according to tumor grade, and <5 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF).
Mokhtare, Marjan; Taghvaei, Tarang; Tirgar Fakheri, Hafez
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) is dedicated to advancing patient care and digestive health by promoting excellence in gastrointestinal endoscopy. The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) is dedicated to improving public health and well-being by lessening the burden of the disease of obesity and related diseases. They are the largest professional societies for their respective specialties of gastrointestinal endoscopy and bariatric surgery in the world. The ASGE/ASMBS task force was developed to collaboratively address opportunities for endoscopic approaches to obesity, reflecting the strengths of our disciplines, to improve patient and societal outcomes. This white paper is intended to provide a framework for, and a pathway towards, the development, investigation, and adoption of safe and effective endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBT). PMID:22082971
The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results. PMID:24859846
Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A
The endoscopic finding of a gastric polyp and the histopathologic report that follows may leave clinicians with questions that have not been addressed in formal guidelines: do all polyps need to be excised, or can they just be sampled for biopsy? If so, which ones and how many should be sampled? What follow-up evaluation is needed, if any? This review relies on the existing literature and our collective experience to provide practical answers to these questions. Fundic gland polyps, now the most frequent gastric polyps in Western countries because of widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, and hyperplastic polyps, the second most common polyps notable for their association with gastritis and their low but important potential for harboring dysplastic or neoplastic foci, are discussed in greater detail. Adenomas have had their name changed to raised intraepithelial neoplasia and are decreasing in parallel with Helicobacter pylori infection; however, they do retain their importance as harbingers of gastric cancer, particularly in East Asia. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors have low incidence and no known associations, but their malignant potential is high; early diagnosis and proper management are crucial. Although rare and benign, inflammatory fibroid polyps need to recognized, particularly by pathologists, to avoid misdiagnosis. Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are important because of their association with either atrophic gastritis or the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; those that do not arise in these backgrounds have high malignant potential and require aggressive management. The review concludes with some practical suggestions on how to approach gastric polyps detected at endoscopy. PMID:23583466
Shaib, Yasser H; Rugge, Massimo; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M
The authors report a case of a 57 years old male patient, who was admitted to gastroenterology department with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an ulcerated polypoid tumor in the region of angulus of the stomach, and multiple polypoid lesions in the bulbar part of the duodenum. Upon this endoscopic appearance colonoscopy was performed, which revealed a polyposis syndrome in the colorectum. Computer tomography detected mesenterial, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph node involvement as well. In this case the primary or secondary origin of the gastrointestinal lymphoma was not verifiable. According to literature data this histological type of the gastrointestinal lymphoma has poor response to chemotherapy, the prognosis is unfavourable. In this particular case the administered chemotherapy resulted in total remission at the lymphoma patient clinically staging III Ae. In the proper follow-up examinations of the patient upper and lower endoscopy, histology samples, laboratory parameters, computer tomography, and physical examination in every 3 months are the methods. PMID:11407067
Vizer, G; Bárány, L; Baranyay, F; Iványi, J L
We report the case of a 35-year-old male patient, with a history of six months of pallor and dyspnea associated with severe iron deficiency anemia and positive fecal occult blood tests. Endoscopy of the lower and upper gastrointestinal tract, and a small bowel follow-through were performed, but did not reveal the origin of the bledding. Later, a capsule endoscopy study were performed and detected an elevated area - not well defined - with active bleeding in the jejunal portion of the small bowel, for that reason we decided to complement the study with a double balloon enteroscopy, that allowed us to see more clearly the jejunal lesion: an elevated and ulcerated lesion; the area was marked with India ink to guide the surgeon. In the surgical intervention a resection of the involved jejunal segment was performed; the study of pathological anatomy established the diagnosis of jejunal angiodysplasia. We present this case of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding to emphasize the diagnostic utility of capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy. PMID:19609333
Vásquez, Jorge; Alva, Edgar; Frisancho, Oscar; Yoza, Max; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Watanabe, José; Palomino, Américo
AIM: To assess feasibility of unsedated esophagoscopy using a small-caliber disposable transnasal esophagoscopy and to compare its accuracy with standard endoscopy. METHODS: We prospectively included subjects who were referred for upper endoscopy. All subjects underwent transnasal endoscopy with E.G. Scan™. The disposable probe has a 3.6 mm gauge and at its distal end there is a 6 mm optical capsule, with a viewing angle of 125°. Patients underwent conventional endoscopy after the completion of E.G. Scan™. We describe the findings detected by the E.G. Scan™ and calculate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for esophageal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients (54 women), mean age of 50.12 years (14 to 79), were evaluated. In all cases we were able to perform esophagoscopy with E.G. Scan™. The average realization time was 5 min. A total of 58 alterations were detected in the esophagus, 49 gastric abnormalities and 13 duodenal abnormalities. We found that for esophageal varices, E.G. Scan™ has sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 95%, 97% and 97%, respectively. Kappa coefficients were 0.32 for hiatal hernia, 0.409 for erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease, 0.617 for Barrett’s esophagus, and 0.909 for esophageal varices. CONCLUSION: Esophagoscopy with E.G. Scan™ is a well-tolerated, fast and safe procedure. It has an appropriate diagnostic accuracy for esophageal varices when compared with conventional endoscopy.
Aedo, Maria R; Zavala-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Meixueiro-Daza, Arturo; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria
As minimally invasive surgery becomes the standard of care in the United States and around the world, the formal training of endoscopic surgeons is an issue of growing concern. With the implementation of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists\\/Society of Reproductive Surgeons (AAGL\\/SRS)–sponsored fellowship training in gynecologic endoscopy and a growing number of hands-on courses, we have the challenge of
Vadim Morozov; Ceana Nezhat
Introduction In every case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding suspicion, an endoscopic examination ought to be performed as a matter of urgency. Finding active bleeding, a visible non-bleeding vessel or a lesion with an adherent clot should be followed by application of an available method of endoscopic therapy. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of various endoscopic treatment techniques such as epinephrine injections, coagulation methods and mechanical methods in the treatment of non-varicose upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Material and methods Sixty cases of non-varicose upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analysed in terms of the effectiveness of the above-mentioned procedures used in monotherapy or in combination therapy comprising epinephrine injections and clips application. The choice of the applied procedure depended on morphological features and location of the bleeding source, the patient's general condition, as well as technical equipment and manual skills of the endoscopy staff. Results The study confirmed the effectiveness of endoscopic treatment of non-varicose upper gastrointestinal bleeding applying the above-mentioned methods. In most patients, this treatment enabled traumatic surgical intervention to be avoided; it was required in only 3 (5%) out of 60 patients with confirmed upper gastrointestinal bleeding. With the first endoscopy, haemostasis was achieved in 47 cases (78.3%) and the second endoscopy, performed due to bleeding recurrence, was successful in the remaining 10 cases (16.7%). Conclusions In non-varicose upper gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy should be the first-line management. If the lesion that is the source of bleeding is possible to localize, the endoscopic techniques should be applied. Among the endoscopic procedures used in monotherapy, clips appeared to be the most effective, their effectiveness being comparable to combination therapy. In bleeding from extensive lesions, coagulation methods are considered to be the most efficacious.
Kujawski, Krzysztof; Stasiak, Magdalena; Stepien, Mariusz
We present the case of a 42-year-old man who suffered from recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding starting from February 2003. Endoscopy showed multiple glassy polyps in the stomach, which corresponded to a diffuse mucosal thickening detected by endosonography. The duodenum was normal. In February 2006, life-threatening acute gastrointestinal bleeding prompted total gastrectomy. The resection specimen showed the gastric mucosa carpeted by numerous glassy pedunculated polyps, measuring 2 cm in largest diameter. Histologically, the polyps were characterized by an abundant loose stroma and by elongated, twisting foveolae, covered by hyperplastic epithelium. Colonoscopy including the terminal ileum revealed a single tubulovillous adenoma, but no hamartomatous polyps, rendering a final diagnosis of juvenile polyposis of the stomach. This case represents the first description of juvenile polyposis causing life-threatening gastric haemorrhage. Thus, although rare, the disease has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. PMID:17206083
Winkler, Alexandra; Hinterleitner, Thomas A; Högenauer, Christoph; Hauser, Hubert; Langner, Cord
AIM: To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Prospective single center interventional study, from June 2012 to February 2013. Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV. If it remained in the stomach, the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min. If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of 10 mg of domperidone was administered orally. After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach, it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department (control group, January 2009 - May 2012). RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, indication, inpatient status and surgical history. The control group included 307 patients, with 48 (15.6%) IE. The RTV group included 82 patients, with 3 (3.7%) IE, P = 0.003. In the control group, average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel (77 min vs 26 min, P = 0.003). In the RTV group, the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients (17.0%) vs 48/307 (15.6%) in the control group, P = 0.736. Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time (260 min vs 297 min, P = 0.229). The capsule detected positive findings in 39% of patients in the control group and 49% in the RTV group (P = 0.081). CONCLUSION: The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations, with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.
Cotter, Jose; de Castro, Francisca Dias; Magalhaes, Joana; Moreira, Maria Joao; Rosa, Bruno
The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664
Verhelst, L; Guevara, V; De Schepper, J; Van Melkebeek, J; Pattyn, C; Audenaert, E A
The role of pelvic endoscopy in diagnosing uterine abnormalities, considering material of 1170 patients, is presented in this paper. It has been documented that pelviscopy together with hysterosalpingography play basic role in determining type of uterine abnormality. In 20 cases pelvic endoscopy enabled verification of the primary diagnosis set by hysterosalpingography. Pelvic endoscopy is a method by choice in the diagnostics of the Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. PMID:1305571
Korzon, T; Mielnik, J; Adamcio-Deptulska, M; Go?ciniak, W; Lozyk, J
Guidelines for gastroenterological endoscopy in patients undergoing antithrombotic treatment have been produced by the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society in collaboration with the Japan Circulation Society, the Japanese Society of Neurology, the Japan Stroke Society, the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and the Japan Diabetes Society. Previous guidelines from the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society have focused primarily on prevention of hemorrhage after gastroenterological endoscopy as a result of continuation ofantithrombotic therapy, without considering the associated risk of thrombosis. The new edition of the guidelines includes discussions of gastroenterological hemorrhage associated with continuation of antithrombotic therapy, as well as thromboembolism associated with withdrawal of antithrombotic therapy. PMID:24215155
Fujimoto, Kazuma; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Ogawa, Hisao; Murakami, Kazunari; Mine, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Junji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ichinose, Masao; Matsui, Toshiyuki
Background-aim Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, yet extremely\\u000a rare since they account for less than 1% of all GI tumours, which may arise virtually in any part of the gastrointestinal\\u000a tract. GISTs are typically defined as a group of heterogeneous gastrointestinal mesenchymal neoplasms that are characterized\\u000a by the expression of c-KIT receptor
D. Skouteris; K. Biliri; S. Chranioti; M. Digalakis
Background/Aims Interobserver variation by experience was documented for the diagnosis of esophagitis using the Los Angeles classification. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interobserver agreement can be improved by higher levels of endoscopic experience in the diagnosis of erosive esophagitis. Methods Endoscopic images of 51 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms were obtained with conventional endoscopy and optimal band imaging (OBI). Endoscopists were divided into an expert group (16 gastroenterologic endoscopic specialists guaranteed by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) and a trainee group (individuals with fellowships, first year of specialty training in gastroenterology). All endoscopists had no or minimal experience with OBI. GERD was diagnosed using the Los Angeles classification with or without OBI. Results The mean weighted paired ? statistics for interobserver agreement in grading erosive esophagitis by conventional endoscopy in the expert group was better than that in the trainee group (0.51 vs 0.42, p<0.05). The mean weighted paired k statistics in the expert group and in the trainee group based on conventional endoscopy with OBI did not differ (0.42, 0.42). Conclusions Interobserver agreement in the expert group using conventional endoscopy was better than that in the trainee group. Endoscopic experience can improve the interobserver agreement in the grading of esophagitis using the Los Angeles classification.
Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwnag Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Chang Geun; Yang, Chang Heon
Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori occurs mainly in childhood. However, the mode of transmission remains unclear. To help elucidate this, 100 children attending for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were investigated for the presence of H. pylori at various sites. H. pylori was detected in antral gastric biopsies by the rapid urease test (13 patients), culture (13 patients), histology (15 patients) and PCR
R. P. ALLAKER; K. A. YOUNG; J. M. HARDIE; P. DOMIZIO; N. J. MEADOWS
Clinically relevant bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract due to stress lesions is a rare event; however, the related mortality may be as high as 13% (van Leerdam, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 22:209-224). Most often affected are patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with impaired perfusion as the protective pathways are critically dependent on a near normal blood flow. Minimal mucosal lesions with a tiny hemorrhage can escalate to severe bleeding as the coagulation potential in the presence of an acidic pH is clearly decreased. Mechanical ventilation and coagulopathy are recognized risk factors and these patients should receive an acid suppressing therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H(2)RA) are equal in their ability to prevent stress-related bleeding. However, the side effects of PPI can cause severe morbidity and therefore H(2)RAs may be the drug of choice for prophylaxis. Endoscopy is recommended as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for patients with active bleeding. Treatment with PPI in this scenario (before and after endoscopy) may reduce complications by leading to premature hemostasis and reduced recurrence of bleeding. PMID:22782130
Classification of vascular abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract on the basis of anatomy and pathophysiology has recently been suggested. Angiodysplasia, an example of an arteriovenous lesion, may cause either acute or chronic bleeding. Diagnosis may be difficult. High-quality standard endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, and double-balloon enteroscopy are most efficacious. Therapy using argon plasma coagulation is currently preferred. Pharmacological therapy has been employed, but a final conclusion about its efficacy cannot yet be drawn. Dieulafoy lesion, an arterial type of vascular abnormality, is rare but serious. It can be responsible for severe haemorrhage. Mechanical endoscopic methods are the most efficacious. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), a capillary lesion, can be safely biopsied; it coincides with several diseases (including liver cirrhosis), may cause chronic iron-deficiency anaemia, and is best treated by argon plasma coagulation. Haemangiomas, benign neoplastic lesions, usually occur as part of other specific syndromes; they are difficult to manage due to the multiplicity and size of the lesions. PMID:18346686
Regula, Jaroslaw; Wronska, Ewa; Pachlewski, Jacek
Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major “hallmarks” of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.
Dermal, respiratory, and other health problems have been associated with the use of glutaraldehyde as a high level disinfectant for endoscopy procedures in hospitals. Given the increasing concern about the safety of glutaraldehyde, a cross-sectional study of exposures among 135 endoscopy nurses in 26 South Australian hospitals was undertaken. Nurses were interviewed with a health\\/work practice questionnaire, worksite inspections were
Dino L. Pisaniello; Richard T. Gun; Michael N. Tkaczuk; Monika Nitshcke; Joseph Crea
Background McCune Albright syndrome (MAS), a disorder caused by somatic activating mutations in the GNAS gene, usually presents with cutaneous, skeletal, and endocrine manifestations. While focal lesions involving multiple tissues have been identified in MAS, almost nothing is known about gastrointestinal lesions in this disease. Methods Two MAS patients with perioral freckling, resembling Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and two MAS patients without similar pigmentation underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy to establish if they had coexisting hamartomatous polyposis. Three of 4 subjects had documented GNAS mutations in peripheral blood. Genetic testing for STK11 and PRKAR1A genes was performed to exclude presence of coexistent PJS and Carney complex. Genetic testing of biopsy material was also performed. Results Hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps with histological features similar to those in PJS were observed in all 4 subjects, only in the stomach and/or upper duodenum. Activating GNAS mutations were found in the polyps or adjacent mucosa in 3 of 4 subjects. One patient each had mutation only in the blood or tissue, while 2 patients had both. No subject harboured any detectable PRKARIA or STK11 mutation as determined by direct DNA sequencing and copy number variation analysis. Conclusions These findings confirm that gastrointestinal polyps are a common manifestation of MAS, indicate an overlap between MAS and PJS, and point towards a putative interaction between the GNAS and STK11 genes in the pathogenesis of these two disorders. The findings suggest a need for routine gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with MAS, to establish the true incidence of polyps in these patients.
Zacharin, Margaret; Bajpai, Anurag; Chow, Chung Wo; Catto-Smith, Anthony; Stratakis, Constantine; Wong, Michelle W; Scott, Rodney
Abstract. Gastrointestinal cancers are heterogeneous and can overexpress several protein targets that can be imaged simultaneously on endoscopy using multiple molecular probes. We aim to demonstrate a multispectral scanning fiber endoscope for wide-field fluorescence detection of colonic dysplasia. Excitation at 440, 532, and 635 nm is delivered into a single spiral scanning fiber, and fluorescence is collected by a ring of light-collecting optical fibers placed around the instrument periphery. Specific-binding peptides are selected with phage display technology using the CPC;Apc mouse model of spontaneous colonic dysplasia. Validation of peptide specificity is performed on flow cytometry and in vivo endoscopy. The peptides KCCFPAQ, AKPGYLS, and LTTHYKL are selected and labeled with 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC), 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), and CF633, respectively. Separate droplets of KCCFPAQ-DEAC, AKPGYLS-TAMRA, and LTTHYKL-CF633 are distinguished at concentrations of 100 and 1 ?M. Separate application of the fluorescent-labeled peptides demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenomas. The average target/background ratios are 1.71±0.19 and 1.67±0.12 for KCCFPAQ-DEAC and AKPGYLS-TAMRA, respectively. Administration of these two peptides together results in distinct binding patterns in the blue and green channels. Specific binding of two or more peptides can be distinguished in vivo using a novel multispectral endoscope to localize colonic dysplasia on real-time wide-field imaging.
Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron M.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Gaustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables a physician to diagnose a patient's digestive system without surgical procedures. However, it takes 1-2 hours for a gastroenterologist to examine the video. To speed up the review process, a number of analysis techniques based on machine vision have been proposed by computer science researchers. In order to train a machine to understand the semantics of an image, the image contents need to be translated into numerical form first. The numerical form of the image is known as image abstraction. The process of selecting relevant image features is often determined by the modality of medical images and the nature of the diagnoses. For example, there are radiographic projection-based images (e.g., X-rays and PET scans), tomography-based images (e.g., MRT and CT scans), and photography-based images (e.g., endoscopy, dermatology, and microscopic histology). Each modality imposes unique image-dependent restrictions for automatic and medically meaningful image abstraction processes. In this paper, we review the current development of machine-vision-based analysis of WCE video, focusing on the research that identifies specific gastrointestinal (GI) pathology and methods of shot boundary detection.
Chen, Yingju; Lee, Jeongkyu
Any prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is closely related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and en bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) have been performed as curative treatments for many early-stage GI lesions in recent years. The technologies have been widely accepted in many Asian countries because they are minimally invasive and supply thorough histopathologic evaluation of the specimens. However, before engaging in endoscopic therapy, an accurate diagnosis is a precondition to effecting the complete cure of the underlying malignancy or carcinoma in situ. For the past few years, many new types of endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI), have emerged in many countries because these methods provide a strong indication of early lesions and are very useful in determining treatment options before ESD or EMR. However, to date, there is no comparable classification equivalent to “Kudo’s Pit Pattern Classification in the colon”, for the upper GI, there is still no clear internationally accepted classification system of magnifying endoscopy. Therefore, in order to help unify some viewpoints, here we will review the defining optical imaging characteristics and the current representative classifications of microvascular and microsurface patterns in the upper GI tract under ME-NBI, describe the accurate relationship between them and the pathological diagnosis, and their clinical applications prior to ESD or en bloc EMR. We will also discuss assessing the differentiation and depth of invasion, defying the lateral spread of involvement and targeting biopsy in real time.
Chai, Ning-Li; Ling-Hu, En-Qiang; Morita, Yoshinori; Obata, Daisuke; Toyonaga, Takashi; Azuma, Takeshi; Wu, Ben-Yan
Gastrointestinal cancers are heterogeneous and can overexpress several protein targets that can be imaged simultaneously on endoscopy using multiple molecular probes. We aim to demonstrate a multispectral scanning fiber endoscope for wide-field fluorescence detection of colonic dysplasia. Excitation at 440, 532, and 635 nm is delivered into a single spiral scanning fiber, and fluorescence is collected by a ring of light-collecting optical fibers placed around the instrument periphery. Specific-binding peptides are selected with phage display technology using the CPC;Apc mouse model of spontaneous colonic dysplasia. Validation of peptide specificity is performed on flow cytometry and in vivo endoscopy. The peptides KCCFPAQ, AKPGYLS, and LTTHYKL are selected and labeled with 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC), 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), and CF633, respectively. Separate droplets of KCCFPAQ-DEAC, AKPGYLS-TAMRA, and LTTHYKL-CF633 are distinguished at concentrations of 100 and 1 ?M. Separate application of the fluorescent-labeled peptides demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenomas. The average target/background ratios are 1.71 ± 0.19 and 1.67 ± 0.12 for KCCFPAQ-DEAC and AKPGYLS-TAMRA, respectively. Administration of these two peptides together results in distinct binding patterns in the blue and green channels. Specific binding of two or more peptides can be distinguished in vivo using a novel multispectral endoscope to localize colonic dysplasia on real-time wide-field imaging. PMID:22463021
Miller, Sharon J; Lee, Cameron M; Joshi, Bishnu P; Gaustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J; Wang, Thomas D
Gastrointestinal cancers are heterogeneous and can overexpress several protein targets that can be imaged simultaneously on endoscopy using multiple molecular probes. We aim to demonstrate a multispectral scanning fiber endoscope for wide-field fluorescence detection of colonic dysplasia. Excitation at 440, 532, and 635 nm is delivered into a single spiral scanning fiber, and fluorescence is collected by a ring of light-collecting optical fibers placed around the instrument periphery. Specific-binding peptides are selected with phage display technology using the CPC;Apc mouse model of spontaneous colonic dysplasia. Validation of peptide specificity is performed on flow cytometry and in vivo endoscopy. The peptides KCCFPAQ, AKPGYLS, and LTTHYKL are selected and labeled with 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC), 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), and CF633, respectively. Separate droplets of KCCFPAQ-DEAC, AKPGYLS-TAMRA, and LTTHYKL-CF633 are distinguished at concentrations of 100 and 1 ?M. Separate application of the fluorescent-labeled peptides demonstrate specific binding to colonic adenomas. The average target/background ratios are 1.71+/-0.19 and 1.67+/-0.12 for KCCFPAQ-DEAC and AKPGYLS-TAMRA, respectively. Administration of these two peptides together results in distinct binding patterns in the blue and green channels. Specific binding of two or more peptides can be distinguished in vivo using a novel multispectral endoscope to localize colonic dysplasia on real-time wide-field imaging.
Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron M.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Gaustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.
Recent achievements in active capsule endoscopy have allowed controlled inspection of the bowel by magnetic guidance. Capsule localization represents an important enabling technology for such kinds of platforms. In this paper, the authors present a localization method, applied as first step in time-discrete capsule position detection, that is useful for establishing a magnetic link at the beginning of an endoscopic procedure or for re-linking the capsule in the case of loss due to locomotion. The novelty of this approach consists in using magnetic sensors on board the capsule whose output is combined with pre-calculated magnetic field analytical model solutions. A magnetic field triangulation algorithm is used for obtaining the position of the capsule inside the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental validation has demonstrated that the proposed procedure is stable, accurate and has a wide localization range in a volume of about 18 × 103 cm3. Position errors of 14 mm along the X direction, 11 mm along the Y direction and 19 mm along the Z direction were obtained in less than 27 s of elaboration time. The proposed approach, being compatible with magnetic fields used for locomotion, can be easily extended to other platforms for active capsule endoscopy.
Salerno, Marco; Ciuti, Gastone; Lucarini, Gioia; Rizzo, Rocco; Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Landi, Alberto; Dario, Paolo
AIM: To investigate whether the small bowel transit time (SBTT) influences the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS: Six hundred and ninety-one consecutive CE procedures collected in a database were analyzed. SBTT and CE findings were recorded. A running mean for the SBTT was calculated and correlated to the diagnostic yield with a Spearman’s correlation test. Subgroup analyses were performed for the various indications for the procedure. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the diagnostic yield and SBTT (Spearman’s rho 0.58, P < 0.01). Positive correlations between diagnostic yield and SBTT were found for the indication obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), for polyposis and carcinoid combined (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) and for the other indications (r = 0.90, P <0.01), but not for suspected Crohn’s disease (r = -0.40). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic yield in small bowel capsule endoscopy is positively correlated with the small bowel transit time. This is true for all indications except for suspected Crohn’s disease.
Westerhof, Jessie; Koornstra, Jan J; Hoedemaker, Reinier A; Sluiter, Wim J; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Weersma, Rinse K
This paper presents an in-depth study of several approaches to exploratory analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy images (WCE). It is demonstrated that versatile texture and color based descriptors of image regions corresponding to various anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract allows their accurate detection of pathologies in a sequence of WCE frames. Moreover, through classification of single pixels described by texture features of their neighborhood, the images can be segmented into homogeneous areas well matched to the image content. For both, detection and segmentation tasks the same procedure is applied which consists of features calculation, relevant feature subset selection and classification stages. This general three-stage framework is realized using various recognition strategies. In particular, the performance of the developed Vector Supported Convex Hull classification algorithm is compared against Support Vector Machines run in configuration with two different feature selection methods. PMID:23164524
Szczypi?ski, Piotr; Klepaczko, Artur; Pazurek, Marek; Daniel, Piotr
Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas of the gastro-intestinal tract are quite uncommon tumours. Clinical findings are aspecific: abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis is made by X-ray with contrast, endoscopy and CT-scan. Although biopsies taken during endoscopy are considered to be useless, our experiences showed an accurate diagnosis with biopsies. Surgery is the only treatment. The aim is to reduce the mass of tumour as much as possible; second look operations with careful debulking enhances the survival in case of recidive. Resection of lymph-nodes is useless. Radiotherapy nor chemotherapy are proven to be useful. The grade of malignity determines the prognosis. The liver and the abdominal cavity are the predilected localisation for metastasis. Metastasis in lymph-nodes is uncommon. Five year survival is about 50%. PMID:2073005
Chapelle, T; Devriendt, P; De Cort, J; Eyskens, E
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.
Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre
A thorough endoscopic visualization of the digestive mucosa is essential for reaching an accurate diagnosis and to treat the different lesions. Standard white light endoscopes permit a good mucosa examination but, nowadays, the introduction of powerful endoscopic instrumentations increased ability to analyze the finest details. By applying dyes and zoom-magnification endoscopy further architectural detail of the mucosa can be elucidated. New computed virtual chromoendoscopy have further enhanced optical capabilities for the evaluation of submucosal vascolar pattern. Recently, confocal endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy were proposed for the study of ultrastructural mucosa details. Because of the technological contents of powerful instrumentation, a good knowledge of implemented technologies is mandatory for the endoscopist, nowadays. Nevertheless, there is a big confusion about this topic. We will try to explain these technologies and to clarify this terminology. PMID:22347528
Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an ultraminiature endoscopy technology that acquires high-definition images of internal organs through a sub-mm endoscopic probe. In SEE, a grating at the tip of the imaging optics diffracts the broadband light into multiple beams, where each beam with a distinctive wavelength is illuminated on a unique transverse location of the tissue. By encoding one transverse coordinate with the wavelength, SEE can image a line of the tissue at a time without using any beam scanning devices. This feature of the SEE technology allows the SEE probe to be miniaturized to sub-mm dimensions. While previous studies have shown that SEE has the potential to be utilized for various clinical imaging applications, the translation of SEE for medicine has been hampered by challenges in fabricating the miniature grating inherent to SEE probes. This paper describes a new fabrication method for SEE probes. The new method uses a soft lithographic approach to pattern a high-aspect-ratio grating at the tip of the miniature imaging optics. Using this technique, we have constructed a 500 ?m-diameter SEE probe. The miniature grating at the tip of the probe had a measured diffraction efficiency of 75%. The new SEE probe was used to image a human finger and formalin fixed mouse embryos, demonstrating the capability of this device to visualize key anatomic features of tissues with high image contrast. In addition to providing high quality imaging SEE optics, the soft lithography method allows cost-effective and reliable fabrication of these miniature endoscopes, which will facilitate the clinical translation of SEE technology. PMID:23503940
Kang, Dongkyun; Martinez, Ramses V; Whitesides, George M; Tearney, Guillermo J
Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an ultraminiature endoscopy technology that acquires high-definition images of internal organs through a sub-mm endoscopic probe. In SEE, a grating at the tip of the imaging optics diffracts the broadband light into multiple beams, where each beam with a distinctive wavelength is illuminated on a unique transverse location of the tissue. By encoding one transverse coordinate with the wavelength, SEE can image a line of the tissue at a time without using any beam scanning devices. This feature of the SEE technology allows the SEE probe to be miniaturized to sub-mm dimensions. While previous studies have shown that SEE has the potential to be utilized for various clinical imaging applications, the translation of SEE for medicine has been hampered by challenges in fabricating the miniature grating inherent to SEE probes. This paper describes a new fabrication method for SEE probes. The new method uses a soft lithographic approach to pattern a high-aspect-ratio grating at the tip of the miniature imaging optics. Using this technique, we have constructed a 500-?m-diameter SEE probe. The miniature grating at the tip of the probe had a measured diffraction efficiency of 75%. The new SEE probe was used to image a human finger and formalin fixed mouse embryos, demonstrating the capability of this device to visualize key anatomic features of tissues with high image contrast. In addition to providing high quality imaging SEE optics, the soft lithography method allows cost-effective and reliable fabrication of these miniature endoscopes, which will facilitate the clinical translation of SEE technology.
Kang, Dongkyun; Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.
Lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding is generally less severe than upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding with spontaneous cessation of bleeding in 80% of cases and a mortality of 2-4%. However, unlike UGI bleeding, there is no consensual agreement about management. Once the patient has been stabilized, the main objective and greatest difficulty is to identify the location of bleeding in order to provide specific appropriate treatment. While upper endoscopy and colonoscopy remain the essential first-line examinations, the development and availability of angiography have made this an important imaging modality for cases of active bleeding; they allow diagnostic localization of bleeding and guide subsequent therapy, whether therapeutic embolization, interventional colonoscopy or, if other techniques fail or are unavailable, surgery directed at the precise site of bleeding. Furthermore, newly developed endoscopic techniques, particularly video capsule enteroscopy, now allow minimally invasive exploration of the small intestine; if this is positive, it will guide subsequent assisted enteroscopy or surgery. Other small bowel imaging techniques include enteroclysis by CT or magnetic resonance imaging. At the present time, exploratory surgery is no longer a first-line approach. In view of the lesser gravity of LGI bleeding, it is most reasonable to simply stabilize the patient initially for subsequent transfer to a specialized center, if minimally invasive techniques are not available at the local hospital. In all cases, the complexity and diversity of LGI bleeding require a multidisciplinary collaboration involving the gastroenterologist, radiologist, intensivist and surgeon to optimize diagnosis and treatment of the patient. PMID:24768401
Marion, Y; Lebreton, G; Le Pennec, V; Hourna, E; Viennot, S; Alves, A
A 49-year-old woman presented with chronic abdominal discomfort, significant weight loss, and chronic intermittent diarrhea. She suddenly developed massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was referred for further treatment. Endoscopy indicated a large mass in the upper gastric body with antral and duodenal bulb involvement. Endosonography showed a large well-defined isoechoic gastric subepithelial mass with multiple intra-abdominal and peripancreatic lymphadenopathy, suspected to be malignant on the basis of fine needle aspiration cytology. The tumor was surgically removed, and histopathology showed typical characteristics of a neuroendocrine tumor. On the basis of immunohistochemical staining, somatostatinoma, a rare neuroendocrine tumor, was diagnosed. Gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare presentation and the stomach is an uncommon tumor location.
Aswakul, Pitulak; Deesomsak, Morakod; Pongpaibul, Ananya
A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from a gastric submucosal tumor that was treated by a laparoscopic technique. Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a 2-cm submucosal tumor located in the posterior wall of the upper gastric body, showing a heterogeneous hyperechoic tumor. A laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach was performed. Pathological examinations revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells like fibroblasts and mature adipocytes. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the tumor was negative for desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made. EUS is useful for differentiating a fibrolipoma from a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or lipoma by the findings of characteristic echogenesity and detection of the tumor origin. PMID:17274543
Kohashi, Toshihiko; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Saburo; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Yokoya, Hitoshi; Yonehara, Shuji; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Asahara, Toshimasa
Background With the growing demand on endoscopy services, optimising practice efficiency has assumed increasing importance. Prior research\\u000a has identified practice changes, which increase the efficiency in endoscopy. In this study, the potential impact of these\\u000a practice changes on the current and projected future endoscopy waiting times at our institution was assessed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The annual volume of endoscopic procedures performed at a major
G. C. Harewood; H. Ryan; F. Murray; S. Patchett
With the ever-increasing concern regarding morbidity and mortality associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the importance of an effective and efficient diagnostic tool cannot be overstated. The standard of care currently is an examination using conventional white light endoscopy. This approach may occasionally overlook areas exhibiting a premalignant change. Numerous image-enhanced modalities have been recently introduced. Narrow band imaging (NBI) appears to be the most prominent of these and perhaps the most commonly used. Thepresent review will focus on some of the newer studies on NBI and its utility in the diagnosis of malignant, pre-malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24303964
Singh, Rajvinder; Lee, Shok Y; Vijay, Nimal; Sharma, Prateek; Uedo, Noriya
Summary: The gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Multiple lynphomatous polyposis is a type of appearance of mantle cell lymphoma. It is characterized by multiple polypoid lesions involving long gastrointestinal tracts and it accounts for only approximately 1–2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. A 78 years old patient was admitted to our Department of General Surgery with rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis was detected by endoscopy. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma. The patient was transferred to the Department of Hematology for cycles of chemotherapy.
CESTARO, G.; DE ROSA, M.; VITIELLO, C.; GALLORO, G.; GENTILE, M.
Background The use of administrative health data is increasingly common for the study of various medical and surgical diseases. The validity\\u000a of diagnosis codes for the study of benign upper gastrointestinal disorders has not been well studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The authors abstracted the charts for 590 adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 1,\\u000a 2000 and June 30, 2001 in Toronto,
S. R. Lopushinsky; K. A. Covarrubia; L. Rabeneck; P. C. Austin; D. R. Urbach
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding that results from lesions located above the ligament of Treitz and is a common cause for emergency hospital admissions in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. UGIB also increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients already hospitalized for other reasons. According to epidemiological surveys of acute UGIB in Iran, peptic ulcer is the most common endoscopic diagnosis. Gastric and duodenal erosion accounts for 16.4%-25% of etiologies. Other relatively common causes of UGIB are variceal hemorrhage, Mallory-Weiss tears, and arterial and venous malformations. However, in 9%-13.3% of patients, the endoscopy is normal.
Masoodi, Mohsen; Saberifiroozi, Mehdi
Capsule endoscopy is a new technique that allows complete exploration of the small intestine, and widely used all over the world, for its convenience and less pains compared with traditional endoscopy. However, the limited power supplies of batteries handicap the development of capsule endoscopy. This paper presents a novel wireless power transfer system for the capsule endoscopy utilizing the strongly
Xuelin Fang; Hao Liu; Guiyang Li; Qi Shao; Hongyi Li
A classification of gastrointestinal motility disorders is offered based upon the type of disorder in transit (delay or acceleration),\\u000a and the region of the gastrointestinal tract affected. Specific abnormalities of myoelectrical patterns are identified when\\u000a possible and related to disturbances in transit in the stomach and small bowel.
G. Vantrappen; J. Janssens; G. Coremans; R. Jian
The NCI Gastrointestinal Intergroup was the first disease-specific group to transition into a Disease-Specific Steering Committee (DSSC) as the Gastrointestinal Steering Committee (GISC). This transition occurred in January 2006. The GISC is currently composed of the Steering Committee and seven specific disease-site task forces.
Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) accounts for 400,000 hospital admissions in the US each year. Despite advances, mortality rates remain high and are estimated to be 5–10%. Early therapeutic endoscopy is widely recommended as a means of reducing morbidity and mortality. The Rockall and Blatchford scores are clinical scoring systems devised to assist in risk stratifying patients with UGIB. In a prior study we found that rapid live bedside video capsule endoscopy (VCE) utilizing Pillcam ESO® correctly identified patients with high-risk stigmata of bleeding seen on upper endoscopy. In this study, we compare the accuracy of the Rockall and Blatchford scores with Pillcam ESO® in predicting high-risk endoscopic stigmata. Methods: Pre-endoscopy Blatchford and Rockall scores were calculated for 25 patients (14 males, 11 females) presenting to the emergency room with acute UGIB. The average patient was 66 years of age. A total of 24 out of 25 patients underwent upper endoscopy within 24 hours. One patient did not undergo endoscopy due to clinical instability. The timing of endoscopy was based on clinical parameters in 12 patients, and on live view VCE with Pillcam ESO® in the other 13 patients. Positive VCE was defined as red blood, clot or coffee grounds. Mean Rockall and Blatchford scores for all 24 patients were compared to determine potential differences between high- and low-risk patients. Rockall and Blatchford scores were also compared with VCE findings. Results: Of 24 patients, 13 had high-risk stigmata on upper endoscopy. The mean Rockall and Blatchford scores were 3 and 13, respectively. In the 11 patients without stigmata, the mean Rockall and Blatchford scores were 2 and 11, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the Blatchford scores of the two groups (95% confidence interval [CI] ?5.1 to 1.3; p = 0.22). There was no statistically significant difference between the Rockall scores of the two groups (95% CI ?2.3 to 0.3; p = 0.11). In the subgroup of 12 patients who underwent VCE prior to endoscopy, 8/12 had positive findings, which were all confirmed at endoscopy. All 4 patients with negative VCE had no high-risk stigmata at endoscopy. Conclusion: In emergency room patients with acute UGIB, neither the Rockall nor the Blatchford scores were able to differentiate high- and low-risk patients identified at endoscopy. Live view VCE, however, was accurate in predicting high-risk endoscopic stigmata, and may be better suited as a risk stratification tool. Additional studies with a larger cohort will be required to validate these findings.
Shalomov, Albert; Hussain, Syed A.; Kim, Sang H.; Cortes, Rafael; Gray, Sondra; Judeh, Hani; Pollack, Simcha; Rubin, Moshe
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare mesenchymal smooth muscle sarcomas that can arise anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract. Sporadic mutations within the tyrosine kinase receptors of the interstitial cells of Cajal have been identified as the key molecular step in GIST carcinogenesis. Although many patients are asymptomatic, the most common associated symptoms include: abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastric outlet obstruction, and anorexia. Rarely, GIST can perforate causing life-threatening hemoperitoneum. Most are ultimately diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging studies (i.e., computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging in combination with upper endoscopy. Endoscopic ultrasonographic localization of these tumors within the smooth muscle layer and acquisition of neoplastic spindle cells harboring mutations in the c-KIT gene is pathognomonic. Curative treatment requires a complete gross resection of the tumor. Both open and minimally invasive operations have been shown to reduce recurrence rates and improve long-term survival. While there is considerable debate over whether GIST can be benign neoplasms, we believe that all GIST have malignant potential, but vary in their propensity to recur after resection and metastasize to distant organ sites. Prognostic factors include location, size (i.e., > 5 cm), grade (> 5-10 mitoses per 50 high power fields and specific mutational events that are still being defined. Adjuvant therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate, has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence after one year of therapy. Treatment of locally-advanced or borderline resectable gastric GIST with neoadjuvant imatinib has been shown to induce regression in a minority of patients and stabilization in the majority of cases. This treatment strategy potentially reduces the need for more extensive surgical resections and increases the number of patients eligible for curative therapy. The modern surgical treatment of gastric GIST combines the novel use of targeted therapy and aggressive minimally invasive surgical procedures to provide effective treatment for this lethal, but rare gastrointestinal malignancy.
Roggin, Kevin K; Posner, Mitchell C
Background: Subacute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare ischemic intestinal disease which is often characterized by delayed diagnosis due to obscure clinical picture. Case report: A 67-year-old woman who presented chronic abdominal pain with mild nausea due to superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was submitted to video capsule endoscopy. We describe, for the first time, the video capsule endoscopy findings in this patient. Conclusion: We emphasize the role of this new technology in the diagnosis of suspected ischemic intestinal diseases.
Katsinelos, P; Chatzimavroudis, G; Zavos, Ch; Pilpilidis, I; Fasoulas, K; Papaziogas, B; Kountouras, J
The discriminative value of patient characteristics and dyspeptic symptoms for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings was prospectively assessed in 1,147 patients attending for their first diagnostic endoscopy and who answered paper (n = 431) or computerized (n = 716) questionnaires. The questionnaires provided detailed information concerning present dyspeptic symptoms, with special attention to provoking and\\/or relieving factors, and smoking and\\/or drinking
Rob P. Adang; Anton W. Ambergen; Jan L. Talmon; Arie Hasman; Jon F.-J. F. E. Vismans; Reinhold W. Stockbrügger
During a 10 years period 62 adult patients were admitted with diagnosis of Schönlein-Henoch purpura in our hospital. 25 female and 37 male patients ranged from 30 to 87 years (mean: 59.5 years) presenting with cutan, joint, renal and particularly abdominal involvement were investigated retrospectively. During the course of the disease, all patients developed purpuric rash (100%), 14 (22.5%) patients had joint symptoms and renal involvement occurred in 12 (19.3%) patients. In this study, we discuss 15 (24%) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms appearing in Henoch's purpura. Analysis of the gastrointestinal clinical features revealed: abdominal pain 13 (86%), massive colorectal bleeding 3 (20%), occult blood loss 10 (66%) vomiting 6 (40%) and diarrhoea in 3 (20%) patients. All the patients underwent lower and upper endoscopic examination, in 3 cases the author saw purpuric mucosal lesions in duodenum and in 8 patients were also found coin-like elevated lesions, additionally, biopsy from colonic lesions showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It is concluded that endoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of Schönlein-Henoch purpura, especially is those without typical skin rash. PMID:9324677
Disequilibrium, ranging from lightheadedness to severe vertigo, is frequently of great concern to the patients with a variety of inner ear diseases, and may cause occupational and social disability. Vestibular nerve section may be considered when vestibular symptoms are resistant to medical therapy and associated with serviceable hearing in the involved ear. During the last century, numerous authors described several routes for intracranial section of the eighth nerve, such as lateral suboccipital craniotomy, middle cranial fossa approach, and retrolabyrinthine approach to the vestibular fossa. Control of vertigo by all routes to the vestibular nerve has a success rate of 80% to 90%. The potential for endoscopic approach to intracranial cavities was recognized early in this century but, due to technical limitations, was largely abandoned after a few attempts. Advances in optics, and the introduction of very fine instruments made endoscopy worth reconsideration. Since the early 1980s, rigid endoscopes have been used in otorhinolaryngology for paranasal sinus surgery and the visualization of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves during acoustic tumor surgery. We performed endoscopic section of the vestibular nerve through a retrolabyrinthine approach in two cadavers and in two patients with the symptoms of disequilibrium. In the literature survey, we could find no reports on vestibular neurectomy performed by endoscopic technique. We describe technical details of the approach, and conclude that the technique is safe and effective. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
Ozluoglu, Levent N.; Akbasak, Aytac
Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis.
Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications.
Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M
Background Symptom-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases is lower in China than in Western countries. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for the epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China. Methods A randomized, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select 18 000 adults aged 18-80 years from Shanghai, Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan and Guangzhou. Participants from Shanghai were invited to provide blood samples and undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All participants completed Chinese versions of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were also invited to complete the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were evaluated statistically. Results The study was completed by 16 091 individuals (response rate: 89.4%), with 3219 (89.4% of those invited) completing the SF-36 and ESS. All 3153 participants in Shanghai provided blood samples and 1030 (32.7%) underwent endoscopy. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.89, 0.89, 0.80 and 0.91, respectively, for the RDQ, modified Rome II questionnaire, ESS and SF-36, supporting internal consistency. Factor analysis supported construct validity of all questionnaire dimensions except SF-36 psychosocial dimensions. Conclusion This population-based study has great potential to characterize the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China.
Introduction: The diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding have always been a challenge to clinicians. In most patients, the source of bleeding is easily identified during conventional upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopies. A significant progress in the evaluation of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was brought by the advent of capsule endoscopy. Since colonoscopy is not always technically feasible, colon VCE might be useful where the conventional procedure poses substantial risks to patients or it is refused by them. Case-report: We present the case of a 58-year-old patient, with severe anemia caused by bleeding from a gastrointestinal source. The patient was diabetic, hypertensive and with impaired heart function, aggravated by anemia. We used the Pillcam Colon 2 capsule to investigate the colon and we found 2 tumors in the cecum and transverse colon. Conclusion: Pillcam Colon 2 capsule turned out to be an additional patient-friendly method to complement colonoscopy for colon visualization and colorectal cancer screening.
Babiuc, RD; Purcarea, M; Sadagurschi, R; Negreanu, L; Nastasescu, T
Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940
AIM: To evaluate the three-dimensional (3-D) representation performance of 4 publicly available Shape-from-Shading (SfS) algorithms in small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: SfS techniques recover the shape of objects using the gradual variation of shading. There are 4 publicly available SfS algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, no comparative study with images obtained during clinical SBCE has been performed to date. Three experienced reviewers were asked to evaluate 54 two-dimensional (2-D) images (categories: protrusion/inflammation/vascular) transformed to 3-D by the aforementioned SfS 3-D algorithms. The best algorithm was selected and inter-rater agreement was calculated. RESULTS: Four publicly available SfS algorithms were compared. Tsai’s SfS algorithm outperformed the rest (selected as best performing in 45/54 SBCE images), followed by Ciuti’s algorithm (best performing in 7/54 images) and Torreão’s (in 1/54 images). In 26/54 images; Tsai’s algorithm was unanimously selected as the best performing 3-D representation SfS software. Tsai’s 3-D algorithm superiority was independent of lesion category (protrusion/inflammatory/vascular; P = 0.678) and/or CE system used to obtain the 2-D images (MiroCam®/PillCam®; P = 0.558). Lastly, the inter-observer agreement was good (kappa = 0.55). CONCLUSION: 3-D representation software offers a plausible alternative for 3-D representation of conventional capsule endoscopy images (until optics technology matures enough to allow hardware enabled-“real” 3-D reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract).
Karargyris, Alexandros; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Mandelli, Giovanna; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios
BACKGROUND: Transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) without sedation has been reported to be safe and tolerable. It has recently been used widely in Japan for the detection of upper gastrointestinal disease. Alternatively, transoral examination using a thin endoscope has also been reported to be highly tolerable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cardiocirculatory effects of transoral versus transnasal EGD in an attempt to determine the most suitable endoscopic methods for patients ?75 years of age. METHODS: Subjects who underwent monitoring of respiratory and circulatory dynamics without sedation during endoscopic screening examinations were enrolled at the New Ooe Hospital (Kyoto, Japan) between April 2008 and March 2009. A total of 165 patients (age ?75 years) provided written informed consent and were investigated in the present study. Patients were randomly divided into three subgroups: UO group – thin endoscope; SO group – standard endoscope; and UT group – transnasal EGD. Percutaneous arterial blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated just before EGD and at five time points during EGD. After transnasal EGD, patients who had previously been examined using transoral EGD with a standard endoscope were asked about preferences for their next examination. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in the characteristics among the groups. Percutaneous oxygen saturation in the UT group showed a transient drop compared with the SO and UO groups at the beginning of the endoscopic procedure. Heart rate showed no significant differences among the SO, UO and UT groups; Systolic blood pressure in the UO group was lower immediately after insertion compared with the SO and UT groups. The rate pressure product in the UO group was comparable with that in the UT group during endoscopy, and the SO group showed a continuously higher level than the UO and UT groups. More than one-half (54.4%) of patients were ‘willing to choose transnasal EGD for next examination’. CONCLUSIONS: For elderly patients, unsedated transnasal EGD failed to show an advantage over unsedated standard endoscopy. Transoral thin EGD was estimated to be safe and tolerable.
Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Naoyuki; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Tatsumi, Yoshihide; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Takemura, Shuhei
We present an ultrathin fiber-optic endoscopy probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is made of a series of fused optical fibers instead of the conventional scheme based on an objective lens. The large-core fiber with a core diameter of 20 µm was utilized for the probe, while a single-mode fiber of core diameter 8.2 µm mainly delivered the OCT light. Those fibers were spliced with a bridge fiber of an intermediate core size. The guided light was stepwise converted to a beam of a large mode-field diameter to be radiated with a larger depth of focus. We obtained a 125 µm thick all-fiber endoscopy probe with a side-viewing capability implemented by an angled fiber end. Successful OCT imaging was demonstrated with a swept-source OCT system and showed the practical applicability of our lens-free endoscopy probe.
Moon, Sucbei; Piao, Zhonglie; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping
In a cooperation between the University Hospital Rotterdam (AZR) and HISCOM, HIS supplier, a multimedia information system for endoscopy (ENSIS) has been developed in a project funded by the Dutch Ministry of Health Care. An integral part of this project was an evaluation of costs and effects of this system. The system has been implemented on the gastroenterology department and the internal medicine ward in the AZR. The results indicate that the anatomical knowledge of requesting physicians improved with the system. Both the response time and availability of endoscopy images improved greatly. Because of the use of off-the-shelve technology (possible because of the relatively small resolution requirements of endoscopy images) ENSIS can be implemented at relatively low costs.
Enning, C. John W.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Blankenstein, Mark; van Boven, Gert-Jan; van Gennip, Elisabeth M.
AIM: To define which segments of the gastrointestinal tract are most likely to yield angioectasias for ablative therapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients treated in the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Gastroenterology clinics between the dates of July 1, 2007 and October 1, 2010. The selection of cases for review was initiated by use of our electronic medical record to identify all patients with a diagnosis of angioectasia, angiodysplasia, or arteriovenous malformation. Of these cases, chart reviews identified patients who had a complete evaluation of their gastrointestinal tract as defined by at least one upper endoscopy, colonoscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy within the past three years. Patients without evidence of overt gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia associated with intestinal angioectasias were classified as asymptomatic and excluded from this analysis. Thirty-five patients with confirmed, bleeding intestinal angioectasias who had undergone complete endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: A total of 127 cases were reviewed. Sixty-six were excluded during subsequent screening due to lack of complete small bowel evaluation and/or lack of documentation of overt bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. The 61 remaining cases were carefully examined with independent review of endoscopic images as well as complete capsule endoscopy videos. This analysis excluded 26 additional cases due to insufficient records/images for review, incomplete capsule examination, poor capsule visualization or lack of confirmation of typical angioectasias by the principal investigator on independent review. Thirty-five cases met criteria for final analysis. All study patients were age 50 years or older and 13 patients (37.1%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher. Twenty of 35 patients were taking aspirin (81 mg or 325 mg), clopidogrel, and/or warfarin, with 8/20 on combination therapy. The number and location of angioectasis was documented for each case. Lesions were then classified into the following segments of the gastrointestinal tract: esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, right colon and left colon. The location of lesions within the small bowel observed by capsule endoscopy was generally defined by percentage of total small bowel transit time with times of 0%-9%, 10%-39%, and 40%-100% corresponding to the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively. Independent review of complete capsule studies allowed for deviation from this guideline if capsule passage was delayed in one or more segments. In addition, the location and number of angioectasias observed in the small bowel was further modified or confirmed by subsequent device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) performed in the 83% of cases. In our study population, angioectasias were most commonly found in the jejunum (80%) followed by the duodenum (51%), stomach (22.8%), and right colon (11.4%). Only two patients were found to have angioectasias in the ileum (5.7%). Twenty-one patients (60%) had angioectasias in more than one location. CONCLUSION: Patients being considered for endoscopic ablation of symptomatic angioectasias should undergo push enteroscopy or anterograde DAE and re-inspection of the right colon.
Bollinger, Elizabeth; Raines, Daniel; Saitta, Patrick
Small bowel malignant tumors are rare and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. We report a 56-year-old woman, with history of an excised gliosarcoma, who presented with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. She underwent endoscopy and colonoscopy, which failed to identify the cause of the bleeding. The abdominal computed tomography scan located a tumor in the small bowel. Pathology revealed a jejunal sarcomatoid carcinoma. She developed tumor recurrence and multiple liver metastases shortly after surgery. Immunohistochemistry is required for accurate diagnosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which is associated with a poor prognosis.
Alfonso Puentes, Nidia; Jimenez-Alfaro Larrazabal, Carmen; Garcia Higuera, Maria Isabel
The use of self-expanding metallic stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract, placed under radiologic imaging or endoscopic guidance, is the current treatment of choice for the palliation of malignant gastrointestinal outlet obstructions. Advances in metallic stent design and delivery systems have progressed to the stage where this treatment is now considered a minimally invasive therapy. Metallic stent placement will broaden further into the field of nonsurgical therapy for the gastrointestinal tract. To date, metallic stents placed in the esophagus, gastric outlet, colorectum, and bile ducts are not intended to be curative, but rather to provide a palliative treatment for obstructions. The evolution of metallic stent technology will render such procedures not only palliative but also therapeutic, by enabling local drug delivery, and the use of biodegradable materials will reduce procedure-related complications.
Background: Endoscopy is commonly performed in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related diarrhea after negative stool studies. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness of endoscopy in this setting. Methods: Consecutive HIV-infected patients with chronic unexplained diarrhea who were referred for diagnostic endoscopy were identified. Patient charts, pathology reports, and endoscopy records were
Edmund J. Bini; Jonathan Cohen
Gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The use of probiotics to prevent and treat a variety of diarrheal diseases has gained favor in recent years. Examples where probiotics have positively impacted gastroenteritis will be highlighted. However, the overall efficacy of these treatments and the mechanisms by which probiotics ameliorate gastrointestinal infections are mostly unknown. We will discuss possible mechanisms by which probiotics could have a beneficial impact by enhancing the prevention or treatment of diarrheal diseases.
Britton, Robert A.; Versalovic, James
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance.
Scherubl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva
Background: Patients presenting with diarrhea frequently undergo lower endoscopy plus biopsy as part of their diagnostic evaluation. The diagnostic yield of this approach has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: To evaluate the diagnostic yield of endoscopy and biopsy in the investigation of nonbloody diarrhea, we performed a retrospective analysis using the endoscopy unit database of a tertiary care university hospital
Yashesh Patel; Norman M. Pettigrew; Gordon R. Grahame; Charles N. Bernstein
... about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What is a gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor? The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system ... find more information in our document Pancreatic Cancer . Carcinoid tumors Carcinoid is the term used to describe ...
In celiac disease (CD), the intestinal lesions can be patchy and partial villous atrophy may elude detection at standard endoscopy (SE). Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) system in combination with a magnifying endoscope (ME) is a simple tool able to obtain targeted biopsy specimens. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between NBI-ME and histology in CD diagnosis and to compare diagnostic accuracy between NBI-ME and SE in detecting villous abnormalities in CD. Forty-four consecutive patients with suspected CD undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been prospectively evaluated. Utilizing both SE and NBI-ME, observed surface patterns were compared with histological results obtained from biopsy specimens using the k-Cohen agreement coefficient. NBI-ME identified partial villous atrophy in 12 patients in whom SE was normal, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 92.6%, and 95%, respectively. The overall agreement between NBI-ME and histology was significantly higher when compared with SE and histology (kappa score: 0.90 versus 0.46; P = 0.001) in diagnosing CD. NBI-ME could help identify partial mucosal atrophy in the routine endoscopic practice, potentially reducing the need for blind biopsies. NBI-ME was superior to SE and can reliably predict in vivo the villous changes of CD.
De Luca, L.; Ricciardiello, L.; Rocchi, M. B. L.; Fabi, M. T.; Bianchi, M. L.; de Leone, A.; Fiori, S.; Baroncini, D.
Gastrointestinal Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Neal Meropol, M.D.Case Comprehensive Cancer CenterCleveland, OH Bruce Minsky, M.D.MD Anderson Cancer CenterHouston, TX Members Dan Haller, M.D. [Chair Emeritus]University of Pennsylvania Cancer CenterPhiladelphia,
Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.
Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.
The accuracy of virtual endoscopy (VE) and its applicability for clinical neurosciences, especially planning and simulation of neurosurgical interventions, was investigated in several series: (1) Thirty-eight cerebral 3D MRI datasets from healthy volunteers and from patients were used for a comparison of the accuracy of various tools for VE by analyzing the visibility of anatomical structures in 30 exactly defined
Dorothee P Auer; Peter Sendtner; Grischa Schneider; Ludwig M Auer
The development of endosurgical techniques for chelonians has reduced the need for more invasive approaches such as plastron osteotomy. Surgical access and manipulation of much of the coelomic viscera of chelonians can be accomplished using endoscopy. Endoscopic methods may be used to perform many chelonian reproductive surgical procedures, including oophorectomy, salpingotomy, salpingectomy, gender identification, and removal of ectopic eggs. PMID:20381775
Innis, Charles J
Use of opioid analgesics is associated with a number of side effects, especially opioid-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. The extensive use of these compounds and the significant negative impact of the resulting gastrointestinal dysfunction on patients’ quality of life make it an important clinical issue. In recent years our understanding of the mechanisms of opioid-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction has advanced greatly. This article
Sangeeta R. Mehendale; Chun-Su Yuan
Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy in patients with gastrointestinal perforations. This paradigm started to shift with the development of techniques for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal perforations. A detailed review of the literature on this subject, along with a commentary on practical aspects in the management of patients with gastrointestinal leaks, is provided here.
Gottumukkala Subba Raju
Gastrointestinal bleeding affects a substantial number of elderly people and is a frequent indication for hospitalization. Bleeding can originate from either the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, and patients with gastrointestinal bleeding present with a range of symptoms. In the elderly, the nature, severity, and outcome of bleeding are influenced by the presence of medical comorbidities and the use of
Patrick S Yachimski; Lawrence S Friedman
Cameron lesions represent linear gastric erosions and ulcers on the crests of mucosal folds in the distal neck of a hiatal hernia (HH). Such lesions may be found in upto 50% of endoscopies performed for another indication. Though typically asymptomatic, these may rarely present as acute, severe upper gastrointestinal bleed (GIB). The aim is to report a case of a non-anemic 87-year-old female with history of HH and atrial fibrillation who presented with hematemesis and melena resulting in hypovolemic shock. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy was required to identify multiple Cameron ulcers as the source. Endoscopy in a patient with HH should involve meticulous visualization of hernia neck and surrounding mucosa. Cameron ulcers should be considered in all patients with severe, acute GIB and especially in those with known HH with or without chronic anemia.
Kapadia, Samir; Jagroop, Sophia; Kumar, Atul
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a colour imaging technology that enables detailed examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. A typical WCE examination takes ~ 8 hours and captures ~ 40,000 useful images. After the examination, the images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a clinician over an hour to analyse. The manufacturers of the WCE provide certain automatic image analysis functions e.g. Given Imaging offers in their Rapid Reader software: The Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), which is designed to report the location in the video of areas of active bleeding. However, this tool has been reported to have insufficient specificity and sensitivity. Therefore it does not free the specialist from reviewing the entire footage and was suggested only to be used as a fast screening tool. In this paper we propose a method of bleeding detection that uses in its first stage Hue-Saturation-Intensity colour histograms to track a moving background and bleeding colour distributions over time. Such an approach addresses the problem caused by drastic changes in blood colour distribution that occur when it is altered by gastrointestinal fluids and allow detection of other red lesions, which although are usually "less red" than fresh bleeding, they can still be detected when the difference between their colour distributions and the background is large enough. In the second stage of our method, we analyse all candidate blood frames, by extracting colour (HSI) and texture (LBP) features from the suspicious image regions (obtained in the first stage) and their neighbourhoods and classifying them using Support Vector Classifier into Bleeding, Lesion and Normal classes. We show that our algorithm compares favourably with the SBI on the test set of 84 full length videos.
Mackiewicz, Michal W.; Fisher, Mark; Jamieson, Crawford
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use. More importantly, WCE combined with mobile computing ensures rapid transmission of diagnostic data to hospitals and enables off-site senior gastroenterologists to offer timely decision making support. However, during this WCE process, video data are produced in huge amounts, but only a limited amount of data is actually useful for diagnosis. The sharing and analysis of this video data becomes a challenging task due the constraints such as limited memory, energy, and communication capability. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing tasks, we present a video summarization-based tele-endoscopy service that estimates the semantically relevant video frames from the perspective of gastroenterologists. For this purpose, image moments, curvature, and multi-scale contrast are computed and are fused to obtain the saliency map of each frame. This saliency map is used to select keyframes. The proposed tele-endoscopy service selects keyframes based on their relevance to the disease diagnosis. This ensures the sending of diagnostically relevant frames to the gastroenterologist instead of sending all the data, thus saving transmission costs and bandwidth. The proposed framework also saves storage costs as well as the precious time of doctors in browsing patient's information. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed service provides video keyframes to the gastroenterologists without discarding important information. PMID:25037715
Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook
Adenomyoma of the small intestine is rare. It occurs mostly in the periampullary region or ileum. The common presentations are intussusception and intestinal or biliary obstruction, depending on the location. To our knowledge, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from a jejunal adenomyoma has not been reported previously. We present a 74-year-old female patient who suffered intermittent tarry stool passage for 1 month. Initial upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography failed to find the bleeder. A papilla-like tumor with central depression and active bleeding in the proximal jejunum was found by push enteroscopy. Exploratory laparotomy showed a submucosal nodule about 1.5 cm in size located about 20 cm distal to the Treitz ligament. Wedge resection was carried out. Pathologic examination revealed that the tumor was composed of some cystic exocrine-type ducts and bundles of smooth muscle, indicating adenomyoma. The patient was symptom-free following operation. PMID:18290255
Yu, Hsien-Chung; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, I-Shu; Hsieh, Pin-Pen
Primary malignant melanomas of the GI tract are very rare. Their symptomatology is not specific. We report a 78-year-old Tunisian woman hospitalised with a 6-month history of recurrent abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weakness and weight loss. She had no personal history of cutaneous or ocular melanoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple small, raised darkly pigmented tumours. Theses lesions were found in the oesophagus, the stomach, the bulb and the duodenum. Biopsy specimens were taken and histology showed the presence of melanocytic cells with abundant melanin pigment. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for HMB-45. Morphological examinations revealed hepatomegaly with multiple nodules with small lymph nodes at the celiac axis. All available diagnostic procedures failed to identify any other site of ocular or cutaneous melanoma, the present case was considered as primary GI melanoma. Palliative chemotherapy was not possible because patient was extremely cachectic and she died one month later. PMID:19864103
Houissa, F; Bouzaidi, S; Mouelhi, L; Ben Rejeb, M; Moussa, A; Mekki, H; Dabbeche, R; Trabelsi, S; Said, Y; Salem, M; Najjar, T
INTRODUCTION Cystic artery pseudoaneurysms and cholecystoenteric fistulae represent two rare complications of gallstone disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 86 year old male presented to the emergency department with obstructive jaundice, RUQ pain and subsequent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper GI endoscopy revealed bleeding from the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm, concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula and gallstone ileus. This patient was successfully managed surgically with open subtotal cholecystectomy, pseudoaneurysm resection and fistula repair. DISCUSSION To date there are very few cases describing haemobilia resulting from a bleeding cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. This report is the first to describe upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a consequence of two synchronous rare pathologies: a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm causing haemobilia and bleeding through a concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula. CONCLUSION Through this case, we stress the importance of accurate and early diagnosis through ultra- sonography, endoscopy, and contrast-enhanced CT imaging and emphasise that haemobilia should be included in the differential diagnosis of anyone presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We have demonstrated the success of surgical management alone in the treatment of such a case, but accept that consideration of combined therapeutic approach with angiography be given in the first instance, when available and clinically indicated. PMID:24394852
Glaysher, Michael A; Cruttenden-Wood, David; Szentpali, Karoly
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.
Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE), which allows clinicians to inspect the whole gastrointestinal tract (GI) noninvasively, has bloomed into one of the most efficient technologies to diagnose the bleeding in GI tract. However WCE generates large amount of images in one examination of a patient. It is hard for clinicians to leave continuous time to examine the full WCE images, and this is the main factor limiting the wider application of WCE in clinic. A novel intelligent bleeding detection based on Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is proposed in this paper. The features of bleeding region in WCE images distinguishing from non-bleeding region are extracted. A PNN classifier is built to recognize bleeding regions in WCE images. Finally the intelligent bleeding detection method is implemented through programming. The experiments show this method can correctly recognize the bleeding regions in WCE images and clearly mark them out. The sensitivity and specificity on image level are measured as 93.1% and 85.6% respectively. PMID:20703770
Pan, Guobing; Yan, Guozheng; Qiu, Xiangling; Cui, Jiehao
Now, more than 10 years after the approval of video capsule endoscopy (VCE), the technology has become an essential component in the management of several clinical conditions. Currently, two capsules are approved in the USA for visualizing the small bowel mucosa, one capsule is authorized for oesophageal assessment and several others are in use or under evaluation worldwide. New investigations have focused on optical improvements, advances in intestinal cleansing and risk reduction strategies to optimize VCE methodologies in clinical care. Established indications diagnosed using VCE include unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel Crohn's disease (in adults and children >10 years old), localization of small bowel tumours and a broad range of miscellaneous abnormalities. Investigations are ongoing to determine the utility of VCE in colon cancer screening, assessment of oesophageal disorders and diagnosis of coeliac disease. Active research is in progress into ways to improve the efficacy of VCE recording interpretation, prolong imaging time and further enhance optics and imaging methods. To expand the potential utility of VCE, novel devices that can manoeuvre within or insufflate the gut lumen, tag or biopsy suspect lesions, or target drug delivery to specific sites are in development. To facilitate these advances, consortia have been organized to promote innovative VCE technologies. PMID:22565098
Fisher, Laurel R; Hasler, William L
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a new colour imaging technology that enables close examination of the interior of the entire small intestine. Typically, the WCE operates for ~8 hours and captures ~40,000 useful images. The images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a doctor over an hour to analyse. In order to activate certain key features of the software provided with the capsule, it is necessary to locate and annotate the boundaries between certain gastrointestinal (GI) tract regions (stomach, intestine and colon) in the footage. In this paper we propose a method of automatically discriminating stomach, intestine and colon tissue in order to significantly reduce the video assessment time. We use hue saturation chromaticity histograms which are compressed using a hybrid transform, incorporating the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of two classifiers is compared: k-nearest neighbour (kNN) and Support Vector Classifier (SVC). After training the classifier, we applied a narrowing step algorithm to converge to the points in the video where the capsule firstly passes through the pylorus (the valve between the stomach and the intestine) and later the ileocaecal valve (IV, the valve between the intestine and colon). We present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.
Berens, Jeff; Mackiewicz, Michal; Bell, Duncan
Background/Aims In capsule endoscopy (CE), the capsule does not always reach the cecum within its battery life, which may reduce its diagnostic yield. We evaluated the effect of mosapride citrate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 agonist that increases gastrointestinal motility, on CE completion. Methods In a retrospective study, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses for 232 CE procedures performed at our hospital. To identify factors that affect CE completion, the following data were systematically collected: gender, age, gastric transit time (GTT), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, previous abdominal surgery, hospitalization, use of a polyethylene glycol solution, use of mosapride citrate (10 mg), body mass index (BMI), and total recording time. Results The univariate analysis showed that oral mosapride citrate, GTT, and BMI were associated with improved CE completion. Multivariate analyses showed that oral mosapride citrate (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.91) and GTT (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.87) were significant factors for improving the CE completion. Oral mosapride citrate significantly shortened the GTT and small bowel transit time (SBTT). Conclusions Oral mosapride citrate reduced the GTT and SBTT during CE and improved the CE completion rate.
Ida, Yosuke; Hosoe, Naoki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Bessho, Rieko; Ichikawa, Riko; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori; Hibi, Toshifumi
In this paper, we present a novel and clinically valuable software platform for automatic ulcer detection on gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Capsule Endoscopy (CE) videos. Typical CE videos take about 8 hours. They have to be reviewed manually by physicians to detect and locate diseases such as ulcers and bleedings. The process is time consuming. Moreover, because of the long-time manual review, it is easy to lead to miss-finding. Working with our collaborators, we were focusing on developing a software platform called GISentinel, which can fully automated GI tract ulcer detection and classification. This software includes 3 parts: the frequency based Log-Gabor filter regions of interest (ROI) extraction, the unique feature selection and validation method (e.g. illumination invariant feature, color independent features, and symmetrical texture features), and the cascade SVM classification for handling "ulcer vs. non-ulcer" cases. After the experiments, this SW gave descent results. In frame-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 69.65% (319/458). In instance-wise, the ulcer detection rate is 82.35%(28/34).The false alarm rate is 16.43% (34/207). This work is a part of our innovative 2D/3D based GI tract disease detection software platform. The final goal of this SW is to find and classification of major GI tract diseases intelligently, such as bleeding, ulcer, and polyp from the CE videos. This paper will mainly describe the automatic ulcer detection functional module.
Yi, Steven; Jiao, Heng; Meng, Fan; Leighton, Jonathon A.; Shabana, Pasha; Rentz, Lauri
Presently, clinicians routinely apply ultrasound endoscopy in a variety of interventional procedures which provide treatment solutions for diseased organs. Ultrasound endoscopy not only produces high resolution images, it is also safe for clinical use and broadly applicable. However, for soft tissue imaging, its mechanical wave-based image contrast fundamentally limits its ability to provide physiologically-specific functional information. By contrast, photoacoustic endoscopy possesses a unique combination of functional optical contrast and high spatial resolution at clinically-relevant depths, ideal for soft tissue imaging. With these attributes, photoacoustic endoscopy can overcome the current limitations of ultrasound endoscopy. Moreover, the benefits of photoacoustic imaging do not come at the expense of existing ultrasound functions; photoacoustic endoscopy systems are inherently compatible with ultrasound imaging, enabling multi-modality imaging with complementary contrast. Here, we present simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasonic dual-mode endoscopy and demonstrate its ability to image internal organs in vivo, illustrating its potential clinical application.
Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed.
\\u000a The fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a variety of gastrointestinal pathogens including enteropathogenic\\u000a Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides,\\u000a and Helicobacter pylori [1-4]. The newer fluoroquinolones (trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin) are also active against many obligate anaerobes\\u000a [5, 6]. Coupled with favorable bioavailability after oral administration, and the ability to achieve high concentrations
Anthony W. Chow
Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) frequently have gastrointestinal symptoms and signs. This article critically reviews the available\\u000a literature and concludes the following: evidence that inflammatory bowel disease is associated with FM is contradictory, but\\u000a should be looked for in patients taking concomitant steroids; patients diagnosed with celiac disease often have a history\\u000a of FM or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that may
Daniel J. Wallace; David S. Hallegua
\\u000a Apart from digesting and absorbing nutrients, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract also possesses important sensing and signaling\\u000a functions. It is estimated that more than 50 hormones and regulatory peptides are synthesized in the GI, primarily in response\\u000a to food entering the digestive system [1, 2]. The majority of the bioactive peptides are generated from a larger precursor\\u000a (pro-hormone) by proteolytic cleavage
Yan Wang; Efi Kokkotou
Bone mineral density is decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases, which are intractable inflammation in the digestive tract. The causes of decreased bone mineral density are multifactorial including steroid use, insufficiency of nutritional intake, malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract and activation of mucosal immune system. Insufficient levels of vitamins D and K are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and are also suggested to be involved in acceleration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23354092
Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo
The gastrointestinal mucosa is a richly perfused vascular bed directly juxtaposed with the anaerobic and nonsterile lumen\\u000a of the gut. As such, intestinal epithelial cells, which line the mucosa, experience a uniquely steep physiologic oxygen gradient\\u000a in comparison with other cells of the body. Inflammation associated with a loss of epithelial barrier function and unregulated\\u000a exposure of the mucosal immune
Cormac T. Taylor; Sean P. Colgan
In children with medically refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), fundoplication is effective and safe. However,\\u000a in a subset of patients, gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs postoperatively. Symptoms include chest pain, persistent dysphagia\\u000a in 5%, gas bloat in 2% to 4%, diarrhea in up to 20%, and dumping syndrome in up to 30%. Symptoms are often nonspecific, arising\\u000a from recurrent or persistent GERD,
The antitumour effect of statins has already been proven in animal experiments and human cancer cell lines in several gastrointestinal cancers. The chemopreventive mechanism is not completely clarified but the enhancement of oxidative stress, increased autophagy, altered expression of pro- and antiproliferative proteins and their influence on intracellular signaling pathways may play a role. Randomized studies, however, failed to confirme the expected results obtained from experimental studies. The goal of this review is to summarize the data available in the literature regarding the chemopreventive effects of statins on several gastrointestinal cancers. Results of clinical trials suggest that 10-20 mg statin daily has no or minimal antitumour effect. Chemopreventive effect of hydrophilic statins could not be detected but it seems to be significant in the case of hydrophobic statins. There are only few data available on the long-term daily use of 30-40 mg statins. Further long-term evaluation of the effect of statins regarding gastrointestinal cancers is needed, and an analysis of compound- and dose-related subgroups would be beneficial. Chemoprevention with statins cannot yet be accepted as standard medical practice. Use of statins as chemopreventive agents cannot be a substitute for regular oncological screening or surveillance. PMID:24776382
Sági, Veronika; Herszényi, László; Tulassay, Zsolt; Gasztonyi, Beáta
Since the late 1970s, there has been a dramatic shift of GI endoscopy services from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Outpatient GI endoscopy has migrated from the hospital endoscopy unit to the office and then on to the EASC. This evolution has been brought about by many forces, including the drive for health care cost containment, a desire for enhanced service, cost pressure on physicians, and demands for quality assurance. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each of the outpatient settings (see Tables 5 and 6), the EASC seems to offer the most value to patients, payers, and physician owners. That value is defined as good outcomes, excellent service, and reasonable cost. Those attributes of the EASC that are most important in guaranteeing this value are physician control, time efficiency, convenience, and adequate reimbursement. The endoscopic ambulatory surgery center seems to be the best environment for delivering endoscopic services. The office AEC can only approach the attractiveness of an EASC when restrictive certificate-of-need laws prevent the development of an EASC; when groups lack a critical number of endoscopists to support an EASC (at least three endoscopists with a potential procedure volume of 1200 to 1800 procedures per year ); when excess office capacity and personnel can be used for the office AEC; and, perhaps most importantly, when there is an ability to secure favorable contracts for facility payment from private health plans to the office endoscopy center. The evolution of EASCs over three decades has demonstrated many advantages to patients, physicians, and payers. Although further questions and challenges are inevitable, EASCs can adapt quickly and deliver value. The author believes the future is deservedly bright for such facilities. PMID:12180155
Frakes, James T
We present a new micro-endoscopy system combining real-time C-scan optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy (OR-PAME), and a high-resolution fluorescence micro-endoscopy system for visualizing fluorescently labeled cellular components and optically absorbing microvasculature simultaneously. With a diode-pumped 532-nm fiber laser, the OR-PAM sub-system is capable of imaging with a resolution of ~ 7?m. The fluorescence sub-system consists of a diode laser with 445 nm-centered emissions as the light source, an objective lens and a CCD camera. Proflavine, a FDA approved drug for human use, is used as the fluorescent contrast agent by topical application. The fluorescence system does not require any mechanical scanning. The scanning laser and the diode laser light source share the same light path within an optical fiber bundle containing 30,000 individual single mode fibers. The absorption of Proflavine at 532 nm is low, which mitigates absorption bleaching of the contrast agent by the photoacoustic excitation source. We demonstrate imaging in live murine models. The system is able to provide cellular morphology with cellular resolution co-registered with the structural and functional information given by OR-PAM. Therefore, the system has the potential to serve as a virtual biopsy technique, helping researchers and clinicians visualize angiogenesis, effects of anti-cancer drugs on both cells and the microcirculation, as well as aid in the study of other diseases.
Shao, Peng; Shi, Wei; Hajireza, Parsin; Zemp, Roger J.
Currently, many applications for virtual endoscopy (VE) are available but fly-through is still troublesome. We are using Virtual Endoscopy Software Application (VESA) in our laboratory. VESA generates a 3D model with surface rendering method and a fly-through trajectory automatically. In this study, our goal is to evaluate the usefulness of VESA for generating virtual endoscopy (VE) images and automated fly- through trajectory. We applied VESA to clinical cases including colon, biliary ducts, aortic dissection and larynx. Original cross-sectional images were either spiral CT or MRI. VESA's advantages are following features. First, VESA can generate VE images with simple operation. Second, a point to point correspondence is established between 2D images/3D models and VE images. Third, automated trajectory runs more closely to the center of the hollow organ. VESA is a user- friendly tool for generating the VE images and its automated trajectory reduces the operating time. VESA provides a unique visualization component and makes VE more practical.
Okuda, Shigeo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Schreyer, Andreas; Moharir, Vik; Nakagori, Toshio; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Alyassin, Abdal M.; Lorensen, William E.; Kikinis, Ron
Treatment of chronic pancreatitis is dependent on the stage of the disease and consists of several arms: treatment of pain when ever possible according to its pathogenesis; treatment of complications primarily by interventional endoscopy, in cases of failure by surgery; therapy of exocrine insufficiency with porcine pancreatic extracts; treatment of endocrine insufficiency with insulin. Pseudocysts can be drained according to their location by either the transgastric, transduodenal, transpapillary or transcutaneous route. Distal prepapillary stenoses of the main pancreatic duct can be handled by placement of a plastic stent; similarily to treatment of biliary strictures. Stones leading to obstruction of the main pancreatic duct can be disintegrated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and the fragments removed by endoscopy after papillotomy. Transgastral endoscopic drainage of retroperitoneal necroses is still experimental. Prospective randomized multicenter trials comparing surgery with interventional endoscopy are still lacking. Failure of endoscopic therapy or suspicion of tumor is clearly an indication for surgery. There is no need for a specific diet in patients with chronic pancreatitis without having diabetes. In severe attacks, clinically similar to acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition via a jejunal tube is replacing parenteral nutrition. However, prospective comparative trials are still mandatory. Prophylactic application of antibiotics in patients with pancreatic necrosis is again under debate. Whether probiotics are capable to decrease the risk of secondary pancreatic infection of necrosis has not been thoroughly studied. The hypothesis that capture of oxygen free radicals by drugs such as selenium may prevent frequency and severity of acute relapses has also not been proven. PMID:17111847
During the last decades, numerous studies have been performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and patients with functional gastrointestinal diseases. A PubMed search was performed on this topic and all available studies published in English have been reviewed and evaluated. This review is organized based on the gastrointestinal organ (from the esophagus to the colon), components of gastrointestinal motility and the functional diseases related to specific motility disorders. It was found that the effects of acupuncture or EA on gastrointestinal motility were fairly consistent and the major acupuncture points used in these studies were ST36 and PC6. Gastric motility has been mostly studied, whereas much less information is available on the effect of EA on small and large intestinal motility or related disorders. A number of clinical studies have been published, investigating the therapeutic effects of EA on a number of functional gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. However, the findings of these clinical studies were inconclusive. In summary, acupuncture or EA is able to alter gastrointestinal motility functions and improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, more studies are needed to establish the therapeutic roles of EA in treating functional gastrointestinal diseases.
Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z
Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as well as malignant obstruction. In this review, the types, method of insertion, indications and clinical outcomes of stent in the upper GI tract would be discussed.
Kim, Sang Gyun
The annual incidence of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is ?20.5 in 100,000 in the general Western population and results in 1 to 2% of hospital emergencies. When medical management and endoscopic therapy are inadequate in cases of acute LGIB, endovascular intervention can be lifesaving. In these emergent situations it is important for the interventional radiologist to be well versed in the multidisciplinary preangiographic work-up, the angiographic presentations of LGIB, and the endovascular therapeutic options. We describe a case of LGIB managed with endovascular embolization and detail the angiographic techniques used, followed by a detailed discussion of the various treatment approaches to LGIB.
Navuluri, Rakesh; Kang, Lisa; Patel, Jay; Van Ha, Thuong
The Authors report their experience on the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). In addition to recent cases immediately diagnosed as GISTs, a pathological review of stored material from non-epithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract operated on over the past 20 years was performed. Twenty-three out of a total of 31 cases were shown to be positive for the immunophenotypic characteristics (CD117/CD34) of GISTs. Most cases (approximately 60%) were symptomatic, with hemorrhage being the most common presenting sign, followed by occlusion, pain and perforation. Asymptomatic cases were detected incidentally during procedures for other conditions. Diagnostic techniques (ultrasound, endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, X-ray, CT, MRI) allowed only the detection of wall (extraluminal) involvement. Apart from differentiating between benign and malignant, preoperative biopsy was seldom valuable. All cases were treated surgically, with intervention tailored to location and anatomical/surgical and anatomical/pathological features. Long-term follow-up was conducted in all patients and for most is still ongoing: five patients died from recurrent disease at varying intervals after surgery (from 17 to 102 months). Relationships between observed aggressiveness and risk were studied. Parameters that may prove useful for the early detection and appropriate management of these lesions are discussed. PMID:16241088
Mattioli, Francescopaolo; Puglisi, Maria; Ceppa, Paola; Peresi, Monica; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Ansaldo, Gianluca; Varaldo, Emanuela; Milone, Luca; Assalino, Michela; Torre, Gian Carlo
When using biopsy pathology in clinical pharmacology to assess drug efficacy in the gastrointestinal tract, a number of questions must be answered: Is the biopsy necessary or more effective than macroscopic views by endoscopy? Can we extract maximal information from the specimen? Are there surrogate serum or other markers that give an overall measure of disease and/or improvement? Indeed, clinicopathological correlation is of paramount importance. If biopsy is to be used, it is important to utilize appropriate scoring systems. Many grading systems use continuous spectra, which are ordinal categorical variables and therefore a grading system of assigned ‘numbers’ which cannot be used in processes that require continuous variables such as linear regression. The use of grading vs a ‘true’ score with real numbers must be carefully considered, the site and number of biopsies must be precisely chosen and interobserver reproducibility of results evaluated before undertaking drug trials. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, however, can provide quantifiable molecular information related to mechanisms of drug action. The biopsy is of significant value as it is a true in vivo assessment if the above caveats are taken into account. However, further work is needed to determine sound histological criteria to assess the efficacy of drugs for use in gastrointestinal disease.
Walker, Marjorie M
Small bowel lipomas are rare gastrointestinal benign neoplasms, whose signs and symptoms are often obscure. When symptoms are clinically present, one of the most common is usually gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. It is very difficult to make a precise preoperative diagnosis in the absence of evident signs. Definitive diagnosis can only be made through histopathological examination, after the surgical resection. We report a case of obscure and persistent GI bleeding in a 78-year-old woman. Through the combination of endoscopy and computed tomography (CT), it was possible to identify a small bowel lesion, being its direct cause. CT showed a certain fat component within the mass pinpointing the hypothesis of a lipoma. We then performed a laparoscopic resection of 21 cm of the middle jejunum, including the mass and an intussusception. The results of the subsequent histopathological examination of the resected specimen allowed us to conclude that the lesion was an intestinal lipoma. Surgical resection appears to be the most successful approach as good short- and long-term results are achieved. PMID:21691916
Ferrara, Francesco; Duburque, Clothilde; Quinchon, Jean-François; Gaudissart, Quentin
The current case report presents an accessory spleen mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach in a patient who had undergone a splenectomy ~20 years previously. A 61-year-old male, who presented with upper abdominal discomfort lasting three months, underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a smooth, hemispherical mass of ~2 cm in diameter, with homogenous echogenicity originating from the gastric muscular layer. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that the well-marginated ovoid mass was ~2.6×1.9 cm in size. The patient was diagnosed with GIST. Subsequent therapy consisted of partial gastrectomy. The pathological results indicated the mass contained splenic tissue, which confirmed it to be an accessory spleen. Changes in the postoperative platelet count were noted. The observations of this case study highlight that platelet count should be used as a routine indicator for monitoring accessory spleen arising from gastric fundus lesion.
WANG, GUANGYAO; CHEN, PING; ZONG, LIANG
Little data are available regarding the association of ancylostomiasis with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This 6-year retrospective study describes the clinical and biological profiles of unexpectedly identified ancylostomiasis in a 4-month-old baby and four adults; they presented with melena and were referred for urgent diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy, which confirmed numerous small intestine injuries with surrounding blood pools caused by Ancylostoma duodenale worms. Gastric erosions were also encountered in one patient. Uniquely, worm biological activities were recorded live in vivo, including mucosal invasion through a vigorous, rapid piercing process, repeated bloodsucking habits, and gut appearance during the stages of feeding, digestion, and excretion in male and female worms. In conclusion, ancylostomiasis-induced melena may occur in all ages from infants to the elderly. Worm bloodfeeding occurs after quick mucosal piercing, with blood loss being aggravated by a repeated feeding behavior. After treatment is started, bleeding stops rapidly in response to anthelmintic therapy.
Barakat, Maha; Ibrahim, Naglaa; Nasr, Ahmed
The cases are reported of five children with chronic renal failure who underwent gastrocystoplasty for a variety of urological disorders. Gastrocystoplasty comprises the transplantation of a vascularised segment of stomach to the bladder to form an augmented neobladder. The patients had gastrointestinal complications after the operation, including considerable weight loss in all five patients, accompanied by marked failure to thrive in four of the five patients, and food aversion, feeding intolerance, dumping syndrome, delayed gastric emptying, and oesophagitis in two patients. Three of the five patients developed severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic cystitis secondary to gastric acid secretion in the neobladder from the transplanted gastric pedicle. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions were used to manage the gastrointestinal problems. Explanations are offered for the pathophysiology of the observed complications of gastrocystoplasty. It is believed that the use of this procedure in infants and children, particularly those with chronic renal failure and uraemia, warrants caution until successful long term follow up and experience with this procedure have been reported.
Gold, B D; Bhoopalam, P S; Reifen, R M; Harvey, E; Marcon, M A
OBJECTIVES:The dramatic growth of the World Wide Web (Web) holds potential for use in survey distribution and submission. Its use has not previously been studied in the context of patient satisfaction with endoscopy procedures. In this study we compared standard mail, telephone, and Web-based modes of endoscopy satisfaction survey administration with respect to response rate and response content.METHODS:An endoscopy satisfaction
Gavin C. Harewood; Maurits J. Wiersema; Piet C de Groen
This article summarizes the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system, reviews physiologic changes that occur with normal development, and discusses considerations for the primary care provider in gathering health history information and conducting the physical exam. The use of diagnostic testing during the evaluation of women with gastrointestinal complaints is reviewed. A case study is used to illustrate an
Gastrointestinal motility disorders encompass a wide array of signs and symptoms that can occur anywhere throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract. Motility disorders are often chronic in nature and dramatically affect patients’ quality of life. These prevalent disorders cause a tremendous impact both to the individual patient and to society as a whole. Significant progress has been made over the last
Brian E. Lacy; Kirsten Weiser
In a 52-year-old women suffering in Recklinghausen's disease, operated for acute abdomen, subserous neurinomas and neurofibroma were found on the jejunum and in the mesentery. Gastrointestinal tumors (neurofibroma, GIST, carcinoid etc.) should be considered in patients with Recklinghausen's disease and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:19068465
Hajdu, Mária; Krutsay, Miklós; Chanis, William
The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity.
Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used. It is well recognised that they may adversely cause damage throughout the gastrointestinal tract and aggravate pre-existing disease. Their side effects on the upper gastrointestinal tract can be assessed by various means; each study type has different clinical connotations. Short-term use (less than 14 days) demonstrates dose-dependent damage of prescribed NSAIDs; the damage is proportional to the acidity of the drugs and not seen with Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors that have a pKa over 7.0. There have not been any serious outcomes, such as bleeding or perforation in these studies, and Helicobacter pylori (HP) plays no role in this damage. Long-term (3 months or more) endoscopy studies in patients show ulcer rates from 15%-35% with the various NSAIDs, but serious outcomes are exceedingly rare. Epidemiological studies show an association between NSAID intake and serious events. Ibuprofen is consistently at the lower end of toxicity rankings, whereas ketorolac and azapropazone are the worst. The risk of bleeding is increased with advancing age, presence of HP, previous history of bleeding, anticoagulant use, etc. The mega-trials show that COX-2 selective agents halve the bleeding episodes, but NSAID-induced gastric bleeding is very rare usually, less than 1 in 200 subjects taking them for a year. Seventy percent of patients develop NSAID-enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal blood and protein loss and rarely strictures. Over-the-counter (OTC) use of ibuprofen and diclofenac is associated with symptomatic gastrointestinal side effects comparable with placebo. Ibuprofen is shown to be remarkably well tolerated at OTC doses in a number of studies. There are recent studies to suggest that OTC NSAIDs should be taken on a fasting stomach, not with food as commonly advocated. PMID:23163547
Neural Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation (NGES) is a new microprocessor-based method for invoking gastric or colonic contractions by generating multi-channel, high energy, high frequency waveforms. It has been shown that when applied to the lower stomach, NGES offers the possibility for enhancing propulsive peristalsis for the treatment of gastric motor dysfunctions, or for producing retrograde peristalsis for the treatment of obesity. When applied to the colon, NGES can be utilized either for propulsive control in severe constipation or for invoked retrograde contractility. This paper briefly discusses the implementation of an implantable neurostimulator and summarizes the performance of the NGES technique in acute tests on experimental animals and humans, and in chronic tests on animals. These experimental tests indicate that NGES is successful in accelerating gastric emptying of both liquids and solids, and in producing strong, externally-controlled, retrograde contractions. PMID:19963851
Jurkov, A S; Arriagada, A; Mintchev, M P
Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is a monosaccharide that is found on glycoproteins and glycolipids in verte-brates, invertebrates, plants, and bacteria. Fucosylation, which comprises the transfer of a fucose residue to oligosaccharides and proteins, is regulated by many kinds of molecules, including fucosyltransferases, GDP-fucose synthetic enzymes, and GDP-fucose transporter(s). Dramatic changes in the expression of fucosylated oligosaccharides have been observed in cancer and inflammation. Thus, monoclonal antibodies and lectins recognizing cancer-associated fucosylated oligosaccharides have been clinically used as tumor markers for the last few decades. Recent advanced glycomic approaches allow us to identify novel fucosylation-related tumor markers. Moreover, a growing body of evidence supports the functional significance of fucosylation at various pathophysiological steps of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. This review highlights the biological and medical significance of fucosylation in gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:21160988
Moriwaki, Kenta; Miyoshi, Eiji
The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.
Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is not always resolved or improved with adenotonsillectomy. Persistent or complex cases of pediatric OSA may be due to sites of obstruction in the airway other than the tonsils and adenoids. Identifying these areas in the past has been problematic, and therefore, therapy for OSA in children who have failed adenotonsillectomy has often been unsatisfactory. Sleep endoscopy is a technique that can enable the surgeon to determine the level of obstruction in a sleeping child with OSA. With this knowledge, site-specific surgical therapy for persistent and complex pediatric OSA may be possible.
Lin, Aaron C.; Koltai, Peter J.
This review addresses the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and provides a diagnostic process for patients with suspected AIP. When should AIP be suspected? When can it be diagnosed without endoscopic examination? Which endoscopic approaches are appropriate in suspected AIP, and when? What are the roles of diagnostic endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, endoscopic biopsies, and IgG4 immunostaining? What is the proper use of the steroid trial in the diagnosis of AIP in patients with indeterminate computed tomography imaging? Should biliary stenting be performed in patients with AIP with obstructive jaundice? PMID:24079796
Moon, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Myung-Hwan
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new modality to investigate the small bowel. Since it was invented in 1999, CE has been adopted in the algorithm of small bowel investigations worldwide. Reporting a CE video requires identification of landmarks and interpretation of pathology to formulate a management plan. There is established training infrastructure in place for most endoscopic procedures in Europe; however despite its wide use, there is a lack of structured training for CE. This paper focuses on the current available evidence and makes recommendations to standardise training in CE.
Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.; Davison, Carolyn; Panter, Simon; Humbla, Olaf; Keuchel, Martin
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and often fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, cytopenia, dramatically increased ferritin and hepatosplenomegaly. Here, we describe a previously healthy 39 year old pregnant woman in 30th week of her pregnancy with diarrhoea, intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding and fever of unknown focus. After cesarean section of twins in the 31st week she deteriorated with fulminant upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Gastro-, ileocolonoscopy and capsule endoscopy identified multiple bleeding punched ulcerations in the stomach, the entire small bowel and in parts of the colon. Emergency surgery with intraoperative endoscopy for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock resulted in the resection of actively bleeding ulcers in the jejunum which temporally stabilized the critically ill patient. Jejunal histology and in situ hybridisation showed extensive ulcerations, focal lymphohistiocytic infiltration and EBV-positive immunoblasts. The diagnosis fulminant EBV-related HLH was confirmed based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria and through detection of a reactivated EBV infection (up to 3?×?10(7) DNA copies/mL serum). Despite immunosuppressive therapy with steroids, cyclosporine A and etoposide in combination with Rituximab, the patient died from this sepsis-like, hyper-inflammatory syndrome in multiorgan failure with uncontrolled bleeding. PMID:24718941
Klein, S; Schmidt, C; La Rosée, P; Pletz, M; Harz, S; Dirsch, O; Fritzenwanger, M; Stallmach, A
Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.
Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.
Although the macroscopic characteristics of submucosal tumors (SMTs), such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), have been characterized, the assessment of SMTs by their endoscopically visualized features (EVF; which are observed by endoscopic imaging under direct view) remains unevaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of endoscopic diagnostics for SMTs using EVF. The EVF of 26 gastric SMT cases, in which the final pathological diagnosis was obtained by core biopsy using the submucosal endoscopy with mucosal flap method, were retrospectively reviewed. Each type of SMT was classified according to the following five EVF: Color, clarity, shape, tumor coating and solidity. Additionally, the EVF of 13 low-risk GISTs and 13 benign submucosal tumors (BSTs) were comparatively evaluated for the five abovementioned EVF. Similar trends were identified between the low-risk GISTs, granular cell tumors and the schwannoma with regard to EVF. However, while these tumors exhibited cloudy EVF, the leiomyomas tended to exhibit clear EVF. Among SMTs of the heterotopic pancreas type, the EVF demonstrated particularly small nodules of the pancreatic tissue itself. Although the sample size included in the present study is small, a classification system for gastric SMTs was proposed according to the EVF. When compared with the BST group, the GIST group demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tumors that exhibited a combination of three EVF (white, cloudy and rigid) that are consistent with all gastric GISTs (P<0.05). Gastric SMTs may be classified based on the EVF, which indicates that the EVF possess potential diagnostic value for the differentiation of GISTs from BSTs.
KOBARA, HIDEKI; MORI, HIROHITO; RAFIQ, KAZI; MATSUNAGA, TAE; FUJIHARA, SHINTARO; NISHIYAMA, NORIKO; AYAKI, MAKI; YACHIDA, TATSUO; TANI, JOHJI; MIYOSHI, HISAAKI; KATO, KIYOHITO; KAMADA, HIDEKI; YONEYAMA, HIROHITO; MORISHITA, ASAHIRO; TSUTSUI, KUNIHIKO; IWAMA, HISAKAZU; HABA, REIJI; MASAKI, TSUTOMU
Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) may be a means to overcome the low adherence to colorectal cancer screening. The device is an ingestible capsule with a video camera at both ends that can take photographs as it progresses through the gastrointestinal tract. PillCam colon (PCC1) may be used for structural evaluation of the large bowel following an adequate cleaning procedure. PCC1 measures 11 mm × 31 mm and has dual cameras that enable the device to acquire video images from both ends with a wide coverage area, automatic light control and a frame rate of four frames per second. The system includes a sensor array and data recorder connected to the patient during the procedure. The recorded data are downloaded to the Given Imaging Rapid workstation for review of the colon video. The second generation of PillCam Colon (PCC2) is similar to PCC1 and incorporates new developments. The angle of view has been increased to 172 degrees. It has an adaptive frame rate, alternating from 35 frames per second while in motion to 4 images when virtually stationary. The new RAPID(®) software now includes a simple graphic interface tool for polyp size estimation. The procedure of bowel cleansing until capsule ingestion is similar to that used for traditional colonoscopy. However it is more rigorous as the bowel cleanliness for capsule colonoscopy has to be excellent or at least good to result in an adequate sensitivity of the method. Briefly, it consists of 3.5-4 L of split dose polyethylene glycol. Oral NaP boosters are administered after 1-2 h if the capsule has entered the small bowel. Sodium phosphate (NaP) seems to be a necessary adjunct to the regimen because the total transit time is doubled without NaP. The cleansing level was considered to be good to excellent in 72%-88% in studies with PCC1. The sensitivity for significant polyps (> 6 mm or more than 3 polyps >3 mm) ranged from 63%-88% with specificities between 64%-94%. PCC2 showed an improved sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 76%. CCE seems to be a safe and effective method of visualizing the colonic mucosa through colon fluids without the need for sedation or insufflation of air. The sensitivity of CCE to detect polyps, advanced adenomas and cancer is lower compared to optical colonoscopy but improvements will be made in the near future. With an increased recording duration, even a panenteric examination of the whole gastrointestinal tract may be possible. PMID:21772938
Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) may be a means to overcome the low adherence to colorectal cancer screening. The device is an ingestible capsule with a video camera at both ends that can take photographs as it progresses through the gastrointestinal tract. PillCam colon (PCC1) may be used for structural evaluation of the large bowel following an adequate cleaning procedure. PCC1 measures 11 mm × 31 mm and has dual cameras that enable the device to acquire video images from both ends with a wide coverage area, automatic light control and a frame rate of four frames per second. The system includes a sensor array and data recorder connected to the patient during the procedure. The recorded data are downloaded to the Given Imaging Rapid workstation for review of the colon video. The second generation of PillCam Colon (PCC2) is similar to PCC1 and incorporates new developments. The angle of view has been increased to 172 degrees. It has an adaptive frame rate, alternating from 35 frames per second while in motion to 4 images when virtually stationary. The new RAPID® software now includes a simple graphic interface tool for polyp size estimation. The procedure of bowel cleansing until capsule ingestion is similar to that used for traditional colonoscopy. However it is more rigorous as the bowel cleanliness for capsule colonoscopy has to be excellent or at least good to result in an adequate sensitivity of the method. Briefly, it consists of 3.5-4 L of split dose polyethylene glycol. Oral NaP boosters are administered after 1-2 h if the capsule has entered the small bowel. Sodium phosphate (NaP) seems to be a necessary adjunct to the regimen because the total transit time is doubled without NaP. The cleansing level was considered to be good to excellent in 72%-88% in studies with PCC1. The sensitivity for significant polyps (> 6 mm or more than 3 polyps >3 mm) ranged from 63%-88% with specificities between 64%-94%. PCC2 showed an improved sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 76%. CCE seems to be a safe and effective method of visualizing the colonic mucosa through colon fluids without the need for sedation or insufflation of air. The sensitivity of CCE to detect polyps, advanced adenomas and cancer is lower compared to optical colonoscopy but improvements will be made in the near future. With an increased recording duration, even a panenteric examination of the whole gastrointestinal tract may be possible.
Very few data are available about Zn in gastrointestinal fluids in humans. To obtain data in one such fluid Zn was measured in plasma and gastric fluid, obtained by direct visual aspiration through an endoscope placed into the gastric fundus, in 36 subjects with normal gastrointestinal mucosa (N) and in 36 patients with the following upper gastrointestinal pathology confirmed by endoscopy: 13 with esophagitis (E), 9 with gastritis (G) and 14 with duodenal ulcer disease (DU). Plasma and gastric fluid Zn were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean plasma Zn was significantly lower than normal in patients with E (N, 87 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl, M +/- SEM; E, 75 +/- 4, p < 0.01) but plasma values were similar to normal in the other patient groups (G, 89 +/- 4; DU, 87 +/- 2). Mean gastric fluid zinc in G was significantly higher than in normal subjects (G, 664 +/- 159 ..mu..g/L; N, 360 +/- 43, p < 0.02) but not significantly different from normal in patients with DU or E (DU, 402 +/- 76; E, 307 +/- 55). Mean gastric fluid Zn in women with DU was approximately 45% higher than in men with DU, although it was 17% lower in normal women than in normal men. Compared to other normal tissues gastric fluid Zn is about 1/3 that in serum and about 3 times that in saliva. These results indicate that Zn in plasma and gastric fluid is altered in some upper gastrointestinal diseases.
Kadakia, S.C.; Wong, R.H.K.; Maydonovitch, C.; Johnson, L.F.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.
Reports about superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in childhood are very rare and have not been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. We describe two cases of severe bleeding from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in children who had undergone complex abdominal surgery at considerable time before. The first child had a tracheoesophageal fistula, corrected by division, gastrostomy insertion, and repair of duodenal rupture. The child presented with severe bleeding from the gastrostomy site and was diagnosed with a thrombosis of the proximal superior mesenteric vein. The second child had a gastroschisis and duodenal atresia, and required duodenoplasty, gastrostomy insertion, hemicolectomy, and adhesiolysis. The child presented with intermittent severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, resulting from collateral vessels at location of the surgical connections. He was diagnosed with a thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. In both children, the extensive previous surgery and anastomosis were considered the cause of the mesenteric thrombosis. CT angiography confirmed the diagnosis in both cases, in addition to characteristic findings on endoscopy. Paediatricians should suspect this condition in children with severe gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly in children with previous, complex abdominal surgery.
Fox, Anna L.; Jones, Matthew; Healey, Andrew; Auth, Marcus K. H.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor that is known to play a central role in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity as well as inflammation and cell proliferation. According to the results obtained from studies on several animal models of gastrointestinal inflammation, PPAR? has been implicated in the regulation of the immune response, particularly inflammation control, and has gained importance as a potential therapeutic target in the management of gastrointestinal inflammation. In the present paper, we present the current knowledge on the role of PPAR? ligands in the gastrointestinal tract.
Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu
The function of mast cells in allergic inflammatory reactions is well documented in the literature. Mast cells also play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal visceral sensitivity and vascular permeability. Several studies have noted an increased number of mast cells in the mucosa of patients with gastrointestinal diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, mastocytic enterocolitis, and systemic mastocytosis. The role of mast cells in the symptomatology of these and other diseases has only recently been fully appreciated and could provide avenues for new therapeutic opportunities. This paper examines studies that have evaluated the role of mast cells in various gastrointestinal diseases.
Ramsay, David B.; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie; Voltaggio, Lysandra
Recent studies on a novel technology, denoted confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), have altered thinking about the possibilities of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. CLE is a new endoscopic tool that allows in vivo histology at subcellular resolution during ongoing endoscopy, and permits subsurface imaging of normal and neoplastic human mucosa. This new technique has unequivocal major
Martin Goetz; Peter R Galle; Markus F Neurath; Ralf Kiesslich
This article reviews some of the technical developments that allowed the introduction of the wireless capsule 10 years ago into human usage. Technical advances and commercial competition have substantially improved the performance of clinical capsule endoscopy, especially in optical quality. Optical issues including the airless environment, depth of focus, dome reflection, the development of white light light-emitting diodes, exposure length and the advent of adaptive illumination are discussed. The competition between charge coupled devices and complementary metal oxide silicone technologies for imaging, lens improvements and the requirements for different frame rates and their associated power management strategies and battery type choices and the introduction of field enhancement methods into commercial capsule technology are considered. Capsule technology stands at a watershed. It is mainly confined to diagnostic small intestinal imaging. It might overtake other forms of conventional diagnostic endoscopy, especially colonoscopy but also gastroscopy and esophagoscopy but has to improve both technically and compete in price. It might break out of its optical diagnostic confinement and become a therapeutic modality. To make this leap there have to be several technical advances especially in biopsy, command, micromechanical internal movements, remote controlled manipulation and changes in power management, which may include external power transmission. PMID:20883421
The article presents successful intubation experience in 54 patients. Laryngoscopy was performed with McGrath Series 5 laryngoscopy with a difficult airway blade ("Airway Medical") in 46 patients, and retromolar endoscope Bonfils ("Karl Storz") in 9 patients. Technical traits, resulting from the use video laryngoscopy and retromolar endoscope are discussed. It was shown that video laryngoscopy is a high-performance intubation technique, including difficult ones. The possibility of video laryngoscope conduction in case of significant difficulties with mouth opening (max incisors distance of 1.3 cm) and atlantoccipital immobility make this method a real support to fiber bronchoscope intubation. Retromolar orotracheal intubation with Bonfils stylet training is associated with difficulties in case of insufficient endoscopy skills. During intubation the rule should be used: "to enter prorsad, do everything vice versa". The use of videolaryngoscopy and retromolar intubation is a real support for standard laryngoscopy and fiberbronchoscopy during orotracheal intubation including difficult ones. Difficult intubation may result from mouth opening restriction, atlantoocciital immobility and orolaryngopharynx deformation because of edema and rigidity, for example after an osteotomy or tumors presence. Videolaryngoscopy master is easier than retromolar endoscopy, because videolaryngoscope construction, laryngoscopy technique and larynx structures visualization are similar to the classic MAC blades. PMID:24000653
Za?tsev, A Iu; Svetlov, V A; Dubrovin, K V
Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is being actively evaluated as an emerging complementary or alternative procedure for evaluation of the colon. The yield of CCE is significantly dependent on the quality of bowel preparation. In addition to achieving a stool-free colon the bowel preparation protocols need to decrease bubble effect and aid propulsion of the capsule. An extensive English literature search was done using PubMed with search terms of colon capsule endoscopy, PillCam and bowel preparation. Full-length articles which met the criteria were included for review. A total of 12 studies including 1149 patients were reviewed. There was significant variability in the type of bowel preparation regimens. Large-volume (3–4 liters) polyethylene glycol (PEG) was the most widely used laxative. Lower volumes of PEG showed comparable results but larger studies are needed to determine efficacy. Sodium phosphate was used as an effective booster in most studies. Magnesium citrate and ascorbic acid are emerging as promising boosters to replace sodium phosphate when it is contraindicated. The potential benefit of prokinetics needs further evaluation. Over the past decade there has been significant improvement in the bowel preparation regimens for CCE. Further experience and studies are likely to standardize the bowel preparation regimens before CCE is adopted into routine clinical practice.
Nigar, Sofia; Paleti, Vani; Lane, Devin; Duddempudi, Sushil
In recent years, various kinds of endoscope have been developed and widely used to endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic operation and endoscopy. The size of the inflammatory part is important to determine a method of medical treatment. However, it is not easy to measure absolute size of inflammatory part such as ulcer, cancer and polyp from the endoscopic image. Therefore, it is required measuring the size of those part in endoscopy. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the absolute length in a straight line between arbitrary two points based on the photogrammetry using endoscope with magnetic tracking sensor which gives camera position and angle. In this method, the stereo-corresponding points between two endoscopic images are determined by the endoscopist without any apparatus of projection and calculation to find the stereo correspondences, then the absolute length can be calculated on the basis of the photogrammetry. The evaluation experiment using a checkerboard showed that the errors of the measurements are less than 2% of the target length when the baseline is sufficiently-long.
Sasaki, M.; Koishi, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Tsumura, N.; Miyake, Y.
This is an organ-specific Cancergram that deals with carcinogenesis in the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, colon, and anus of both humans and experimental animals. The scope includes the occurrence and etiology of gastrointestinal cancer in the huma...
This is an organ-specific Cancergram that deals with carcinogenesis in the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, colon, and anus of both humans and experimental animals. The scope includes the occurrence and etiology of gastrointestinal cancer in the huma...
This is an organ-specific Cancergram that deals with carcinogenesis in the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, colon, and anus of both humans and experimental animals. The scope includes the occurrence and etiology of gastrointestinal cancer in the huma...
The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children.
OBJECTIVE: To determine staffing and practice patterns for after-hours endoscopy service in Canada METHODS: A link to a web-based survey was sent by e-mail to all clinical members of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology in February 2011. A priori, it was planned to compare variations in practice among gastroenterologists (GIs) performing endoscopy in different regions of Canada, between pediatric and adult GIs, and between university and community hospitals. RESULTS: Of 422 potential respondents, 168 (40%) responded. Of the 139 adult GIs, 61% performed after-hours endoscopy in the endoscopy suite where daytime procedures were performed, 62% had a trained endoscopy nurse available for all procedures, 38% had access to propofol sedation, 12% reprocessed the endoscopes themselves or with the help of a resident, 4% had out-of-hospital patients come directly to their endoscopy suite and 53% were highly satisfied. The adult endoscopists practising at community hospitals were more likely to have an anesthetist attend the procedure. Regional differences were noted, with more involvement of anesthetists (13%) and availability of propofol (50%) in Ontario, more frequent reprocessing of endoscopes in the central reprocessing units in British Columbia (78%) and almost universal availability of a trained endoscopy nurse (96%) with concomitant higher endoscopist satisfaction (84% highly satisfied) in Alberta. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of surveyed endoscopists across the country do not have a trained endoscopy nurse to assist in after-hours endoscopy – the time period when urgent patients often present and typically require therapeutic endoscopic interventions. There are significant regional differences in the practice of after-hours endoscopy in Canada.
Muthiah, Karuppan Chetty; Enns, Robert; Armstrong, David; Noble, Angela; Gray, James; Sinclair, Paul; Colacino, Palma; Singh, Harminder
Nucelosides such as adenosine (Ado) influence nearly every aspect of physiology and pathophysiology. Extracellular nucleotides liberated at local sites of inflammation are metabolized through regulated phosphohydrolysis by a series of ecto-nucleotidases including ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) and ecto-5?-nucleotidase (CD73), found on the surface of a variety of cell types. Once generated, Ado is made available to bind and activate one of four G-protein-coupled Ado receptors. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies implicate Ado in a broad array of tissue protective mechanisms that provide new insight into adenosine actions. Studies in cultured cells and murine tissues have indicated that Ado receptors couple to novel post-translational protein modifications, including Cullin deneddylation, as a new anti-inflammatory mechanism. Studies in Ado receptor-null mice have been revealing and indicate a particularly important role for the Ado A2B receptor in animal models of intestinal inflammation. Here, we review contributions of Ado to cell and tissue stress responses, with a particular emphasis on the gastrointestinal mucosa.
Colgan, Sean P.; Fennimore, Blair; Ehrentraut, Stefan F.
Gastrointestinal tract perforations can occur for various causes such as peptic ulcer, inflammatory disease, blunt or penetrating trauma, iatrogenic factors, foreign body or a neoplasm that require an early recognition and, often, a surgical treatment. Ultrasonography could be useful as an initial diagnostic test to determine, in various cases the presence and, sometimes, the cause of the pneumoperitoneum. The main sonographic sign of perforation is free intraperitoneal air, resulting in an increased echogenicity of a peritoneal stripe associated with multiple reflection artifacts and characteristic comet-tail appearance. It is best detected using linear probes in the right upper quadrant between the anterior abdominal wall, in the prehepatic space. Direct sign of perforation may be detectable, particularly if they are associated with other sonographic abnormalities, called indirect signs, like thickened bowel loop and air bubbles in ascitic fluid or in a localized fluid collection, bowel or gallbladder thickened wall associated with decreased bowel motility or ileus. Neverthless, this exam has its own pitfalls. It is strongly operator-dependant; some machines have low-quality images that may not able to detect intraperitoneal free air; furthermore, some patients may be less cooperative to allow for scanning of different regions; sonography is also difficult in obese patients and with those having subcutaneous emphysema. Although CT has more accuracy in the detection of the site of perforation, ultrasound may be particularly useful also in patient groups where radiation burden should be limited notably children and pregnant women.
Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of leukemia occur in up to 25% of patients at autopsy, generally during relapse. Its presence varies with the type of leukemia and has been decreasing over time due to improved chemotherapy. Gross leukemic lesions are most common in the stomach, ileum, and proximal colon. Leukemia in the esophagus and stomach includes hemorrhagic lesions from petechiae to ulcers, leukemic infiltrates, pseudomembranous esophagitis, and fungal esophagitis. Lesions in the small and large bowel are usually hemorrhagic or infiltrative. Infiltration of lymphoreticular organs, mainly spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, is more prominent in chronic than acute leukemia. Neutropenic enterocolitis, a necrotizing process involving the cecum, ascending colon, and terminal ileum, is increasing in incidence due to greater intensity of chemotherapy. Distension of bowel leads to mucosal breaches, permitting entry of organisms that grow profusely in the absence of neutrophils. Ischemic necrosis follows, leading to perforation and/or peritonitis. Patients present with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and tenderness. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans show thickening of the bowel wall. Treatment is supportive with surgery for necrosis and perforation. The main GI causes of death in leukemia are hemorrhage, infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:21913980
Ebert, Ellen C; Hagspiel, Klaus D
Ghrelin is a potent stimulant for gastric emptying and gastrointestinal (GI) movement. Clinically, it has been reported that the intravenous administration of ghrelin accelerates the rate of gastric emptying and induces gastric phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex in healthy volunteers. Recent technical advances in the measurement of GI motility in conscious small animals, including rats, mice, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), have helped to elucidate the precise mechanism of action of ghrelin. Intravenous administration of ghrelin induces fasted motor activities with phase III-like contractions of the migrating motor complex in the antrum and duodenum in animals. These effects of ghrelin are mediated by activating the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y neuron through ghrelin receptors located at the vagal afferent terminal. Stress hormone and anorexigenic peptides cause the disruption of fasted motor activity and induce fed-like motor activity. Ghrelin and the ghrelin signal potentiator rikkunshito successfully restore fed-like motor activities to fasted activities in fenfluramine-treated rats and in a cancer anorexia-cachexia animal model. These findings suggest that ghrelin can be expected to be a therapeutic target for GI disorders. PMID:22975060
Fujitsuka, Naoki; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Fujimiya, Mineko; Inui, Akio
Gastrointestinal complications are common in patients undergoing various forms of cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and molecular-targeted therapies. Many of these complications are life-threatening and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. Complications of oncologic therapy can occur in the esophagus (esophagitis, strictures, bacterial, viral and fungal infections), upper gastrointestinal tract (mucositis, bleeding, nausea and vomiting), colon (diarrhea, graft–versus–host disease, colitis
Marta Davila; Robert S Bresalier
Upon returning from holidays, a 55-year-old patient presenting with melena and haemorrhagic shock was admitted to a University hospital after receiving first emergency medical care in a German InterCity train. In an interdisciplinary effort, haemodynamics were stabilised and the airway and respiratory function were secured. Under emergency care conditions the patient then underwent an emergency upper GI endoscopy where a spurting arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Forrest 1a) was found. While the bleeding could not be controlled with endoscopic techniques, definitive haemostasis was achieved with a surgical laparotomy. While not commonly established for patients with severe GI bleeding, by spontaneous implementation of an interdisciplinary trauma room approach following established trauma algorithms the team was able to achieve stabilisation of vital functions and final control of bleeding in this highly unstable patient. Although the majority of upper gastrointestinal bleedings spontaneously cease, emergency care algorithms should be developed and implemented for patients with severe gastrointestinal bleedings in shock. Following the case vignette, we discuss a potential approach and develop an exemplary protocol for shock room management in this patient subgroup. PMID:24824909
Nguyen-Tat, M; Hoffman, A; Marquardt, J U; Buggenhagen, H; Münzel, T; Kneist, W; Galle, P R; Kiesslich, R; Rey, J W
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common and often under recognized problem in the elderly. It may be the result of multiple factors including a bleeding lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty percent of elderly patients with IDA have a negative upper and lower endoscopy and two-thirds of these have a lesion in the small bowel (SB). Capsule endoscopy (CE) provides direct visualization of entire SB mucosa, which was not possible before. It is superior to push enteroscopy, enteroclysis and barium radiography for diagnosing clinically significant SB pathology resulting in IDA. Angioectasia is one of the commonest lesions seen on the CE in elderly with IDA. The diagnostic yield of CE for IDA progressively increases with advancing age, and is highest among patients over 85 years of age. Balloon assisted enteroscopy is used to treat the lesions seen on CE. CE has some limitations mainly lack of therapeutic capability, inability to provide precise location of the lesion and false positive results. Overall CE is a very safe and effective procedure for the evaluation of IDA in elderly.
Muhammad, Adnan; Vidyarthi, Gitanjali; Brady, Patrick
Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to provide more information for the detection of early cancer than continuous wave spectroscopy. A new optical fiber-based spectrofluorometer for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue during clinical endoscopy is presented. The apparatus is based on a nitrogen laser pumping a dye laser as excitation source and a streak camera coupled with a spectrograph as time-resolved spectrometer. The excitation and fluorescence light is carried by an optical fiber to the tissue under investigation and back to the detector, respectively. This optical fiber can be inserted into the biopsy channel of a conventional endoscope. Hence, the apparatus can be used to perform in situ tissue characterization during endoscopy. The instrument enables the measurement of the decays of entire fluorescence spectra within 15 s with a dynamic range of the spectro-temporal images of up to three orders of magnitude. Luminescence lifetimes from the sub ns up to the ms range can be measured. Spectral and temporal resolution, sensitivity, and dynamic range of the instrumentation were determined. The accuracy of the apparatus was checked by the measurement of the fluorescence lifetimes of various fluorophores with known lifetimes. For the first time, two-dimensional time-resolved spectra with sub-ns temporal resolution of tissue fluorescence of the human bladder, the bronchi, and the esophagus taken during endoscopy are presented as a demonstration of performance of the instrumentation. The excitation wavelengths were 337 nm in the case of the bladder and the esophagus and 480 nm in the case of the bronchi. Lifetime contrasts between normal and neoplastic tissue were found in all three organs. The spectral analysis of the fluorescence decays showed that the fluorescence between 370 and 490 nm, excited at 337 nm, consisted in several overlapping spectra. In the case of the esophagus, the contrast between normal and tumoral tissue was inverse in two different spectral bands proving the importance of the choice of the appropriate spectral range for time-resolved autofluorescence measurements for an optimal contrast. The in vivo fluorescence decay of the photosensitizers 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester hydrochloride-induced protoporphyrin IX was measured in the human bladder and found to be mono-exponential with a lifetime of 15.9 (+/-1.2) ns. An in vivo fluorescence lifetime of 8.5 (+/-0.8) ns was found in the case of the photosensitizer 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) in the esophagus.
Glanzmann, Thomas; Ballini, Jean-Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges
The holy grail of gastrointestinal endoscopy consists of the detection, in vivo characterization, and endoscopic removal of early or premalignant mucosal lesions. While our ability to achieve this goal has improved substantially since the development of the modern video-endoscope, inadequate visual inspection, errors of interpretation, and lesion subtlety all contribute to the continued suboptimal detection and assessment of early neoplasia. A myriad of new technologies has thus emerged that may help resolve these shortcomings; high magnification endoscopes, as well as the techniques of dye-based and virtual chromoendoscopy, are now widely available, while confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocystoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and autofluorescence imaging are generally applicable only in a research setting. Such technologies can be broadly categorized according to whether they potentially afford endoscopists improved detection, or real-time characterization, of mucosal lesions. Enhanced detection of otherwise "invisible" lesions, such as a flat area of intramucosal adenocarcinoma within Barrett's esophagus, carries the potential of an endoscopic cure prior to the development into a more advanced or metastatic disease. The ability to characterize a lesion to achieve an in vivo diagnosis, such as a colonic polyp, potentially affords endoscopists the ability to decide which lesions require removal and which can be safely left behind or discarded without histological assessment. Furthermore targeted biopsies, such as in the surveillance of chronic colitis, may prove to be more accurate and efficacious than the current protocol of random biopsies. An important caveat in the discussion of developing technologies in early cancer detection is the fundamental importance of a health-care system that promotes screening programs to recruit at-risk individuals. The ideal tool to optimize the use of endoscopy in population screening would be a panel of reliable biomarkers (blood, stool, or urine) that could effectively select a high-risk group, thus reducing the indiscriminate use of an expensive technology. The following review summarizes the current endoscopic imaging techniques available, and in development, for the early identification of gastrointestinal neoplasia. PMID:23771504
Urquhart, P; DaCosta, R; Marcon, N
Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by microscopic techniques. In this respect, the challenging combination of autofluorescence imaging and confocal endomicroscopy seems promising, and further research is awaited.
Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V
Background Confocal endomicroscopy has revolutionized endoscopy by offering sub-cellular images of gastrointestinal epithelium; however, field-of-view is limited. There is a need for multi-scale endoscopy platforms that use widefield imaging to better direct placement of high-resolution probes. Design Feasibility Study Objective This study evaluates the feasibility of a single agent, proflavine hemisulfate, as a contrast medium during both widefield and high resolution imaging to characterize morphologic changes associated with a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Setting U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) and Mount Sinai Medical Center (New York, NY) Patients, Interventions, and Main Outcome Measurements Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 patients undergoing esophagectomy/colectomy. Proflavine, a vital fluorescent dye, was applied topically. Specimens were imaged with a widefield multispectral microscope and a high-resolution microendoscope. Images were compared to histopathology. Results Widefield-fluorescence imaging enhanced visualization of morphology, including the presence and spatial distribution of glands, glandular distortion, atrophy and crowding. High-resolution imaging of widefield-abnormal areas revealed that neoplastic progression corresponded to glandular heterogeneity and nuclear crowding in dysplasia, with glandular effacement in carcinoma. These widefield and high-resolution image features correlated well with histopathology. Limitations This imaging approach must be validated in vivo with a larger sample size. Conclusions Multi-scale proflavine-enhanced fluorescence imaging can delineate epithelial changes in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Distorted glandular features seen with widefield imaging could serve as a critical ‘bridge’ to high-resolution probe placement. An endoscopic platform combining the two modalities with a single vital-dye may facilitate point-of-care decision-making by providing real-time, in vivo diagnoses.
Muldoon, Timothy J; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Maru, Dipen M; Harpaz, Noam; Harris, Michael T; Hofstettor, Wayne; Hiotis, Spiros P; Kim, Sanghyun A; Ky, Alex J; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
Background Simulators may improve the efficiency, safety, and quality of endoscopic training. However, no objective, reliable, and valid\\u000a tool exists to assess clinical endoscopic skills. Such a tool to measure the outcomes of educational strategies is a necessity.\\u000a This multicenter, multidisciplinary trial aimed to develop instruments for evaluating basic flexible endoscopic skills and\\u000a to demonstrate their reliability and validity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The Global
Melina C. Vassiliou; Pepa A. Kaneva; Benjamin K. Poulose; Brian J. Dunkin; Jeffrey M. Marks; Riadh Sadik; Gideon Sroka; Mehran Anvari; Klaus Thaler; Gina L. Adrales; Jeffrey W. Hazey; Jenifer R. Lightdale; Vic Velanovich; Lee L. Swanstrom; John D. Mellinger; Gerald M. Fried
Sedation during invasive procedures provides appropriate humanitarian care as well as facilitating the completion of procedure. Although generally safe and effective, adverse effects may occur especially in patients with co-morbid diseases. In many cases, given its rapid onset and offset, propofol is chosen to provide sedation during various invasive procedures. We present a nine-year-old, 45 kg child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who presented for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Given the egg allergy, which was a relative contraindication to the use of propofol, and the potential risk of malignant hyperthermia due to DMD, a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine was used for procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine was administered as a loading dose of 1 ?g/kg along with a single bolus dose of ketamine (1 mg/kg). This was followed by a dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.5 ?g/kg/hour. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged to home. Previous reports regarding the use of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for procedural sedation are reviewed and the potential efficacy of this combination is discussed.
Raman, Vidya; Yacob, Desale; Tobias, Joseph D
This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II
Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A
... through endoscopy, or treated with a medicine like octreotide that will lower both gastrin and stomach acid. ... t causing symptoms, some doctors recommend treatment with octreotide because it may slow tumor growth. If carcinoid ...
According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation.
Bandorski, Dirk; Holtgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin
Purpose This study examines the association between marriage and colorectal endoscopy exam, and whether this association varies by gender and financial benefits of marriage including improved access to health insurance and pooled family income. Methods Representative survey data of the non-institutionalized United States population were used from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses targeted persons 50–85 years of age without a personal history of cancer and with complete information on all study variables (n = 21,760). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model marital status differences in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam with interaction effects used to model variation over time by gender, health insurance, and poverty level. Results Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report ever having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.29), and the difference between married and unmarried persons in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam remained stable over time. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam within the past 10 years (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.95). For each survey year, married men were significantly more likely than women and unmarried men to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. For example, in 2008, 56% of married men reported having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam, compared to 49% of unmarried men, 52% of married women, and 50% of unmarried women. Among persons with health insurance, married persons were significantly more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Among persons who were poor, there was no difference by marital status in the likelihood of having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. However, among persons who were not poor, married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Conclusion Given that colorectal endoscopy exams are a potentially life-saving procedure, persistently higher uptake of colorectal endoscopy for married persons over time may be an important health promoting benefit of marriage. Therefore, clinicians and policy makers should focus on improving the use of cancer prevention services among unmarried persons.
Wilson, Fernando A.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Peek, M. Kristen
Objectives To define the role of endoscopic evaluation of middle meatus in adult patients clinically diagnosed to have chronic rhino-sinusitis and its ability to predict intra-sinus mucosal involvement as compared to CT scan. Methods This prospective analytical study was conducted on consecutive patients with diagnosis of chronic rhino-sinusitis who were symptomatic and fulfilled the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Task Force criteria. The patients were enrolled prospectively and were subjected to rigid diagnostic nasal endoscopy and classified as defined by the revised Sinus Allergy Health Partnership Task Force criteria. The patients then underwent non contrast CT sinuses on the same day. Results were analyzed as a diagnostic test evaluation using CT as a gold standard. Results Among the 75 study patients with symptom based chronic rhino-sinusitis, nasal endoscopy was abnormal in 65 patients (87%). Of these patients, 60/65 (92%) showed positive findings on CT scan. Ten patients had normal endoscopy, of these 6/10 (60%) had abnormal CT scan. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic nasal endoscopy against CT scan were 91% (95% CI: 81-97) and 44% (95% CI: 14-79), respectively. The likelihood ratio for positive nasal endoscopy to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis was 1.6 and the likelihood ratio to rule out chronic rhino-sinusitis when endoscopy was negative was 0.2. Conclusion Nasal endoscopy is a valid and objective diagnostic tool in the work up of patients with symptomatic chronic rhino-sinusitis. When clinical suspicion is low (<50%) and endoscopy is negative, the probability of rhino-sinusitis is very low (<17%) and there is no need to perform a CT scan to reconfirm this finding routinely. Endoscopy alone is able to diagnose chronic rhino-sinusitis in >90% of patients when clinical suspicion is high (88%) as defined in this study by AAO-HNS Task Force criteria. Negative endoscopy, however, does not totally exclude the sinus disease in patients fulfilling task force criteria. CT scan may be needed on follow-up if there is clinical suspicion in 10% of these patients who are negative on endoscopy if symptoms persists. It is thus possible to reduce the number of CT scans if patients are carefully selected based on clinical criteria and endoscopy is done initially as part of their evaluation.
Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Paul, Roshna Rose; Kurien, Mary; Kumar, Shyam; Al Abri, Rashid; Thomas, Kurien
Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.
Kim, Sang Hyeon, E-mail: email@example.com; Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Department of Pathology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)
AIM: To evaluate the utility of magnified narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy for diagnosing and treating minute pharyngeal neoplasia. METHODS: Magnified NBI gastrointestinal examinations were performed by the first author. A magnification hood was attached to the tip of the endoscope for quick focusing. Most of the examinations were performed under sedation. Magnified NBI examinations were performed for all of the pharyngeal lesions that had noticeable brownish areas under unmagnified NBI observation, and an intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) classification was made. A total of 93 consecutive pharyngeal lesions were diagnosed as IPCL type IV and were suspected to represent dysplasia. Sixty-two lesions of approximately 1 mm in diameter were biopsied in the clinic, and 17 lesions with larger diameters were resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) at the Hiroshima University Hospital. In addition to the histological diagnoses, the lesion diameters were microscopically measured in 45 of the 62 biopsies. Thirty-four of the 62 biopsied patients received endoscopic follow up. RESULTS: Minute pharyngeal lesions were diagnosed in 93 of approximately 3000 patients receiving magnified NBI examinations at the clinic. Of the 93 patients with IPCL type IV lesions, 80 were men, and 13 were women. Fifty-six were drinkers, and 57 were smokers. Two had esophageal cancer. Twenty-one lesions were located on the posterior hypopharyngeal wall, and 72 lesions were located on the posterior oropharyngeal wall. All 93 lesions were flat and showed similar findings in the magnified and unmagnified NBI examinations. Although almost all of the IPCL type IV lesions showed faint redness when examined under white light, it was difficult to diagnose the lesions using only this technique because the contrast was weaker than that achieved in the NBI examinations. Of the 93 lesions, only 3 had diameters greater than 2.1 mm. Sixty-two lesions of approximately 1 mm were biopsied in the clinic, whereas 17 larger lesions were treated by ESD at the Hiroshima University Hospital. Of the 79 pharyngeal lesions that were biopsied or resected by ESD, 5 were histologically diagnosed as high-grade dysplasia, 39 were diagnosed as low-grade dysplasia, and 39 were determined to be non-dysplastic lesions. There were no cancerous lesions. Histologically, abnormal cell size variations and increased nuclear size were observed in all of the high-grade dysplasia lesions, while the incidence of these findings in the low-grade dysplasia lesions was low. Of the 62 biopsied lesions, 45 were microscopically measurable. The measured diameters ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. The dysplasia ratios increased with the diameters. A follow-up endoscopic examination of the 34 biopsied patients found the rate of complete resection by biopsy to be 79%. The largest lesion in which complete resection was expected was a low-grade dysplasia of 1.9 mm in diameter. CONCLUSION: Minute pharyngeal lesions suspected to be dysplasia that are identified by NBI magnifying endoscopy should be biopsied to determine the diagnosis and further treatment.
Kumamoto, Takashi; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru
Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the number and proportion of various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and actual numbers of non-NSAID, non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) peptic ulcers seen in endoscopy of these patients. Background The number and the proportion of patients with non- H.pylori, non-NSAIDs peptic ulcer disease leading to upper gastrointestinal bleeding is believed to be increasing after eradication therapy for H.pylori. Patients and methods Medical records of patients referred to the emergency room of Taleghani hospital from 2010 with a clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground vomiting and melena) were included in this study. Patients with hematochezia with evidence of a source of bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract in endoscopy were also included in this study. Results In this study, peptic ulcer disease (all kinds of ulcers) was seen in 61 patients which were about 44.85% of abnormalities seen on endoscopy of patients. Among these 61 ulcers, 44 were duodenal ulcer, 22 gastric ulcer (5 patients had the both duodenal and gastric ulcers). Multiple biopsies were taken and be sent to laboratory for Rapid Urease Test and pathological examination. About 65.53% of patients had ulcers associated with H.pylori, 9.83% had peptic ulcer disease associated with NSAIDs and 11.47% of patients had ulcers associated with both H.pylori and consumption of NSAIDs. 13.11% of patients had non-NSAIDs non- H.pylori peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The results of this study supports the results of other studies that suggest the incidence of H.pylori infection related with duodenal ulcer is common, and that non-H pylori and non-NSAIDs duodenal ulcer is also common.
Rajabalinia, Hasan; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Nikpour, Shahriar; Dabiri, Reza; Bahriny, Rasoul; Sherafat, Somayeh Jahani; Moghaddam, Pardis Ketabi
Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of hyaline material in the skin and internal organs. The main clinical features are hoarseness and typical skin lesions. In this report we describe the endoscopic and radiologic findings in a Brazilian female patient presenting extensive gastrointestinal involvement and the evolution of the detected lesions in ten years of follow-up. Initial upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed a similar pattern of multiple yellowish nodules throughout the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colons. Histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lipoid proteinosis. In addition, small bowel follow through demonstrated numerous well defined, round, small filling defects throughout the jejunum. Ten years later, the esophageal lesions remained the same, but none of the previous alterations were detected in the stomach, duodenum, and colons. In conclusion, lipoid proteinosis may affect all gastrointestinal organs with the same pattern of macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Some lesions may regress with increasing age.
Custodio Lima, Juliana; Nagasako, Cristiane Kibune; Montes, Ciro Garcia; Barcelos, Irene Harumi Kamata; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa
Endoscopy is at present the diagnostic technique of choice in the evaluation and detection of upper gastro-intestinal tract ulceration. Because of the physical discomfort suffered by patients during endoscopic examination, the search for better and less invasive methods of examination (especially in the unco-operative and seriously ill patient) continues. According to reports from the Orient, sucralfate (Ulsanic; Continental Ethicals) has prominent ulceravid properties. These properties are being used in conjunction with a tagging agent, in this case technetium-99m, as a diagnostic method for the detection and localization of upper gastro-intestinal ulceration. In this pilot study on 6 patients the positive findings of others regarding the specificity and promise of this method could not be confirmed. PMID:4071342
Carstens, A J; Iturralde, M; Fourie, P A; Van Wyk, A; Pilloy, W
We report a case of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a rare underlying cause. The patient was unconscious when he was admitted to the hospital. No chest radiogram was performed. Routine diagnostic measures, including endoscopy, failed to reveal the origin of the bleeding, which was believed to originate from the esophagus secondary to a peptic ulcer or varices. Exploratory laparotomy added no further information, but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the chest showed dextroposition of the widened aortic arch with a ruptured type-B dissection and a consecutive aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF). The patient died on the day of admission. Noninvasive MSCT angiography gives rapid diagnostic information on patients with occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding and should be considered before more invasive conventional angiography or surgery.
Born, Christine; Forster, Andreas; Rock, Clemens; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Rieger, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Ziemssenstrasse 1, D-80336 Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology (Germany)
Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccine development, and we review most of the published trials on gastrointestinal cancer vaccines that have been conducted over the last decade. Many antigens and various treatment approaches have already been tested in colon, pancreatic, and other cancers. Some of these approaches have already shown some clinical benefit. In this paper, we discuss these different strategies and some of the future directions for targeting gastrointestinal malignancies with vaccines.
Rahma, Osama E.
Gastro-Intestinal Vascular Emergencies include all digestive ischaemic injuries related to acute or chronic vascular and/or haemodynamic diseases. Gastro-intestinal ischaemic injuries can be occlusive or non-occlusive, arterial or venous, localized or generalized, superficial or transmural and share the risks of infarction, organ failure and death. The diagnosis must be suspected, at the initial presentation of any sudden, continuous and unusual abdominal pain, contrasting with normal physical examination. Risk factors are often unknown at presentation and no biomarker is currently available. The diagnosis is confirmed by abdominal computed tomography angiography identifying intestinal ischaemic injury, either with vascular occlusion or in a context of low flow. Recent knowledge in the pathophysiology of acute mesenteric ischaemia, clinical experience and existing recommendations have generated a multimodal and multidisciplinary management strategy. Based on the gastro-intestinal viability around a simple algorithm, and coordinated by gastroenterologists, the dual aim is to avoid large intestinal resections and death. PMID:24160929
Corcos, Olivier; Nuzzo, Alexandre
AIM: To analyze the effectiveness of the endoscopic therapy and to identify prognostic factors for recurrent bleeding. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL) from 2005 to 2011. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of the patients, risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic findings, characteristics of the endoscopic treatment, and the recurrence of bleeding. We included cases in which endoscopy described a lesion compatible with Dieulafoy. We excluded patients who had potentially bleeding lesions such as angiodysplasia in other areas or had undergone other gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with DL were identified. Most of them were men with an average age of 71.5 years. Fifty-five percent of the patients received antiaggregatory or anticoagulant therapy. The most common location for DL was the stomach (51.7%). The main type of bleeding was oozing in 65.5% of cases. In 27.6% of cases, there was arterial (spurting) bleeding, and 6.9% of the patients presented with an adherent clot. A single endoscopic treatment was applied to nine patients (31%); eight of them with adrenaline and one with argon, while 69% of the patients received combined treatment. Six patients (20.7%) presented with recurrent bleeding at a median of 4 d after endoscopy (interquartile range = 97.75). Within these six patients, the new endoscopic treatment obtained a therapeutic success of 100%. The presence of arterial bleeding at endoscopy was associated with a higher recurrence rate for bleeding (50% vs 33.3% for other type of bleeding) [P = 0.024, odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% CI = 1.13-63.87]. The use of combined endoscopic treatment prevented the recurrence of bleeding (10% vs 44.4% of single treatment) (P = 0.034, OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.19-0.99). CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment of DL is safe and effective. Adrenaline monotherapy and arterial (spurting) bleeding are associated with a high rate of bleeding recurrence.
Jamanca-Poma, Yuliana; Velasco-Guardado, Antonio; Pinero-Perez, Concepcion; Calderon-Begazo, Renzo; Umana-Mejia, Josue; Geijo-Martinez, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Antonio
The presence of tumor and organ motions complicates the planning and delivery of radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Without proper accounting of the movements, target volume could be under-dosed and the nearby normal critical organs could be over-dosed. This situation is further exacerbated by the close proximity of abdominal tumors to many normal organs at risk (OARs). A number of strategies have been developed to deal with tumor and organ motions in radiotherapy. This article presents a review of the techniques used in the evaluation, quantification, and management of tumor and organ motions for radiotherapy of gastrointestinal cancers.
Abbas, Hassan; Chang, Bryan
Increased understanding of cancer pathogenesis has identified several pathways that serve as potential targets for novel targeted agents in development. The selection of targeted cancer therapy based on biomarkers has instigated a new era of personalized medicine and changed the way we practice oncology. Many targeted agents are approved for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies most targeting tumor angiogenesis, and many more are in different phases of development. Here we briefly summarize nine different targeted agents that are approved currently in the U.S. and several other agents currently being studied in various gastrointestinal cancers.
Chhatrala, Ravi; Thanavala, Yasmin; Iyer, Renuka
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of feeding intolerance in preterm newborn. The potential benefit of early probiotic supplementation opens new perspectives in case of altered intestinal colonization at birth as preventive and therapeutic agents.
Fasting gastrointestinal motor and hormone patterns were studied in 11 healthy volunteers. Cyclic motor activity was present in all subjects during fasting, but the duration and site of onset of each cycle were variable, even in the same subject. Fasting gastrin, GIP, and glucagon levels remained low and constant during the 8-hr study, while plasma motilin levels exhibited cyclic variation
W. D. W. Rees; J.-R. Malagelada; L. J. Miller; V. L. W. Go
Metastatic involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract secondary to breast cancer (BC) is rare and usually occurs in patients with lobular BC. We report 2 cases with GI presentations of metastatic BC. In the first case endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography because of abdominal discomfort, tenesmus and rectal bleeding demonstrated liver, gastric and rectal metastases with histological and immunohistological patterns of metastatic lobular BC. In the second case gastric involvement, endoscopically presented as a solid nodular lesion in the gastric body and fundus with involvement of the gastro-esophageal junction, was established with clinical symptoms of solid food dysphagia and dyspepsia; the metastatic infiltration from ductal BC was proven histologically and immunohistochemically. The GI metastases were presented 5 and 7 years after radical mastectomy because of lobular and ductal BC respectively. The cases are of interest with a feature of liver and GI metastases in double sites (stomach and rectum) from lobular BC, as well as solid gastric metastasis from ductal BC. They illustrate the need for special attention to GI metastatic disease in patients with invasive BC who present with non-specific GI symptoms. PMID:22251535
Gerova, Vanya A; Tankova, Ludmila T; Mihova, Anna A; Drandarska, Ivanka L; Kadian, Hilda O
A case of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a 37-year-old female is presented showing a submucosal mass in the gastric body. At laparotomy a pedunculated submucosal mass was found located on the posterior wall at the junction of the body and antrum of the stomach, 8?cm from the pylorus. Pathology confirmed that it was a 4?cm benign gastric lipoma with a bleeding central ulcer. Gastric lipomas are rare, benign, typically submucosal tumors occurring in the gastric antrum. They are usually asymptomatic but can become symptomatic depending on size, location, and if there is ulceration of the lesion. These lesions may be mistaken as malignant tumors or present with upper GI bleeding or intussusception. The diagnosis can be made using a combination of upper endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, CT, and MRI with surgical excision being the definitive treatment of choice. We hope that this case highlights the fact that these lesions can present with massive upper GI haemorrhage and should be included in the diagnosis when appropriate.
Ramdass, Michael J.; Barrow, Shaheeba
AIM: To evaluate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the development of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. METHODS: All patients who were more than 20 years old and who had received a prescription for PPIs among those who visited Seoul National University Hospital from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009 were identified. Due to the low sensitivity of the microbiologic test and the nonspecific pathologic findings, the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis was confirmed through the presence of active ulcerations and the responses to anti-tuberculosis medications. The patients were divided into two groups according to treatment duration (group 1: ? 3 mo; group 2: > 3 mo) and were followed up from the time they took the first prescription of PPIs until their last visit. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the relative risks (RR) and 95%CI, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Among the 61??834 patients exposed to PPIs (50??534 in group 1; 11??300 in group 2), 21 patients were diagnosed with PPI-associated gastrointestinal tuberculosis during 124??274 person-years of follow-up. Of 21 patients, the 12 who revealed only scar changes in the colonoscopy were excluded from the statistical analyses. Of those who remained, 2 were excluded because they underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy within 4 wk of the first prescription for PPIs. Longer exposure to PPI was associated with a higher mean age (55.0 ± 14.5 in group 1 vs 58.2 ± 13.3 in group 2, P < 0.001) and a higher Charlson co-morbidity index (0.50 ± 0.93 in group 1 vs 0.77 ± 1.14 in group 2, P < 0.001). The true incidence of active gastrointestinal tuberculosis was 0.65 per 1000 person-years in group 1 and 0.03 per 1 000 person-years in group 2. Like the less-than-three-month PPI treatment period in group 1, the over-three-month PPI therapy period in group 2 was not associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis, after adjusting for age and co-morbidities, whereas the Charlson co-morbidity index was associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis based on the score [RR: (reference 1) in group 1 vs 1.518 in group 2; 95% CI: 1.040-2.216, P = 0.03]. CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI therapy does not seem to be associated with increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal tuberculosis, but a higher Charlson co-morbidity index is associated with such.
Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kang, Seung Joo; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Kim, Ju Han; Seo, Heewon; Lee, Suehyun; Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kim, Joo Sung
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with the formation of fistulas to adjacent organs in few case reports. However, GIST with enterohepatic fistula has not been reported. Here we report the case of an enterohepatic fistula that occurred after embolization of a liver mass originating in the distal ileum. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. On initial conventional endoscopy, a bleeding focus in the gastrointestinal tract was not found. Because of massive hematochezia, enteroscopy was performed through the anus. A protruding, ulcerative mass was found in the distal ileum that was suspected to be the source of the bleeding; a biopsy sample was taken. Electrocoagulation was not successful in controlling the bleeding; therefore, embolization was performed. After embolization, the patient developed a high fever and severe abdominal tenderness with rebound tenderness. Follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed an enterohepatic fistula between the liver and distal ileum. The fistula was treated surgically by segmental resection of the distal ileum and unlooping of the liver mass. PMID:24282371
Lee, Yun Ho; Koo, Ja Seol; Jung, Chang Ho; Chung, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jae Joong; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Choung, Rok Seon; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with the formation of fistulas to adjacent organs in few case reports. However, GIST with enterohepatic fistula has not been reported. Here we report the case of an enterohepatic fistula that occurred after embolization of a liver mass originating in the distal ileum. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. On initial conventional endoscopy, a bleeding focus in the gastrointestinal tract was not found. Because of massive hematochezia, enteroscopy was performed through the anus. A protruding, ulcerative mass was found in the distal ileum that was suspected to be the source of the bleeding; a biopsy sample was taken. Electrocoagulation was not successful in controlling the bleeding; therefore, embolization was performed. After embolization, the patient developed a high fever and severe abdominal tenderness with rebound tenderness. Follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed an enterohepatic fistula between the liver and distal ileum. The fistula was treated surgically by segmental resection of the distal ileum and unlooping of the liver mass.
Lee, Yun Ho; Koo, Ja Seol; Jung, Chang Ho; Chung, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jae Joong; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Choung, Rok Seon; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun
OBJECTIVES There are no guidelines regarding the best practice for when Barrett's esophagus (BE) is suspected but not confirmed by histology. The aim of this study was to examine the value of endoscopic follow-up for individuals with endoscopic only BE at index endoscopy. METHODS We performed a longitudinal study of patients diagnosed with suspected columnar lined esophagus (CLE) (suspected BE in the absence of histological confirmation of specialized intestinal metaplasia (IM)). We examined three possible outcomes (definite BE defined as CLE plus IM in targeted biopsies, suspected CLE, or no suspected CLE) on repeat endoscopy within 2 years after the index endoscopy and their predictors (clinical, demographic as well as endoscopists' identity). RESULTS A total of 107 of 1,844 patients had suspected CLE (101 were <3 cm), and 80 underwent a repeat endoscopy within 2 years. Approximately, 71% (95% confidence interval (CI) 61.1–80.9%) had suspected CLE confirmed at repeat endoscopy and only 29% (95% CI 19.1–38.9%) had IM. The length of CLE on the index esophagogastroduodenoscopies was slightly longer among patients with definite BE on repeat endoscopy than those with suspected CLE and no IM or no CLE (1.6 cm (s.d. 1.3) vs. 1.5 cm (s.d. 1.4), and 1.4 cm (s.d. 1.2), respectively P>0.1). Patient demographics, body mass index, gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms, hiatal hernia, and endoscopists' identity were not significantly associated with the outcome on the repeat endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS Most (71%) patients with suspected CLE remain negative for IM in the 2 years following the index endoscopy. The findings support withholding BE diagnosis for individuals with suspected CLE.
Khandwalla, Hashim E.; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Ramsey, David J.; Duong, Ngoc; Green, Linda K.; El-Serag, Hashem B.
The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal
R G PERTWEE
A large variety of gastrointestinal and abdominal pathologic processes can be diagnosed or suspected by their direct effects on the chest. The chest radiograph, as often the first admission film, can aid the radiologist in recommending the appropriate follow-up examinations. PMID:6382420
Gedgaudas-McClees, R K; Torres, W E; Colvin, R S; McClees, E C; Baron, M G
Factors to be considerea in determining effects of radiation on the ; morphology of the gastrointestinal tract are dosage, sensitivity of the target ; organ, and the conterts of the gastrointestinal tract. Pathological changes in ; the various tissues of the gastrointestinal tract following acute and chronic ; radiation injury are described. Fibrosis, edema, ulcers, and perforations are ; among
GEORGE W. MITCHELL; WADI A. BARDAWIL; FERNANDO G. BLOEDORN
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.
Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.
The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.
The evolution of colon cancer starts with colon polyps. There are two different types of colon polyps, namely hyperplasias and adenomas. Hyperplasias are benign polyps which are known not to evolve into cancer and, therefore, do not need to be removed. By contrast, adenomas have a strong tendency to become malignant. Therefore, they have to be removed immediately via polypectomy. For this reason, a method to differentiate reliably adenomas from hyperplasias during a preventive medical endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy) is highly desirable. A recent study has shown that it is possible to distinguish both types of polyps visually by means of their vascularization. Adenomas exhibit a large amount of blood vessel capillaries on their surface whereas hyperplasias show only few of them. In this paper, we show the feasibility of computer-based classification of colon polyps using vascularization features. The proposed classification algorithm consists of several steps: For the critical part of vessel segmentation, we implemented and compared two segmentation algorithms. After a skeletonization of the detected blood vessel candidates, we used the results as seed points for the Fast Marching algorithm which is used to segment the whole vessel lumen. Subsequently, features are computed from this segmentation which are then used to classify the polyps. In leave-one-out tests on our polyp database (56 polyps), we achieve a correct classification rate of approximately 90%.
Stehle, Thomas; Auer, Roland; Gross, Sebastian; Behrens, Alexander; Wulff, Jonas; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens
AIM: To perform a single-center analysis of all double balloon endoscopy (DBE) related cases of pancreatitis identified prospectively from a recorded DBE-complication database. METHODS: From November 2003 until January 2007, 603 DBE procedures were performed on 412 patients, with data on complications recorded in a database. The setting was a tertiary care center offering DBE. DBE was performed from the antegrade or retrograde route. Outcome measurements included age, gender, medication, indication, DBE-endoscope type, insertion depth, procedure duration, findings, interventions, post-procedural abdominal pain, and post-procedural hospitalization. RESULTS: This is the largest single-center study reporting on post-DBE pancreatitis prospectively. Six patients (1.0%) developed post-DBE pancreatitis, all after antegrade DBE. There was no association with gender, duration of the procedure or type of endoscope. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 25-78). Four patients had severe pancreatitis. Of these, two had inflammatory signs in the body-tail region, one had pancreatitis in the tail region, and the total pancreas was involved in one. CONCLUSION: The incidence of post-DBE pancreatitis in our series is higher than previously reported. We found no relation with DBE-endoscope type. The inflammatory changes occurred in the body-tail region of the pancreas, suggesting that post-DBE pancreatitis is caused by repetitive mechanical strain on the pancreas.
Jarbandhan, Soeresh VA; van Weyenberg, Stijn JB; van der Veer, Willem M; Heine, Dimitri GN; Mulder, Chris JJ; Jacobs, Maarten AJM
This paper shows a method for detecting unobserved regions (oversight regions) during fly-through on Virtual Endoscopy System (VES). When a VES is used as a diagnostic tool, e.g., to find colonopolyps, it is very important for doctors to observe the whole target organ without unobserved regions. The proposed method consists of three parts for detecting unobserved regions: (a) recording of observed triangle patches or voxels, (b) calculation of unobserved regions, and (c) display of unobserved regions. First, the system marks triangle patches that are displayed on the screen at each frame as 'observed patches' in the case of the surface rendering. Presented voxels are calculated in the case of the volume rendering. We execute this process for all frames of the fly-through. Then, the method labels those triangle patches or voxels that do not have 'observed' marks as 'unobserved triangle patches or voxels.' We calculate connected 'unobserved' patches or voxels and consider them to be 'unobserved regions.' In the presentation step, the system displays the target organ while coloring unobserved regions. The method also automatically presents each unobserved region by setting the viewpoint and the view direction around the region. We implemented the proposed method in a VES and applied the VES to colon regions. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect unobserved regions and display them effectively.
Mori, Kensaku; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Katada, Kazuhiro
We present a method for patient-adaptive detection of bleeding region for a Capsule Endoscopy (CE) images. The CE system has 320x320 resolution and transmits 3 images per second to receiver during around 10-hour. We have developed a technique to detect the bleeding automatically utilizing color spectrum transformation (CST) method. However, because of irregular conditions like organ difference, patient difference and illumination condition, detection performance is not uniform. To solve this problem, the detection method in this paper include parameter compensation step which compensate irregular image condition using color balance index (CBI). We have investigated color balance through sequential 2 millions images. Based on this pre-experimental result, we defined ?CBI to represent deviate of color balance compared with standard small bowel color balance. The ?CBI feature value is extracted from each image and used in CST method as parameter compensation constant. After candidate pixels were detected using CST method, they were labeled and examined with a bleeding character. We tested our method with 4,800 images in 12 patient data set (9 abnormal, 3 normal). Our experimental results show the proposed method achieves (before patient adaptive method : 80.87% and 74.25%, after patient adaptive method : 94.87% and 96.12%) of sensitivity and specificity.
Jung, Yun Sub; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Dong Ha; Lee, Sang Ho; Song, Jeong Joo; Kim, Jong Hyo
SUMMARY The Chemoprevention for Barrett’s Esophagus Trial (CBET) was a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The overall outcome of the study was that there were no significant differences in primary, secondary, or tertiary outcomes. The purpose of the current study is to focus on results related to the method of measuring lesion size called quantitative endoscopy (QE). The design includes a review of a total number of studies and then restricts analyses to the four clinics that enrolled more than four patients each for whom a baseline and 1-year QE study was performed, comparing intra- and inter-patient and clinic differences in Barrett’s esophagus. Measurements include the number of total QEs and adverse events, changes in areas from baseline to 1 year and other intervals, classification of Barrett’s lesion type with respect to patients, clinics, and treatment. A total of 309 QE studies were completed with no adverse events. Differences in surface area measurements over time for a particular patient are smaller than the differences for randomly selected patients. The complexity mix (as defined by the mix of circumferential, tongues, and islands) of the Barrett’s lesions varied with different clinics. In conclusion, QE is an efficient, safe, and accurate way to measure the area of Barrett’s lesions variation between different clinical sites may be attributable to a subtle type of selection bias at the individual clinics rather than to regional differences.
Shar, A. O.; Gaudard, Marie A.; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Forastiere, Arlene A.; Yang, Vincent W.; Sontag, Stephen J.
Endoscopy is a medical technology used to inspect the inner surface of organs such as the colon. During endoscopic inspection of the colon or colonoscopy, a tiny video camera generates a video signal, which is displayed on a monitor for manual interpretation by physicians. In practice, these images are not typically captured, which may be attributed by lack of tools for automatic capturing, automatic analysis of important contents, and quick and easy access to these contents. However, this lack of tools is being addressed by recent research efforts. This paper presents the description and evaluation results of novel software that automates the capture of all images of a single colonoscopy into a single digitized video file. The system uses metrics based on color and motion over time to determine whether the images are derived from inside a single patient. During testing our system extracted 173 videos totaling 70 hours of endoscopic video, out of 230 hours of raw video, with a segment-based sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99%. No procedures were missed. Two video files contained only a non-patient video signal. The features of our system are robust enough to be suitable for day-to-day use in medical practice.
Stanek, Sean R.; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny S.; Oh, JungHwan; de Groen, Piet C.
The purpose of this study was to identify endoscopic and clinical parameters influencing the decision-making in salvage of endoscopically unmanageable, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and to report the outcome of selected therapy. We retrospectively retrieved all cases of surgery and arteriography for arrest of endoscopically unmanageable UGIH. Only patients with overt bleeding on endoscopy within the previous 24 h were included. Patients with preceding nonendoscopic hemostatic interventions, portal hypertension, malignancy, and transpapillar bleeding were excluded. Potential clinical and endoscopic predictors of allocation to either surgery or arteriography were tested using statistical models. Outcome and survival were regressed on the choice of rescue and clinical variables. Forty-six arteriographed and 51 operated patients met the inclusion criteria. Univariate analysis revealed a higher number of patients with a coagulation disorder in the catheterization group (41.4%, versus 20.4% in the laparotomy group; p = 0.044). With multivariate analysis, the identification of a bleeding peptic ulcer at endoscopy significantly steered decision-making toward surgical rescue (OR = 5.2; p = 0.021). Taking into account reinterventions, hemostasis was achieved in nearly 90% of cases in both groups. Overall therapy failure (no survivors), rebleeding within 3 days (OR = 3.7; p = 0.042), and corticosteroid use (OR = 5.2; p = 0.017) had a significant negative impact on survival. The odds of dying were not different for embolotherapy or surgery. In conclusion, decision-making was endoscopy-based, with bleeding peptic ulcer significantly directing the choice of rescue toward surgery. Unsuccessful hemostasis and corticosteroid use, but not the choice of rescue, negatively affected outcome.
Defreyne, Luc, E-mail: Luc.Defreyne@UGent.b [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Schrijver, Ignace De [Clinique de Flandre, Flandre Imagerie (France); Decruyenaere, Johan [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Intensive Care (Belgium); Maele, Georges Van [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics and Statistics (Belgium); Ceelen, Wim [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Digestive Surgery (Belgium); Looze, Danny De [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Belgium); Vanlangenhove, Peter [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium)
Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage (UGIH) remains a common presentation requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Accurate assessment, appropriate intervention and apt clinical skills are needed for proper management from time of presentation to discharge. The advent of pharmacologic acid suppression, endoscopic hemostatic techniques, and recognition of Helicobacter pylori as an etiologic agent in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has revolutionized the treatment of UGIH. Despite this, acute UGIH still carries considerable rates of morbidity and mortality. This review aims to discuss current areas of uncertainty and controversy in the management of UGIH. Neoadjuvant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has become standard empiric treatment for UGIH given that PUD is the leading cause of non-variceal UGIH, and PPIs are extremely effective at promoting ulcer healing. However, neoadjuvant PPI administration has not been shown to affect hard clinical outcomes such as rebleeding or mortality. The optimal timing of upper endoscopy in UGIH is often debated. Upon completion of volume resuscitation and hemodynamic stabilization, upper endoscopy should be performed within 24 h in all patients with evidence of UGIH for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. With rising healthcare cost paramount in today’s medical landscape, the ability to appropriately triage UGIH patients is of increasing value. Upper endoscopy in conjunction with the clinical scenario allows for accurate decision making concerning early discharge home in low-risk lesions or admission for further monitoring and treatment in higher-risk lesions. Concomitant pharmacotherapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antiplatelet agents, such as clopidogrel, has a major impact on the etiology, severity, and potential treatment of UGIH. Long-term PPI use in patients taking chronic NSAIDs or clopidogrel is discussed thoroughly in this review.
Trawick, Eric P; Yachimski, Patrick S
AIM: To report the incidence of non-small-bowel bleeding pathologies encountered during double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) procedures and to analyse their significance. METHODS: A retrospective study of a prospective DBE database conducted in a tertiary-referral center was conducted. A total of 179 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) referred for DBE from June 2004 to November 2008 were analysed looking for the incidence of non-small-bowel lesions (NSBLs; all and newly diagnosed) encountered during DBE. RESULTS: There were 228 (150 antegrade and 78 retrograde) DBE procedures performed in 179 patients. The mean number of DBE procedures was 1.27 per patient. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 62 ± 16 years old. There were 94 females (52.5%). The positive yield for a bleeding lesion was 65.9%. Of the 179 patients, 44 (24.6%) had NSBLs (19 of them had dual pathology with small-bowel lesions and NSBLs); 27 (15.1%) had lesions not detected by previous endoscopies. The most common type of missed lesions were vascular lesions. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients (24.6%) had lesions within reach of conventional endoscopy. Careful repeat examination with gastroscopy and colonoscopy might be required.
Tee, Hoi-Poh; Kaffes, Arthur J
While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases.
Karstensen, John Gasdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter
Traditional medicine is widely practiced in tropical countries. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) fruit juice is advocated as a part of complementary and alternative medicine. If the bottle gourd juice becomes bitter it is considered toxic. We report 15 patients, who developed toxicity due to drinking bitter bottle gourd juice. Patients presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhea and hypotension within 15 min to 6-h after ingestion of bottle gourd juice. Endoscopy showed esophagitis, gastric erosions, ulcers and duodenitis. Hypotension was treated with crystalloids and inotropic support. All patients recovered in 1-4 days. Endoscopically the lesions healed in 2 weeks. Bitter bottle gourd can cause gastrointestinal toxicity with hematemesis and hypotension. Supportive management is the treatment and all patients recover within 1 week. PMID:21986853
Puri, Rajesh; Sud, Randhir; Khaliq, Abdul; Kumar, Mandhir; Jain, Sanjay
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common, potentially life threatening medical emergency. It is associated with higher rates of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in the elderly when compared with younger patients, most likely due to higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities. Age is an independent risk factor for mortality in UGIB, with Helicobacter pylori infection and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and anticoagulants being the most prevalent causal risk factors. These patients require early risk assessment, resuscitation and an attempt to identify and treat the bleeding source. In the majority, this involves early endoscopy and endotherapy as required to achieve haemostasis, with radiological intervention or surgery needed in the minority with ongoing severe bleeding. In this article, we discuss UGIB in the elderly, focusing on aetiology, risk factors and management. PMID:23192436
Ahmed, Asma; Stanley, Adrian J
A 36-year-old male Asian immigrant with a history of hepatitis B and hepatitis C related unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in the left lobe of the liver presented with hematemesis and severe anemia. He was diagnosed with a liver mass that was resected 8 years ago described as a benign tumor in his home country. He had received trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) four months ago after subsequent diagnosis of unresectable hepatoma, and currently was receiving chemotherapy with Sorafenib. After resuscitation, a contrast enhanced computerized tomography was performed which showed fistulization of hepatocellular carcinoma into adjacent stomach. This finding was confirmed during endoscopy with direct visualization of the fistulous opening. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rare. We present a case and literature review of HCC with local invasion of the stomach causing massive upper GI bleeding after receiving TACE. PMID:24259980
Sayana, Hari; Yousef, Osama; Clarkston, Wendell K
A 36-year-old male Asian immigrant with a history of hepatitis B and hepatitis C related unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in the left lobe of the liver presented with hematemesis and severe anemia. He was diagnosed with a liver mass that was resected 8 years ago described as a benign tumor in his home country. He had received trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) four months ago after subsequent diagnosis of unresectable hepatoma, and currently was receiving chemotherapy with Sorafenib. After resuscitation, a contrast enhanced computerized tomography was performed which showed fistulization of hepatocellular carcinoma into adjacent stomach. This finding was confirmed during endoscopy with direct visualization of the fistulous opening. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rare. We present a case and literature review of HCC with local invasion of the stomach causing massive upper GI bleeding after receiving TACE.
Sayana, Hari; Yousef, Osama; Clarkston, Wendell K
A 17-year-old man was diagnosed as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) because of pigmented lip and multiple gastrointestinal polyps. He had anemia and underwent polypectomy on the duodenum and colon. His maternal family members were patients with PJS. His mother used to be screened with endoscopy to remove large polyps. One and half years later, he underwent jejunal segmental resection due to intussusceptions. He underwent endoscopic polypectomy every 2 to 3 years. When he was 23 years old, high-grade dysplasia was found in colonic polyp and his mother underwent partial pancreatectomy due to intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma. When he was 27 years old, diffuse gastric polyps on the greater curvature of corpus expanded and grew. Therefore, wide endoscopic polypectomy was done. Histological examination revealed focal intramucosal carcinoma and low-grade dysplasia in hamartomatous polyps. We report cases of cancers occurred in first-degree relatives with PJS.
Song, Sang Hee; Kim, Kun Woo; Kim, Won Hee; Kwon, Chang Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik; Park, Pil Won
Objective: Transnasal endoscopy may be used to observe the head and neck part readily without excessive reflexes. We aimed to evaluate the utility and stability of transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD) in comparison with transoral EGD (TO-EGD) for observation of the pharynx. Study Design: Prospective study Methods: A total of 497 patients received unsedated TN-EGD with a 5.5 mm diameter endoscope or unsedated TO-EGD with endoscopes of 6.5 mm, 7.9 mm and 9.2 mm diameter. The rate of completion of pharyngeal observation and numbers of gag reflexes and cough reflexes were recorded. Results: TN-EGD was performed in 175 patients and TO-EGD was performed in 322 patients. Pharyngeal observation was completed in 173 patients (98.9%) in the TN-EGD group and 235 patients (73.2%) in the TO-EGD group, a significant difference (p<0.001). The TN-EGD group had a low rate of occurrence of gag reflex (0.57%), in contrast, 28.3% of the TO-EGD group had a gag reflex, a significant difference (p<0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that the use of TN-EGD was the only predictive factor for completion of pharyngeal observation (p<0.0001). Conclusions: TN-EGD is ideally suited to observation of the pharynx by unsedated EGD.
Tsuboi, Masaru; Arai, Makoto; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Yokosuka, Osamu
Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Findings A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37?years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40?years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8?days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P?0.001). Rebleeding was reported in 3.3% of the patients. The overall mortality rate of 11.7% was significantly higher in patients with variceal bleeding, shock, hepatic decompensation, HIV infection, comorbidities, malignancy, age?>?60?years and in patients with higher Rockall scores and those who underwent surgery (P?0.001). Conclusion Oesophageal varices are the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our environment and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnostic accuracy of fibreoptic endoscopy was related to the time interval between the onset of bleeding and endoscopy. Therefore, it is recommended that early endoscopy should be performed within 24 h of the onset of bleeding.
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., screening rates are low. Understanding the predictors of CRC screening is needed. In 2003, a random sample of patients aged 50 and over from three inner-city health centers was surveyed by computer-assisted telephone interview concerning CRC screening. The questionnaire was based on the Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Factor analysis with Varimax rotation and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 319 surveys with data about endoscopy, 148 (46%) met guidelines (19 reported sigmoidoscopy within 5 years, 105 reported colonoscopy within 10 years, and 24 reported both within 5 years). Factor analysis identified three factors associated with increased likelihood of lower endoscopy within guidelines: Social Influence for CRC Screening (Eigenvalue 1.73), Barriers to Lower Endoscopy (Eigenvalue 2.00), and Lower Endoscopy Benefit/Ease (Eigenvalue 1.19). Variables in logistic regression associated with a lower rate of endoscopy include being African American (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.96), being a current smoker (OR = 0.13, CI = 0.03-0.60), and having a higher score on the Barriers to Lower Endoscopy factor (i.e., viewed the inconvenience and unpleasant aspects as more troubling, OR = 0.33, CI = 0.18-0.60). The perceived inconvenience and unpleasant aspects of lower endoscopy are substantial barriers to screening. Advances in colon preparation procedures and better educational campaigns might lessen this perceived barrier and may be particularly important in disadvantaged and African American communities. PMID:16736371
Zimmerman, Richard K; Tabbarah, Melissa; Trauth, Jeanette; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Ricci, Edmund M