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Sample records for gastrointestinal nematode infections

  1. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

  2. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems. PMID:27238007

  3. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  4. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in the response to abomasal parasites remai...

  5. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  6. Influence of season of lambing on gastrointestinal nematode infection of lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a major constraint to sheep production, especially during the summer when the conditions for Haemonchus contortus are ideal. GIN infection is minimal during the winter, but there is little known about differences in GIN control between fall born and winter born l...

  7. Storage of gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae for species preservation and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Cabaret, J

    2015-02-01

    Techniques to preserve the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are of considerable interest to preserve rare species and to maintain a stable source for routine experimental infections. This study compares the relative pros and cons of the two most common techniques, cryopreservation and refrigeration by comparing how they influence consequent infection outcome parameters in terms of life-history traits and fitness as a function of time using the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus as a study species. Establishment capacity was found to be significantly reduced in cryopreserved stocks of L3 compared to refrigerated stocks, but this was followed by significant increases in their fecundity. Refrigeration did not affect L3 stocks consequent fitness by 16 months (the maximum examined) although they did incur a significant reduction in establishment, followed once again by an augmentation in fecundity. The study highlights potential areas for bias in comparing studies using L3 larvae maintained for different periods of time under different techniques. PMID:25468381

  8. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie; Aragaw, Kassaye; Abera, Mesele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Haile, Aynalem; Kiara, Henry; Szonyi, Barbara; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking. PMID:27154584

  9. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Suarez, V H; Cristel, S L; Busetti, M R

    2009-06-01

    66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL) were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 +/- 60 liters) produced more (p < 0.066) milk liters than UG (171.9 +/- 52.2) and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041) MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus) infection. PMID:19585893

  10. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  11. Climate and the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J

    2012-09-30

    The free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep are strongly affected by climate. Thus, extreme heat and cold are detrimental to development and survival, while, within tolerable limits, increasing temperatures generally accelerate development but increase mortality. Moisture is needed for development and translation of larvae from faeces to pasture, and so rainfall is a limiting factor for transmission. Together, these factors underpin seasonal patterns of infection in sheep, as well as geographic variation in the epidemiology and relative importance of different species within Europe. Local knowledge and experience enable treatment to be targeted appropriately to prevent dangerous levels of infection. This traditional know-how can be supplemented by predictive epidemiological models, built on thorough understanding of the influence of climate on larval availability. However, management also has a dominant role in determining patterns of infection, and is itself influenced by climate. Current geographic variation in nematode epidemiology across Europe, and knowledge of systems from outside Europe, can provide only limited perspectives on the likely effects of climate change on disease in future. This is because disease arises from complex interaction between host and parasite factors, and the implementation of optimal control strategies to meet new challenges will be slowed by the inertia of current systems. Approaches to nematode control must therefore take account not only of parasite biology, but also the forces that shape sheep farming systems and management decisions. PMID:22494941

  12. The Effect of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Level on Grazing Distance from Dung

    PubMed Central

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130–160); and Low (FEC = 40–70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05) but had lower levels (P < 0.0001) of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01) for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  13. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  14. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics world-wide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, inclu...

  15. Chronic Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Mutes Immune Responses to Mycobacterial Infection Distal to the Gut.

    PubMed

    Obieglo, Katja; Feng, Xiaogang; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Classon, Cajsa; Österblad, Markus; Helmby, Helena; Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M; Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Antonio; Nylén, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Helminth infections have been suggested to impair the development and outcome of Th1 responses to vaccines and intracellular microorganisms. However, there are limited data regarding the ability of intestinal nematodes to modulate Th1 responses at sites distal to the gut. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri on Th1 responses to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We found that H. polygyrus infection localized to the gut can mute BCG-specific CD4(+) T cell priming in both the spleen and skin-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, H. polygyrus infection reduced the magnitude of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD in the skin. Consequently, H. polygyrus-infected mice challenged with BCG had a higher mycobacterial load in the liver compared with worm-free mice. The excretory-secretory product from H. polygyrus (HES) was found to dampen IFN-γ production by mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T cells. This inhibition was dependent on the TGF-βR signaling activity of HES, suggesting that TGF-β signaling plays a role in the impaired Th1 responses observed coinfection with worms. Similar to results with mycobacteria, H. polygyrus-infected mice displayed an increase in skin parasite load upon secondary infection with Leishmania major as well as a reduction in DTH responses to Leishmania Ag. We show that a nematode confined to the gut can mute T cell responses to mycobacteria and impair control of secondary infections distal to the gut. The ability of intestinal helminths to reduce DTH responses may have clinical implications for the use of skin test-based diagnosis of microbial infections. PMID:26819205

  16. Chronic Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Mutes Immune Responses to Mycobacterial Infection Distal to the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Obieglo, Katja; Feng, Xiaogang; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Classon, Cajsa; Österblad, Markus; Helmby, Helena; Hewitson, James P.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections have been suggested to impair the development and outcome of Th1 responses to vaccines and intracellular microorganisms. However, there are limited data regarding the ability of intestinal nematodes to modulate Th1 responses at sites distal to the gut. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri on Th1 responses to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG). We found that H. polygyrus infection localized to the gut can mute BCG-specific CD4+ T cell priming in both the spleen and skin-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, H. polygyrus infection reduced the magnitude of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD in the skin. Consequently, H. polygyrus–infected mice challenged with BCG had a higher mycobacterial load in the liver compared with worm-free mice. The excretory–secretory product from H. polygyrus (HES) was found to dampen IFN-γ production by mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T cells. This inhibition was dependent on the TGF-βR signaling activity of HES, suggesting that TGF-β signaling plays a role in the impaired Th1 responses observed coinfection with worms. Similar to results with mycobacteria, H. polygyrus–infected mice displayed an increase in skin parasite load upon secondary infection with Leishmania major as well as a reduction in DTH responses to Leishmania Ag. We show that a nematode confined to the gut can mute T cell responses to mycobacteria and impair control of secondary infections distal to the gut. The ability of intestinal helminths to reduce DTH responses may have clinical implications for the use of skin test–based diagnosis of microbial infections. PMID:26819205

  17. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  18. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  19. Galectin-11 induction in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle following nematode and protozoan infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galectin-11 (LGALS11) has been suggested to play an important role in protective immunity against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. However, in cattle this molecule has not been characterized in detail. In the current study, it was shown that transcription of LGALS11 was highly inducible in t...

  20. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  1. Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC1, MUC6 and MUC20 was observed, while MUC5AC did not change during infection. Qualitative changes of mucins, related to sugar composition, were also observed. AB-PAS and HID-AB stainings highlighted a decrease in neutral and an increase in acidic mucins, throughout the infection. Several genes involved in mucin core structure synthesis, branching and oligomerization, such as GCNT3, GCNT4, A4GNT and protein disulphide isomerases were found to be upregulated. Increase in mucin fucosylation was observed using the lectin UEA-I and through the evaluation of fucosyltransferases gene expression levels. Finally, transcription levels of 2 trefoil factors, TFF1 and TFF3, which are co-expressed with mucins in the GI tract, were also found to be significantly upregulated in infected animals. Although the alterations in mucus biosynthesis started early during infection, the biggest effects were found when adult worms were present on the surface of the abomasal mucosa and are likely caused by the alterations in mucosal cell populations, characterized by hyperplasia of mucus secreting cells. PMID:21569362

  2. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  3. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  4. Efficacy of doramectin in the prevention of gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing cattle.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Dorny, P; Hong, C; Harris, T J; Hammet, N C; Smith, D G; Weatherley, A J

    1993-07-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the efficacy of doramectin in the prevention of infection with Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in grazing calves. In each study, 24 parasite-naive calves were randomly allotted to two equal groups and treated with either doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 or saline prior to mid-season turnout (Day 0) onto contaminated pasture. Faecal egg counts were carried out twice weekly from 15 to 64 days after turnout and the cumulative faecal egg count was calculated for each group of calves. In the doramectin-treated animals, eggs first appeared in the faeces 19 days and 22 days later than in controls for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Mean cumulative faecal egg counts over the 64 days were reduced in the doramectin-treated groups by 71% and 87% for Studies 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.01). The potential utility of injectable doramectin in the seasonal control of gastrointestinal nematode infestations in relation to these findings is discussed. PMID:8236739

  5. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Desrues, Olivier; Hansen, Tina V A; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clover (CTL2; n = 10) pastures. After 7 days, animals received 20 000 O. ostertagi L3/calf (D0 p.i.) and were moved regularly preventing pasture-borne infections. Due to poor regrowth of the chicory pasture, CHI2 was supplemented with chicory silage. At D40 p.i. (Exp. 1) and D35 p.i. (Exp. 2) calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In Exp.1, fecal egg counts (FEC) were similar between groups. However, O. ostertagi counts were significantly reduced in CHI1 by 60% (geometric mean; P < 0·01), whereas C. oncophora burdens were unaffected (P = 0·12). In Exp. 2, FEC were markedly lowered in CHI2 from D22 p.i onwards (P < 0·01). Ostertagia ostertagi adult burdens were significantly reduced in CHI2 by 66% (P < 0·001). Sesquiterpene lactones were identified only in chicory (fresh/silage). Chicory shows promise as an anti-Ostertagia feed for cattle and further studies should investigate its on-farm use. PMID:27173405

  6. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Rupa, Ariel Paul M.; Portugaliza, Harvie P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%), Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%), Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%), Cooperia spp. (6.93%), and Chabertia spp. (0.79%). Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12). Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices. PMID:27536034

  7. Natural Selection on Individual Variation in Tolerance of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Berenos, Camillo; Pilkington, Jill G.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Graham, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Hosts may mitigate the impact of parasites by two broad strategies: resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which limits the fitness or health cost of increasing parasite burden. The degree and causes of variation in both resistance and tolerance are expected to influence host–parasite evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics and inform disease management, yet very little empirical work has addressed tolerance in wild vertebrates. Here, we applied random regression models to longitudinal data from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep to estimate individual tolerance, defined as the rate of decline in body weight with increasing burden of highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematode parasites. On average, individuals lost weight as parasite burden increased, but whereas some lost weight slowly as burden increased (exhibiting high tolerance), other individuals lost weight significantly more rapidly (exhibiting low tolerance). We then investigated associations between tolerance and fitness using selection gradients that accounted for selection on correlated traits, including body weight. We found evidence for positive phenotypic selection on tolerance: on average, individuals who lost weight more slowly with increasing parasite burden had higher lifetime breeding success. This variation did not have an additive genetic basis. These results reveal that selection on tolerance operates under natural conditions. They also support theoretical predictions for the erosion of additive genetic variance of traits under strong directional selection and fixation of genes conferring tolerance. Our findings provide the first evidence of selection on individual tolerance of infection in animals and suggest practical applications in animal and human disease management in the face of highly prevalent parasites. PMID:25072883

  8. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  9. Effect of gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Loyacano, A F; Williams, J C; Gurie, J; DeRosa, A A

    2002-08-01

    Spring born, crossbred beef heifers (n=372) were utilized over four years to measure reductions in body weights, reproductive performance and calf weights caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (primarily Ostertagia ostertagi) and the bovine liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and to differentiate losses attributable to each type of parasitism. Each year, weaned heifers were allotted to one of the four treatment regimens: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated for nematodes; Group 3, treated for liver fluke; and Group 4, treated for both nematodes and liver fluke. Nematodes were controlled with subcutaneous injections of either ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) or doramectin (Dectomax, Pfizer), both at the recommended dose of 200 ug/kg bodyweight. Clorsulon (Curatrem, Merial) drench was given at the recommended rate of 7 mg/kg bodyweight to control flukes. Treatments and fecal collections were initiated at allotment each year and were repeated at 28-84-day intervals until palpation for pregnancy diagnosis. Open heifers were removed from the study at this time. Treatment dates were based on expected length of treatment efficacy, the stage of growth of the heifers and the seasonal risk of infection by the parasites. Pregnant females were pooled and received their assigned treatments prior to their calving and breeding seasons and remained together until their calves were weaned. Heifers treated for nematode infections were heavier and had higher condition scores (P<0.01) than untreated control heifers at initiation of breeding, and maintained that difference through pregnancy diagnosis. Liver fluke infection did not affect heifer gains or condition scores prior to palpation (P<0.01). At palpation, heifers treated for both forms of parasitism had the highest condition scores and weight gains (P<0.01), and also higher pregnancy rates than control heifers and heifers treated for nematodes only (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates for heifers treated for flukes only were not

  10. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  11. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  12. A stochastic frontier approach to study the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infections and technical efficiency of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Van Meensel, Jef; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Charlier, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in dairy farming has traditionally been assessed using partial productivity indicators. But such approaches ignore the impact of infection on the performance of the whole farm. In this study, efficiency analysis was used to study the association of the GI nematode Ostertagia ostertagi on the technical efficiency of dairy farms. Five years of accountancy data were linked to GI nematode infection data gained from a longitudinal parasitic monitoring campaign. The level of exposure to GI nematodes was based on bulk-tank milk ELISA tests, which measure the antibodies to O. ostertagi and was expressed as an optical density ratio (ODR). Two unbalanced data panels were created for the period 2006 to 2010. The first data panel contained 198 observations from the Belgian Farm Accountancy Data Network (Brussels, Belgium) and the second contained 622 observations from the Boerenbond Flemish farmers' union (Leuven, Belgium) accountancy system (Tiber Farm Accounting System). We used the stochastic frontier analysis approach and defined inefficiency effect models specified with the Cobb-Douglas and transcendental logarithmic (Translog) functional form. To assess the efficiency scores, milk production was considered as the main output variable. Six input variables were used: concentrates, roughage, pasture, number of dairy cows, animal health costs, and labor. The ODR of each individual farm served as an explanatory variable of inefficiency. An increase in the level of exposure to GI nematodes was associated with a decrease in technical efficiency. Exposure to GI nematodes constrains the productivity of pasture, health, and labor but does not cause inefficiency in the use of concentrates, roughage, and dairy cows. Lowering the level of infection in the interquartile range (0.271 ODR) was associated with an average milk production increase of 27, 19, and 9L/cow per year for Farm Accountancy Data Network farms and 63, 49, and

  13. Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections, skin and carcass microbial load, and meat quality of growing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, has a major effect on profitability of goat production world-wide. High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant GIN in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-sy...

  14. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (p<0.05) greater FEC than Brangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  15. Improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M

    2006-01-30

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-three two-month-old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n=9) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n=8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation for an average of 7h/day together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of initially worm-free tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids faced low mixed infections (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum). Under conditions of scarce vegetation, such as those in the present study, supplemented groups (I-S and T-S) had higher growth rates compared to the non-supplemented groups independently of the control of GIN infection with anthelmintic (AH) treatment (P<0.001). Supplementary feeding did not affect FEC or PEC. In the absence of

  16. Selection of tannins by sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Hall, J O; Lisonbee, L D

    2010-06-01

    Herbivores learn to select compounds that attenuate the aversive effects of plant secondary metabolites (PSM), but can they increase intake of PSM they typically avoid when these PSM provide medicinal effects? We hypothesized that herbivores learn to increase intake of PSM-containing feeds when experiencing a gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Ten lambs with natural gastrointestinal parasitic burdens (PB) and 10 nonparasitized lambs (NP) were offered a choice of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and alfalfa mixed with 10% quebracho tannin (Schinopsis quebracho-colorado; alfalfa:tannins) before and after they were conditioned with the postingestive effects of tannins. Preference for alfalfa:tannins did not differ between groups before experiencing the postingestive effects of tannins (P = 0.85) or when parasite loads were terminated due to the administration of ivermectin (P = 0.18). In contrast, when tested with a parasite burden, lambs in PB consumed more alfalfa:tannins (P = 0.08), showed greater preference for alfalfa:tannins (P = 0.07), and consumed less alfalfa than lambs in NP (P = 0.06). Ingestion of tannins by lambs in PB was followed by reduced fecal egg counts (FEC; P = 0.006), and there was a direct proportional relationship between preference for alfalfa:tannins and FEC (P = 0.07). In summary, parasitized lambs increased their intake of alfalfa:tannins when they experienced a parasite burden, which suggests they self-medicated with tannins against parasites. Self-selection of PSM has implications for the quest for alternatives to chemoprophylaxis in the treatment and well-being of parasitized wild and domestic animals grazing in pasturelands and in confinement. PMID:20190171

  17. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed. PMID:16170738

  18. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  19. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  20. Gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs from Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yacob, H T; Ayele, T; Fikru, R; Basu, A K

    2007-09-01

    The study was conducted during the period between January 2005 and June 2006 to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections of dogs in and around Debre Zeit, using qualitative and quantitative coprological (N = 100) and postmortem examinations (N = 20). By coproscopy 51% dogs were positive for different types of nematodal eggs, out of which 23.5% were with mixed infections. On necropsy 95% animals were found positive for adult parasites, of which 31.6% were showing more than one species of adult nematodes. The coproscopical examination revealed 32% infection with Ancylostoma caninum followed by Toxocara canis (21%), Spirocerca lupi (7%) and Trichuris vulpis (3%), while postmortem examination showed 70, 45, 23.5 and 5% infection, respectively. The study further indicated significant difference (P < 0.05) in overall frequency of GI nematode infections among different age groups but no difference (P > 0.05) between sexes. PMID:17614203

  1. Faecal egg output, contamination of pastures and serum pepsinogen concentrations in heifers with natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in north-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Mezo-Menéndez, M; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo-Pelayo, P; Díez-Baños, N

    1995-03-01

    In 1988, 1989 and 1990 second year grazing heifers, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, were separated into two groups, one of which was treated orally with albendazole. In 1988 and 1989 treatment was administered immediately after parturition (February), and in 1990 during the last term of pregnancy (December). Both treated and control animals were grazed on separate plots in a rotational system. Maximum faecal egg counts were observed around parturition, except in 1990, when treatment was given at the end of gestation. The main genera identified were Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia and Oesophagostomum. The number of Ostertagia larvae in the treated groups increased from 1989 to 1990, while the others decreased. Pasture contamination with third stage larvae (L3) was lower on the plots grazed by treated heifers. Maximum numbers of L3 were found in autumn, at the end of winter, and at the beginning of spring. Mean serum pepsinogen concentrations were significantly higher in the untreated groups. This concurs with the pattern for L3 on pasture. The trial shows that if a single treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes is carried out, and the animals remain on contaminated pastures, the parasitic load tends to level out after 4-5 months under favourable climatic conditions. However, the percentages of nematode genera occurring in the new populations may differ from those in the original infection. PMID:7622791

  2. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  3. [Effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in infective larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Maria Angela O; Domingues, Luciana F; Almeida, Gisele N; Simas, Mônica Mattos Dos S; Botura, Mariana B; Da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira G; Da Silva, Ana Valéria Araújo F; Menezes, Taise P; Batatinha, Maria José M

    2007-01-01

    Phitotherapy has been frequently utilized in parasitism control for numerous animal species. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of M. piperita extracts (196; 150.7; 115.9; 89.1; 68.5 e 52.7 mg/mL) and C. ambrosioides extracts (110,6; 85; 65,3; 50,2; 38,6 e 29,6 mg/mL) were used for the treatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Distilled water and doramectin were used in larvae cultures as negative and positive controls, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 95% of the infective larvae when M. piperita extracts were used in the concentrations of 115.9 and 196 mg/mL, and C. ambrosioides extract in the concentration of 110.6 mg/mL, supporting the effect of these extracts in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. PMID:17588325

  4. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  5. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    PubMed

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here. PMID:17071001

  6. Gastro-intestinal nematode infection in lambs — A model based on climatic indices for forecasting peak pasture larval contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, G.

    1987-06-01

    The parasite Ostertagia circumcincta is the primary cause of parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs during their first season at grass. The life-cycle of this nematode parasite involves the development and survival of the free-living stages on pasture. Accordingly the pasture is the site of deposition, development and transmission of infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. In this paper two empirical models for forecasting the timing of the “summer wave” of infective larvae on pasture are presented. These models are similar in form to that described by Starr and Thomas (1980) but involve different approaches to assessing the temperature and moisture components of the daily index value. Further, using the prediction model described by Paton, Thomas and Waller (1984) as an investigative tool, certain tentative suggestions are made as to a general fundamental weakness of empirical index methods.

  7. [Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M T

    2006-09-01

    The development and survival of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants are influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. Within the abiotic factors, most important are the environmental temperature and humidity. They regulate the development of larvae from eggs dispersed on the pasture by the animals faeces. Each parasite species that infect ruminants requires a different time to development, depending on temperature and humidity. Among trichostrongylids, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia and Nematodirus show a strong adaptation to low temperatures. Nematodirus larvae are able to survive to winter inside the egg shell. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and survival of larvae on pasture. The larval third stage can migrate from faeces to pasture vegetation and they accumulate at the basis of vegetation where stay during the day or in the soil to avoid the desiccation. The forage species affects the migration of larvae on herbage too. Many biological factors contribute to disperse the larvae on the pasture. Dung burying beetles, coprophagous beetles and earthworms can greatly reduce the larvae of some trichostrongylids on pasture. They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying. PMID:17176950

  8. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  9. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  10. The effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Sandoval-Castro, C; May-Martinez, M; Cob-Galera, L A

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-four 2-month old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n = 10) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n = 8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation (for an average of 7h/day) together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. The T-S group had the highest CLWG, PCV and Hb compared to the other three groups (P < 0.001). The I-S and T-NS group had similar mean CLWG and PCV (P > 0.05), while the I-NS group had the poorest CLWG, PCV and Hb (P < 0.001). The PEC of supplemented kids (I-S and T-S) was higher than in the I-NS and T-NS kids (P < 0.05). No effect of supplementary feeding was found in the FEC. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids suffered mixed infections with Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  12. Impact of eprinomectin on grazing behaviour and performance in dairy cattle with sub-clinical gastrointestinal nematode infections under continuous stocking management.

    PubMed

    Forbes, A B; Huckle, C A; Gibb, M J

    2004-11-10

    Forty spring-calving cows and heifers (20 of each) were allowed to acquire infection with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes naturally during grazing. The control group (10 cows and 10 heifers) were compared with 20 similar animals treated with eprinomectin in order to evaluate the effect of GI nematodes on grazing behaviour, milk production, body condition score and live weight. The animals were paired according to parity and milk yield during the week prior to treatment, then within replicate pair randomly allocated to a different treatment group. The grazing area was sub-divided into 20 replicated paddocks of equivalent size and topography. Grazing pairs of either control or treated animals were randomly assigned to each paddock over the duration of the study (one pair per paddock). Grazing behaviour was recorded for both groups over a 10-day period commencing 4 days after treatment with eprinomectin. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk quality was recorded weekly. Live weight and body condition score were recorded on the day of allocation, the day of initial treatment and thereafter at weekly intervals until the end of the 4-week trial. Faecal samples were collected from each animal prior to, and after, allocation and submitted for counts of nematode eggs. Additional faecal samples were taken at the end of the study for culture and nematode identification. Individual faecal samples were also analysed for residual digestibility. Pasture samples for nematode larval counts were taken at the same time as faecal sampling. The parasitological results showed low levels of faecal nematode egg output throughout the study, with the heifers having higher counts than the cows. Faecal culture yielded species of Ostertagia, Cooperia, and Trichostrongylus. Pasture larval levels were very low throughout with no value exceeding 68 larvae/kg dry matter (DM) of herbage. There were significant (P < 0.05) effects of treatment on grazing time, eating time, total bites, total grazing

  13. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding manag...

  14. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. PMID:21961753

  15. Low dose titration of copper oxide wire particles for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned kids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine whether a low dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) would be as effective as a higher dose in reducing gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection. In May 2006, 40 Boer x Spanish doe and wether kids naturally infected with GIN were weaned (97 ± 2 days of age) and ...

  16. Impact of rotational grazing on management of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for ‘natural’ or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of ...

  17. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group. PMID:17135538

  18. Efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastro-intestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute, Serere, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Okwee-Acai, J

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted between April and July, 2011 to determine and compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), levamisole (LVM) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Mubende and Boer crossbred goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute in Serere, Uganda. Forty Mubende goats and 31 Boer crosses were each blocked by age and sex and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group of each breed served as the untreated control, the second was treated with albendazole (5mg/kg BW), the third with levamisole hydrochloride and oxyclozanide (7.5 and 15 mg/kg BW) and the fourth with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg BW). Each group included 7-11 animals. Treatments were administered with doses of goats in albendazole and ivermectin, and doses of sheep in levamisole, as recommended by the manufacturers. In the treated groups, goats received anthelmintics basing on individual weights. Fecal egg counts, expressed as eggs per gram and larval cultures were done on day zero before treatment and on day 13 after anthelmintic treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). In Mubende goats, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 28.5%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. In Boer crosses, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 11%, 84.88% and 78.47%, respectively. At a 95% CI, only IVM was more effective in Mubende goats than Boer crosses (t=2.564, p<0.05). This may indicate occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in the goat farming sector in Uganda. Further studies need to be done to clarify the state of efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics covering different agro ecological zones and species of animals in Uganda. PMID:23394798

  19. Comparison of strategies to provide lambing paddocks of low gastro-intestinal nematode infectivity in a summer rainfall region of Australia.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Kahn, L P

    2009-05-12

    A replicated field experiment using nine 2ha paddocks was designed to compare the efficacy of 3 management strategies to prepare spring lambing paddocks of low gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) infectivity. The management treatments were designed to provide the same overall stocking rate over the lambing paddock preparation period (Phase 1, 16 January-9 June, 2006). The first treatment involved two 21-day periods of intensive grazing with drenched wethers in Jan-Feb, and in late March (Smartgraze summer rainfall, SGSR). The second treatment was industry standard practice of continuous grazing of adult sheep over the entire preparation period (continuous sheep, CS) and the third treatment was industry best practice of continuous grazing of adult cattle (continuous cattle, CC). Phase 2 of the experiment (14 August-12 December, 2006) tested the efficacy of the paddock preparation treatments. Single-bearing ewes (n=10 per paddock) were introduced on 14 August following an effective short acting anthelmintic treatment. Lambing commenced 2 weeks later on the 25th of August with lamb marking at 7 weeks and weaning at 15 weeks when the experiment was terminated. Tracer sheep (n=2) were run in each of the paddocks for 2 weeks at the start of Phase 1, and at the start and conclusion of Phase 2 to assess pasture GIN contamination. Total worm counts in tracers were reduced by 97.7% (SGSR), 96.9% (CC) and 88.5% (CS) between the start of the experiment and the introduction of lambing ewes. Between the start of the experiment and weaning, total reductions were 87.9% (SGSR), 85.6% (CC) and 26% (CS). Worm egg counts of ewes and lambs grazing SGSR or CC paddocks were significantly lower than those grazing CS paddocks. As a consequence ewes grazing CS paddocks required anthelmintic treatment at both marking and weaning and their lambs at weaning, whereas no anthelmintic treatments were required for ewes or lambs on SGSR paddocks. Ewes and lambs grazing paddocks prepared with SGSR and

  20. Gene expression profiling of Naïve sheep genetically resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Orla M; Zadissa, Amonida; Wilson, Theresa; Hyndman, Dianne L; Greer, Gordon J; Baird, David B; McCulloch, Alan F; Crawford, Allan M; McEwan, John C

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in grazing ruminants. Individual animals or breeds, however, are known to differ in their resistance to infection. Gene expression profiling allows us to examine large numbers of transcripts simultaneously in order to identify those transcripts that contribute to an animal's susceptibility or resistance. Results With the goal of identifying genes with a differential pattern of expression between sheep genetically resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes, a 20,000 spot ovine cDNA microarray was constructed. This array was used to interrogate the expression of 9,238 known genes in duodenum tissue of four resistant and four susceptible female lambs. Naïve animals were used in order to look at genes that were differentially expressed in the absence of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. Forty one unique known genes were identified that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible animals. Northern blotting of a selection of the genes confirmed differential expression. The differentially expressed genes had a variety of functions, although many genes relating to the stress response and response to stimulus were more highly expressed in the susceptible animals. Conclusion We have constructed the first reported ovine microarray and used this array to examine gene expression in lambs genetically resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematode infection. This study indicates that susceptible animals appear to be generating a hyper-sensitive immune response to non-nematode challenges. The gastrointestinal tract of susceptible animals is therefore under stress and compromised even in the absence of gastrointestinal nematodes. These factors may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of these animals. PMID:16515715

  1. Acidic chitinase primes the protective immune response to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Vannella, Kevin M; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Hart, Kevin M; de Queiroz Prado, Rafael; Sciurba, Joshua; Barron, Luke; Borthwick, Lee A; Smith, Allen D; Mentink-Kane, Margaret; White, Sandra; Thompson, Robert W; Cheever, Allen W; Bock, Kevin; Moore, Ian; Fitz, Lori J; Urban, Joseph F; Wynn, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is known to be induced by allergens and helminths, yet its role in immunity is unclear. Using AMCase-deficient mice, we show that AMCase deficiency reduced the number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells during allergen challenge but was not required for establishment of type 2 inflammation in the lung in response to allergens or helminths. In contrast, AMCase-deficient mice showed a profound defect in type 2 immunity following infection with the chitin-containing gastrointestinal nematodes Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. The impaired immunity was associated with reduced mucus production and decreased intestinal expression of the signature type 2 response genes Il13, Chil3, Retnlb, and Clca1. CD103(+) dendritic cells, which regulate T cell homing, were also reduced in mesenteric lymph nodes of infected AMCase-deficient mice. Thus, AMCase functions as a critical initiator of protective type 2 responses to intestinal nematodes but is largely dispensable for allergic responses in the lung. PMID:27043413

  2. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    PubMed

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  3. Recirculating elutriator for extracting gastrointestinal nematode larvae from pasture herbage samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites present an important limitation to ruminant production worldwide. Methods for quantifying infective larvae of GIN on pastures are generally tedious, time-consuming, and require bulky equipment set-ups. This limitation to expedient data collection is a bottleneck...

  4. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  5. Explaining variability in first grazing season heifer growth combining individually measured parasitological and clinical indicators with exposure to gastrointestinal nematode infection based on grazing management practice.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Aurélie; Chauvin, Alain; Madouasse, Aurélien; Froger, Sébastien; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe

    2016-07-30

    The objective of our study was to explain the variability of average daily weight gain (ADWG) due to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection for 291 non treated first grazing season (FGS) heifers, from 12 independent groups in the western part of France, by combining parasitological and clinical indicators at individual level and grazing management indicators at group level. Parasitological indicators were faecal egg count (FEC), anti Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level (Ostertagia ODR), and pepsinogen level. Clinical indicators were diarrhea score (DISCO) and breech soiling score (BSS). At group level, grazing management practice (GMP), based on three variables (supplementation, month of turnout, grazing season duration), was clustered into three categories reflecting low, medium or high exposure (EXP) to GIN. Depending on the groups, turnout was from mid-March to early July and housing was from mid-October to late November, with a FGS duration ranging from 4 to 8.4 months. At turnout, the mean age of heifers was 8 months (range: 6-16 months) and they weighed between 175 and 268kg. In each GMP category, FEC significantly decreased between the mid-season and the housing, while Ostertagia ODR and pepsinogen level increased gradually throughout the grazing season. In contrast, clinical indicators did not show any seasonal variation. In a multivariate linear model, 22% of the ADWG variability was significantly explained by two individual indicators (Ostertagia ODR: 12.6%, DISCO: 4.8%) and by the group indicator (GMP category: 4.8%). ADWG losses due to GIN exposure (Ostertagia ODR) were estimated up to 39kg per heifer for the overall grazing season. For groups within the low EXP category the difference between animals with low (<697g/day) or high (>697g/day) ADWG was explained by the clinical indicator DISCO. In contrast, for groups within the medium and high EXP categories this difference was explained by a parasitological indicator (Ostertagia ODR). This study

  6. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. PMID:26234898

  7. Effects of the repeated distribution of sainfoin hay on the resistance and the resilience of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; De La Farge, F; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-02-28

    Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. In sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. In goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few. The objectives of the current study were to examine under natural conditions the effects of consumption of sainfoin hay by goats on the parasite populations and on host resilience. Eighteen adult cull goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were used in the study. At the start of the assay, the goats were allocated into two groups, balanced according to weight and the levels of egg excretion. The two groups grazed separate pastures for 3 months with similar stocking rates. Goats from group S received each month indoors, for 7 days, sainfoin hay and control goats (group C) received hay of ryegrass. The diets in both groups were made isoenergetic and isoproteic and the refusals measured. Individual parasitological and pathophysiological measurements were performed fortnightly in order to compare host resistance and resilience. At the end of the study, five goats per group were necropsied. The distribution of sainfoin was associated with: (1) a higher consumption of hay; (2) significant, lower levels of nematode egg excretion which was associated with a decrease in worm fertility but no change in worm population; however, the number of intestinal worms was reduced by 50% in group S; (3) a better host resilience. In particular, after 2 months of grazing, two control goats died and half of the remaining animals needed to be treated whereas this was not the case in group S. These differences were related to

  8. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  9. Herbal dewormer fails to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is the most important disease of small ruminants. Control is usually based on the use of chemical anthelmintics (dewormers); but these are prohibited from use in organic livestock, and the effectiveness of chemical anthelmintics in conventional operations ...

  10. Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of horses.

    PubMed

    Buzatti, Andréia; de Paula Santos, Clóvis; Fernandes, Maria Angela Machado; Yoshitani, Ursula Yaeko; Sprenger, Lew Kan; dos Santos, Carolina Dallagassa; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2015-12-01

    Horses can harbor a large amount of parasites that may cause serious clinical signs even death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against infective larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes of horses in fecal culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treated groups (G1, G2 and G3) and one control (CG), using eight animals/group. The treated animals received G1: 1.5 × 10(5); G2: 3 × 10(5) and G3: 6 × 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight during 21 days. The fungi preparation was given at every other three-day interval. Faecal samples were collected during 30 days, on the same interval, to perform the fecal egg counts (EPG) and fecal culture for each horse. All groups demonstrated similar results for the EPG (P > 0.05) counts. D. flagrans significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the number of infective larvae after 72 h-interval between treatments. The G2 and G3 promoted higher results (P < 0.05) of L3 reduction compared to the CG. The biological control with the predacious fungi D. flagrans is still a promising free-living parasite regulator alternative to be use in livestock. PMID:26208781

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  12. [Microbiological diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam J; Buesa, Javier; Castillo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases. In the present review, the different methods of diagnosing gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites are examined. Stool culture is the method of choice for diagnosing bacterial intestinal infections; however, infections caused by Clostridium difficile can be diagnosed by detection of toxins A and B in stools, and infections caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by PCR detection of specific virulence factor genes harbored by several E. coli pathotypes. The techniques used to diagnose viral gastrointestinal infections include detection of viral antigens and nucleic acids. Finally, gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites can be diagnosed by testing for trophozoites and cysts of protozoa, or larvae and eggs of helminths in stools by direct microscopic examination, with concentration techniques, or by specific stains. PMID:19477556

  13. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    PubMed

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland. PMID:24931533

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  15. Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices. PMID:21253148

  16. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens. PMID:21088893

  19. Galectin-11: A novel host mediator targeting specific stages of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Preston, S J M; Beddoe, T; Walkden-Brown, S; Meeusen, E; Piedrafita, D

    2015-10-01

    Galectin-11 is released from epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, specifically following infection with gastrointestinal parasites including the highly pathogenic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. The function(s) of galectin-11 are currently unknown but seem to be associated with the development of immunity by the host. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction of galectin-11 with the different parasitic life cycle stages of H. contortus and determine any effects on parasite development. The results of this study showed that galectin-11 binds to the surface of the L4 and adult stages of the parasite but not to the exsheathed L3 stage. In addition, at a lower concentration, binding to the L4 was specifically localised to the pharynx region. Subsequent in vitro assays demonstrated significant inhibition of larval growth and development in the presence of recombinant galectin-11. These results indicate, to our knowledge for the first time, a functional role for galectin-11 in gastrointestinal nematode infection of ruminants and a mechanism of action of galectin-11, targeting the development and growth of the L4 and possibly the adult parasite stage. PMID:26215057

  20. Gastrointestinal endoscopy: infection and disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T

    1983-01-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of complex flexible fibreoptic instruments for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and an increasing use of these for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been recognised more recently that the use of contaminated endoscopic equipment can lead to serious and occasionally fatal infections. Infection with a wide variety of micro-organisms has been reported following oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). PMID:6414894

  1. Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Toscan, Gustavo; Camillo, Giovana; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Ribas, Henrique Olmedo; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres

    2010-10-11

    Based on clinical observation of a flock of approximately 5000 sheep (breed Merino) from southern Brazil, the failure of anthelmintic treatments was suspected. The sensitivity of the gastrointestinal nematodes that infected these sheep to nine drugs (Levamisole, Moxidectin, Albendazole, Ivermectin, Nitroxynil, Disophenol, Trichlorphon, Closantel, and a combination of Ivermectin, Levamisole and Albendazole) was evaluated. None of the drugs reduced the count of nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG) in the sheep to an adequate extent (defined as a 95% reduction in EPG). Therefore, we found multiple parasite resistance to all classes of anthelmintic drugs available for small ruminants in the Brazilian market. The genera Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Ostertagia spp. had various degrees of resistance (or natural tolerance) to each of the drug treatments. PMID:20619543

  2. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  3. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring. PMID:25082990

  4. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Falzon, Laura C.; Menzies, Paula I.; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T.; Peregrine, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring. PMID:25082990

  5. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  6. Genomic Regions Associated with Sheep Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2016-06-01

    Genetic markers for sheep resistance to gastrointestinal parasites have long been sought by the livestock industry as a way to select more resistant individuals and to help farmers reduce parasite transmission by identifying and removing high egg shedders from the flock. Polymorphisms related to the major histocompatibility complex and interferon (IFN)-γ genes have been the most frequently reported markers associated with infection. Recently, a new picture is emerging from genome-wide studies, showing that not only immune mechanisms are important determinants of host resistance but that gastrointestinal mucus production and hemostasis pathways may also play a role. PMID:27183838

  7. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses. PMID:27038194

  8. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W; Burgess, Charlotte G S; Morrison, Alison A; Bartley, David J; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95-98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006-2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  9. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W.; Burgess, Charlotte G.S.; Morrison, Alison A.; Bartley, David J.; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95–98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006–2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  10. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  11. Notes on necropsy and herbage processing techniques for gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants.

    PubMed

    Eysker, M; Kooyman, F N

    1993-02-01

    Necropsy techniques for the digestive tract of ruminants used at the University of Utrecht differ from those used elsewhere in three respects: (1) the abomasum is opened immediately after slaughter and the "contents" are treated separately from the "washings"; (2) the first 10 m of the small intestine are treated separately from the remainder of the intestine; (3) the aliquots are coloured with iodine before being examined for worms. The majority of the worms are found in the washings of the abomasum and the first part of the small intestine, whereas the contents of the abomasum and the remainder of the small intestine contain the bulk of the digesta. Because inhibited stages of Ostertagia, Haemonchus and, particularly, the very small third stage larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus can be overlooked easily in digesta, these methods imply a more rapid and accurate enumeration of worms. This is more important in small ruminants than in cattle because a much higher proportion of the inhibited larvae will be washed out of the mucosa and because Trichostrongylus is more important in small ruminants. Herbage sampling methods for monitoring gastrointestinal nematode infections on cattle pastures in northwest Europe should also be suitable for lungworm. The agar-bile technique of Jørgensen is an elegant method, but disadvantages are that many gastrointestinal nematode larvae exsheath, resulting in identification difficulties, and recovery of lungworm larvae decreases as a result of ageing. A simple sucrose flotation method, based on the principle that a sucrose solution does not mix easily with water containing nematodes, has been tested at our laboratory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8484211

  12. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-06-30

    This paper describes the anthelmintic activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family Zingiberaceae) rhizome, commonly known as ginger, to justify its traditional use in veterinary medicine. Crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous extract (CAE) of dried ginger (1-3 g/kg) were administered to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Both CP and CAE exhibited a dose- and a time-dependent anthelmintic effect with respective maximum reduction of 25.6% and 66.6% in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 10 of post-treatment. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG. This study shows that ginger possesses in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep thus justifying the age-old traditional use of this plant in helminth infestation. PMID:16443342

  13. Efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in Jamunapari goats.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Sharma, R L; Sodhi, S S

    2011-10-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin was checked in comparison to untreated controls in twenty Jamunapari goats, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Faecal examination at day 0 revealed an egg per gram of 930 ± 175.1, 1350 ± 421.1, 1060 ± 224.9 and 800 ± 279.7 in group A, B, C and D, respectively having five animals each. The results of larval culture examination revealed the presence of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum and Strongyloides spp. in these animals. Faecal egg counts of the animals treated with fenbendazole (group A), levamisole (group B) and ivermectin (group C) were reduced by 23.66, 63.70 and 98.11%, respectively on day 14 post-treatment. PMID:23024509

  14. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases. PMID:23711194

  15. Retinoic acid signalling in gastrointestinal parasite infections: lessons from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hurst, R J M; Else, K J

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid or vitamin A is important for an extensive range of biological processes, including immunomodulatory functions, however, its role in gastrointestinal parasite infections is not yet clear. Despite this, parasite infected individuals are often supplemented with vitamin A, given the co-localised prevalence of parasitic infections and vitamin deficiencies. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of this vitamin on the immune responses to gastrointestinal parasites. Here, we review data regarding the role of retinoic acid signalling in mouse models of intestinal nematode infection, with a view to understanding better the practice of giving vitamin A supplements to worm-infected people. PMID:22443219

  16. Exploring the Gastrointestinal “Nemabiome”: Deep Amplicon Sequencing to Quantify the Species Composition of Parasitic Nematode Communities

    PubMed Central

    Avramenko, Russell W.; Redman, Elizabeth M.; Lewis, Roy; Yazwinski, Thomas A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Gilleard, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections have a considerable impact on global human health as well as animal welfare and production. Although co-infection with multiple parasite species within a host is common, there is a dearth of tools with which to study the composition of these complex parasite communities. Helminth species vary in their pathogenicity, epidemiology and drug sensitivity and the interactions that occur between co-infecting species and their hosts are poorly understood. We describe the first application of deep amplicon sequencing to study parasitic nematode communities as well as introduce the concept of the gastro-intestinal “nemabiome”. The approach is analogous to 16S rDNA deep sequencing used to explore microbial communities, but utilizes the nematode ITS-2 rDNA locus instead. Gastro-intestinal parasites of cattle were used to develop the concept, as this host has many well-defined gastro-intestinal nematode species that commonly occur as complex co-infections. Further, the availability of pure mono-parasite populations from experimentally infected cattle allowed us to prepare mock parasite communities to determine, and correct for, species representation biases in the sequence data. We demonstrate that, once these biases have been corrected, accurate relative quantitation of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode communities in cattle fecal samples can be achieved. We have validated the accuracy of the method applied to field-samples by comparing the results of detailed morphological examination of L3 larvae populations with those of the sequencing assay. The results illustrate the insights that can be gained into the species composition of parasite communities, using grazing cattle in the mid-west USA as an example. However, both the technical approach and the concept of the ‘nemabiome’ have a wide range of potential applications in human and veterinary medicine. These include investigations of host-parasite and parasite-parasite interactions

  17. Microsporidian infection in a free-living marine nematode.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Garcia, A M; Fast, N M

    2012-12-01

    Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the "nematode killer" (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are "nematode killers"; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild. PMID:23087371

  18. Microsporidian Infection in a Free-Living Marine Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ardila-Garcia, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia are unicellular fungi that are obligate endoparasites. Although nematodes are one of the most abundant and diverse animal groups, the only confirmed report of microsporidian infection was that of the “nematode killer” (Nematocida parisii). N. parisii was isolated from a wild Caenorhabditis sp. and causes an acute and lethal intestinal infection in a lab strain of Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to characterize a microsporidian infection in a wild nematode to determine whether the infection pattern of N. parisii in the lab is typical of microsporidian infections in nematodes. We describe a novel microsporidian species named Sporanauta perivermis (marine spore of roundworms) and characterize its infection in its natural host, the free-living marine nematode Odontophora rectangula. S. perivermis is not closely related to N. parisii and differs strikingly in all aspects of infection. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the infection was localized in the hypodermal and muscle tissues only and did not involve the intestines. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed infection in the muscle and hypodermis, and surprisingly, it also revealed that the parasite infects O. rectangula eggs, suggesting a vertical mode of transmission. Our observations highlight the importance of studying parasites in their natural hosts and indicate that not all nematode-infecting microsporidia are “nematode killers”; instead, microsporidiosis can be more versatile and chronic in the wild. PMID:23087371

  19. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed × breed approach.

    PubMed

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-01

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (p<0.001) as well as in study II (p=0.012). Breed, animal age, live weight, sex and the interaction of breed and treatment did not affect FEC in either study. The main nematode genera found in the sacrificed lambs of study II were Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55

  20. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates. PMID:24128686

  1. [Spatio-temporal pattern of larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle pastures in Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Flota-Bañuelos, Carolina; Martínez, Imelda; López-Collado, José; Vargas Mendoza, Mónica; González Hernández, Hector; Fajersson, Pernilla

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle has been little studied in Mexico. Previous studies have described periods of higher larval presence, vertical and horizontal migration in grasslands, and the frequency of adult nematodes; as well as the effect of pasture trichomes on the migration and survival of Haemonchus larvae. The aim of this study was to determine the time-space layout and spread of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on pasture, and to estimate the effect of ivermectin applied to cattle on the time-dependent abundance of their eggs in a ranch in Veracruz. To determine the spatio-temporal arrangement, monthly morning grass samples were obtained from 30 sampling points from July 2008 to June 2009. Third stage larvae (L3) from each point were counted, and aggregation patterns were estimated through variance/mean and negative binomial K indices. Additionally, the number of eggs per gram in cattle feces was determined, from samples with (CI) and without ivermectin (SI), using standard techniques. A total of 20 276 L(3) larvae were recovered in the pasture, of which an 80% corresponded to Haemonchus contortus. The highest nematode density with more than 5 000L(3)/kgDM was detected in October 2008, and the lowest in February and March 2009. The L3 showed an aggregated spatial pattern of varying intensity throughout the year. The number of eggs in the stool was not reduced with the ivermectin application to cattle, which suggested a failure of control. However, the highest parasite loads were observed from July to November 2008. We concluded that the application of ivermectin was not effective to control nematodes eggs, and that L3 populations fluctuated on pasture for ten months, providing an infection source to grazing animals afterwards. PMID:24432531

  2. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  3. Efficacy of concomitant early summer treatment with fenbendazole and clorsulon against Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes in calves in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Williams, J C; Lutz, M; Fagan, N; Jacocks, M; Jones, E; Marbury, K; Willis, E

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy, safety, and compatibility of fenbendazole (FBZ) and clorsulon (CLN) were tested after oral administration of label recommended and of higher (5x) dosage rates to calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica. Results for 42 calves allotted to 4 treatment groups indicated a similar efficacy against mature F hepatica by FBZ (5 mg/kg of body weight) and CLN (7 mg/kg) in a combined oral suspension, compared with CLN (7 mg/kg) alone (100 vs 99% reduction). A lesser efficacy was observed against immature flukes (88.6 and 84.9% reduction, respectively). Calves given 25 mg of FBZ/kg and 35 mg of CLN/kg had nearly complete reduction of both mature (99.6%) and immature flukes (99.1%). Fasciola egg counts were reduced by greater than 99.5% in all treated groups. Against Ostertagia ostertagi, the percentage of efficacy of the combined FBZ (5 mg/kg) and CLN (7 mg/kg) treatment was 94.3% against adults and 81.3% against inhibited larvae. Efficacy against all other nematodes was 100%, except against Cooperia spp adults (98.3%) and immature Oesaphagostomum radiatum (88.0%). At 5 x dosage rates for FBZ and CLN, percentage of removal of adults and inhibited larvae of O ostertagi was 99.3 and 99.0%, respectively, and 99 to 100% for other nematodes. Results indicate that FBZ and CLN are compatible when mixed together and administered as an oral suspension to cattle and that the efficacy is similar to that of the drugs individually. On the basis of further results, we suggest that summer treatment may be superior in preventive value for gastrointestinal nematodes and F hepatica, compared with spring treatment, because of seasonal infection dynamics of the major cattle parasites in Louisiana. PMID:2301813

  4. Gastrointestinal nematodes of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from a semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anjos, L A; Avila, R W; Ribeiro, S C; Almeida, W O; da Silva, R J

    2013-12-01

    The tropidurid lizard Tropidurus hispidus has a wide distribution in South America. However, knowledge about its helminth fauna is patchy and has been reported for only a few localities along its range of distribution. This study presents data on helminth fauna composition and parameters of infection for a population of T. hispidus from an area within the Brazilian Caatinga biome (semi-arid physiognomy). We found five nematode species within the gastrointestinal tract of lizards: Parapharyngodon sceleratus (Pharyngodonidae); Physaloptera lutzi, Physaloptera retusa and Physalopteroides venancioi (Physalopteridae); and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae). The overall prevalence was 84.2% and the mean intensity of infection was 8.5 ± 1.1. The body size of adult male lizards influenced positively the intensity of infection. The infracommunities of nematodes presented an intermediate aggregated distribution (discrepancy index; D= 0.519) and a depauperate nematode fauna. The presence of generalist parasite species has contributed to an increase in the overall richness of the component community. This sampled host population presented the highest prevalence of parasites compared with other studies on T. hispidus, but their relatively low richness can be related to the disturbed environment of the study area. PMID:23069649

  5. Interaction between copper oxide wire particles and grazing sericea lespedeza to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because complete dewormer resistance is no longer uncommon in small ruminants, alternative means to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is imperative. The objective was to investigate the interaction between grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) and use of COWP to control GIN, where the primary speci...

  6. Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic sheep and goat production in the USA is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism, particularly by Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of ...

  7. Use of FAMACHA system to evaluate gastrointestinal nematode resistance/resilience in offspring of stud rams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilien...

  8. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the main constraints to ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in goats throughout Europe, yet little is known about the AR status in Italy. The aims of the study were: i) determine the frequency of AR in GINs in goat flocks in Northern Italy, Italy, ii) survey goat farmers on the current practices of parasite control, iii) update the species composition of the gastrointestinal helminthofauna. Thirty three flocks were enrolled and 1288 individual fecal samples were collected. Based on the egg per gram (EPG), 15 flocks were selected to evaluate the presence of AR in GINs with the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). A questionnaire surveyed 110 dairy goat farmers to acquire information about farm management and drenching practices against GINs. Further, the gastrointestinal tracts of 42 goats were analyzed. Results The FECRs indicated that five of the 15 flocks had problems of AR, which was identified in all two of the anthelmintic classes tested. Resistance and suspected resistance was found in 40% of the flocks selected for AR testing that were treated with benzimidazoles while 20% of the flocks treated with eprinomectin had resistant GINs. Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus L3 were isolated from the post-treatment coprocultures of all flocks with resistance but not from the flock with suspected oxfendazole resistance. Treatments against helminths were performed once annually in 73.63% of the flocks, but 20.00% of farmers declared not regularly treating their goats every year. Annual treatments usually occurred in autumn or winter at dose rate for sheep. Te. circumcincta, H. contortus, Tr. colubriformis, Skrjabinema caprae and Oesophagostomum venulosum were the most abundant and prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions Strategies to prevent the development of AR should be widely adopted in Northern Italy. Further, farmers and practitioners should be

  9. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with higher strongyle nematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of

  10. Efficacy of combined chemotherapy against gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Velarde, F; Vera-Montenegro, Y; Nájera-Fuentes, R; Sánchez-Albarran, A

    2001-08-20

    A controlled trial of the efficacy of several anthelmintic compounds as a combined therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) in naturally infected cattle was carried out. Twenty crossbred calves, 8-18 months old, were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica and GIN in the faeces. They were blocked in four groups of five animals each according to GIN fecal egg counts on day 0. Treatments were sequentially allocated to animals in each block as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control; Group 2 was treated with netobimin orally at 20 mg/kg; Group 3 received triclabendazole orally at 12 mg/kg and levamisole was applied intramuscularly at 5.5 mg/kg; Group 4 received clorsulon administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg and ivermectin s.c. at 200 microg/kg. Six to eight days after treatment the animals were euthanatized in order to collect and identify the parasites. Results showed a reduction of GIN by 87.3, 95.8 and 99.5% in Groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The percentage reduction of immature flukes was 0.0, 72.5, and 67.5% and for adult flukes 91.0, 97.5 and 100% for Groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Compounds indicated against nematodes showed high efficacy and products directed against F. hepatica acceptably removed adult flukes. However, efficacy against immature stages was generally not satisfactory. PMID:11502367

  11. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  12. Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Altaf; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Iqbal, Zafar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2011-06-30

    Evaluation of anthelmintic effects of Trianthema (T.) portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) whole plant and Musa (M.) paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) leaves against prevalent gastrointestinal worms of sheep was done that may justify their traditional use in veterinary clinical medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous methanolic extract (CAME) of both the plants was determined using mature female Haemonchus (H.) contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT), respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and CAME in increasing doses (1.0-8.0 g kg(-1)) was determined in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of nematodes using fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval counts. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Fecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity of the plants. CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca showed a strong in vitro anthelmintic activity and pronounced inhibitory effects on H. contortus egg hatching as observed through AMA and EHT, respectively. Both plants exhibited dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well as egg hatching. M. paradisiaca (LC(50)=2.13 μg mL(-1)) was found to be more potent than T. portulacastrum (LC(50)=2.41 μg mL(-1)) in EHT. However, in vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 85.6% and 80.7% with CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca at 8.0 g kg(-1) on 15th day post-treatment, respectively as compared to that of Levamisole (7.5 mg kg(-1)) that caused 97.0% reduction in EPG. All the species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostronglyus spp., Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis which were prevalent, found susceptible (P<0.01) to the different doses of CP and CAME of both plants. The data showed that both T

  13. Comparative efficacy and toxic effects of carvacryl acetate and carvacrol on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and mice.

    PubMed

    Andre, Weibson P P; Ribeiro, Wesley L C; Cavalcante, Géssica S; dos Santos, Jessica M L; Macedo, Iara T F; de Paula, Haroldo C B; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; de Morais, Selene M; de Melo, Janaina V; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L

    2016-03-15

    Carvacrol is a compound isolated from some essential oils. It has been reported to possess anthelmintic activity. Acetylation of this monoterpene has been proposed as a potential way to reduce the toxicity and enhance the pharmacological effects of carvacrol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carvacryl acetate (CA) using in vitro and in vivo assays with gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. The egg hatching test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worm motility (AWM) assessment were conducted to evaluate the effect of the acetylated product and pure carvacrol on Haemonchus contortus eggs, larvae and adults. The structural changes induced in adult H. contortus were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CA and carvacrol acute toxicity was evaluated in mice. Finally, the efficacy of 250 mg/kg CA and 2.5mg/kg monepantel (positive control) were evaluated in 30 sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). In vitro tests were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with Tukey's test. The efficacy was calculated by the Boot Street program using the arithmetic average. The number of eggs in feces (epg) of the groups were transformed to log (x+1) and subjected to ANOVA to compare differences among the groups by Tukey's test. The level of significance was P<0.05. CA and carvacrol inhibited larval hatching by 89.3 and 97.7% at doses of 8.0 and 1.0mg/ml, respectively. At the concentration of 2mg/ml, CA and carvacrol inhibited 100% of larval development. At a concentration of 200 μg/ml, CA and carvacrol inhibited the motility of adult worms by 100% and 58.3% at 24h post-exposure, respectively. CA caused cuticle and vulvar flap wrinkling and bubbles to emerge from the tegument. Carvacrol caused more discreet effects on the cuticle and vulvar flap. The LD10 and LD50 of CA were 566.7 mg/kg and 1544.5mg/kg, respectively. The LD10 and LD50 of carvacrol were

  14. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427) with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%), Complement C3 (0.7%), and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5%) were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR < 5%). Among the 94 224 splice junctions identified, 133 were uniquely present: 90 were observed only in resistant animals, and 43 were present only in susceptible animals. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of the genes under study uncovered an association with lipid metabolism, which was confirmed by an independent pathway analysis. Several pathways, such as FXR/RXR activation, LXR/RXR activation, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were impacted in resistant animals, which are potentially involved in the development of parasite resistance in cattle. Our results provide insights into the development of host immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infection and will facilitate understanding of mechanism underlying host resistance. PMID:22129081

  15. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frédéric; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385

  16. Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep in Northern region of Nile Delta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalafalla, Reda E; Elseify, Mahmoud A; Elbahy, Nasr M

    2011-02-01

    Over 1 year, from January to December 1999, a total of 173 slaughtered sheep at Al-Mahala abattoir were examined for presence of nematode parasites. Eighteen sheep (10.4%) were infected with eight different species of nematodes. The prevalence rates of detected nematode parasites were; Haemonchus contortus (3.5%), Haemonchus placei (1.7%), Trichuris ovis (5.8%), Parabronema skrjabini (2.9%), Ostertagia trifurcata (1.2%), Chabertia ovina (0.6%) and Strongyloides papillosus (0.6%), and Graphidiops species (2.9%). The seasonal prevalence of the infection with the nematode parasites was studied and the highest rate was during autumn (15.2%) followed by summer (11.1%) and winter (9.4%) while the lowest rate was during spring (5.6%). PMID:20922430

  17. Exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife: Predicting the impact of climate change on gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Hannah; Hoar, Bryanne; Kutz, Susan J.; Morgan, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Global change, including climate, policy, land use and other associated environmental changes, is likely to have a major impact on parasitic disease in wildlife, altering the spatio-temporal patterns of transmission, with wide-ranging implications for wildlife, domestic animals, humans and ecosystem health. Predicting the potential impact of climate change on parasites infecting wildlife will become increasingly important in the management of species of conservation concern and control of disease at the wildlife–livestock and wildlife–human interface, but is confounded by incomplete knowledge of host–parasite interactions, logistical difficulties, small sample sizes and limited opportunities to manipulate the system. By exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife, existing theoretical frameworks and research on livestock and their gastrointestinal nematodes can be adapted to wildlife systems. Similarities in the gastrointestinal nematodes and the life-histories of wild and domestic ruminants, coupled with a detailed knowledge of the ecology and life-cycle of the parasites, render the ruminant-GIN host–parasite system particularly amenable to a cross-disciplinary approach. PMID:25197625

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  19. Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes - the potential in low-input/output small ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K

    2016-07-30

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium

  20. Kinetics of capture and infection of infective larvae of trichostrongylides and free-living nematodes Panagrellus sp. by Duddingtonia flagrans.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; Araújo, Flávia Biasoli; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Damatta, Renato Augusto; de Paula Santos, Clóvis

    2011-10-01

    Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematode-trapping fungus, has been investigated as an agent for biological control against infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of production animals. The initial process of nematode-trapping fungi infection is based on an interaction between the trap structure of the fungus and the surface of the nematode cuticle. This report investigates by light and scanning electron microscopy the kinetics of capture and infection during the interaction of D. flagrans with the infective larvae (L(3)) of trichostrongylides and the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. D. flagrans was cultivated for 7 days in a Petri dish containing agar-water. L(3) and Panagrellus sp. were inoculated in the Petri dishes and the samples consisting of agar-L(3)-fungi and agar-Panagrellus sp.-fungi were collected after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min and 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 h of interaction. All samples were observed by light microscopy. The samples with 1, 5, 15, and 25 h of interaction were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction was monitored up to 25 h. An initial differentiation of predation structures was observed after 30 min of interaction. The presence of traps and of captured L(3) or Panagrellus sp. occurred after 70 min. The live captured nematodes were observed up to 3 h of interaction. However, after 4 h, all Panagrellus sp. were dead. It took 15 h of interaction for the fungus to invade the L(3), and the presence of hyphae inside the nematode near the region of penetration was evident. At this time, the hyphae had filled the whole body of Panagrellus sp. The complete occupation of the body of L(3) occurred at 20 h of interaction and with 25 h the nematode was completely damaged except for the cuticle. Although the double cuticle of L(3) slows the penetration of D. flagrans, it was possible to verify that the process of trap formation and capture occurs quickly when both nematodes were tested, suggesting that

  1. Innate Immune Sensors and Gastrointestinal Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hold, Georgina L.; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Monie, Tom P.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota is a major source of immune stimulation. The interaction between host pattern-recognition receptors and conserved microbial ligands profoundly influences infection dynamics. Identifying and understanding the nature of these interactions is a key step towards obtaining a clearer picture of microbial pathogenesis. These interactions underpin a complex interplay between microbe and host that has far reaching consequences for both. Here, we review the role of pattern recognition receptors in three prototype diseases affecting the stomach, the small intestine, and large intestine, respectively (Helicobacter pylori infection, Salmonella infection, and inflammatory bowel disease). Specifically, we review the nature and impact of pathogen:receptor interactions, their impact upon pathogenesis, and address the relevance of pattern recognition receptors in the development of therapies for gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:21647408

  2. [The Most Common Acute Gastrointestinal Infections].

    PubMed

    Greuter, Thomas; Magdeburg, Bernhard

    2015-10-14

    Acute gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea with vomiting as its main presentation are a frequently encountered entity in an outpatient setting. Due to a mostly self-limiting disease course a diagnostic work-up is often futile. Viral infections caused by Noro- or Rotavirus are most frequent, while bacterial infections are second line due to high hygienic standards in developed countries. In an inpatient setting and after a precedent antibiotic treatment one should think of clostridium difficile. Traveler’s diarrhea represents a special case, with most of the cases caused by enterovirulent E. coli. In this mini review we describe the most important pathogens in detail. PMID:26463905

  3. Current Status for Gastrointestinal Nematode Diagnosis in Small Ruminants: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Sarah Jane Margaret; Gonzalez, Jorge; Piedrafita, David

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites pose a significant economic burden particularly in small ruminant production systems. Anthelmintic resistance is a serious concern to the effective control of GIN parasites and has fuelled the focus to design and promote sustainable control of practices of parasite control. Many facets of sustainable GIN parasite control programs rely on the ability to diagnose infection both qualitatively and quantitatively. Diagnostics are required to determine anthelmintic efficacies, for targeted treatment programs and selection of animals for parasite resistant breeding. This review describes much of the research investigated to date to improve the current diagnostic for the above practices which is based on counting the number of parasite eggs in faeces. PMID:25258718

  4. An improved method for nematode infection assays in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Pavel; Wang, Zhi; Markus, Robert; Theopold, Ulrich; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) seek out host insects and release their symbiotic bacteria into their body cavity causing septicaemia, which eventually leads to host death. The interaction between EPNs and their hosts are only partially understood, in particular the host immune responses appears to involve pathways other than phagocytosis and the canonical transcriptional induction pathways. These pathways are genetically tractable and include for example clotting factors and lipid mediators. The aim of this study was to optimize the nematode infections in Drosophila melanogaster larvae, a well-studied and genetically tractable model organism. Here we show that two nematode species namely Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora display different infectivity toward Drosophila larvae with the latter being less pathogenic. The effects of supporting media and IJ dosage on the mortality of the hosts were assessed and optimized. Using optimum conditions, a faster and efficient setup for nematode infections was developed. This newly established infection model in Drosophila larvae will be applicable in large scale screens aimed at identifying novel genes/pathways involved in innate immune responses. PMID:22614785

  5. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  6. Transcriptional profiling of the ovine abomasal lymph node reveals a role for timing of the immune response in gastrointestinal nematode resistance.

    PubMed

    McRae, Kathryn M; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; McCabe, Matthew S; Cormican, Paul; Sweeney, Torres; O'Connell, Mary J; Keane, Orla M

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in grazing ruminants. The major ovine defence mechanism is acquired immunity, with protective immunity developing over time in response to infection. Nematode resistance varies both within and between breeds and is moderately heritable. A detailed understanding of the genes and mechanisms involved in protective immunity, and the factors that regulate this response, is required to aid both future breeding strategies and the development of effective and sustainable nematode control methods. The aim of this study was to compare the abomasal lymph node transcriptome of resistant and susceptible lambs in order to determine biological processes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible individuals. Scottish Blackface lambs, with divergent phenotypes for resistance, were challenged with 30,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae (L3), and abomasal lymph nodes recovered at 7 and 14days post-infection (dpi). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from the abomasal lymph node was used to quantitatively sample the transcriptome with an average of 32 million reads per sample. A total of 194 and 144 genes were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible lambs at 7 and 14 dpi respectively. Differentially expressed networks and biological processes were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Genes involved in the inflammatory response, attraction of T lymphocytes and binding of leukocytes were more highly expressed in resistant animals at 7 dpi and in susceptible animals at 14 dpi indicating that resistant animals respond to infection earlier than susceptible animals. Twenty-four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within 11 differentially expressed genes, were tested for association with gastrointestinal nematode resistance in the Scottish Blackface lambs. Four SNP, in 2 genes (SLC30A2 and ALB), were suggestively associated with faecal egg count. In conclusion, a large

  7. New Insights into Gastrointestinal Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Tao; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are the primary cause of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in both developing and developed countries, and are particularly dangerous for infants and children. Bacillus anthracis is the “archetype zoonotic” pathogen; no other infectious disease affects such a broad range of species, including humans. Importantly, there are more case reports of GI anthrax infection in children than inhalational disease. Early diagnosis is difficult and widespread systemic disease develops rapidly. This review highlights new findings concerning the roles of the gut epithelia, commensal microbiota, and innate lymphoid cells in initiation of disease and systemic dissemination in animal models of GI anthrax, the understanding of which is crucial to designing alternative therapies that target establishment of infection. PMID:25577136

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of a Mexican strain of Duddingtonia flagrans as a biological control agent against gastrointestinal nematodes in goat faeces.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Robertos, N F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2005-06-01

    The use of Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of goat nematodes was investigated. Initially, the time of passage of chlamydospores through the digestive tract of goats was evaluated. Two groups of seven parasite-free kids were formed. Group A received a single dose of 3.5x10(6) D. flagrans chlamydospores (FTHO-8 strain) per kg of live weight. Group B did not receive any chlamydospores. Faeces were obtained from each kid daily from day 4 prior to inoculation until day 5 post-inoculation (PI) and were placed in Petri dishes containing water agar. Gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae were added to each Petri dish and incubated at 25 degrees C for 7 days. Petri dishes were examined to detect the fungus and trapped nematodes. A second trial evaluated the effect of D. flagrans on the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae harvested from goat faecal cultures in naturally infected goats. Two groups of seven goats were formed. The treated group received a single dose of 3.5x10(6) D. flagrans chlamydospores per kg of liveweight. The control group did not receive any chlamydospores. Faeces were obtained twice daily from each kid. Two faecal cultures were made for each kid. One was incubated for 7 days and the other for 14 days. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae were recovered from each culture and counted. Percentage of larval development reduction was determined using a ratio of larvae/eggs deposited in the control and treated groups. Duddingtonia flagrans survived the digestive process of goats, and maintained its predatory activity, being observed from 21 to 81 h PI (3 to 4 days). A reduction in the infective larvae population in the treated group compared to the non-treated group was observed in both incubation periods (7 days: 5.3-36.0%; 14 days: 0-52.8%, P>0.05). Although a single inoculation of D. flagrans can induce a reduction of infective larvae collected from faeces, a different scheme of dosing may be needed to enhance the efficacy of D. flagrans in

  9. Genome-Wide Scan of Gastrointestinal Nematode Resistance in Closed Angus Population Selected for Minimized Influence of MHC

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3) with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC). DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection. PMID:25803687

  10. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  11. Evaluation of a British computer model to simulate gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep on Canadian farms.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, A D; Learmount, J; VanLeeuwen, J; Peregrine, A S; Kelton, D; Menzies, P I; Fernández, S; Martin, R C; Mederos, A; Taylor, M A

    2010-11-24

    With increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance worldwide and a growing demand to produce more organic products, utilisation of control strategies for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) that minimize the use of anthelmintics becomes even more important. This study evaluated the farm-level performance of an existing predictive sheep parasite model from the United Kingdom (UK), using Canadian data. The UK model simulates the epidemiology of three major GIN species of interest (Teladorsagia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.) and provides a prediction about seasonal parasite levels of lambs and ewes. Model inputs were generated by using data from the first 2 years of a 3-year study (2006-2008) which examined the epidemiology of GIN parasitism in Ontario sheep flocks. Required input data included ewe parasite egg output, pasture-related information and management dynamics. Farm visits in 2006 and 2007 provided relevant data that were collected monthly during the grazing season, on six and seven occasions respectively. These data were collected from 10 ewes and 10 lambs on each farm. For 23 Ontario farms with available data, only 11 farms in 2006 and 14 in 2007 had suitable data to run in the model because the Canadian study was not specifically designed with this simulation model in mind. Observed values for faecal egg counts (FEC) were compared to the model FEC outputs and assessed using linear regression analysis. There was adequate fit between observed and simulated data for 8 of the 11 farms modelled using data generated in 2006 (F=7.55-42.66, df=10-11, R(2)=0.43-0.81, p=0.021 to <0.001) and with 8 of the farms modelled using data generated in 2007 (F=5.56-35.82, df=9-11, R(2)=0.36-0.82, p=0.040 to <0.001). We suggest that the poor fit between observed and simulated data for some data sets may be attributable to low-level infection on farms making regression difficult due to insensitivity of the egg count method at low values, or a pattern for immunity

  12. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in a commercial sheep flock and its implications for control programmes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Sargison, N D; Scott, P R; Penny, C D

    2008-04-26

    The epidemiology of nematode infections in a UK commercial crossbred sheep flock was studied from January 2004 to January 2005. The ewes were treated orally with moxidectin when they were turned out of the lambing shed on to nematode-contaminated pasture, and the lambs were treated orally with ivermectin throughout the summer in accordance with the farm's usual practice, with the aim of near-suppressive nematode control. The lactating ewes experienced a significant increase in faecal egg count during the early summer, after the period of persistence of the moxidectin treatment had ended. The ewes' and lambs' egg outputs were dominated by Teladorsagia species, despite the persistence of the effect of moxidectin against this genus. The gimmers (primiparous two-year-old ewes) had a significantly greater faecal egg count at lambing than the three- to four-year-old ewes, but the older ewes had significantly greater post-treatment increases. The population of Trichostrongylus species appeared to follow accepted epidemiological patterns, with no evidence of summer trichostrongylosis. In late summer and autumn the faecal egg output of the ewes was primarily due to large intestinal nematodes. PMID:18441350

  13. Interaction between high protein supplement and copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in growing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the interaction between high protein supplementation and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in growing female goats. Haemonchus contortus is the primary GIN during summer months on this farm. In early August 2006, Boer an...

  14. Administration of copper oxide wire particles in a capsule or feed for gastrointestinal nematode control in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants has necessitated alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) administered as a gelatin capsule or in a feed supplement to control GIN in goa...

  15. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a lar...

  16. DYNAMICS OF CARBON DIOXIDE RELEASE FROM INSECTS INFECTED WITH ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of an insect as a host to an entomopathogenic nematode infective juvenile depends in part on whether or not the insect is already infected and on the stage of that infection. Previous research has shown that nematode response to hosts can change after infection and that, for uninfected ...

  17. Efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and toxicity for mice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J C; Ribeiro, W L C; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Macedo, I T F; Santos, J M L; Paula, H C B; Araújo Filho, J V; Magalhães, R D; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2014-08-29

    Herbal medicines with anthelmintic effects are alternatives for the sustainable control and prevention of disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites. The nanoencapsulation of essential oils has been proposed to enhance the absorption of their constituents and improve their efficacy. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO) on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan was used as a matrix for the formulation of a nanoemulsion. Chromatographic and physico-chemical analyses of EcEO were performed. Egg hatch (EHT) and larval development (LDT) tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated and free EcEO on the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Acute toxicity of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO was evaluated using mice. Finally, nanoencapsulated EcEO efficacy on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes was calculated by fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) treating 30 sheep naturally infected with 250 mg/kg of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO. In vitro tests were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with the Tukey test. The efficacy of FECRT was calculated by the BootStreet program through arithmetic average, using the formula 100 (1-XT/XC). To compare the differences between epg, the data were transformed to log(x+1) and subjected to an ANOVA to compare the significant differences between groups by Tukey's. The level of significance was P<0.05. The free (4 mg/ml concentration) and nanoencapsulated (2mg/ml concentration) EcEO inhibited larvae hatching by 97.2% and 92.8%, respectively. Free and nanoencapsulated EcEO at 8 mg/ml inhibited larval development by 99.8% and 98.1%, respectively. In the acute toxicity test, the LD10 and LD50 of free EcEO was 1999 and 2653 mg/kg, respectively, while the LD10 and LD50 of nanoencapsulated EcEO was 1121 and 1681 mg/kg, respectively

  18. Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of infestation with major gastrointestinal nematodes in equines in and around Shashemane, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tesfaye, Mulualem; Derso, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of major gastrointestinal nematode infestation in equines were studied through a cross-sectional survey in 384 equids from October 2013 to April 2014 in and around Shashemane, southern Ethiopia. Three hundred and fifteen equids (82 %) were demonstrated harbouring one or more gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes using the faecal flotation technique. The prevalence of GIT nematode infestation was 73.4, 85 and 86.5 % for horses, mules and donkeys, respectively. The identified nematodes were strongyle type (73.4 %), Parascaris equorum (21.4 %) and Oxyuris equi (4.4 %). Species of equines had a significant (χ (2) = 9.35, P < 0.01) association with the occurrence of GIT nematode infestation. Donkeys were two times (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.27-4.28, P < 0.01) more likely getting GIT nematode infestation than horses. Moreover, donkeys had the highest mean faecal egg counts (1831.2 egg per gram (EPG)) followed by mules (915.7 EPG) and horses (772.5 EPG). There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between mean EPG and body condition score in each equine species. In conclusion, this study provides information which might help in designing upcoming control strategies to control nematode infestation in equines. Moreover, suitable tropical climatic conditions, low level of management and owners' awareness, and poor animal health services are expected to contribute for high nematode infestation. Therefore, emphasis should be given to awareness creation about the strategic deworming, animal welfare and management. PMID:26205906

  19. An increase in epithelial cell apoptosis is associated with chronic intestinal nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Laura J; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine E; Grencis, Richard K

    2007-04-01

    It is well established that homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium becomes dysregulated during gastrointestinal helminth infection and is under immune control. An increase in both enterocyte proliferation and the subsequent generation of crypt hyperplasia are hallmarks of chronic infection with Trichuris muris, a large intestinal dwelling nematode. The effect of this parasitic infection on apoptosis induction in the large intestine and its regulation has been neglected. To address this, mice of resistant and susceptible phenotypes were infected with different doses of T. muris, and the levels of epithelial cell apoptosis were determined. It is clear that apoptosis is induced during chronic T. muris infection. This occurs mainly at the base of the cecal crypt, within the stem cell region. The level of apoptosis induced is independent of worm number, suggesting that it is not a consequence of worm-induced damage but rather a mechanism for controlling cell number within the crypt. Neutralization of both gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha caused a significant reduction in the levels of apoptosis, showing that proinflammatory cytokines generated in response to chronic infection play an important role in apoptosis induction in this system. It is proposed that the generation of proinflammatory cytokines during chronic T. muris infection may play a positive role, by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, to counter infection-induced epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:17242061

  20. Efficacy of an albendazole feed formulation against bovine gastrointestinal nematodes including arrested larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Greiner, E C; Whitten, R D

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of an albendazole feed premix formulation was compared with that of an albendazole drench suspension for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in 31 beef cattle. The premix (11 cattle) and drench suspension (9 cattle) were found to have similar efficacies at a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight. When compared with controls (11 cattle), both formulations caused significant (P less than 0.05) reductions in worm counts with an efficacy of 98% or greater against adult Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia punctata, and C pectinata. There was no significant effect against arrested 4th-stage larvae of O ostertagi. Adverse effects of albendazole treatment were not observed, and the premix formulation was readily consumed by cattle. PMID:3946888

  1. Infection Behavior and Overwintering Survival of Foliar Nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, on Hosta

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the pathogenicity and overwintering survival of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, infecting Hosta spp. Nematodes applied to either lower or upper sides of noninjured and injured hosta leaves were able to infect and produce typical symptoms on nine cultivars. Leaves of only four cultivars (Borschi, Fragrant Blue, Patomic Pride, and Olive Bailey Langdon) showed no symptoms of nematode infection. The nematodes overwintered as juveniles and adults in soil, dry leaves, and dormant buds, but not in roots. Nematode winter survival was higher in dormant buds and soil from the polyhouse than in an open home garden. Of the nematodes found in the dormant buds, 35% to 79% were located between the first two outside layers of the buds. The nematodes tolerated 8 hr exposure to 40°C and −80°C in leaf tissues. Relative humidity influenced nematode migration from soil to leaves. The presence of nematodes only on the outer surface of foliage (leaves and petioles) confirmed the migration of A. fragariae on the surface of the plants. Of the total number of nematodes found on the foliage, 25% to 46% and 66% to 77% were alive at 90% and 100% relative humidity, respectively, suggesting that high moisture is required for the survival and upward movement of nematodes. We conclude that A. fragariae can overwinter in soil, infected dry leaves, and dormant buds and migrate in films of water on the outer surface of the plant during spring to leaves to initiate infection. PMID:19259438

  2. Dynamics of CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets in lymph nodes draining the site of intestinal nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Adam; Smith, Katherine A.; Harcus, Yvonne; Maizels, Rick M.

    2009-01-01

    Helminth parasites drive dominant Th2 responses through an as yet unidentified pathway. We have previously shown that the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis secretes products which selectively activate in vitro-derived dendritic cells to induce Th2 responses on in vivo transfer. We now show that, during active infection with this parasite, the draining mesenteric lymph node dendritic cell population is altered significantly. Although there is substantial expansion of DC numbers during infection, the CD86hi-CD8αint-CD11b− subset is markedly diminished, and expression levels of CD40, CD86 and CD103 are reduced. Notably, the reduced frequency of CD8αint DCs is evident only in those mesenteric lymph nodes draining the anterior site of infestation. In infections with the longer lived Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the proportion of CD8αint DCs in the MLNC falls to below 10% of total DC numbers by 35 days post-infection. Further, infection alters TLR responsiveness, as IL-12 production (as measured by ex vivo intracellular staining of CD11c+ DCs) in response to LPS stimulation is reduced, while IL-6, TNF-α and in particular, IL-10 all increase following infection with either nematode parasite. These changes suggest the possibility that helminth parasites modulate gastrointestinal immunity both by inhibiting migration of CD8αint DCs to the draining lymph nodes, and modifying DC responsiveness in a manner which favours a Th2 outcome. PMID:19766674

  3. Nematodes Infect, But Do Not Manipulate Digging By, Sand Crabs, Lepidopa benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat. PMID:24916475

  4. A novel approach to biocontrol: release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juv...

  5. Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

    2014-01-01

    In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1–2 years) 1. Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2·5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) 2. Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host–helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

  6. The Effects of Root-knot Nematode Infection and Mi-mediated Nematode Resistance in Tomato on Plant Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Brandon P.; Jia, Lingling; Sayler, Ronald J.; Arevalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka

    2011-01-01

    The Mi-1.2 resistance gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). This study examined the impact of M. javanica on the reproductive fitness of near-isogenic tomato cultivars with and without Mi-1.2 under field and greenhouse conditions. Surprisingly, neither nematode inoculation or host plant resistance impacted the yield of mature fruits in field microplots (inoculum=8,000 eggs/plant), or fruit or seed production in a follow-up greenhouse bioassay conducted with a higher inoculum level (20,000 eggs/plant). However, under heavy nematode pressure (200,000 eggs/plant), greenhouse-grown plants carrying Mi-1.2 had more than ten-fold greater fruit production than susceptible plants and nearly forty-fold greater estimated lifetime seed production, confirming prior reports of the benefits of Mi-1.2. In all cases Mi-mediated resistance significantly reduced nematode reproduction. These results indicated that tomato can utilize tolerance mechanisms to compensate for moderate levels of nematode infection, but that the Mi-1.2 resistance gene confers a dramatic fitness benefit under heavy nematode pressure. No significant cost of resistance was detected in the absence of nematode infection. PMID:22791916

  7. Changes in biochemical analytes in calves infected by nematode parasites in field conditions.

    PubMed

    de Cezaro, Marcela C; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Tecles, Fernando; Céron, José J; Eckersall, David P; Ferreira, João C P; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S

    2016-03-30

    Parasitic infections caused by nematodes are a major problem in bovines that resulting in losses in animal health and production. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in selected serum biochemical analytes in calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary nematodes without clinical signs. For this, samples of feces and blood of 86 calves were collected. Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined using the modified McMaster technique with a sensitivity of 50 eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Positive nematode FEC was processed for coproculture using pooled samples to identify Strongylidae infective larvae (L3). First stage-larvae (L1) of Dictyocaulus viviparous were identified by a modified Baermann method. The biochemical analytes determined were: acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin and paraoxonase type 1; the enzymes acetylcholinesterase; butyrylcholinesterase; the lipid profile (triglycerides and total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol); serum iron profile (iron and unsaturated iron-binding capacity); total protein and albumin; pancreatic profile (amylase and lipase); and minerals (phosphorus and calcium). The calves were divided into four groups according to the results of EPG and the modified Baermann method. Group 1: healthy control animals (n=16); Group 2: calves with only GI parasites (n=51): This group was sub-divided into sub-groups according to the EPG threshold: 2a-GI parasites with low EPG (n=23), and 2b-GI parasites with high EPG (n=28). Group 3: animals with only lungworms (n=5), and Group 4: calves with lung+GI parasites (n=14). The more prevalent genera in all coprocultures were: Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups and Dunn's post-test was used for multiple comparisons as the data was not normally distributed (P<0.05). The haptoglobin concentration increased in calves with GI and pulmonary parasites. A

  8. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis. PMID:26154957

  9. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. PMID:22632643

  10. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  11. A novel method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with insect pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Julio Cesar; Shokal, Upasana; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila has been established as an excellent genetic and genomic model to investigate host-pathogen interactions and innate immune defense mechanisms. To date, most information on the Drosophila immune response derives from studies that involve bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. However, immune reactions to insect parasitic nematodes are still not well characterized. The nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora live in symbiosis with the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, and they are able to invade and kill insects. Interestingly, Heterorhabditis nematodes are viable in the absence of Photorhabdus. Techniques for infecting Drosophila larvae with these nematodes have been previously reported. Here, we have developed a method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with Heterorhabditis nematodes carrying (symbiotic worms) or lacking (axenic worms) their associated bacteria. The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model. PMID:22546901

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, S; Kyriazakis, I; Jackson, F; Coop, R L

    2001-08-20

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine possible direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. A larval development/viability assay was used to investigate the effect of a condensed tannin extract (Quebracho) towards larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus. The development to infective larvae and their viability was assessed in all three species and LD 50 values were calculated. The presence of Quebracho extract in the cultures decreased the viability of L3 in all species; the LD 50 were not significantly different for the different species. Forty-eight sheep were allocated to one of eight groups and were infected with a single dose of either 4000 L3 H. contortus (groups 1 and 2) or 5000 L3 T. colubriformis and 5000 L3 Nematodirus battus simultaneously (groups 3-6) or 10,000 L3 of T. circumcincta (groups 7 and 8). From day 28 until day 31 of the experiment, sheep infected with the intestinal species were drenched with Quebracho extract at 4, 8 or 16% w/w of food intake, or remained as undrenched controls; sheep infected with the abomasal species were either drenched with Quebracho extract at 8% w/w of food intake or remained as undrenched controls. All sheep were slaughtered 4 days after the end of the drenching period. Sheep infected with the intestinal species and drenched with 16% w/w Quebracho had lower FEC compared to sheep drenched with 8% w/w (P<0.05), which in turn were lower than in sheep either drenched with 4% Quebracho or which remained undrenched (P<0.05). The lowest intestinal worm burden was recovered from sheep drenched with 8% w/w Quebracho extract (P<0.05). The administration of Quebracho extract at 8% of food intake for 3 days did not affect FEC or worm burdens in sheep infected with the abomasal species compared to controls. PMID:11502368

  13. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Albin M; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; McGettigan, Paul; Browne, John; Keane, Orla M; Bahar, Bojlul; Mehta, Jai; Markey, Bryan; Lohan, Amanda; Sweeney, Torres

    2015-01-01

    Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1) profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2) identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6) and Suffolk (n = 4) lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1) genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001). The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed. PMID:25978040

  14. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Albin M.; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P.; McGettigan, Paul; Browne, John; Keane, Orla M.; Bahar, Bojlul; Mehta, Jai; Markey, Bryan; Lohan, Amanda; Sweeney, Torres

    2015-01-01

    Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1) profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2) identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6) and Suffolk (n = 4) lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1) genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001). The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed. PMID:25978040

  15. Direct and indirect effects of bioactive tannin-rich tropical and temperate legumes against nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Hoste, H; Martinez-Ortiz-De-Montellano, C; Manolaraki, F; Brunet, S; Ojeda-Robertos, N; Fourquaux, I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2012-05-01

    Parasitic infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) represent a major pathological threat associated with the outdoor production of various livestock species. Up to now, the control of these parasitic diseases essentially relied on the use of commercial anthelmintic drugs. However, resistance to anthelmintics is nowadays widespread in worm populations. Recent results indicate that bioactive tanniniferous plants represent a valuable option as an alternative to commercial drugs for the control of GINs. The pertinent use of tannin-containing fodders as nutraceuticals supposes a clear understanding of the mode of action against the worms. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to discuss the nature and quantity of the active molecules involved in the anthelmintic activity; and (2) to review and analyze the changes provoked to the various parasitic stages. The possible involvement of some main polyphenols to explain the bioactivity of some tannin-rich plants will be discussed as well as the possible effects on the various nematode stages, relying on data obtained either with the temperate forage, sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifoliae) or with the tropical legume tree (Lysiloma latisiliquum). The information on the mode of action will be related to the potential consequences for better field applications under entirely different environmental and ecological conditions of productions. PMID:22188981

  16. [Evaluation of the efficacy of antihelmintics compounds on parasitics gastrointestinal nematodes (Strongyloidea) of goats].

    PubMed

    Silva, André Ricardo E; De Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio R; De Oliveira, Aécio Carlos; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araújo, Juliana M; Castejon, Fernanda V

    2008-09-01

    The present study was performed in order to evaluate the action of anthelmintics compounds on gastrointestinal parasite nematodes of 27 Alpine and Saanen adult goats. The animals were divided into three groups. The animals of groups 1 and 2 had been dealt with two different associations of antihelminthics in day zero. The goats in group 1 were treated with closantel (75 mg/mL), albendazol (38 mg/mL) and ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/ 10 Kg body weight); animals in group 2 were treated with closantel (100 mg/mL), albendazol (50 mg/mL), levamisol (64 mg/mL), ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL), selenium (1 mg/mL) and cobalt (4.4 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/10 Kg of body weight) and the animals in the group 3 (control) received distilled water. Eggs per gram counts on faeces (EPG) and coprocultures of all animals were made at intervals of days 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The haematocrit, global counting and differential white blood cells, total protein and the Famacha test were determined at intervals of days 0, 14 and 28. Six animals of each group had suffered euthanasia and slaughters on the 28th day. The results showed that only the combination used in the animals of group 2 was effective. PMID:20059830

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  18. Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian farm flocks.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, N; Gruner, L; Giangaspero, M; Tabbaa, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 1,474 adult sheep from 73 flocks distributed in the 13 provinces of Syria. Faecal egg and larval nematode outputs were studied. Marshallagia and Nematodirus infections were higher in the driest areas; infections by other nematodes, Dictyocaulus and small lungworms (Cystocaulus and Muellerius) were higher in the more rainy areas. A long transhumance limited small lungworm infections, which were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. PMID:7795666

  19. Hidden in Plain Sight: Chlamydial Gastrointestinal Infection and Its Relevance to Persistence in Human Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of persistence in chlamydial infections has been recognized for about 80 years, there is still very little known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In this review, we revisit an old paradigm, long known to chlamydiologists and veterinarians, that in virtually all hosts of chlamydiae, including mammals and birds, chlamydiae reside in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time in the absence of clinical disease. Thus, if gastrointestinal infection occurs in most hosts, then it is very likely that gastrointestinal infection occurs in humans as well. We demonstrate that gastrointestinal infection does indeed occur in humans and propose that this anatomical site is the source of persistent infection in humans. The data in ruminants and animal models demonstrate that the immune system is unable to clear chlamydiae from the gut, so they can remain indefinitely, with continual shedding in feces. Clearly, many women become reinfected from an untreated partner; however, we propose that women, cured of genital infection, remain at risk for autoinoculation from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, there are substantial data demonstrating treatment failure of chlamydial infections, particularly with azithromycin. New data in the mouse model have shown that azithromycin is far less effective against chlamydial gastrointestinal infection than against genital infections. Therefore, it is possible that women cured of genital infection by antibiotics remain infected in the gastrointestinal tract and can become reinfected by autoinoculation from that site. PMID:24421044

  20. Outer Ear Canal Infection with Rhabditis sp. Nematodes in a Human

    PubMed Central

    Würfel, Waldemar; Sedlacek, Ludwig; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Tappe, Dennis; Hornef, Mathias Walter

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the first human case of an outer ear canal infection with a free-living nematode of the genus Rhabditis. Otomicroscopy revealed viable worms in the outer ear canal of a patient suffering from chronic otorrhea and hearing loss. The nematode was identified by microscopy and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR. PMID:24599974

  1. Infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of Boophilus annulatus (Arachnida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    1992-07-01

    Exposing Boophilus annulatus (Say) to different concentrations of Steinernema carpocapsae (Filipjev) infective juveniles in petri dishes (50-10,000 nematodes per dish) resulted in high mortality (greater than 90%) at nematode concentrations as low as 500 nematodes per dish within 8 d. At a concentration of 10,000 nematodes per dish, 100% of the ticks died within 2 d after infestation. After exposure to 500 nematodes per dish, complete mortality was achieved with the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain 'HP88' within 4 d. During the same period, only 15 and 40% mortality were recorded with the 'Mexican' and 'All' strains of S. carpocapsae, respectively. In a lethal dose analysis, S. carpocapsae strain 'DT' was the most infective strain with the lowest LD50 and LD90 values (15 and 165 infective juveniles per tick, respectively). The 'All' strain of S. carpocapsae was the least infective of the four strains tested, with LD50 and LD90 values of 372 and 9,251 infective juveniles/tick, respectively. Optimal temperature for tick control by the nematodes was between 22 and 26 degrees C. Mortality rate was reduced at 18 and 30 degrees C. The susceptibility of fully engorged ticks was not influenced by the weight of the replete females. Nematode infection did not have an adverse effect on egg laying by surviving ticks. PMID:1495070

  2. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms. PMID:26448902

  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species. PMID:22380595

  4. Use of FAMACHA system to evaluate gastrointestinal nematode resistance/resilience in offspring of stud rams.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E

    2008-05-01

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilient/resistant offspring, and thus identification of stud rams with greater resilience/resistance. Katahdin ewes bred in separate groups to two sires to lamb in spring (2004, 2005: Ram A and Ram B; 2006, 2007: Ram C and Ram D) at the USDA, Agricultural Research Station in Booneville, Arkansas produced 20-40 offspring/sire each year. Ewes and lambs grazed mixed grass (predominantly bermudagrass and ryegrass) pastures and were supplemented with corn/soybean meal between 30 days pre- and 60 days post-lambing (ewes) and starting 45 days of age until weaning (lambs; 95.0+/-0.6 days of age). Blood samples and feces were collected from the lambs to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) and FAMACHA scores were determined at 90, 120, and 150 days of age. Lambs were dewormed if anemic (PCV<19% or FAMACHA score >2) and data removed within 30 days after deworming. Data were analyzed for the 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 groups using general linear models with year, sex of lamb, and sire nested within year as variables. Sire differences were detected (P<0.05 or less) for PCV and FAMACHA at all time points, but not FEC. There tended (P<0.10) to be sire differences for FEC at 90 and 120 days of age, but not at 150 days of age. Lambs sired by Ram D were dewormed less by 150 days of age than those sired by Ram C. The FAMACHA system can be used to identify superior sires for parasite resilience/resistance, thus increasing flock resilience, and perhaps resistance. PMID:18314274

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  6. ATTRACTION BEHAVIOR OF THREE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE SPECIES TOWARDS INFECTED AND UNINFECTED HOSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes bridge the gap between hosts by producing infective stage juveniles that search for, and infect, insects. Infective juveniles are likely to encounter both uninfected and already infected host insects, which will differ in their quality as a host. Here we tested the attra...

  7. High infectivity of an endoparasitic fungus strain, Esteya vermicola, against nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Fang, Zhe Ming; Sun, Bai Shen; Gu, Li Juan; Zhang, Ke Qin; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2008-08-01

    Esteya vermicola, as the first recorded endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematodes, exhibits great potential as a biological agent against nematodes. However, only two strains of this species have been described so far. In this study, we identified a novel endoparasitic fungal strain, CNU 120806, isolated from infected nematodes in forest soil samples during a survey of nematophagous fungi in Korea. This strain showed similar morphological characteristics and infection mode with the two previously described strains of E. vermicola. All strains are characterized by the ability to produce two types of conidiogenous cells and conidia, and to parasitize nematodes with lunate adhesive conidia. Moreover, the CNU 120806 strain showed 100% identity with E. vermicola CBS 115803 when their partial sequences of 28S rRNA gene were compared. Molecular phylogenetic analysis further identified CNU 120806 as a strain of E. vermicola, by clustering CNU 120806 and E. vermicola CBS 115803 into a single subclade. Culture medium influenced the proportion of dimorphic CNU 120806 conidia, and further changed the adhesive and mortality rates of nematodes. The CNU 120806 strain exhibits high infection activity against nematodes on nutrient-rich PDA medium. Almost all tested nematodes were killed within 8 approximately 10 days after inoculation. This study provides justification for further research of E. vermicola, and the application and formulation of this fungus as a bio-control agent against nematodes. PMID:18758727

  8. Biological Control of the Nematode Infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae Family With Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin, Majid; Rahdar, Mahmoud; Gholamian, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biological control of parasitic nematodes by microorganisms is a promising approach to control such parasites. Microorganisms such as fungi, viruses and bacteria are recognized as biocontrol agents of nematodes. Objectives: The current study mainly aimed to evaluate the in vitro Potential of various saprophyte soil-fungi in reducing the infective larvae stage of parasitic nematode Trichostrongylidae family. Materials and Methods: Sheep feces were employed to provide the required third stage larvae source for the experiments. The nematode infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae family including three species of Ostertagia circumcincta, Marshalgia marshali and Heamonchos contortus were collected by Berman apparatus. Fifteen isolates of filamentous fungi were tested in the current study. One milliliter suspension containing 200 third stage larvae of Trichostrongylidae family was separately added to the fungal cultures in 2% water-agar medium Petri-dishes. Every day the live larvae were counted with light microscope (10X) and the number of captured larvae was recorded on different days. Results: Significant differences were observed in the results of co-culture of nematodes larva and fungi after seven days. The most effective fungi against the nematodes larvae were Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium equisetti, after seven days of incubation. Conclusions: The studies on fungi could be applied as suitable tools in biocontrol of nematode infections. However, additional surveys are required to select efficient with the ability to reduce the nematode larvae in the environment. PMID:25893084

  9. Effect of condensed tannins extracted from four forages on the viability of the larvae of deer lungworms and gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Molan, A L; Hoskin, S O; Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    2000-07-01

    The inhibitory activity of condensed tannins extracted from four forage legume plants were evaluated by using a larval migration inhibition assay. The first (L1) and third (L3) stages of deer lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus), and the third stage (L3) of deer gastrointestinal nematodes were incubated with tannins extracted from Lotus pedunculatus, Lotus corniculatus, sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) and sainfoin (Onobrychus viciifolia). The tannins extracted from all the forages had inhibitory activity as measured by their ability to paralyse the larvae and inhibit them from passing through sieves. At the highest concentration used (1200 microg/ml) the tannins extracted from sainfoin had the highest activity against ensheathed L1 lungworm larvae (58 per cent), followed by L. pedunculatus (45 per cent), sulla (42 per cent) and L. comiculatus (35 per cent) when the larvae were incubated at 37 degrees C. The same trend, but with lower activities, was observed when the larvae were incubated at 22 degrees C. Anthelmintic activity against L3 lungworm larvae was evaluated by measuring the death rate of ensheathed L3 larvae after incubation with condensed tannins for two, 24 and 48 hours at room temperature (22 degrees C). The death rate was significantly higher (P<0.001) after 48 hours incubation than after two hours or 24 hours, and significantly higher (P<0.001) after 24 hours than after two hours incubation. Condensed tannins from sainfoin had the highest inhibitory activity followed by L. pedunculatus, sulla and L. comiculatus. The tannins from sainfoin also had the highest activity against L3 larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes, followed by L. pedunculatus, sulla and L. comiculatus. Exsheathed larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes were significantly more susceptible to the action of the tannins than ensheathed larvae. PMID:10955893

  10. Combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortiz de Montellano, C; Vargas-Magaña, J J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M; Miranda-Soberanis, R; Hoste, H; Cámara Sarmiento, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2007-05-15

    The aim was to assess the benefits obtained from combining supplementary feeding and copper needles (COWP), compared to the use of both approaches independently, for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in browsing kids. Forty-four nematode free Criollo kids were exposed to natural parasite infection. The kids were divided into six experimental groups: not treated, supplemented (NT-S), not treated, not supplemented (NT-NS), moxidectin treated, supplemented (M-S), moxidectin treated not supplemented (M-NS), copper treated, supplemented (COWP-S) and copper treated, non-supplemented (COWP-NS). Copper treated groups received Copinox (2 g capsules) on day 0 and on day 60 of the trial. Moxidectin treated groups received Cydectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight s.c.) every 28 days. Three of the groups received individual supplementation (100 g of feed/day fresh basis; 74% sorghum: 26% soybean meal; NT-S, M-S and COWP-S) and the other three groups were not supplemented (NT-NS, M-NS and COWP-NS). Animals browsed native vegetation (6.5 h/day) during the wet season (154 days). Kids were weighed every 14 days to determine live weight gain (LWG) and blood and faecal samples were obtained to determine packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC) and faecal egg counts (FEC). At the end of the trial, four kids of each group were euthanatized (six kids in each COWP treated group). Worm burdens, female worm lengths and prolificacy were determined. Liver samples were used to determine copper concentration and were stained with haematoxylin-eosin to determine microscopic lesions. Animals receiving the combination of supplementary feeding and COWP improved their LWG, PCV and Hb to similar levels of animals with suppressive AH treatment. This was not the case when COWP was used without supplementation. Liver copper concentration in COWP treated groups increased significantly especially in the COWP-NS kids but this was not associated with

  11. Comparative serial analysis of gene expression of transcript profiles of tomato roots infected with cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Taketo; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Masuta, Chikara

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed global transcripts for tomato roots infected with the cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). SAGE libraries were made from nematode-infected roots and uninfected roots at 14 days after inoculation, and the clones including SAGE tags were sequenced. Genes were identified by matching the SAGE tags to tomato expressed sequence tags and cDNA databases. We then compiled a list of numerous genes according to the mRNA levels that were altered after cyst nematode infection. Our SAGE results showed significant changes in expression of many unreported genes involved in nematode infection. Of these, for discussion we selected five SAGE tags of RSI-1, BURP domain-containing protein, hexose transporter, P-rich protein, and PHAP2A that were activated by cyst nematode infection. Over 20% of the tags that were upregulated in the infected root have unknown functions (non-annotated), suggesting that we can obtain information on previously unreported and uncharacterized genes by SAGE. We can also obtain information on previously reported genes involved in nematode infection (e.g., multicystatin, peroxidase, catalase, pectin esterase, and S-adenosylmethionine transferase). To evaluate the validity of our SAGE results, seven genes were further analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot hybridization; the results agreed well with the SAGE data. PMID:16983456

  12. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus circulans against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinott, M C; de Castro, L L Dias; Leite, F L L; Gallina, T; De-Souza, M T; Santos, D F L; Leite, F P L

    2016-01-01

    Efficient control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep breeding. However, the available chemically based anthelmintics are becoming less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. An alternative to this problem is biological control. In the present study, we tested the larvicidal effect of Bacillus circulans by administering a spore suspension (2 × 109 colony forming units/ml) orally to lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The number of faecal larvae was quantified daily and a significant reduction (~87%, P< 0.05) of larval development was observed after administration of B. circulans. Using a transformed B. circulans with green fluorescent protein, we were able to detect B. circulans in the faeces at 4 h post-administration and 72 h after cessation of its administration. These results suggest the use of B. circulans as a promising biological alternative for parasite control. PMID:26693886

  13. Persistent efficacy of doramectin against experimental nematode infections in calves.

    PubMed

    Weatherley, A J; Hong, C; Harris, T J; Smith, D G; Hammet, N C

    1993-07-01

    Three studies were conducted involving cattle exposed to experimental nematode infections. These studies were designed to investigate the prophylactic activity of a single subcutaneous treatment of doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 body weight against infections of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Dictyocaulus viviparus. For each study, parasite-naive calves were randomly allocated to either a treated or a matched control group. One group received doramectin and the other received doramectin and the other received either no treatment or an injection of saline at 1 ml per 50 kg body weight by the subcutaneous route. Thereafter, all calves received a daily oral challenge of infective larvae of the particular parasite species on test in each study. Challenge of each pair of treatment/control groups continued for periods of 14, 21 or 28 days. An interval of 14-21 days was then allowed to permit the parasites which had established to mature, after which all animals were slaughtered and their worm burdens determined using standard techniques. Geometric mean worm burdens were calculated from the log worm counts and used to estimate percentage efficacy. Accumulated burdens of C. oncophora in doramectin-treated cattle resulting from a daily challenge infection for 14 or 21 days were reduced by 99.2% and 90.7% respectively, in comparison with those of non-treated control animals. For D. viviparus, burdens were reduced by 100% and 99.9% after a 21 or 28 day challenge, respectively. The corresponding figures for O. ostertagi were 99.9% after a 21 day challenge and 93.7% after a 28 day challenge. PMID:8236737

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    PubMed

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. PMID:21787880

  15. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2004-03-29

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (> or =1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. PMID:15013743

  16. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. ?? 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post

  18. Discrimination of Gastrointestinal Nematode Eggs from Crude Fecal Egg Preparations by Inhibitor-Resistant Conventional and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles – only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post

  19. Gastrointestinal symptoms in ambulatory HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    May, G R; Gill, M J; Church, D L; Sutherland, L R

    1993-08-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly seen in patients with established AIDS. We examined the charts of 258 HIV-infected patients attending our HIV outpatient clinic to determine: (1) the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in unselected HIV-infected patients and (2) if there are any predictors of the development of symptoms in initially asymptomatic patients. We found the overall frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms at initial presentation in our ambulatory, predominantly homosexual population of HIV-infected patients was 35% (95% CI 30-40%) with 19% having anorexia, 15% weight loss, 14% diarrhea, and 5% dysphagia. There was no association between the presence of symptoms and stool parasites, which were found in 51% of patients. In 165 patients who were initially asymptomatic, 72% subsequently developed symptoms over 36 months of actuarial follow-up. Patients with initial T4 counts < 500 were more likely to develop symptoms. Patients with a greater degree of immunosuppression as indicated by a lower T4 count, are more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:8102092

  20. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  1. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  2. Dynamics in the tomato root transcriptome on infection with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Swiecicka, Magdalena; Filipecki, Marcin; Lont, Dieuwertje; Van Vliet, Joke; Qin, Ling; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes infect roots and trigger the formation of specialized feeding sites by substantial reprogramming of the developmental process of root cells. In this article, we describe the dynamic changes in the tomato root transcriptome during early interactions with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism-based mRNA fingerprinting (cDNA-AFLP), we monitored 17 600 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected and uninfected tomato roots, 1-14 days after inoculation with nematode larvae. Six hundred and twenty-four TDFs (3.5%) showed significant differential expression on nematode infection. We employed GenEST, a computer program which links gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP and databases of cDNA sequences, to identify 135 tomato sequences. These sequences were grouped into eight functional categories based on the presence of genes involved in hormone regulation, plant pathogen defence response, cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation, cell wall modification, cellular signalling, transcriptional regulation, primary metabolism and allocation. The presence of unclassified genes was also taken into consideration. This article describes the responsiveness of numerous tomato genes hitherto uncharacterized during infection with endoparasitic cyst nematodes. The analysis of transcriptome profiles allowed the sequential order of expression to be dissected for many groups of genes and the genes to be connected with the biological processes involved in compatible interactions between the plant and nematode. PMID:19523102

  3. Wastewater quality and the risk of intestinal nematode infection in sewage farming families in hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Blumenthal, Ursula J; Brooker, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Use of sewage or wastewater in agriculture is becoming increasingly common as a result of a global water scarcity. Intestinal nematode infections have been identified as the main health risk associated with this practice. To protect consumer and farmer health, the World Health Organization (WHO) has established an intestinal nematode water quality standard. However, because of a lack of well-designed studies, the validity of this guideline is questioned. This report presents the findings of a study on the risk of intestinal nematode infections in farming families occupationally exposed to untreated and partially treated wastewater in Hyderabad, India. The study found an increased risk of hookworm (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-5.5), Ascaris lumbricoides (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.0-14), and Trichuris trichiura (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.8-18) infection when untreated wastewater (150 intestinal nematode ova/liter) was used for crop production. Use of partially treated wastewater (28 intestinal nematode ova/liter) was only associated with an increased risk (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.2-8.6) of A. lumbricoides infection. The findings of the study suggest that the current WHO intestinal nematode guideline of 1 ova/liter is sufficient to protect farmer health. PMID:18840745

  4. Chemical signals from plants previously infected with root knot nematodes affect behavior of infective juvenile root knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are a worldwide problem in agriculture, with losses estimated to $100 billion per year in the US. Damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN) disrupts the flow of water and nutrients to the plant and increases the plant’s vulnerability to other pathogens. While studies ...

  5. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

  6. Using copper oxide wire particles or sericea lespedeza to prevent a peri-parturient rise of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to plague the small ruminant industry, especially parts of the world with warm, humid climates. Alternatives to chemicals are needed for GIN control because of anthelmintic resistance of GIN and a desire to reduce chemical residues in meat products. A stud...

  7. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Allan M; Paterson, Korena A; Dodds, Ken G; Diez Tascon, Cristina; Williamson, Penny A; Roberts Thomson, Meredith; Bisset, Stewart A; Beattie, Anne E; Greer, Gordon J; Green, Richard S; Wheeler, Roger; Shaw, Richard J; Knowler, Kevin; McEwan, John C

    2006-01-01

    Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL concerned adult parasite

  8. Nonlethal Effects of Nematode Infection on Sirex noctilio and Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae).

    PubMed

    Haavik, Laurel J; Allison, Jeremy D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Nott, Reginald W; Ryan, Kathleen; de Groot, Peter; Turgeon, Jean J

    2016-04-01

    A nonnative woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., has established in pine forests in eastern North America. To facilitate prediction of the full range of impacts S. noctilio could have as it continues to spread in North American forest ecosystems, we studied the effects of infection by a nonsterilizing parasitic nematode on S. noctilio size, fecundity, and flight capacity and on the native woodwasp, S. nigricornis, size and fecundity. We also developed predictive models relating size to fecundity for both species. On average, S. noctilio (3.18 ± 0.05 mm) were larger than S. nigricornis (2.19 ± 0.04 mm). For wasps of similar size, S. nigricornis was more fecund. Nematode infection negatively affected potential fecundity by a mean difference of 36 and 49 eggs in S. noctilio and S. nigricornis, respectively. Nematode-infected males of S. noctilio, however, were larger than uninfected individuals. Nematode infection showed inconsistent results on mean speed and total distance flown by S. noctilio males and females. Nematode infection did not affect total distance flown by females, and so is unlikley to have a direct, or strong influence on S. noctilio flight capacity. Models developed to predict fecundity of Sirex spp. from body size, based on the close relationship between pronotum width and potential fecundity for both species (R(2) ≥ 0.69), had low measures of error when compared with true values of fecundity (± 25-26 eggs). PMID:26748671

  9. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus, is a constant. ...

  10. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:22322388

  11. Increased response to cadmium and Bacillus thuringiensis maize toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa infected by the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, Paulina E; de Vaufleury, Annette; Zygmunt, Piotr M S; Verdun, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of nematode infection on the response of snails to selected toxins, we infected Helix aspersa with 0-, 0.25-, 1-, or 4-fold the recommended field dose of a commercial nematode application for agricultural use. In the first experiment, the snails also were exposed to cadmium via food and soil at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg in a full-factorial design. In the second experiment, snails were infected with nematodes and also fed either Bt (expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) maize or non-Bt maize. The snails were weighed at the beginning and end (after four weeks) of the experiments, and mortality was checked daily. Neither exposure of snails to nematodes nor exposure of snails to cadmium or Bt toxin affected the survival rates of snails. The number of dead snails was highest for combinations of nematode treatments with cadmium concentrations of 120 and 240 mg/kg. In both experiments (Bt and cadmium), the growth rate decreased with increasing nematode dose. The Bt maize was not harmful to the snails in the absence of nematodes, but infected snails grew faster when fed non-Bt maize. The growth rate of snails exposed to cadmium decreased with exposure to increasing Cd concentrations and differed significantly between the no-nematode treatment and the treatments with nematode doses of one- and fourfold the recommended field dose. Snails treated with the highest dose of nematodes accumulated the highest cadmium concentrations. PMID:17269462

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  13. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

  14. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects of internal parasites, including gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) but there have been no reports of the effects of feeding this forage on Eimeria spp. in goats. Two confinement feeding experiments were completed on recently-weaned intact bucks (24 Kiko-cross, Exp. 1; 20 Spanish, Exp. 2) to determine effects of SL pellets on an established infection of GIN and coccidia. The bucks were assigned to 1 of 2 (Exp. 1) or 3 (Exp. 2) treatment groups based upon the number of Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces. In Exp. 1, the kids were fed 1 of 2 pelleted rations ad libitum; 90% SL leaf meal+10% of a liquid molasses/lignin binder mix and a commercial pellet with 12% crude protein (CP) and 24% acid detergent fiber (n=12/treatment group, 2 animals/pen). For Exp. 2, treatment groups were fed (1) 90% SL leaf meal pellets from leaves stored 3 years (n=7), (2) 90% SL pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months, (n=7), and the commercial pellets (n=6) ad libitum. For both trials, fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals every 7 days for 28 days to determine OPG and GIN eggs per gram (EPG) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. In Exp. 2, feces were scored for consistency (1=solid pellets, 5=slurry) as an indicator of coccidiosis. In Exp. 1, EPG (P<0.001) and OPG (P<0.01) were reduced by 78.7% and 96.9%, respectively, 7 days after initiation of feeding in goats on the SL pellet diet compared with animals fed the control pellets. The OPG and EPG remained lower in treatment than control animals until the end of the trial. In Exp. 2, goats fed new and old SL leaf meal pellets had 66.2% and 79.2% lower (P<0.05) EPG and 92.2% and 91.2% lower (P<0.05) OPG

  15. Critical role of intestinal epithelial cell-derived IL-25 in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in intestinal function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigated the mechanism of immune regulation of IL-25 and the contribution of IL-25 to nematode infection-induced alterations in intestinal smooth muscle and epithelial cell function. Mice were infected with an enteric nematode or injected with IL-25 or IL-13. In vitro smooth m...

  16. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  17. In vivo effect of selected medicinal plants against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mawahib; Laing, Mark D; Nsahlai, Ignatius V

    2014-02-01

    Nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs affects small ruminant production globally. This study evaluated in vivo effects of five plant extracts as alternative nematode treatments. Animals were divided into six groups. Each group was randomly assigned a treatment: Abamectin and Praziquantel (CAP) (positive Control), ethanol extracts of Ananas comosus (AC), Aloe ferox (AF), Allium sativum (AS), Lespedeza cuneata (LC) and Warburgia salutaris (WS). These were applied as an oral dose (100 mg kg(-1) BW), one dose per week per sheep for 42 days (Phase 1). From day 42 sheep were orally dosed for 3 consecutive days with the same treatments in the same groups (Phase 2). Rectal faecal samples were taken every 7 days up to day 63. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted in individual rectal samples, L3 larval stage was counted in faecal cultures, with four replicates per group. For plant extracts, EPG decreased (P < 0.001) with time and efficacy of plant increased (P < 0.001) with time. Ananas comosus and L. cuneata treatments had the highest efficacies of 58% and 61%, respectively, in Phase 1; and 77% and 81%, respectively, in Phase 2. Continuous treatment with these plants could further reduce nematode parasites and improve host health. PMID:24293151

  18. Use of fluorescent lectin binding to distinguish eggs of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep.

    PubMed

    Umair, S; McMurtry, L W; Knight, J S; Simpson, H V

    2016-02-15

    The binding of a panel of 19 lectins to carbohydrates on the eggs of economically important nematode parasites of sheep has been assessed as the basis of a rapid test to distinguish parasite eggs, at least at the genus level. A total of six lectins can be used to identify eggs of six nematode parasites: peanut agglutinin (PNA) for Haemonchus contortus; Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) for Teladorsagia sp; Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAL) for Trichostrongylus sp; Psophocarpus tetragonolobus‑II (PTLII) for Nematodirus sp; Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) for Cooperia sp and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for Chabertia ovina. For WGA, LCA and LTL, weak binding was also observed to H. contortus and Teladorsagia sp, Trichostrongylus sp and C. ovina eggs, respectively. Nematode eggs in two faecal samples were identically identified by both lectin binding and PCR, except for PCR identification of the eggs of Nematodirus sp, as these did not lyse. Lectins bound best to H. contortus eggs extracted from fresh faecal samples or after storage at room temperature or 4 °C for up to 24 h, but eggs stored at -20 °C or -80 °C did not bind PNA. PMID:26827865

  19. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  20. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  1. Gastrointestinal diseases and halitosis: association of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, K; Yamano, Y; Mitsunaga, A; Shimizu, S; Kagawa, J; Ogiuchi, H

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between gastrointestinal conditions and halitosis is discussed. Few reports have suggested that gastrointestinal diseases may cause halitosis. H. pylori infection, which causes gastric ulcers, is considered as a possible cause for halitosis. Intensity of malodour of mouth air was found to be higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in negative patients. The levels of hydrogen sulphide and dimethyl sulphide in mouth air were also significantly higher in the positive patients than in the negative patients (P<0.05). When odour strength in exhaled breath was compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found. Hence, H. pylori infection might not cause a systemic condition producing breath odour. Although there were no significant differences in periodontal parameters or tongue coating between the positive and negative groups, H. pylori may be a frequent contributor to the production of malodour even though its role had not been suspected before. Further study would be necessary to clarify the reason for the increase of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) level in H. pylori infection. PMID:12090454

  2. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes on 32 organic and conventional commercial sheep farms in Ontario and Quebec, Canada (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Mederos, A; Fernández, S; VanLeeuwen, J; Peregrine, A S; Kelton, D; Menzies, P; LeBoeuf, A; Martin, R

    2010-06-24

    In order to characterize the epidemiology of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional flocks in Canada, a longitudinal study was carried out from May 2006 to March 2008 on 32 purposively selected farms in Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC): 8 certified organic (CO), 16 non-certified organic (NCO), and 8 conventional (C) farms. On each farm, 10 ewes and 10 female lambs were selected. Farm visits were undertaken monthly during the grazing season, and twice in the winter. At each visit, individual fecal samples were taken, and pasture samples were obtained during the grazing season. In addition, body condition score was recorded for all sheep. Fecal egg counts per gram of feces (EPGs) were determined for all fecal samples, and infective larvae (L(3)) were identified in fecal samples (lambs and ewes separately) and pasture samples from farms. Necropsies of 14 lambs from 7 of the 23 Ontario farms were performed at the end of the grazing season in 2006. The mean EPG for year 1 (May 2006 to March 2007) was 181 (range=0-9840) and 351 (range=0-18,940) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for the lambs was 509 (range=0-25,020) and 147 (range=0-3060) for ON and QC, respectively. During year 2 (April 2007 to March 2008), the mean EPG was 303 (range=0-21,160) and 512 (range=0-22,340) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for lambs was 460 (range=0-26,180) and 232 (range=0-8280) for ON and QC, respectively. Although the overall mean EPGs were not remarkably high, there were months of higher EPG such as May-June for ewes and July-August for lambs in both provinces. Pasture infectivity was highest in May-June and September. There was a general trend for the CO farms to have lower mean EPG than NCO and C farms. Fecal cultures demonstrated that the most predominant nematode genera were Teladorsagia sp., Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Pasture infectivity was highest during June-July (984 L3/kg DM) in ON farms and September (mean=436 L3/kg DM) in

  3. Infection of Pratylenchus penetrans by Nematode-pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Timper, P; Brodie, B B

    1993-06-01

    Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm(3) vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772

  4. Infection of Pratylenchus penetrans by Nematode-pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Brodie, B. B.

    1993-01-01

    Eleven fungal isolates were tested in agar dishes for pathogenicity to Pratylenchus penetrans. Of the fungi that produce adhesive conidia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis was a virulent pathogen; Verticillium balanoides, Drechmeria coniospora, and Nematoctonus sp. were weak or nonpathogens. The trapping fungi, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. oligospora, Monacrosporium dlipsosporum, and M. cionopagum, killed most of the P. penetrans adults and juveniles added to the fungus cultures. An isolate of Nematoctonus that forms adhesive knobs trapped only a small proportion of the nematodes. In 17-cm³ vials, soil moisture influenced survival of P. penetrans in the presence of H. rhossiliensis; nematode survival decreased with diminishing soil moisture. Hirsutella rhossiliensis and M. ellipsosporum were equally effective in reducing numbers of P. penetrans by 24-25% after 4 days in sand. After 25 days in soil artificially infested with H. rhossiliensis, numbers of P. penetrans were reduced by 28-53%. PMID:19279772

  5. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  6. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  7. A novel approach to biocontrol: Release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Arife; Karagoz, Mehmet; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Hazir, Selcuk

    2015-09-01

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juveniles to hard-to-reach target sites, and thereby facilitate enhanced control in cryptic habitats. Thus, the infected hosts act as "living insect bombs" against the target pest. We tested this approach using two model insect pests: a chestnut tree pest, the goat moth Cossus cossus (Lepidiptera: Cossidae), and a lawn caterpillar, Spodoptera cilium (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). One pest is considered hard-to-reach via aqueous spray (C. cossus) and the other is more openly exposed in the environment (S. cilium). C. cossus and S. cilium studies were conducted in chestnut logs and Bermudagrass arenas, respectively. The living bomb approach was compared with standard nematode application in aqueous spray and controls (without nematode application); Steinernema carpocapsae (Rize isolate) was used in all experiments. The percentage larval mortality of C. cossus was 86% in the living insect bomb treatment, whereas, all other treatments and controls exhibited less than 4% mortality. The new approach (living bomb) was equally successful as standard aqueous application for the control of S. cilium larvae. Both methods exhibited more than 90% mortality in the turfgrass arena. Our new approach showed an immense potential to control insect pests living in hard-to-reach cryptic habitats. PMID:26149819

  8. Root vs Pod Infection by Root-Knot Nematodes on Aflatoxin Contamination of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by some Aspergillus spp. Infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) can lead to an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels when the plants are subjected to drought stress during pod maturation. It is not cle...

  9. Histopathology of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) Infection on White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, B.

    1988-01-01

    White yam tissues naturally and artificially infected with root-knot nematodes were fixed, sectioned, and examined with a microscope. Infective second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita penetrated and moved intercellularly within the tuber. Feeding sites were always in the ground tissue layer where the vascular tissues are distributed in the tubers. Giant cells were always associated with xylem tissue. They were thin walled with dense cytoplasm and multinucleated. The nuclei of the giant cells were only half the size of those found in roots of infected tomato plants. Normal nematode growth and development followed giant cell formation. Females deposited eggs into a gelatinous egg mass within the tuber, and a necrotic ring formed around the female after eggs had been produced. Second-stage juveniles hatched, migrated, and re-infected other areas of the tuber. No males were observed from the tuber. PMID:19290181

  10. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  11. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  12. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbins, F L; Agudelo, P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Greene, J K

    2015-05-01

    Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has become a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in the United States. While several natural enemies of M. cribraria have been reported, our study is the first to report nematodes beneath the pleural membranes in the abdominal cavities of adults. Morphological and molecular analyses suggest this nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. This first report of a nematode infection in M. cribraria adds to the current inventory of enemies attacking this insect. Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. PMID:25731127

  13. Intestinal nematode infections in Turkish military dogs with special reference to Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Karabacak, A

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence and potential zoonotic risk factors of intestinal nematodes of military working dogs, which are used for different military purposes, were assessed. Faecal samples from 352 defined-breed Turkish military dogs were investigated and 107 (30.4%) dogs were found to be infected with one or two nematode species. The following nematodes, with their respective prevalences, were diagnosed in the faecal samples: Toxascaris leonina (21.8%), Toxocara canis (13.3%), Trichuris vulpis (2.9%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (1.2%). Toxocara canis infections were more frequently seen in puppies (0-6 months old). The prevalence of T. canis was significantly higher in male than in female dogs and also higher in dogs which were exercised daily than in those without exercise. The highest prevalence was found in Belgian malinois breed dogs. Toxocara canis infections were not influenced by the floor type of the kennels (i.e. concrete or soil floor). There was no difference in the occurrence of T. canis infection when the last anthelmintic treatment was carried out less or more than 3 months prior to sampling. It is suggested that T. canis infected military dogs would be a threat not only for dog trainers but also for military personnel, notably during national and international operations. PMID:16923275

  14. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  15. Non-gastrointestinal consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Strachan, D P

    1998-01-01

    Evidence relating H. pylori to non-gastrointestinal disease is sparse and inconclusive. Suggested mechanisms whereby infection might increase cardiovascular risk include release of acute-phase reactants including fibrinogen, reduction of HDL cholesterol, elevation of homocysteine levels and immunological cross-reactivity between bacterial and human heat shock proteins. Six published studies relating H. pylori seropositivity to various measures of ischaemic heart disease (IHD)-angiography, acute myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, or electro-cardiographic abnormalities-are all consistent with a modest (up to 2-fold) elevation in risk of IHD among infected subjects after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The pooled odds ratio from 1 longitudinal, 3 case-control and 2 cross-sectional studies is 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). Further large-scale longitudinal studies are required to quantify the predictive value of seropositivity, to clarify the causal interpretation and to assess the underlying mechanisms for any link between H. pylori infection and ischaemic heart disease. PMID:9604434

  16. The efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against anthelmintic resistant gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep in the UK.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Hodge, Andrew; Noé, Laura; Winstanley, Dana; Bartley, David J; Taylor, Mike; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Sarah J; Maeder, Steven; Bartram, David

    2012-10-26

    The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the efficacy of a combined formulation (Startect(®) Dual Active Oral Solution for Sheep, Pfizer Animal Health) of derquantel (DQL) and abamectin (ABA) for the treatment of: (1) sheep experimentally infected with a moxidectin (MOX)-resistant isolate of Teladorsagia circumcincta, and (2) multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematode parasites under UK field conditions. In the first study, a total of 40 animals were allocated into 4 treatment groups, and were either left untreated or treated with DQL+ABA, MOX or ABA. Faecal samples were collected on days 1-5 and on day 7 after treatment to examine the reduction in faecal egg excretion and to evaluate the egg viability. On day 14 post treatment all animals were euthanised for abomasal worm counts. There was a 100% reduction in geometric mean worm counts for the DQL+ABA treated animals compared to the untreated control animals (P<0.0001), whereas the percentage reduction in worm counts for the MOX- (P>0.05) and ABA-treated (P=0.0004) animals was 12.4% and 71.8%, respectively. The data from the egg hatch assay (EHA) indicated that in the MOX-treated and the ABA-treated animals, the majority of the eggs hatched after treatment. In the field study, performed on four farms, animals were allocated into 6 groups of 11-15 animals each in order to conduct a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), based on arithmetic mean egg counts. One group of animals remained untreated, whereas the other animals were treated with DQL+ABA, MOX, fenbendazole (FBZ), levamisole (LV) or ivermectin (IVM). On each of the farms the reduction in egg excretion after treatment with FBZ, LV or IVM was below 95.0%, indicating anthelmintic resistance. The efficacy of DQL+ABA ranged from 99.1 to 100%, yielding significantly lower egg counts compared to the untreated control group (P ≤ 0.003). For MOX the egg counts were significantly (P ≤ 0.003) lower compared to the untreated group at each farm

  17. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica in sheep in the northwest of Spain: relation to climatic conditions and/or man-made environmental modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study we studied and updated the prevalence of the infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica in grazing sheep in the northwest (NW) of Spain for the last six years (2006–2011), and its relationship with the current climatic conditions. Methods We analyzed faecal samples from 110 flocks located in four different provinces of the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León: 76.4% of them were situated in León, 12.7% in Zamora, 9.1% in Palencia and 1.8% in Valladolid. Results The prevalence of GIN was 100% and the mean of eggs per gram (epg) in faeces was 237.2 (± 375.9) per flock. Regarding climatic conditions, we found a direct relationship between the GIN infection level and the maximum humidity (p<0.05) but inverse with the degree of solar radiation (p<0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was 59.3%, with a mean epg of 17.5 (± 33.9) per flock; these values were correlated with the minimum humidity and precipitations (p<0.05). Comparing our results in León with previous studies during the early 1990s, the mean epg of GIN was increased slightly (134.3 epg); regarding fasciolosis, the prevalence rose significantly, from 26.7% to 60.5%. Since the 1990s we observed that the maximum temperature is nowadays 0.45°C higher (17.0°C) and the minimum 0.5°C lower (5.2°C); the rainfall values were very similar in both decades but at the present time the humidity is higher (75.9%). Conclusions We found that the prevalence of GIN and F. hepatica infections was directly influenced by the humidity and also by precipitations in the case of F. hepatica. Comparing the current prevalence with studies carried out in the same area for the early 1990s, we observed that nowadays the mean epg of GIN is higher with a possible cause being the differences in climatic conditions depending on the sampling year. Regarding F. hepatica infection, its prevalence rose significantly probably favoured by an increase in irrigated areas in

  19. Alterations in the Porcine Colon Microbiota Induced by the Gastrointestinal Nematode Trichuris suis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Navarro, Karl; Couch, Robin D.; Hill, Dolores; Urban, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Helminth parasites ensure their survival by regulating host immunity through mechanisms that dampen inflammation. These properties have recently been exploited therapeutically to treat human diseases. The biocomplexity of the intestinal lumen suggests that interactions between the parasite and the intestinal microbiota would also influence inflammation. In this study, we characterized the microbiota in the porcine proximal colon in response to Trichuris suis (whipworm) infection using 16S rRNA gene-based and whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing. A 21-day T. suis infection in four pigs induced a significant change in the composition of the proximal colon microbiota compared to that of three parasite-naive pigs. Among the 15 phyla identified, the abundances of Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres were changed in infected pigs. The abundances of approximately 13% of genera were significantly altered by infection. Changes in relative abundances of Succinivibrio and Mucispirillum, for example, may relate to alterations in carbohydrate metabolism and niche disruptions in mucosal interfaces induced by parasitic infection, respectively. Of note, infection by T. suis led to a significant shift in the metabolic potential of the proximal colon microbiota, where 26% of all metabolic pathways identified were affected. Besides carbohydrate metabolism, lysine biosynthesis was repressed as well. A metabolomic analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the luminal contents showed a relative absence in infected pigs of cofactors for carbohydrate and lysine biosynthesis, as well as an accumulation of oleic acid, suggesting altered fatty acid absorption contributing to local inflammation. Our findings should facilitate development of strategies for parasitic control in pigs and humans. PMID:22493085

  20. The kinetics of exsheathment of infective nematode larvae is disturbed in the presence of a tannin-rich plant extract (sainfoin) both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Brunet, S; Aufrere, J; El Babili, F; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2007-08-01

    The mode of action of bioactive plants on gastrointestinal nematodes remains obscure. Previous in vitro studies showed that exsheathment was significantly disturbed after contact with tannin-rich extracts. However, the role of important factors (extract concentration, parasite species) has not been assessed and no information is available on the occurrence in vivo. These questions represent the objectives of this study. The model incorporated the parasites Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis with sainfoin as the bioactive plant. A set of in vitro assays was performed, measuring the changes observed, after 3 h of contact with increasing concentrations of sainfoin, on the rate of artificial exsheathment. The results indicated that sainfoin extracts interfered with exsheathment in a dose-dependent manner and the process overall was similar for both nematodes. The restoration of control values observed after adding PEG to extracts confirms a major role for tannins. A second study was performed in vivo on rumen-cannulated sheep fed with different proportions of sainfoin in the diet to verify these in vitro results. The consumption of a higher proportion of sainfoin was indeed associated with significant delays in Haemonchus exsheathment. Overall, the results confirmed that interference with the early step of nematode infection might be one of the modes of action that contributes to the anthelmintic properties of tanniniferous plants. PMID:17346358

  1. Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, X-Y; Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L

    2007-03-01

    Reproduction of entomopathogenic nematodes requires that they escape recognition by a host's immune system or that they have mechanisms to escape encapsulation and melanization. We investigated the immune responses of larvae for the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), oriental beetle (Exomala orientalis) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus), challenged with infective juveniles from different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. The in vivo immune responses of hosts were correlated with nematode specificity and survival found by infection assays. In P. japonica, 45% of injected infective juveniles from Steinernema glaseri NC strain survived; whereas the hemocytes from the beetle strongly encapsulated and melanized the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain, S. glaseri FL strain, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae. Overall, H. bacteriophora was intensively melanized in resistant insect species (E. orientalis, P. japonica and C. borealis) and had the least ability to escape the host immune response. Steinernema glaseri NC strain suppressed the immune responses in susceptible hosts (M. sexta, E. orientalis and P. japonica), whereas S. glaseri FL strain was less successful. Using an in vitro assay, we found that hemocytes from G. mellonella, P. japonica, M. sexta and A. domestica recognized both nematode species quickly. However, many S. glaseri in M. sexta and H. bacteriophora in G. mellonella escaped from hemocyte encapsulation by 24h. These data indicate that, while host recognition underlies some of the differences between resistant and susceptible host species, escape from encapsulation following recognition can also allow successful infection. Co-injected surface-coat proteins from S. glaseri did not protect H. bacteriophora in M. sexta but did protect H. bacteriophora in E. orientalis larva; therefore

  2. Observations on the Foliar Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Infecting Tuberose and Rice in India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Matiyar R.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Rao, Uma; Rao, S. B.; Prasad, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi. PMID:23482906

  3. Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Vegas-Sánchez, M C; Rollán-Landeras, E; García-Rodríguez, J J; Bolás-Fernández, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DSS administration exacerbate the severity of the colitis while favouring the permanence of parasites in the intestine. The induction of ulcerative colitis from days 54 to 62 post-infection (p.i.), when all worms had been expelled, ameliorated the course of the inflammatory disease. When ulcerative colitis was triggered earlier on, from days 27 to 35 p.i., the beneficial effects on inflammatory events were clearly shown with signs of mucosal epithelization and regeneration as early as day 1 after DSS administration. Previous infections by T. muris therefore accelerate recovery from subsequently induced inflammatory bowel disease and such an effect assists the nematode to persist in the intestinal niche. PMID:25007240

  4. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abomasal transcriptome of Angus cattle in response to parasitic infection was characterized at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample using RNA-seq. These cattle displayed a distinctly separate resistance phenotype in terms of fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23,633 bovine gene...

  5. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  6. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  7. Thiamine-induced priming against root-knot nematode infection in rice involves lignification and hydrogen peroxide generation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Kun; Ji, Hong-Li; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kyndt, Tina

    2016-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1, VB1) can act as a plant defence trigger, or priming agent, leading to a rapid counterattack on pathogen invasion. In this study, the priming effect of thiamine on rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) and its activity against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) infection were evaluated. Thiamine treatment and subsequent nematode inoculation activated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and lignin deposition in plant roots, and this correlated with enhanced transcription of OsPAL1 and OsC4H, two genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The number of nematodes in rice roots was slightly but significantly reduced, and the development of the nematodes was delayed, whereas no direct toxic effects of VB1 on nematode viability and infectivity were observed. The combined application of thiamine with l-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), significantly hampered the VB1-priming capacity. These findings indicate that thiamine-induced priming in rice involves H2 O2 and phenylpropanoid-mediated lignin production, which hampers nematode infection. Further cellular and molecular studies on the mechanism of thiamine-induced defence will be useful for the development of novel nematode control strategies. PMID:27103216

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  9. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  10. A time-course comparative microarray analysis of an incompatible and compatible response by Glycine max (soybean) to Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of infection in soybean cv. Peking roots by compatible or incompatible races of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN]) was assayed by microarray analyses. Using three time-points, one as nematodes penetrate the root prior to feeding site selection; a second as the nematode...

  11. [Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

    2013-02-01

    Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

  12. Eosinophils Are Important for Protection, Immunoregulation and Pathology during Infection with Nematode Microfilariae

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, Emma T.; Thysse, Katherine A.; Bearder, Siobhan; Cheung, Anita Y. N.; Johnston, Ashleigh C.; Lee, James J.; Lawrence, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24626328

  13. In vitro infection of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid nematodes.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Hook, S E; Pepper, P M

    2010-11-24

    Control of sheep lice with conventional pesticides can be compromised by difficulty in contacting lice in the dense water repellent fleeces of sheep, particularly when sheep have not been recently shorn. Entomopathogenic nematodes (ENs) are motile and are able to actively seek out insect hosts. They have particular advantages for the control of pests in cryptic habitats, such as the fleeces of sheep and avoid many of the problems frequently associated with chemical controls. This study investigated whether ENs were able infect and kill Bovicola ovis and compared the effectiveness of different species at different temperatures and when applied to wool. Four species of nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were tested. All were shown to infect and kill lice in Petri dish assays at 30°C. At 35°C, the percent infection for S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave was significantly higher than for the other two species and percent infection by S. feltiae was significantly greater than for H. bacteriophora (P<0.05). At 37°C the percent mortality induced by S. riobrave was significantly greater than for S. carpocapsae (P<0.05). All species were able to locate and infect lice in wool when formulated in water with 8% Tween 80. In wool assays the percent lice infected with nematodes was significantly greater for S. riobrave than H. bacteriophora at 25°C, but there were no other differences between species (P=0.05). S. carpocapsae, S. riobrave and S. feltiae caused significantly higher lice mortality than H. bacteriophora at both 25 and 35°C in wool assays, but mortality induced by the three steinernematid species did not differ significantly (P>0.05). It is concluded that of the ENs studied S. riobrave is likely to be most effective against B. ovis when applied to live sheep because of its greater tolerance to high temperatures and 'cruiser' foraging strategy. PMID:20800970

  14. Identification and activity of inhibitors of the essential nematode-specific metalloprotease DPY-31.

    PubMed

    France, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Houston, Douglas R; Williams, Lewis; McCormack, Gillian; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D; Page, Antony P

    2015-12-15

    Infection by parasitic nematodes is widespread in the developing world causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, infection of animals is a global problem, with a substantial impact on food production. Here we identify small molecule inhibitors of a nematode-specific metalloprotease, DPY-31, using both known metalloprotease inhibitors and virtual screening. This strategy successfully identified several μM inhibitors of DPY-31 from both the human filarial nematode Brugia malayi, and the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta. Further studies using both free living and parasitic nematodes show that these inhibitors elicit the severe body morphology defect 'Dumpy' (Dpy; shorter and fatter), a predominantly non-viable phenotype consistent with mutants lacking the DPY-31 gene. Taken together, these results represent a start point in developing DPY-31 inhibition as a totally novel mechanism for treating infection by parasitic nematodes in humans and animals. PMID:26546217

  15. [Investigation of Soil-Transmitted Nematode Infections in Xuchang City of Henan Province in 2012].

    PubMed

    PENG, Jin-hua

    2015-10-01

    The Weidu District, Yanling County and Yuzhou City were selected in Xuchang City for investigation of the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in 2012, in accordance with the National Monitoring Program for Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (2011 Revised Edition). Kato-Katz technique was used to detect soil- transmitted nematodes in feces of residents over 3 years old, and the cellophane tape peri-anal swab method was used to detect pinworm eggs in children between 3-12 years. A total of 2 991 fecal samples were examined. The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was 4.3%(128/2 991), decreased by 63.0% and 55.1% when compared with that in 2010 (11.6%) and that in Henan Province in 2004 (9.5%) respectively. The infection rates of roundworms, whipworms, hookworms and pinworms were 3.7%(110/2 991), 0.3%(9/2 991) , 0.1%(3/2 991) , and 0.2% ( 6/2 991) , respectively, all showing mild intensity of infection. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was highest in farmers (5.5%, 113/2 059), followed by children (3.1%, 3/98). PMID:26931049

  16. Phytoalexins from Pinus strobus bark infected with pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, F; Yamada, T; Nakashima, T

    2001-05-01

    From the bark of Pinus strobus infected with pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a stilbenoid 3-O-methyldihydropinosylvin and a flavanone (2S)-pinocembrin were isolated as active principles of inducibly produced antifungal compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Close investigations of spectroscopic analyses led to the complete assignment of 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts for the former compound and to the determination of the stereochemistry of the latter compound from P. strobus to be 2S. Furthermore, the distribution and time course accumulation of the identified compounds were investigated. The former compound was demonstrated to be nematocidal and the concentrations of the compound in the inoculated branches were sufficient enough to inactivate the pinewood nematode within one week after inoculation. PMID:11382237

  17. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  18. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  19. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus. PMID:27254444

  20. A sampling of factors relative to the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, Thomas A; Tucker, Chris A

    2006-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodosis of cattle is a parasitic condition resulting from an immense and seemingly forever-expanding array of factors. Countless determinants influence the incidence and severity of the species-specific infections that occur in cattle, determinants that affect the free-living or environmental stages of the parasites and the parasitic stages. The vast majority of animals have a subclinical or economic level of parasitism undetectable to the eye but quantified more accurately by treatment-induced improved performance (e.g., feed efficiency, nitrogen balance, weight gain, milk production). Unfortunately, the results of treatment (effectiveness and improved animal performance) sometimes can be as varied as the parasitisms that are being treated. PMID:17071350

  1. A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-06-16

    The infection of fish with zoonotic nematodes, particularly anisakid nematodes is of great interest to many researchers who study food safety, human or animal health or who use them as biological tags for stock assessment studies. Accurate examination of fish for infection with anisakid larvae is crucial in making accurate estimates of their occurrence, abundance and prevalence in their fish hosts. Here we describe a new method of examining fish for infection with these parasites. In 2015, a total of 261 fish were purchased from a fish market in New South Wales, Australia. All fish were first examined by routine visual examination for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae and all data were recorded. Subsequently all internal organs were placed in a container and filled with water and incubated in the room temperature overnight. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of anisakids were significantly higher (p<0.05) when the revised method of examination, i.e., combining visual examination and overnight incubation in room temperature, was employed (63.98, 8.23 and 5.27, respectively) compared to routine visual examination with or without the aid of a microscope (8.81, 3.78 and 0.33, respectively). The proposed method is effective and has several advantages, such as: not using UV or HCl for fish examination, allowing the examination of a larger number of fish in shorter time; larval specimens collected being suitable for both morphological and DNA sequencing; and being simple and inexpensive. The disadvantages would be the odour of the specimens after overnight incubation as well as not being suitable for use with frozen fish. We suggest that results, conclusions or recommendations made in studies that claim no anisakid/ascaridoid larvae were found in a fish should be approached carefully if it is only based on visual examination of the fish. PMID:27043384

  2. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Predation by Carabid Beetles (Carabidae) on Nematode Infected and Uninfected Slugs in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P.; Symondson, William O. C.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

  3. [The impact of nematode invasions on the pattern of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Kuliś-Małkowska, Karolina

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation of the environment by natural barriers (lakes, mountain ranges) and human activities (towns, major roads, agriculture) can lead to isolated subpopulations of hosts. The study was carried out in Mazury Lake District in North-East of Poland, the region rich in forests, lakes, rivers and canals, which are able to create passable such barriers. Population of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis)--dominant woodland rodents--showed local differences in helminth communities in fragmented forest habitat. The sites were chosen on the basis of the similarity of their habitat structure and type, and isolation from one another. The impact of nematode (Heligmosomoididae) infections on co-occurrence and dynamic of Cryptosporidium parvum infection was studied in both rodent species Myodes glareolus (n=781) and Apodemusflavicollis (n=302) from three different habitats. Presented results clearly revealed that natural nematode invasion could facilitate the presence of chronic infections of Cryptosporidium parvum in wild rodent populations. Also, the intrinsic (host sex and year) as well as extrinsic (season and year of study) factors have obvious effect on dynamics of infections with both groups of parasites. However, there are also some evidences that steroids hormones associated with stress and reproduction may mediate trade-offs between physiology and immune function and can affect co-occurrence of both groups of parasites. PMID:18075159

  4. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs. PMID:26319520

  5. New approach for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazed beef cattle during the growing phase in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heckler, R P; Borges, D G L; Vieira, M C; Conde, M H; Green, M; Amorim, M L; Echeverria, J T; Oliveira, T L; Moro, E; Van Onselen, V J; Borges, F A

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700μg/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200μg/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8kg), T3 (131.4kg), T4 (131.2kg) and T5 (134.4kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6), October (T5

  6. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  7. Levels of infection of gastric nematodes in a flock of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Kh M; El-Nahass, E; Uni, S; Tuji, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2012-03-01

    A high prevalence (86.7%) of various species of nematodes was observed in the stomach of great cormorants living in Lake Biwa, Japan. There were varying numbers of adults belonging to two common genera, Eustrongylides Jagerskiold 1909 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). The first included common adenophorean nematodes comprising a single species, Eustrongylides tubifex and the second comprised ascaroid nematodes that contained four named species: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Contracaecum microcephalum Yamaguti, 1961, Contracaecum multipapillatum Drasche, 1882 and Contracaecum chubutensis Garbin, 2008. After the prevalence and intensity of the infection had been noted, both types of nematodes were frequently observed to penetrate the mucosa and intrude into the wall of the glandular stomach, where they caused gross haemorrhage and ulceration. The Eustrongylides sp. was predominantly found in a nodular lesion of the proventricular wall, while Contracaecum spp. were observed either free in the lumen of the proventriculus or, on occasion, deeply penetrating its wall. Of the Contracaecum spp., C. rudolphii was the most prevalent. Grossly, large numbers of nematodes were present in infected stomachs (for C. rudolphii intensity was 1-34 and 3-57 nematodes in male birds and 1-21 and 1-32 in females; for C. microcephalum 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-2 in females; for C. multipapillatum 2 in male cormorants and no infection in females; for C. chubutensis 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-5 and 1 in females and for E. tubifex 1-5 nematodes in male birds and 2-8 in females). Ulcerative inflammation and hyperaemia were the most common pathological presentations, especially in areas that had been invaded by parasites. Microscopically, varying degrees of granulomatous inflammatory reactions were seen, in addition to degenerated nematodes which appeared to have deeply penetrated mucosal surfaces and were surrounded by

  8. Comparative analysis of the expressed genome of the infective juvenile entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sukhinder K; Jagdale, Ganpati B; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2006-02-01

    We report the first cDNA-sequencing project of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. A total of 1246 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated by random sequencing of clones from a cDNA library of the infective juvenile stage. The ESTs were annotated resulting in 1072 useful ESTs that were categorized into functional categories according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Approximately 459 of 1072 ESTs (43%) had significant similarities to annotated sequences in GenBank. Of these, 417 had significant similarities to the free-living nematode Caenorhanditis elegans proteins. Most ESTs (18%) belonged to the genetic information processing category followed by metabolism (15% ESTs) and environmental information processing (15%) pathways. Several interesting ESTs were found that may have roles in the infectivity and survival of infective juveniles. These included proteases, dauer pathway genes (akt-1, pdk-1 & daf-7) and aging and stress resistance genes such as superoxide dismutase (sod-4), heat shock genes (hsp-4 & hsp-6), and eat genes, and signaling proteins like G-protein coupled receptors, regulators of G-protein signaling (rgs), and serine/threonine kinases. Other interesting ESTs include systemic RNAi defective protein (sid-1), ribonuclease III family members (rnh-2 &rnc) and transposase gene (Tc3A). About 67% of the ESTs did not find matches in any of the searched databases suggesting potentially novel genes in this enomopathogenic nematode. Note: Sequences described in this paper have been deposited in Genbank under the accessions DN 152655-DN 152999, and DN 153000-DN 153726. PMID:16414368

  9. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    PubMed

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792

  10. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats

    PubMed Central

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M.; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection in gastrointestinal tracts of patients infected with HIV-1 or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, N D; Boylston, A W; Roberts, A H; Parkin, J M; Pinching, A J

    1989-01-01

    All gastrointestinal tract biopsy specimens from 190 patients positive for HIV-1 or with AIDS were reviewed to assess the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, morphology of infected cells, and the associated histopathological features. Eighteen patients (10 (7.7%) of 129 HIV antibody positive and eight (13.1%) of 61 with AIDS) had CMV identified in 35 biopsy specimens from the following sites: oesophagus (n = 3); stomach (n = 6); small intestine (n = 4); colorectum (n = 18) and perianal area (n = 4). Eleven patients had CMV alone as the potential cause of symptoms and in seven there were coexistent pathogens or Kaposi's sarcoma. The appearance and type of infected cells at different sites was highly variable. Immunocytochemical techniques and electron microscopic examination were performed to confirm the presence of CMV antigen and CMV virus particles and to exclude the possibility of an adenovirus producing similar cytopathic changes. It is important to recognise the different morphological forms of infected cells, and the use of immunocytochemical techniques is recommended in patients at risk for CMV or in whom CMV infection is suspected. Images PMID:2555397

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  13. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  14. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  15. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant’s health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  16. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae Produce Cryoprotectants in Response to Freezing and Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freeze-tolerant entomopathogenic nematode which survives intracellular freezing. We have detected by gas chromatography that infective juveniles of S. feltiae produce cryoprotectants in response to cold acclimation and to freezing. Since the survival of this nematode varies with temperature, we analyzed their cryoprotectant profiles under different acclimation and freezing regimes. The principal cryoprotectants detected were trehalose and glycerol with glucose being the minor component. The amount of cryoprotectants varied with the temperature and duration of exposure. Trehalose was accumulated in higher concentrations when nematodes were acclimated at 5°C for two weeks whereas glycerol level decreased from that of the non-acclimated controls. Nematodes were seeded with a small ice crystal and held at -1°C, a regime that does not produce freezing of the nematodes but their bodies lose water to the surrounding ice (cryoprotective dehydration). This increased the levels of both trehalose and glycerol, with glycerol reaching a higher concentration than trehalose. Nematodes frozen at -3°C, a regime that produces freezing of the nematodes and results in intracellular ice formation, had elevated glycerol levels while trehalose levels did not change. Steinernema feltiae thus has two strategies of cryoprotectant accumulation: one is an acclimation response to low temperature when the body fluids are in a cooled or supercooled state and the infective juveniles produce trehalose before freezing. During this process a portion of the glycerol is converted to trehalose. The second strategy is a rapid response to freezing which induces the production of glycerol but trehalose levels do not change. These low molecular weight compounds are surmised to act as cryoprotectants for this species and to play an important role in its freezing tolerance. PMID:26509788

  17. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  18. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  19. Genomic and functional characteristics of copy number variations in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  20. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major functions of the intestinal epithelium are to act as a physical barrier and to regulate the movement of nutrients, ions and fluid. Nematode infection induces alterations in smooth and epithelial cell function, including increased fluid in the intestinal lumen, which are attributed to a ST...

  1. Interaction between the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (Hyphomycetales) and Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-de Gives, P; Zavaleta-Mejia, E; Quiroz-Romero, H; Herrera-Rodriguez, D; Perdomo-Roldan, F

    1992-02-01

    In an in vitro trial, the effect of the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae was evaluated in petri dishes containing corn meal agar. After seven days incubation at 25 degrees C, 92.33% (+/- 4.1) predation was recorded. PMID:1561755

  2. Activation of caspases in intestinal villus epithelial cells of normal and nematode infected rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyoh, Y; Ishizaka, S; Horii, T; Fujiwara, A; Tegoshi, T; Yamada, M; Arizono, N

    2002-01-01

    Background: Small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) show apoptosis in physiological turnover of cells and in certain inflammatory diseases. Aims: To investigate the role of caspases in the progression of IEC apoptosis in vivo. Methods: IEC were separated along the villus-crypt axis from the jejunum of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats at 4°C. Caspases were examined by a fluorometric assay method, histochemistry, and immunoblotting. Results: Villus cell rich IEC from normal rats exhibited a high level of caspase-3-like activity whereas activities of caspase-1, -8, and -9 were negligible. Immunoblotting analysis of villus cell rich IEC revealed partial cleavage of procaspase-3 into a 17 kDa molecule as well as cleavage of a caspase-3 substrate, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas in crypt cell rich IEC, caspase-3 cleavage was less significant. Caspase-3 activity was also observed histochemically in villus epithelium on frozen sections of the normal small intestine. IEC prepared at 4°C did not reveal nuclear degradation whereas subsequent incubation in a suspension at 37°C induced intense nuclear degradation within one hour in accordance with increases in active caspase-3. This apoptosis was partially suppressed by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. Nematode infected animals showed villus atrophy together with significant increases in levels of caspase-3 in IEC but not of caspase-1, -8, or -9. Conclusion: Caspase-3 may have an important role in the physiological replacement of IEC as well as in progression of IEC apoptosis induced by nematode infection. PMID:11772970

  3. Intracellular Freezing in the Infective Juveniles of Steinernema feltiae: An Entomopathogenic Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of their optical transparency, we clearly observed the third stage infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae freezing under a cryo-stage microscope. The IJs froze when the water surrounding them froze at −2°C and below. However, they avoid inoculative freezing at −1°C, suggesting cryoprotective dehydration. Freezing was evident as a sudden darkening and cessation of IJs' movement. Freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the IJs of S. feltiae freeze intracellularly. Ice crystals were found in every compartment of the body. IJs frozen at high sub-zero temperatures (−1 and −3°C) survived and had small ice crystals. Those frozen at −10°C had large ice crystals and did not survive. However, the pattern of ice formation was not well-controlled and individual nematodes frozen at −3°C had both small and large ice crystals. IJs frozen by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen had small ice crystals, but did not survive. This study thus presents the evidence that S. feltiae is only the second freeze tolerant animal, after the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, shown to withstand extensive intracellular freezing. PMID:24769523

  4. Community acquired fulminant Pseudomonas infection of the gastrointestinal tract in previously healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C K; Lee, K H

    1998-12-01

    Three previously healthy infants presented with diarrhoea and pyrexia and deteriorated rapidly. Two patients had necrotizing bowel disease requiring aggressive surgical intervention. All survived. P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection in previously healthy children is an extremely rare condition with a high mortality. Ecthyma gangrenosum was present in over 60% of reported cases although often not recognized initially. A high index of clinical suspicion, including prompt recognition of ecthyma gangrenosum, is mandatory for an early diagnosis of P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the prognosis. PMID:9928656

  5. Dispersal, Infectivity and Sex Ratio of Early- or Late-Emerging Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Aki; Lewis, E. E.; Cobanoglu, Gulumser; Kaya, Harry K.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in activity between infective juveniles (IJ) of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae that emerged directly from cadavers onto either a sand or agar substrate compared with those emerging from a cadaver into water and then being placed on the same substrate are known to occur. Differences between S. carpocapsae IJ that emerged directly from a cadaver vs. those that emerged from a cadaver and held in water were further elucidated. Dispersed and non-dispersed IJ from a cadaver were compared with those held in water between two time periods designated as early- (first two days) or late-emerging IJ (seventh day). A significantly greater proportion of early-emerging IJ from the cadaver treatment dispersed, compared with late-emerging IJ from a cadaver or either group of emerging IJ held in aqueous suspension. Moreover, IJ from cadavers were more infectious than those from the aqueous suspensions, and IJ that dispersed were less infectious than those that did not disperse. IJ that emerged early were mostly males, whereas those that emerged late were mostly females. For the non-dispersed IJ, most that emerged early were males, and those that emerged later were females, but among dispersing IJ, there was no difference in sex ratio between early- and late-emerging nematodes. PMID:19259508

  6. Diagnosis of the strongyloid nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, P D; Malta, F M; Meisel, D M C L; Corral, M A; Pinho, J R; Costa-Cruz, J M; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is an intestinal nematode of rats, frequently used as a model for studying human and animal strongyloidiasis. In the present study, we evaluated parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of experimental S. venezuelensis in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analysed up to 60 days post infection (pi) with adult worm recovery occurring from 5 to 45 days pi. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum levels of IgG antibodies increased up to 28 days pi, thereafter decreasing by day 60 pi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected S. venezuelensis DNA in faecal samples of rats from 5 to 21 days pi. The present study therefore represents the first step towards improving the diagnosis of experimental strongyloidiasis. PMID:26169305

  7. Providencia vermicola sp. nov., isolated from infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Vishal S; Lang, Elke; Sträubler, Bettina; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Ganguly, Sudershan; Saxena, Anil K; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2006-03-01

    In the course of isolating bacteria from infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly & Singh, 2000, three isolates were obtained (OP1T, OP29 and VS3). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and riboprint patterns, these three strains were identical to each other but distinct from the type strains of the five recognized species of the genus Providencia. Based on biochemical and genomic analysis and supported by the low (<35 %) DNA-DNA relatedness between strain OP1T and the type strain of its phylogenetically closest relative, Providencia rettgeri (99.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), strain OP1T was considered to be sufficiently distinct from recognized Providencia species to warrant the description of a novel species. The name Providencia vermicola sp. nov. is proposed, with OP1T (= DSM 17385T = CIP 108829T) as the type strain. PMID:16514040

  8. Effectors of root sedentary nematodes target diverse plant cell compartments to manipulate plant functions and promote infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts over a period of several weeks and induce the differentiation of root cells into specialized feeding cells. Nematode effectors, which are synthesized in the esophageal glands and injected into the plant tissue through the syringe-like stylet, play a central role in these processes. Previous work on nematode effectors has shown that the apoplasm is targeted during invasion of the host while the cytoplasm is targeted during the induction and the maintenance of the feeding site. A large number of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection have now been identified. This work has shown that the targeting and the role of effectors are more complex than previously thought. This review will not cover the prolific recent findings in nematode effector function but will instead focus on recent selected examples that illustrate the variety of plant cell compartments that effectors are addressed to in order reach their plant targets. PMID:23857349

  9. Nematode parasites infecting the starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae) from the East and South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhao, W-T; Guo, Y-N; Zhang, L-P

    2016-05-01

    The starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) is a small, benthic fish found in Indo-West Pacific Oceans. However, our present knowledge of the helminth parasites of this fish is still fragmentary. In this study, a total of 29 fish collected from the East and South China Sea were examined to determine the prevalence, intensity and species composition of helminth parasites in H. stellata. Using morphological and molecular approaches, four species of nematodes were found parasitic in this fish host, including the adults and fourth-stage larvae of Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti 1941; adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu 1949), third- and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium larval type IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge 2013 and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium amoyense (Hsü 1993). Halieutaea stellata represents a new host record for the three last-named nematodes. Raphidascaroides nipponensis with the highest prevalence (82.5%) and intensity (mean = 13.5) of infection was considered as the dominant parasite species in H. stellata. The detailed morphology of the different developmental stages of the four nematode species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. All nematode species were also genetically characterized by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. This study provides further data on the occurrence of nematode parasites in H. stellata and also contributes to facilitate an accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection by these little-known nematodes. PMID:25917527

  10. Cytokine patterns in paediatric patients presenting serious gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Martínez, Monika; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Cortés-Bejar, Consuelo Del Carmen; Valencia-Chavarría, Fernando; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the adaptive immune response, the types of cytokines produced define whether there is a cellular (T1) or a humoral (T2) response. Specifically, in the T1 response, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β) are produced, whereas in the T2 response, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-10 and IL-13 are primarily produced. Cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of immune system cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytokine patterns (Type 1/Type 2) and TNF-α expression levels in children with severe gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to identify the cytokines and the infectious agents. The results obtained demonstrated that, in general, children with bacterial infections experienced an increase in IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations and a decrease in TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 concentrations when compared to healthy children. Specifically, type 1 cytokines and an increased TNF-α concentration were found in children with gastrointestinal infections. However, patients with respiratory infections showed increased concentrations of both T2 (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and T1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) components. Thus, it was concluded that children with gastrointestinal infections exclusively developed a T1 response, whereas children with respiratory infections developed a T1/T2 response to fight the infection. PMID:26155128

  11. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there. PMID:12537633

  12. Differential immune responses in mice infected with the tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    Onkoba, W N; Chimbari, M J; Kamau, J M; Mukaratirwa, S

    2016-09-01

    To improve diagnostic tools, immunotherapies and vaccine development for trichinellosis surveillance and control there is a need to understand the host immune responses induced during infection with Trichinella zimbabwensis, a tissue-dwelling nematode. In this study, we sought to determine immune responses induced in mice during T. zimbabwensis infection. The parasite strain used (Code ISS1209) was derived from a naturally infected crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and is the main Trichinella species prevalent in southern Africa. Sixty 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two equal groups: T. zimbabwensis-infected (n= 30) and the non-infected control group (n= 30). Levels of serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 antibody responses were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cytokines and antibodies provided information on T-helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-type, T-regulatory and antibody responses. Results showed that during the intestinal stage of infection, higher levels of parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1 (P <  0.05) and IL-10 and TNF-α (P <  0.001) were observed in the Trichinella-infected group compared with the non-infected control group. In the parasite establishment and tissue migration phases, levels of IgG1 and IgG3 were elevated (P <  0.001), while those of IgM (P <  0.01) declined on days 21 and 35 post infection (pi) compared to the enteric phase. Our findings show that distinct differences in Th1- and Th2-type and T-regulatory responses are induced during the intestinal, tissue migration and larval establishment stages of T. zimbabwensis infection. PMID:26294082

  13. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  14. Effects of tannin-rich host plants on the infection and establishment of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Itamar; Salame, Liora; Dvash, Levana; Muklada, Hussein; Azaizeh, Hassan; Mreny, Raghda; Markovics, Alex; Landau, SergeYan

    2015-06-01

    Parasitized animals can self-medicate. As ingested plant phenolics, mainly tannins, reduce strongyle nematode infections in mammalian herbivores. We investigated the effect of plant extracts known to be anthelmintic in vertebrate herbivores on the recovery of the parasitic entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infecting African cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Nematode infective juveniles (IJs) were exposed to 0, 300, 900, 1200, 2400 ppm of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk), Inula viscosa L. (strong-smelling inula), Quercus calliprinos Decne. (common oak) and Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) extracts on growth medium (in vitro assay). In control treatments, 50-80% of IJs resumed development to J4, young and developed adult hermaphrodites, whereas all extracts, except for C. siliqua at 300 ppm, impaired IJ exsheathment and development. The highest concentration of I. viscosa extract (2400 ppm) had the strongest effect, killing 95% of exposed nematodes. Surviving nematodes did not recover, remaining at the IJ stage. Over the whole cycle, I. viscosa extract inhibited recovery to 25% or less, and did not allow full development to adulthood, whereas 65% of IJs in the control treatment recovered and resumed development, 12% reaching complete maturation within 72 h of incubation. When herbivorous S. littoralis larvae were fed with different plant extracts in vivo, I. viscosa had the strongest effect at concentrations above 300 ppm, with 90% of insect-invading IJs not developing to parasitic stages, whereas in the control treatment, 85% of IJs resumed development. Exposure to C. siliqua extract also inhibited exsheathment and development of 75% of the IJs. Half of those that resumed development reached full maturation. P. lentiscus and Q. calliprinos extracts also inhibited development of 50% IJs. Our results suggest that H. bacteriophora can be used to study herbal medication against parasites in animals. PMID:25935140

  15. Proteomic analysis of secretory products from the model gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus reveals dominance of Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, James P.; Harcus, Yvonne; Murray, Janice; van Agtmaal, Maaike; Filbey, Kara J.; Grainger, John R.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark L.; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David; Curwen, Rachel S.; Wilson, R. Alan; Dowle, Adam A.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal helminth parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus offers a tractable experimental model for human hookworm infections such as Ancylostoma duodenale and veterinary parasites such as Haemonchus contortus. Parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products represent the major focus for immunological and biochemical analyses, and contain immunomodulatory molecules responsible for nematode immune evasion. In a proteomic analysis of adult H. polygyrus secretions (termed HES) matched to an extensive transcriptomic dataset, we identified 374 HES proteins by LC-MS/MS, which were distinct from those in somatic extract HEx, comprising 446 identified proteins, confirming selective export of ES proteins. The predominant secreted protein families were proteases (astacins and other metalloproteases, aspartic, cysteine and serine-type proteases), lysozymes, apyrases and acetylcholinesterases. The most abundant products were members of the highly divergent venom allergen-like (VAL) family, related to Ancylostoma secreted protein (ASP); 25 homologues were identified, with VAL-1 and -2 also shown to be associated with the parasite surface. The dominance of VAL proteins is similar to profiles reported for Ancylostoma and Haemonchus ES products. Overall, this study shows that the secretions of H. polygyrus closely parallel those of clinically important GI nematodes, confirming the value of this parasite as a model of helminth infection. PMID:21722761

  16. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  17. Mucin-Related Molecular Responses of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Rats Infected with the Nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Koichi; Yamada, Minoru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Arizono, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Although mucins are essential for the protection of internal epithelial surfaces, molecular responses involving mucin production and secretion in response to various infectious agents in the airway have not been fully elucidated. The present study analysed airway goblet cell mucins in rats infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which migrates to the lungs shortly after infection. Goblet cell hyperplasia occurred in the bronchial epithelium 3–10 days after infection. The high iron diamine-alcian blue staining combined with neuraminidase treatment showed that sialomucin is the major mucin in hyperplastic goblet cells. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that goblet cell mucins were immunoreactive with both the major airway mucin core peptide, Muc5AC, and the major intestinal mucin core peptide Muc2. Reverse transcription real-time PCR studies demonstrated upregulation of gene transcription levels of Muc5AC, Muc2, the sialyltransferase St3gal4, and the resistin-like molecule beta (Retnlb) in the lungs. These results showed that nematode infection induces airway epithelial responses characterised by the production of sialomucin with Muc5AC and Muc2 core peptides. These mucins, as well as Retnlb, might have important roles in the protection of mucosa from migrating nematodes in the airway. PMID:27335862

  18. Efficacy and productive performance of moxidectin in feedlot calves infected with nematodes resistant to ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Fazzio, L E; Streitenberger, N; Galvan, W R; Sánchez, R O; Gimeno, E J; Sanabria, R E F

    2016-06-15

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) of gastrointestinal nematodes to macrocyclic lactones is an increasingly common worldwide phenomenon limiting cattle production. This has motivated the search for alternatives, such as new active compounds, added drug synergisms, different doses, and alternate administration routes. The aim of this study was the assessment of moxidectin (MXD) performance in feedlot calves with a history of AR to ivermectin (IVM). Crossbred female calves aged 6-7 months and weighing 163kg (SD=34kg) were divided into 3 groups of 35 animals each. They were assigned to the following antiparasitic treatment groups: IVM group (0.2mg/kg IVM); MXD group (0.2mg/kg MXD), and ricobendazole+levamisole (RBZ+LEV) group (7.5mg/kg RBZ+8mg/kg LEV). On days 0, 26, and 47, fecal samples were taken and the weight of each animal was registered. Anthelmintic efficacy (by fecal egg count reduction), total weight gain (TWG) and average daily weight gain (AWG) were compared between the groups. A mixed SAS procedure was used for statistical analysis. Fecal egg count reduction 26 days post-treatment (PT) was calculated at 28% for the IVM group, 85% for the MXD group, and 99% for the RBZ+LEV group. AWGs (Standard Error) of 1.095g (56), 1.264g (49), and 1.340g (52) were registered for the IVM, MXD, and RBZ+LEV groups, respectively (p<0.05). Coprocultures revealed that MXD more effectively reduced Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. egg counts than IVM. This resulted in higher AWGs and TWGs for this group; similar results were seen for the RBZ+LEV group as well. In this study, animals treated with MXD gained about 160 more g/day than animals treated with IVM. This represents a gain of 16 USD per animal over the 47 day trial. PMID:27198772

  19. [Investigation on the current situation of human soil-borne nematode infection in Shapingba district of Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Lian-Jian; Chen, Min; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yin-Zhi

    2013-04-01

    By stratified cluster sampling method, 2 urban and 2 rural fields were selected from Shapingha district of Chongqing for survey in December 2009 to February 2010. According to the Administrating Regulations of National Investigation on Important Human Parasitic Diseases, Kato-Katz method was used to examine human intestinal soil-borne nematode eggs, and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied to examine Enterobius infection for children under 12 years old. 203 cases were found positive in 2121 subjects, with an infection rate of 9.6% (203/2 121), and the infection rate of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mild infection mostly was 9.3% (197/2 121), 0.4% (8/2 121) and 0.1% (2/2 121), respectively. The rate among people over 50 years old was 15.5% (160/1 030), and the farmers was with 22.3%(113/506). The higher the education level, the lower the infection rate (P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence between urban (2.1%) and rural people (17.3%) (chi2 = 140.443 5, P < 0.01). The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes in Shapingba of Chongqing was much lower than the standard of II regions and most infected subjects were with hookworm infection. PMID:24809189

  20. Emaciation and larval filarioid nematode infection in boreal owls (Aegolius funereus).

    PubMed

    Larrat, Sylvain; Dallaire, André D; Lair, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Microfilariae are considered non-pathogenic in wild birds. The objective of the current communication is to report host reactions to microfilarial infection of unusual intensity in emaciated boreal owls (Aegolius funereus). An unusually large number of boreal owls (n = 21) were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center-Quebec Region for post-mortem examination during the winter of 2009. Nineteen out of 21 birds were considered emaciated based on atrophy of adipose tissue and pectoral muscles and suboptimal weight. A microscopic examination of a subset of nine owls revealed the presence of microfilariae in six owls. Three of the birds with a heavy parasite burden had masses of larval nematodes obstructing large vessels of the lungs. The emaciated owls are believed to have died from starvation due to a cyclic decrease in prey abundance in the boreal forest. This cycle also drives winter movements of boreal owls to urbanized areas of southern Quebec, presumably accounting for the large number of birds submitted in 2009. In the most severely infected owls, the extreme microfilarial burden might have caused an alteration in circulatory dynamics, gaseous exchanges and also probably some metabolic cost. Consequently, microfilariae could have significantly contributed to the death of some of these owls. PMID:22834547

  1. Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

  2. Poultry litter as a source of gastrointestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Maurer, V; Amsler, Z; Perler, E; Heckendorn, F

    2009-05-12

    The aim of this study carried out in 6 commercial layer houses was to examine the effect of litter management on water content, helminth egg count and litter infectiousness with the intestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and Capillaria spp. Three types of litter management were established in each layer house in parallel: in compartment A, litter was left undisturbed, in compartment B, wet litter was replaced and in compartment C, new litter material was added weekly. Dry matter (DM) contents of the litter and parasitological parameters (helminth egg concentration in litter samples, faecal egg counts (FECs) in the permanent layer flocks, helminth prevalence and burdens in two series of tracer animals) were determined every 4 weeks during the first 32 weeks of one laying period. DM contents of the litter varied in a broad range (48-95%); 8 weeks after onset of the study, there were significant differences between sites (P<0.001) but not between management regimes. A. galli/H. gallinarum eggs were isolated from 91% of the litter samples, whereas eggs of Capillaria spp. were only extracted from 13% of the samples. Egg concentrations in litter remained at a similar level during the observation period. Neither management regime reduced helminth egg concentrations in the litter compared to the unmanaged regime. Laying hens started excreting helminth eggs 8 weeks after introduction to the layer house. In treatment C (litter added) FECs were lower than in the unmanaged treatment A in weeks 8 (P<0.0001), 20, and 28 (both P<0.1). There was no correlation between the concentration of helminth eggs in the litter and the FECs of the layer flocks. The prevalence of A. galli in tracer animals was lower (<10%) than the prevalences of H. gallinarum (68-80%) and Capillaria spp. (30-58%). Prevalences and H. gallinarum burdens did not differ significantly between management regimes. Although high helminth egg concentrations were found in litter, the prevalence and

  3. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panels: implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Rand, Kenneth H; Tremblay, Elizabeth E; Hoidal, Mari; Fisher, Lori B; Grau, Katrina R; Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    In the acute care hospital inpatient setting, there is a wide variety of causes for both infectious and noninfectious diarrhea. However, without molecular assays for the wide range of agents causing gastroenteritis, there is no reliable way to determine which individuals should be placed in contact precautions, as recommended by CDC. We tested 158 inpatient diarrheal stool specimens with the FilmArray GI Panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) that had been stored at -70°C after testing negative by conventional methods for Clostridium difficile and/or rotavirus. We found that 22.2% had at least 1 other infectious agent detected, and 60% of these patients were never placed in appropriate isolation for a total of 109 patient-days. In addition, 20.3% of patients with negative GI panel results could have been removed from isolation. Use of multiplex gastrointestinal panels may improve decisions regarding patient isolation and reduce nosocomial transmission. PMID:25796558

  4. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation. PMID:23307367

  5. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrheal Disease in Ghanaian Infants and Children: An Outpatient Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Adelkofer, Julia; Loag, Wibke; Eibach, Daniel; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. Methods Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007–2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. Results The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3–16.6), C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.2) and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3–3.0) showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF) for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9–17.5%), Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5–17.1%), and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2–12.9%). Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. PMID:25738935

  6. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  7. Genetic Dissection of Resistance in Soybean PI567516C to a Nematode Population Infecting cv. Hartwig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Crop losses are primarily mitigated by the use of resistant cultivars. Nematode populations are variable and have adapted to reproduce on resistant cultivars ov...

  8. Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

  9. Kinetics of infective juvenile production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in submerged monoxenic culture.

    PubMed

    Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Islas-López, Marco-Antonio; Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Gayosso-Canales, Martha; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés

    2008-08-01

    The effects of culture medium formulations on the kinetics of infective juvenile (IJ) production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in submerged monoxenic culture, were studied at the cylindrical-bottle scale using six culture media containing agave juice from Agave spp. among other ingredients. The IJ production kinetics was well modelled through a re-parameterised 3-parameter Gompertz model with kinetic parameters: IJ-lag phase lambda (IJ) (day), maximum IJ-stage production rate m (max )(day(-1)), and IJ-multiplication factor (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max)(-). The variation of lambda (IJ) was not very important within fermentations (10.3-16.2 days); nonetheless, important effects were observed on m (max) (32.8-241.2 days(-1)) and (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max) (66(-) to 611.4(-)). Particularly, maximum values of m (max) and (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max) were obtained in medium A4 (0.276 l l(-1) agave juice, 17 g l(-1) yeast extract, 12 g l(-1) dried egg yolk, 0.025 l l(-1) corn oil). Also, the maximum IJ concentration (249,444 per ml) was achieved in A4-fermentations. PMID:18074155

  10. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit after infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Ramos, L; Gama, L A; Mati, V L T; Corá, L A; Fujiwara, R T; Americo, M F

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0.0001) and the intestinal transit was significantly slower (p=0.001) during the infection time course. Also, linear mixed-effects models showed significantly changes in small intestinal transit after three parasite load over time. Cecum arrival was not influenced by infection time course or parasite load. As indirect effect, stool weight decreased accompanied a strong oviposition peak at 9dpi in 400L and 2000L. In several motor function instances, neuromuscular dysfunction persists after mucosal inflammation has decreased. Our approach could be very helpful to evaluate gastrointestinal motor abnormalities in vivo after parasite infection. Despite parasitological data progressively decreased after 15 dpi, small intestinal transit worse over time and according to burden. PMID:26739657

  11. Actin-Depolymerizing Factor2-Mediated Actin Dynamics Are Essential for Root-Knot Nematode Infection of Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Mathilde; Ketelaar, Tijs; Rodiuc, Natalia; Banora, Mohamed Youssef; Smertenko, Andrei; Engler, Gilbert; Abad, Pierre; Hussey, Patrick J.; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin and microtubule networks is known to occur in targeted vascular parenchymal root cells upon infection with the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Here, we show that actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) is upregulated in the giant feeding cells of Arabidopsis thaliana that develop upon nematode infection and that knockdown of a specific ADF isotype inhibits nematode proliferation. Analysis of the levels of transcript and the localization of seven ADF genes shows that five are upregulated in galls that result from the infection and that ADF2 expression is particularly increased between 14 and 21 d after nematode inoculation. Further analysis of ADF2 function in inducible RNA interference lines designed to knock down ADF2 expression reveals that this protein is required for normal cell growth and plant development. The net effect of decreased levels of ADF2 is F-actin stabilization in cells, resulting from decreased F-actin turnover. In nematode-infected plants with reduced levels of ADF2, the galls containing the giant feeding cells and growing nematodes do not develop due to the arrest in growth of the giant multinucleate feeding cells, which in turn is due to an aberrant actin network. PMID:19794115

  12. Phenotypic assessment of the ovicidal activity of monepantel and monepantel sulfone on gastro-intestinal nematode eggs.

    PubMed

    Bartley, D J; Meslé, M; Donegan, H; Devin, L; Morrison, A A

    2016-04-15

    The in vitro ovicidal activity of the amino acetonitrile derivative, monepantel (MPTL) and its active metabolite monepantel sulfone (MPTL-SO2) were assessed against a number of commercially important nematode species of ruminants, namely Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. An egg hatch test (EHT) was used to make the assessment of both drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates. Both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 showed moderate ovicidal activity in vitro against all of the species examined, although species specific differences as measured by inhibitory concentration were observed. Analysis of the drug sensitive isolates showed H. contortus to be the most sensitive to both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 (ED50 1.7 and 2.7μg/ml respectively) followed by T. circumcincta (ED50 2.1 and 2.7μg/ml respectively) followed by T. axei (ED50 68.7 and 60.1μg/ml respectively). Overall the EHT results would suggest no "global" in vitro discriminatory dose for detection of MPTL resistance is likely to be achievable, using the egg hatch test, due to large inherent variability observed between species. The test identified a dose dependent increase in MPTL and MPTL-SO2 sensitivity in two MPTL resistant T. circumcincta isolates and therefore offers to be a promising tool for the phenotypic characterisation of MPTL sensitivity, allowing exploration into the mechanisms involved in selection and development of MPTL resistance. PMID:26995727

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel for the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Bickle, Quentin; Haji, Hamad J; Ramsan, Mahdi; Khatib, Khatib J; Montresor, Antonio; Savioli, Lorenzo; Taylor, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel (10 mg/kg) with mebendazole (500 mg) was performed on 1329 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years on Pemba Island in September-October 2000 to evaluate alternative single-dose drugs for regular treatment of intestinal nematode infections. Both mebendazole and pyrantel-oxantel were very effective in eliminating Ascaris lumbricoides infection, inducing cure rates of more than 96% and reducing the mean egg counts by more than 95%. Both drugs had a moderate efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infection, but pyrantel-oxantel had a higher cure rate (31.5% vs. 23.3%, P < 0.01), though the reductions in egg counts did not differ significantly and were more than 80%. Pyrantel-oxantel and mebendazole had a similar, poor efficacy in curing hookworm infections and had a moderate effect in reducing the egg counts by 67% and 68%, respectively. Pyrantel-oxantel (10 mg/kg) offers a valuable alternative to mebendazole as a single-dose treatment for the control of intestinal nematode infections in children in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, due to its comparable efficacy, its low cost and its suitability for use in young children. PMID:12625151

  14. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    PubMed

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  15. Intravenous Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum Leads to a Long-Lasting Infection Restricted to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Luying; Shao, Lili; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Yuyang; Failor, Courtney; Schenken, Robert; Baseman, Joel; He, Cheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, it remains unclear whether the chlamydial organisms can be introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via pathways independent of the oral and anal routes. We have recently shown that Chlamydia muridarum spreads from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract potentially via the circulatory system. To test whether hematogenous C. muridarum can spread to and establish a long-lasting colonization in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we inoculated mice intravenously with a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum strain and monitored its distribution. After tail vein inoculation, most luciferase-generated bioluminescence signals were detected in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiment. The ex vivo imaging revealed that the abdominal signals came from the gastrointestinal tract tissues. Simultaneous monitoring of chlamydial organisms in individual organs or tissues revealed an initial stage of systemic spreading followed by a long-lasting infection in the gastrointestinal tract. A retro-orbital vein inoculation of the C. muridarum organisms at a lower dose in a different mouse strain also led to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated that intravenous C. muridarum inoculation can result in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the chlamydial organisms may use the sexual behavior-independent circulation pathway to infect the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27271744

  16. Fecal egg counts for gastrointestinal nematodes are associated with a polymorphism in the MHC-DRB1 gene in the Iranian Ghezel sheep breed

    PubMed Central

    Valilou, Rahman Hajializadeh; Rafat, Seyed A.; Notter, David R.; Shojda, Djalil; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Nematollahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation among sheep breeds in resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) has been demonstrated in several production environments. Relationships between the ovine major histocompatibility complex and resistance to GIN have been studied, but few studies have systematically examined this issue in less-developed and semi-arid regions. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between fecal worm egg counts (FEC) for several GIN and polymorphisms in the DRB1 gene. One hundred male lambs were selected at 4–6 months of age from weaned animals in five flocks (n = 20 per flock). Body weights were determined, FAMACHA scores based on color of the ocular mucous membranes were assigned as an indicator of anemia, and blood and fecal samples were collected twice to evaluate FEC and blood packed cell volume (PCV) and for DNA isolation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test effects of genotype on FEC. The model included fixed effects of flock, genotype, time of measurement (1 or 2), and flock × time and genoype × time interactions, and a random (repeated) effect of lamb. Two genotypes (A1A1 and A1A2) were observed following digestion of Region 1 of Ovar-DRB1 with PstI. Genotypic frequencies were 0.73 for A1A1 and 0.27 for A1A2. FEC differed between Ovar_DRB1 genotypes A1A1 and A1A2 for Marshallagia marshalli, Strongyle, and total nematode FEC. Observed FEC were 30–41% lower for genotype A1A1. Differences among genotypes were consistent across measurement times, with no effect of genotype × measurement time interaction for any parasite class (P ≥ 0.34). A significant association was observed between FAMACHA scores and lamb PCV, and the residual correlation between these two variables was -0.51 (P < 0.001). FAMACHA scores can thus be used to detect differences among lambs in PCV, and polymorphic markers of Ovar-DRB1 have potential value as an indicator of parasite resistance in applied animal breeding programs on sheep farms

  17. Diagnosis before treatment: Identifying dairy farmers' determinants for the adoption of sustainable practices in gastrointestinal nematode control.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, F; Claerebout, E; Cauberghe, V; Hudders, L; Van Loo, H; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-09-15

    of the predictors for young stock and adult dairy cows. The results of this study can be used to develop communication strategies to advertise sustainable nematode control on dairy farms. PMID:26238655

  18. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ∼3 mg l‑1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  19. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children: a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío

    2011-04-01

    Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. PMID:21695035

  20. Malnutrition and Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children: A Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. PMID:21695035

  1. Immunologically confirmed disseminated, asymptomatic Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C; Schwartz, D A; Visvesvara, G S; Müller, A; Schwenk, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Hartmann, P; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V

    1995-12-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They are increasingly recognized as human pathogens, especially in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Organisms of the genus Encephalitozoon have been implicated as a major cause of disseminated microsporidian infections in persons with AIDS. Until recently, E. hellem was the only Encephalitozoon species confirmed by antigenic or nucleic acid methods to have infected humans. We describe the clinical course and morphological features of a case of disseminated microsporidian infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in an HIV-infected patient with chronic sinusitis, rhinitis, and keratoconjunctivitis. Parasites were found in conjunctival swab, nasal discharge, sputum, urine, stool, and duodenal biopsy specimens, but no pulmonary, renal, or gastrointestinal symptoms were documented. The patient was treated with albendazole (400 mg po b.i.d.), resulting in complete remission of his ocular and nasal symptoms, and microsporidian spores disappeared from all sites. To our knowledge, this case is only the second of E. cuniculi infection in humans that has been confirmed by either antibody- or nucleic acid-based methods, and it is the first in which an Encephalitozoon species has been found in the intestinal tract of a human. Microsporidiosis is an important emerging opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients and, as documented in this report, has an expanding clinicopathologic spectrum. PMID:8749639

  2. Multiple Simultaneous Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cardona-Rodríguez, Zaydalee; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Soto-Malave, Ruth; De León-Borras, Rafeal

    2016-06-01

    Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific. Although multiple infections with the same or different parasites have been reported, simultaneous infections are rare. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a co-infection with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Strongyloides, simultaneously, the diagnosis being made after the judicious evaluation of a stool sample. Given the associated morbidity, prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to avoid further complications in patients with HIV. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of triple parasitic infection in a patient with HIV. PMID:27232872

  3. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli when foraging. Previously, we reported a directional response to electrical fields for two entomopathogenic nematode species; specifically, when electrical fields were generated on agar plates Steinernema glaseri (a nematode that utilizes a...

  4. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann (Tylenchida: Meloidoginidae) Infection in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Molina, J. P.; Dolinski, C.; Souza, R. M.; Lewis, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Some studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) affect plant-parasitic nematode populations. Here, the effects of live and dead IJ of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4, H. baujardi LPP7, Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All were evaluated against eggs and J2 of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. According to treatment, 100 IJ were applied with 350 eggs, 350 J2 or 175 eggs + 175 J2 to tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in March to May and repeated in September to November 2005. Both experiments lasted 9 weeks, and the variable evaluated was number of galls per plant. When eggs were used for infections in the first trial, plants exhibited lower gall number compared to control when live and dead H. baujardi IJ and live S. feltiae IJ were added (9.7, 4.5, 7.3 and 85.7 galls, respectively). In the second trial, live S. feltiae and S. carpocapasae IJ influenced gall formation compared to control (14.33, 14.57 and 168.02 galls, respectively). When J2 were used for infections, plants with live H. baujardi IJ presented less galls when compared to control in both trials (38.3 and 355.7 galls in the first trial and 145.2 and 326.2 in the second one, respectively). Infection with a mixture of J2 and eggs resulted in fewer galls than when live S. feltiae IJ were present in both trials, compared to control (38.3 and 44.2 galls vs. 275.3 and 192.2 galls, respectively). We conclude that H. baujardi and S. feltiae apparently may be inhibiting egg hatching and J2 infection. PMID:19259509

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Parasite Infection in a Developing Nation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Benshoff, Matthew; Cáceres, Mercedes; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Schmulson, Max; Peña, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Postinfectious IBS is defined in the industrialized world as IBS onset following a sentinel gastrointestinal infection. In developing nations, where repeated bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal infections are common, the IBS pathophysiology may be altered. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between intestinal parasite infection and IBS in the “nonsterile” developing world environment. IBS subjects were identified from a population-based sample of 1624 participants using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire. Stool samples from cases and randomly selected controls were examined for ova and parasites. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between IBS and parasite infection. The overall IBS prevalence among participants was 13.2% (9.3% males, 15.9% females). There was no difference in parasite carriage between IBS cases and controls, 16.6% versus 15.4% (P = 0.78), nor among IBS subtypes. The pathophysiology of post-infectious IBS may be altered in the developing world as compared to industrialized nations and warrants investigation. PMID:22474433

  6. Economic analysis of risk of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in cattle in North Eastern States of India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Mandal, S; Datta, K K; Devi, P; De, S; Bera, A K; Bhattacharya, D

    2010-10-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in the North Eastern States (NEH) of India and accounted for significant economic losses across various livestock species. Productivity of cattle in terms of milk yield was estimated to be considerably higher (3,715, 3,590, and 3,154 L) due to strategic anthelmintic treatment as compare to control group (2,928 L). Based on the probability of occurrence of parasitic infection as well as increase in value of milk production, the possible economic gain at state level has been estimated to be Rs. 46 million, Rs. 35 million, and Rs. 14 million, depending upon the different strategic treatment. The government may take up the program to educate the cattle farmers on strategic management against parasitic infection and simultaneously making available various anthelmintic medicines. This public responsibility of the government to minimize the risk and economic loss due to gastrointestinal parasite infection may reduce the private cost and thereby would increase the social benefits in North Eastern states of India. PMID:20411327

  7. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  8. Control of gastrointestinal nematodes with copper oxide wire particles in a flock of lactating Polypay ewes and offspring in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have been used in lambs to reduce infection of Haemonchus contortus in hair breed lambs in the southeastern U.S. without signs of copper toxicity. However, copper sensitivity among breeds and regions varies. The objective was to determine the effectiveness and sa...

  9. Multiplex Molecular Panels for Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Infection: Performance, Result Interpretation, and Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among young children and immunocompromised patients. Diarrhea may result from infection with a variety of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Historically, the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea has been made using microscopy, antigen tests, culture, and real-time PCR. A combination of these traditional tests is often required due to the inability to distinguish between infectious etiologies based on the clinical presentation alone. Recently, several multiplex molecular assays have been developed for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens directly from clinical stool samples. These panels allow for the detection and identification of up to 20 pathogens in as little as 1 h. This review will focus on the multiplex molecular panels that have received clearance from the FDA for the diagnosis of diarrheal disease and will highlight issues related to test performance, result interpretation, and cost-effectiveness of these new molecular diagnostic tools. PMID:26311866

  10. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  11. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  12. Microbial population dynamics in the hemolymph of Manduca sexta infected with Xenorhabdus nematophila and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Reese, Jordan M; Casanova-Torres, Angel M; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Forst, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila engages in a mutualistic association with the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. The nematode invades and traverses the gut of susceptible insects. X. nematophila is released in the insect blood (hemolymph), where it suppresses host immune responses and functions as a pathogen. X. nematophila produces diverse antimicrobials in laboratory cultures. The natural competitors that X. nematophila encounters in the hemolymph and the role of antimicrobials in interspecies competition in the host are poorly understood. We show that gut microbes translocate into the hemolymph when the nematode penetrates the insect intestine. During natural infection, Staphylococcus saprophyticus was initially present and subsequently disappeared from the hemolymph, while Enterococcus faecalis proliferated. S. saprophyticus was sensitive to X. nematophila antibiotics and was eliminated from the hemolymph when coinjected with X. nematophila. In contrast, E. faecalis was relatively resistant to X. nematophila antibiotics. When injected by itself, E. faecalis persisted (~10(3) CFU/ml), but when coinjected with X. nematophila, it proliferated to ~10(9) CFU/ml. Injection of E. faecalis into the insect caused the upregulation of an insect antimicrobial peptide, while the transcript levels were suppressed when E. faecalis was coinjected with X. nematophila. Its relative antibiotic resistance together with suppression of the host immune system by X. nematophila may account for the growth of E. faecalis. At higher injected levels (10(6) CFU/insect), E. faecalis could kill insects, suggesting that it may contribute to virulence in an X. nematophila infection. These findings provide new insights into the competitive events that occur early in infection after S. carpocapsae invades the host hemocoel. PMID:24814780

  13. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; Dos Santos, Célia Dias; Dos Santos, Rafael Vital; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  14. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; dos Santos, Célia Dias; dos Santos, Rafael Vital

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  15. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ablack, Amber; Hall, Emily H.; Butcher, Lindsay D.; Bhattacharyya, Asima; Eckmann, Lars; Harris, Paul R.; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B.; Crowe, Sheila E.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced by ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-mediated DNA damage. Rac1 and NAPDH oxidase (Nox1) are important contributors of ROS generation following infection and associated with gastrointestinal epithelial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if APE1 regulates the function of Rac1 and Nox1 during oxidative stress. Gastric or colonic epithelial cells (wild-type or with suppressed APE1) were infected with Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enterica and assessed for Rac1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production. Rac1 and APE1 interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay (PLA) in cell lines or in biopsy specimens. Significantly greater levels of ROS were produced by APE1-deficient human gastric and colonic cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells compared to control cells after infection with either gastric or enteric pathogens. H. pylori activated Rac1 and Nox1 in all cell types, but activation was higher in APE1 suppressed cells. APE1 overexpression decreased H. pylori-induced ROS generation, Rac1 activation, and Nox1 expression. We determined that the effects of APE1 were mediated through its N-terminal lysine residues interacting with Rac1, leading to inhibition of Nox1 expression and ROS generation. APE1 is a negative regulator of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal epithelium during bacterial infection by modulating Rac1 and Nox1. Our results implicate APE1 in novel molecular interactions that regulate early stress responses elicited by microbial infections. PMID:26761793

  16. Resistance to Gastrointestinal nematodse of cattle: Identification of genomic regions affecting resistance and potential mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections remain a major economic drain on the efficient raising of cattle throughout the world. The recent demonstrations of the appearance of drug resistance in these parasites underscores the problems associated with a complete reliance on anthelmintics to control econ...

  17. Factors associated with gastrointestinal parasite infection in dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, Bianca Chiganer Cramer; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Menezes, Rita de Cássia Alves Alcantara de; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

    2009-10-01

    Factors associated with parasitism by helminths and protozoans in 500 dogs presented to three veterinary clinics in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro from November 2003 to September 2004 were evaluated. Dogs were submitted to physical examination and owners were interviewed about the animal's management. One fecal sample from each dog was examined by centrifugal flotation and sedimentation methods followed by the safranin-methylene blue staining technique. Positive results for gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 46.4% of the examined samples. Infection with protozoans (29.6%) was more frequent than with helminths (23.2%). Cryptosporidium sp. (26.2%) and Ancylostoma sp. (15.2%) were the most frequent parasites. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (p<0.001), access to soil (p<0.001), hygiene of the environment (p=0.001), illness (p=0.007), owner's level of education (p<0.006) and veterinary clinic (p=0.043) were associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in dogs. Treatment and control are especially important for puppies. Adult dogs should be submitted to fecal examination before treatment, placing special emphasis on those that present one or more factors associated with infection. PMID:19577316

  18. [Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study. PMID:17471412

  19. No association between Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among gastrointestinal clinic attendees in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Passaro, D J; Watanabe, J; Parsonnet, J; Small, P; Miyagu, J; Rodriquez, C; Astete, M; Gilman, R H

    2003-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can cause hypochlorhydria, a positive risk factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. This study examined the association between HP and MTB infections among persons attending the Policlinico Peruano Japonés Gastrointestinal Clinic in Lima, Peru. From 23 June 2000 to 18 August 2000, consenting 18-55 year olds who attended the clinic for gastric biopsy gave blood for HP serologic testing, underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and completed a social and medical history. Of 128 participating patients, 78 (61%) were TST positive for MTB, and 107 (84%) were infected with HP by serology. Of the patients who were HP positive, 67 (63%) developed positive TST reactions compared to 11 (52%) of 21 HP-seronegative subjects (OR 1.29; 95% CI 0.54-3.11; P = 0.6). There was no association after adjusting for covariates of H. pylori infection (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.23-2.71; P = 0.7). However, study power was limited by high prevalence of the two infections. PMID:12613749

  20. Development of a transformation system for Hirsutella spp. and visualization of the mode of nematode infection by GFP-labeled H. minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingzu; Park, Sook-Young; Kang, Seogchan; Liu, Xingzhong; Qiu, Junzhi; Xiang, Meichun

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella rhossiliensis and H. minnesotensis are endoparasitic fungi of the second-stage juvenile (J2) of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in nature. They also parasitize both H. glycines J2 and Caenorhabditis elegans on agar plates. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation conditions were established for these Hirsutella spp. The resulting transformants were similar to the corresponding wild-type strains. The infection processes of H. glycines J2 and C. elegans second larval stage (L2) by H. minnesotensis expressing ZsGreen were microscopically analyzed. Conidia of H. minnesotensis adhered to passing nematodes within 8 h post-inoculation (hpi), formed an infection peg between 8 and 12 hpi, and penetrated the nematode cuticle between 12 and 24 hpi for C. elegans L2 and between 12 and 32 hpi for H. glycines J2. Hyphal proliferation inside of the nematode coelom was observed at approximately 32 hpi for C. elegans L2 and at approximately 40 hpi for H. glycines J2. The fungus consumed the whole body and grew out to produce conidia at approximately 156 and 204 hpi for C. elegans L2 and H. glycines J2, respectively. The efficient transformation protocol and a better understanding of infection process provide a solid foundation for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying fungal parasitism of nematodes. PMID:26190283

  1. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional. PMID:26391517

  2. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  3. Does infection by southern root-knot nematode influence development of Phytophthora blight in pepper?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of Phytophthora blight, are both important pathogens of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the U.S. and worldwide. Although there is significant information in the literature about the responses of pepper...

  4. Gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible soybean lines infected with soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Information about the molecular basis of soybean–SCN interactions is needed to assist future development of effective management tools against this pathogen. Toward this end, soybean transcript abundance was measured using th...

  5. Root transformation of Glycine max with responsive promoters to nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines), an obligate parasite of plants, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean, causing $469 to $818 million in soybean yield losses annually in the United States. However, there are no soybean cultivars available that are resistant to all SCN populati...

  6. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin pour-on, albendazole, oxfendazole and fenbendazole against Ostertagia ostertagi inhibited larvae, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C; DeRosa, A; Nakamura, Y; Loyacano, A F

    1997-12-15

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), oxfendazole (OXF) and fenbendazole (FBZ) compared with ivermectin pour-on (IVM-PO) against inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (IEL4) of Ostertagia ostertagi, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle during spring in Louisiana. Twenty-five crossbred beef heifer calves of 235 kg average weight and 10-12 months of age were acquired in late winter and grazed for 9 weeks on pasture contaminated with O. ostertagi and other nematodes until May 15. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into 5 groups of 5 calves on May 16 (day 0) and treatments were as follows: group 1, nontreated controls (CONT); group 2, IVM-PO on mid-backline at 500 micrograms/kg; group 3, ABZ suspension (oral) at 10 mg/kg; group 4, OXF suspension (oral) at 4.5 mg/kg; group 5, FBZ suspension (oral) at 5 mg/kg. After treatment and confinement in separate pens for each group, approximately equal numbers of cattle from each group were necropsied daily between days 29-31. Mean numbers of O. ostertagi developmental stages present in CONT were: adult, 5234; developing (DL4), 3130; IEL4, 44,077. The mean percentage of IEL4 was 84.1. Cooperia spp. were the second most prevalent in CONT (20,307) and smaller numbers of abomasal and intestinal species and Dictyocaulus viviparus were present in nearly all CONT. Percent reductions for the four compounds against O. ostertagi adult, DL4 and IEL4, respectively, were IVM-PO: 99.7, 98.3, 98.1; ABZ: 74.1, 76.5, 75.3; OXF: 78.5, 42.1, 32.0; FBZ: 63.6, 17.7, 39.7. Efficacy of IVM-PO was greater (P < 0.05) against all O. ostertagi stages than the benzimidazole (BZ) drugs, except for ABZ (DL4). There were no significant differences in group means (except for C. punctata adult males, P < 0.05 lower for IVM-PO) or wide variation in reduction percentages for other abomasal and intestinal species and D. viviparus between IVM-PO and BZ drugs. The low efficacy of all three BZ

  7. Colonic Immune Suppression, Barrier Dysfunction, and Dysbiosis by Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Cheng, Sam X.; Wang, Gary P.; Owen, Jennifer L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax results from the ingestion of Bacillus anthracis. Herein, we investigated the pathogenesis of GI anthrax in animals orally infected with toxigenic non-encapsulated B. anthracis Sterne strain (pXO1+ pXO2−) spores that resulted in rapid animal death. B. anthracis Sterne induced significant breakdown of intestinal barrier function and led to gut dysbiosis, resulting in systemic dissemination of not only B. anthracis, but also of commensals. Disease progression significantly correlated with the deterioration of innate and T cell functions. Our studies provide critical immunologic and physiologic insights into the pathogenesis of GI anthrax infection, whereupon cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in immune cells may play a central role in promoting dysfunctional immune responses against this deadly pathogen. PMID:24945934

  8. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  9. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  10. Comparative analyses of transcriptomic profiles of the bovine small intestine in response to both a primary infection and a drug-attenuated reinfection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cooperia oncophora is an economically important gastrointestinal nematode in ruminants. Acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle develops rapidly as a result of prior infections. Naïve cattle, when given a primary infection of high-dose infective L3 larvae, develop a strong immu...

  11. The vitamin D receptor and inducible nitric oxide synthase associated pathways in the development of acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cooperia oncophora is an economically important gastrointestinal nematode in ruminants. Acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle develops rapidly resulting from prior infections. Naïve cattle, when given a primary infection of high-dose infective L3 larvae, develop a strong immu...

  12. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) and cups for coprocultures (assay B). Subsequently, 1000 cyathostomin L3 were added to each Petri dish (assay A) and 1000 cyathostomin eggs were added to each coproculture (assay B) of fungi-treated and control groups. At the end of 15 days, there was observed that the two associations of pellets containing the fungi tested showed predatory activity after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses (assay A). In assay B, all the intervals studied showed reduction rate in the number of L3 recovered from coprocultures

  13. Experimental infection of selected arthropods with spirurid nematodes Spirocerca lupi Railliet & Henry, 1911 and Gongylonema ingluvicola Molin, 1857.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Pillay, E; Munsammy, K

    2010-12-01

    Gongylonema ingluvicola and Spirocerca lupi are spirurid nematodes that require arthropod intermediate hosts in order to complete their life cycle. Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae are reported to serve as intermediate hosts for both these parasites. In this study selected species of beetles of the family Scarabaeidae as well as other groups of arthropods were screened for susceptibility to infection with S. lupi and G. ingluvicola. Arthropods were exposed to infective eggs of both parasites for a determined period of time and dissected/digested to determine the presence or absence of pre-infective and infective larvae. All the five species of dung beetles exposed to infection with S. lupi, namely, Pachylomerus femoralis, Scarabaeus rugosus, Gymnopleurus humanus, Kheper nigroaeneus and Anachalcos convexus were susceptible and, of the two species exposed to G. ingluvicola, only Gy. humanus was susceptible. Spirocerca lupi eggs developed in millipede species, Daratoagonus cristulatus, and remained as encysted larvae, while in Orthoporoides kyrhocephalus no development was observed. Spirocerca lupi larvae were not detected in the cricket species Gryllus assimilis, or the cockroach species Periplaneta americana, and, similarly, G. ingluvicola larvae were not detected in the millipede species O. kyrhocephalus. The difference in the susceptibility of the arthropods to the two parasite species may depend on their feeding biology. PMID:20132587

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions. PMID:25706430

  15. Molecular characteristics and efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in inhibiting root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...

  16. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and comparative microarray expression analysis of syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean roots infected by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible (I) and compatible (C) populations of soybean cyst nematode [SCN] (Heterodera glycines) were collected using laser capture microdissection. Gene transcript abundance was assayed using an Affymetrix® soybean...

  17. The Status of Heligmosomoides americanus, Representative of an American Clade of Vole-Infecting Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Harris, P D; Zaleśny, G; Hildebrand, J; Paziewska-Harris, A; Behnke, J M; Tkach, V; Hwang, Y-T; Kinsella, J M

    2015-06-01

    Heligmosomoides americanus is shown by molecular phylogenetic analysis of 3 nuclear (28S, ITS1, and ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b) loci to be a distinct species of heligmosomid nematode with a long-independent evolutionary history, and not a subspecies of Heligmosomoides polygyrus . Rather than being a recent arrival in North America, the species probably originated as a Beringian immigrant with the host vole Phenacomys, approximately 2 million years ago (MYA). PMID:25574753

  18. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-08-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins during feeding site development in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Data generated via promoter-reporter line and protein localization analyses evoke a model in which auxin is being imported at the basipetal side of the feeding site by the concerted action of the influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3, and the efflux protein PIN3. Mutants in auxin influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3 bear significantly fewer and smaller galls, revealing that auxin import into the feeding sites is needed for their development and expansion. The feeding site development in auxin export (PIN) mutants was only slightly hampered. Expression of some PINs appears to be suppressed in galls, probably to prevent auxin drainage. Nevertheless, a functional PIN4 gene seems to be a prerequisite for proper nematode development and gall expansion, most likely by removing excessive auxin to stabilize the hormone level in the feeding site. Our data also indicate a role of local auxin peaks in nematode attraction towards the root. PMID:27312670

  19. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins during feeding site development in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Data generated via promoter–reporter line and protein localization analyses evoke a model in which auxin is being imported at the basipetal side of the feeding site by the concerted action of the influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3, and the efflux protein PIN3. Mutants in auxin influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3 bear significantly fewer and smaller galls, revealing that auxin import into the feeding sites is needed for their development and expansion. The feeding site development in auxin export (PIN) mutants was only slightly hampered. Expression of some PINs appears to be suppressed in galls, probably to prevent auxin drainage. Nevertheless, a functional PIN4 gene seems to be a prerequisite for proper nematode development and gall expansion, most likely by removing excessive auxin to stabilize the hormone level in the feeding site. Our data also indicate a role of local auxin peaks in nematode attraction towards the root. PMID:27312670

  20. [Control of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in pasture-reared lambs].

    PubMed

    Chroust, K

    1997-03-01

    Two sheep herds kept in different geographic conditions with spring lambing by the end of March and April (herd No. 1: 400 ewes, 600 metres above sea level; herd No. 2: 450 ewes, 300 metres above sea level) were examined. The dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode and Moniezia spp. cestode egg counts in samples taken regularly every 4 to 5 weeks was studied during the year 1995 with the intention to verify the system of effective control of these helminth infections under pasture conditions of lamb rearing. In ewes a significant rise in gastrointestinal nematode egg counts was proved during the lambing season, "spring rise phenomenon", and during the summer pasture until autumn months with maximum EPG values reaching 150 (Figs. 1 and 2). In lambs that started grazing at 1 to 4 weeks of age, the excretion steeply rose to maximum EPG values 350 and 290, respectively, after 4 to 5 weeks of grazing (Figs. 1 and 2). In order to control these rising infections, ewes were treated with antihelmintic albendazol by the end of February (herd No. 1) and in March (herd No. 2) and lambs during the first or third decade of July. This anthelmintic treatment significantly lowered egg excretion to EPG values lower than 30 in ewes and 50 or 60, respectively, in lambs. Later, during the summer and autumn months, a mild rise of egg counts was found in lambs. These maxima were liquidated anthelmintis treatment in both herds in late autumn months and it also lowered helminth infections to minimum during winter months (EPG values lower than 50). The excretion of Moniezia spp. eggs had the same dynamics as that gastrointestinal nematodes. Values of lamb infection prevalence reached 21% in herd No. 1 and 29% in herd No. 2. Anthelmintic treatment during July controlled cestode findings in lambs. Albendazol (Vermitan susp. 2.5%), dosed 5 mg/kg of body weight, proved highly effective in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. cestodes. PMID:9182393

  1. Advanced PCR-based molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Vila, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Acute infections of the gastrointestinal tract are among the most common infectious diseases. The etiological agents of gastroenteritis may be bacteria, viruses or protozoa. Identification of the etiological agents of acute diarrhea is important for the treatment and management of diarrheal diseases. Conventional stool culture for bacteria shows a low sensitivity and requires more than 24 hours. In addition, other approaches to detect viruses and protozoa mainly involve antigen detection, but this is not available for all enteropathogens, and microscopic observation requires training and is of low sensitivity. In this review, the authors describe currently available molecular methods to detect different enteropathogens and analyze the main advantages and disadvantages of these methods for laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis. PMID:26986537

  2. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Singh, Satyavir; Potliya, Sandeep; Kumar, Kailash; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48%) were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32%) and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%). In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocytic count (TEC). Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALKP) and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin. PMID:27046991

  3. Identification of oversulphated galactosaminoglycans in intestinal-mucosal mast cells of rats infected with the nematode worm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, M; Lindahl, U; Enerbäck, L; Rodén, L

    1988-01-01

    The oversulphated galactosaminoglycans synthesized by rat mucosal mast cells were isolated from the small intestine of animals infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which causes proliferation of these cells. The 35S-labelled polysaccharides were degraded by digestion with chondroitinase ABC, and the structures of the disaccharide products were determined by cleavage with mercuric acetate followed by electrophoretic characterization of the resultant sulphated monosaccharides. It was concluded that about half of the disulphated disaccharide units in the polysaccharide consisted of chondroitin sulphate E-type structures [GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-di-OSO3)], in which both sulphate groups were located on the N-acetylgalactosamine unit. The remainder consisted of isomeric structures with one sulphate group on the N-acetylgalactosamine residue and one on the hexuronic acid unit and presumably represented the dermatan sulphate-type sequence [IdoA(2-OSO3)-GalNAc(4-OSO3)]. PMID:3178741

  4. Frequency and possible infection control implications of gastrointestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Havill, Nancy L; Maria, Benedicte

    2005-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of health care-associated infections. Multiple factors, including transmission from unrecognized reservoirs of MRSA, are responsible for failure to control the spread of MRSA. We conducted prospective surveillance to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA among patients and its possible impact on nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Stool specimens submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin A/B assays were routinely inoculated on colistin-naladixic acid agar plates, and S. aureus was identified by using standard methods. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by growth on oxacillin-salt screening agar. For patients whose stool yielded MRSA, information regarding any previous cultures positive for MRSA or other organisms that would require contact precautions was obtained from the laboratory's computer system. During a 1-year period, 151 (9.8%) of 1,543 patients who had one or more stool specimens screened had MRSA in their stool. Ninety-three (62%) of the 151 patients had no previous history of MRSA colonization or infection. Of these 93, 75 were inpatients. Sixty (80%) of the 75 inpatients with no previous history of MRSA were not under "contact precautions." The 60 patients would have spent an estimated total of 267 days without being placed under contact precautions if their positive stool cultures had not resulted in their being isolated. Placing patients under contact precautions based on their positive stool cultures prevented an estimated 35 episodes of MRSA transmission. We conclude that gastrointestinal colonization with MRSA may serve as an unrecognized reservoir from which transmission of MRSA may occur in health care facilities. PMID:16333087

  5. Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita▿

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens. PMID:21984233

  6. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Death may occur in severely affected animals, decreasing profits even further. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites in hosts and their long-term use has led to a massive selectio...

  7. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  8. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole alone or in combination against intestinal nematode infections after repeated targeted mebendazole treatment in Zanzibar.

    PubMed Central

    Albonico, M.; Bickle, Q.; Ramsan, M.; Montresor, A.; Savioli, L.; Taylor, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of and resistance to mebendazole (500 mg) and levamisole (40 or 80 mg), alone or in combination, for the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections on Pemba Island - an area exposed to periodic school-based mebendazole treatment since 1994. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 914 children enrolled from the first and fifth grades of primary schools. Stool samples collected at baseline and 21 days after treatment were examined by the Kato-Katz technique to assess the prevalence and intensity of helminth infection. FINDINGS: Efficacies of mebendazole and levamisole as single treatments against intestinal nematode infections were comparable with those in previous trials, but mebendazole treatment of hookworm infections gave significantly lower cure (7.6%) and egg reduction (52.1%) rates than reported in a study undertaken before the beginning of periodic chemotherapy (cure rate, 22.4%; egg reduction rate, 82.4%). Combined treatment with mebendazole and levamisole had a significantly higher efficacy against hookworm infections (cure rate, 26.1%; egg reduction rate, 88.7%) than either drug given alone. No difference in mebendazole efficacy was found in children who had been treated repeatedly compared with those who had not been treated previously. CONCLUSION: The overall efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infections after periodic chemotherapy is reduced. The efficacy of benzimidazoles in chemotherapy-based control programmes should be monitored closely. Combined treatment with mebendazole and levamisole may be useful as a tool to delay the development of benzimidazole resistance. PMID:12856052

  9. A systematic review-meta-analysis of primary research investigating the effect of selected alternative treatments on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mederos, A; Waddell, L; Sánchez, J; Kelton, D; Peregrine, A S; Menzies, P; VanLeeuwen, J; Rajić, A

    2012-04-01

    Selected alternative treatments for preventing or controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep under field conditions were evaluated using a systematic review-meta-analysis methodology. Forty-three publications reporting 51 studies (21 controlled studies (CS) and 30 challenge studies (ChS)) and 85 unique treatment comparisons were included in the review. The alternative treatment categories were nutraceuticals (28 studies), breeding for genetic resistance (12), nutritional manipulation (6), homeopathies (2), administration of copper oxide wire particles (2), and biological control (1). Random effect meta-analyses (MA) and meta-regression were performed with the natural logarithm of the difference in means (lnMD) between the control and treatment groups, for fecal egg counts per gram of wet feces (FEC), worm counts (WC) or fecal egg counts per gram of dry matter (FECDM) as the outcome. Treatment effect estimates (lnMD) were back-transformed to their count ratios (CR), a relative measure of effect for controlled versus treated groups, for presentation of results. Significant heterogeneity was observed for both CS and ChS that evaluated nutraceuticals, genetic resistance and nutrition treatments. MA of ChS that investigated nutraceuticals resulted in a significant overall CR of 1.62 (P<0.01) and 1.64 (P<0.01) for FEC and FECDM, respectively and a marginal significant CR of 1.14 (P=0.06) for WC, all favoring the treated groups. MA of CS and ChS that investigated genetic resistance resulted in a significant overall CR of 5.89 and 15.42, respectively (P<0.01), again favoring treated groups. MA of CS that investigated homeopathies with FEC as an outcome were homogenous (I(2)=0.0%) and resulted in a non-significant pooled CR of 1.61. ChS investigating copper oxide wire particle treatments and WC as an outcome, were homogenous (I(2)=0.0%) and had a marginally significant pooled CR of 1.68 (P=0.06). Publication bias was observed for ChS with WC outcomes, indicating

  10. Antigenic role of the endosymbionts of filarial nematodes: IgG response against the Wolbachia surface protein in cats infected with Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, C; Ceciliani, F; McCall, J W; Ricci, I; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

    2000-01-01

    Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners' cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D. immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D. immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and experimentally infected cats. WSP was recognized only by sera from positive cats and from cats experimentally infected with D. immitis; this protein was not recognized by sera from negative cats and from cats before experimental infection with D. immitis. The results of Western blot assays on WSP thus support the hypothesis that infection with filarial nematodes induces the production of antibodies against Wolbachia proteins. PMID:11197127

  11. Enteric reovirus infection as a probe to study immunotoxicity of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cuff, C F; Fulton, J R; Barnett, J B; Boyce, C S

    1998-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex immune system that defends the host against a wide range of pathogens and toxins. The GI tract is also exposed to many environmental toxins that could adversely affect intestinal immunity, and few systems to study immunotoxicity of the GI tract have been described. We demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection can be used as a system to assess the effects of toxins on intestinal and systemic immunity. Mice were given various doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 5 days at doses ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg by the oral route or 200 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route. On day 3 of dosing, mice were orally infected with reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang. The effects of CY on viral clearance, intestinal and systemic immune responses, and distribution of intestinal lymphocytes were assessed. Mice treated with CY failed to clear the virus in a dose-dependent manner, and serum anti-reovirus antibody titers were suppressed. Virus-specific IgA in cultures of intestinal tissue from CY-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to controls, although total IgA production was not affected. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in spleen was also suppressed in CY-treated animals. Cyclophosphamide treatment reduced the number and percentage of B-cells in Peyer's patches. Reovirus infection did not increase cellularity of Peyer's patches in CY-treated mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment also had little effect on the phenotype of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection is useful in studying exposure of the GI tract to immunotoxic agents. PMID:9579022

  12. New Insights into the Evolution of Wolbachia Infections in Filarial Nematodes Inferred from a Large Range of Screened Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbuto, Michela; Martin, Coralie; Lo, Nathan; Uni, Shigehiko; Landmann, Frederic; Baccei, Sara G.; Guerrero, Ricardo; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Bandi, Claudio; Wanji, Samuel; Diagne, Moustapha; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i) Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii) Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii) Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv) Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v) Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected. Conclusions/Significance The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further

  13. A combined parasitological molecular approach for noninvasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts.

    PubMed

    Budischak, Sarah A; Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Art; Jolles, Anna E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-09-01

    Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity of lethal sampling severely restricts the host species that can be studied, the adequacy of sample sizes to assess diversity, the geographic scope of collections and the research questions that can be addressed. Focusing on gastrointestinal nematodes of wild African buffalo, we evaluated whether accurate characterization of nematode communities could be made using a noninvasive technique that combined conventional parasitological approaches with molecular barcoding. To establish the reliability of this new method, we compared estimates of gastrointestinal nematode abundance, prevalence, richness and community composition derived from lethal sampling with estimates derived from our noninvasive approach. Our noninvasive technique accurately estimated total and species-specific worm abundances, as well as worm prevalence and community composition when compared to the lethal sampling method. Importantly, the rate of parasite species discovery was similar for both methods, and only a modest number of barcoded larvae (n = 10) were needed to capture key aspects of parasite community composition. Overall, this new noninvasive strategy offers numerous advantages over lethal sampling methods for studying nematode-host interactions in wildlife and can readily be applied to a range of study systems. PMID:25644900

  14. Confirmation of the efficacy of a combination tablet of spinosad and milbemycin oxime against naturally acquired infections of canine intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Beate; Hayes, Brad; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2012-03-23

    Four separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination to dogs for the treatment and control of naturally acquired infections of adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) and ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina). Dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment quantitative nematode egg counts of each species of interest to one of two treatment groups of 10 or 11 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, was given orally to dogs using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A corresponding vehicle control group was treated similarly in each individual study. Dogs were necropsied post-treatment on Day 7/8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract collected at necropsy were identified and counted by species and stage. The spinosad and MO combination group demonstrated significantly different adult intestinal nematode efficacy in each individual study as compared to the vehicle control group. Efficacy values for whipworm, hookworm, T. canis and T. leonina were 100%, 99.8%, 100%, 93.3%, respectively. Minor non-serious adverse events were observed in a small number of control and treated dogs that were attributed primarily to the natural nematode infections. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered orally to dogs were both safe and highly efficacious delivering >93% up to 100% adult intestinal nematode control in naturally infected dogs. PMID:22115944

  15. Late-Onset Bloodstream Infection and Perturbed Maturation of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Paul; Cox, Michael J.; McClure, Zoë E.; Li, Ming-Shi; Donaldson, Hugo; Langford, Paul R.; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Kroll, J. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Late-onset bloodstream infection (LO-BSI) is a common complication of prematurity, and lack of timely diagnosis and treatment can have life-threatening consequences. We sought to identify clinical characteristics and microbial signatures in the gastrointestinal microbiota preceding diagnosis of LO-BSI in premature infants. Method Daily faecal samples and clinical data were collected over two years from 369 premature neonates (<32 weeks gestation). We analysed samples from 22 neonates who developed LO-BSI and 44 matched control infants. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene regions amplified by PCR from total faecal DNA was used to characterise the microbiota of faecal samples preceding diagnosis from infants with LO-BSI and controls. Culture of selected samples was undertaken, and bacterial isolates identified using MALDI-TOF. Antibiograms from bloodstream and faecal isolates were compared to explore strain similarity. Results From the week prior to diagnosis, infants with LO-BSI had higher proportions of faecal aerobes/facultative anaerobes compared to controls. Risk factors for LO-BSI were identified by multivariate analysis. Enterobacteriaceal sepsis was associated with antecedent multiple lines, low birth weight and a faecal microbiota with prominent Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcal sepsis was associated with Staphylococcus OTU faecal over-abundance, and the number of days prior to diagnosis of mechanical ventilation and of the presence of centrally-placed lines. In 12 cases, the antibiogram of the bloodstream isolate matched that of a component of the faecal microbiota in the sample collected closest to diagnosis. Conclusions The gastrointestinal tract is an important reservoir for LO-BSI organisms, pathogens translocating across the epithelial barrier. LO-BSI is associated with an aberrant microbiota, with abundant staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae and a failure to mature towards predominance of obligate anaerobes. PMID:26167683

  16. THE ROLE OF OX40L INTERACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIMARY AND MEMORY TH2 RESPONSE TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODE PARASITE HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, we examined the effects of OX40L deficiency on the development of Th2 cells during the primary and memory immune responses to the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Elevations in IL-4 production and total and Ag-specific serum IgE levels were inhibited during ...

  17. Leptin concentrations and the immune-mediated reduction of feed intake in sheep infected with the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Greer, Andrew W; Boisclair, Yves R; Stankiewicz, Miroslaw; McAnulty, Robin W; Jay, Nigel P; Sykes, Andrew R

    2009-10-01

    The hypothesis that increases in the concentration of the anorectic peptide leptin may be responsible for the immune-mediated reduction in feed intake (FI) during gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep was investigated. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, the first factor was age at the start of infection (5 months old v. 17 months old). The second factor was parasite infection (no infection v. administration of eighty L3 infective Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae/kg live weight (LW) per d three times per week for 77 d). The third factor was immunosuppressive therapy with a corticosteroid (no therapy or weekly intramuscular injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone acetate/30 kg LW). Relative to their uninfected counterparts, a 20 % reduction in FI per unit LW (FI/LW; g DM/kg LW) was observed in infected non-suppressed 5-month-old lambs from 21 to 63 d post-infection (P < 0.001) but not in comparable17-month-old ewes or in corticosteroid-treated lambs or ewes (P>0.05 for all), allowing the suggestion that the anorexia was a consequence of the developing immune response. The reduction in FI/LW in 5-month-old lambs was not associated with an increase in plasma leptin concentration. Furthermore, plasma leptin concentrations were greater in corticosteroid-treated animals (P < 0.001) and in 17-month-old animals (P < 0.001), none of which displayed an infection-induced reduction in FI/LW. Plasma leptin was positively correlated with carcass fat percentage in both 5-month-old (P = 0.016) and 17-month-old (P < 0.001) animals and did not appear to provide a direct feedback mechanism that restricted energy intake. The results do not support the hypothesis that an increase in circulating leptin is directly responsible for the immune-mediated anorexia in lambs during T. colubriformis infection. PMID:19785931

  18. Pilus Gene Pool Variation and the Virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clinical Isolates during Infection of a Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Broadway, Melissa M.; Rogers, Elizabeth A.; Chang, Chungyu; Huang, I-Hsiu; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Yildirim, Suleyman; Schmitt, Michael P.; Das, Asis

    2013-01-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains cause diphtheria in humans. The toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolate NCTC13129 produces three distinct heterotrimeric pili that contain SpaA, SpaD, and SpaH, making up the shaft structure. The SpaA pili are known to mediate bacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells. However, to date little is known about the expression of different pili in various clinical isolates and their importance in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a large collection of C. diphtheriae clinical isolates for their pilin gene pool by PCR and for the expression of the respective pilins by immunoblotting with antibodies against Spa pilins. Consistent with the role of a virulence factor, the SpaA-type pili were found to be prevalent among the isolates, and most significantly, corynebacterial adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells was strictly correlated with isolates that were positive for the SpaA pili. By comparison, the isolates were heterogeneous for the presence of SpaD- and SpaH-type pili. Importantly, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host for infection, we show here that strain NCTC13129 rapidly killed the nematodes, the phenotype similar to isolates that were positive for toxin and all pilus types. In contrast, isogenic mutants of NCTC13129 lacking SpaA-type pili or devoid of toxin and SpaA pili exhibited delayed killing of nematodes with similar kinetics. Consistently, nontoxigenic or toxigenic isolates that lack one, two, or all three pilus types were also attenuated in virulence. This work signifies the important role of pili in corynebacterial pathogenesis and provides a simple host model to identify additional virulence factors. PMID:23772071

  19. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  20. SIV Infection-Mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Are Associated with Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Desai, Chandni; Zhao, Guoyan; Droit, Lindsay; Monaco, Cynthia L; Schroeder, Andrew C; Nkolola, Joseph P; Norman, Megan E; Miller, Andrew D; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation, and, in cross-sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens. Progression of SIV infection to AIDS was associated with increased detection of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacterial enteropathogens. Specifically, adenoviruses were associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal disease and AIDS-related mortality. Viral and bacterial enteropathogens were largely absent from animals protected by the vaccine. These data suggest that the SIV-associated gastrointestinal disease is associated with the presence of both viral and bacterial enteropathogens and that protection against SIV infection by vaccination prevents enteropathogen emergence. PMID:26962943

  1. Larval migration of the ascarid nematode Toxocara canis following infection and re-infection in the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Flecher, M C; Musso, C; Martins, I V F; Pereira, F E L

    2016-09-01

    A morphological and immunohistochemical study of larval migration patterns was performed in gerbils that were infected once (primary infected group) or twice (secondary infected group) with 1500 eggs of Toxocara canis. Animals from the primary infected and the re-infected group were killed at different times after infection, and larvae were counted in the intestines, liver, lungs and brain. Fragments of all organs were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry analyses (using polyclonal anti-Toxocara serum raised in rabbits infected with T. canis). In the primary infected group, larvae were more abundant in the intestine at 24 h, in the liver and lungs between 24 and 72 h and in the brain after 96 h; larvae predominated in the brain for up to 60 days after infection. In the re-infected group, an increase in the number of larvae in the liver and a reduction in the number of larvae in the brain was observed up to 60 days after re-infection. Inflammatory reactions were absent or limited. Eosinophils and loose granulomata were observed around the larvae and their antigens in the primary infected group and were more severe. Many eosinophils and typical epithelioid granulomata were observed around larvae in the re-infected group. These results demonstrate that the migration pattern of T. canis larvae in gerbils is similar to that in mice and rats, exhibiting a late neurotropic stage. In the re-infected group, there was histological evidence of an adaptive T-helper 2 (Th-2) response, and larvae were apparently retained within granulomata in the liver, without obvious signs of destruction. PMID:26337823

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  3. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  4. Using good nematodes to kill bad nematodes: Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the pecan root-knot nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne partityla is a nematode parasite of pecan and walnut. Our objective was to determine interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex and M. partityla. Specifically, we investigated suppressive effects of Steinernema feltiae and S. riobrave applied as infective juve...

  5. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  6. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  7. A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; DeMarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  8. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shalu; Chittem, Kishore; Brueggeman, Robert; Osorno, Juan M.; Richards, Jonathan; Nelson, Berlin D.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70–90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR) proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in common bean

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Chittem, Kishore; Brueggeman, Robert; Osorno, Juan M; Richards, Jonathan; Nelson, Berlin D

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70-90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR) proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in common bean

  11. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  12. Behaviour of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to nematode FMRFamide-like peptides in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes depend upon a family of neuropeptides, the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), to regulate locomotion and behavior. To exploit FLPs as leads to novel nematode control agents, an understanding of how specific FLPs affect behavior, and what differences exist between species, is i...

  13. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Rengarajan, Michelle; Ciche, Todd A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-05-15

    More than a quarter of the world's population is infected with nematode parasites, and more than a hundred species of nematodes are parasites of humans [1-3]. Despite extensive morbidity and mortality caused by nematode parasites, the biological mechanisms of host-parasite interactions are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of genetically tractable model systems. We have demonstrated that the insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, its bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster constitute a tripartite model for nematode parasitism and parasitic infection. We find that infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis, which contain Photorhabdus in their gut, can infect and kill Drosophila larvae. We show that infection activates an immune response in Drosophila that results in the temporally dynamic expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, and that this immune response is induced specifically by Photorhabdus. We also investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying IJ recovery, the developmental process that occurs in parasitic nematodes upon host invasion and that is necessary for successful parasitism. We find that the chemosensory neurons and signaling pathways that control dauer recovery in Caenorhabditis elegans also control IJ recovery in Heterorhabditis, suggesting conservation of these developmental processes across free-living and parasitic nematodes. PMID:17475494

  14. The effect of day of emergence from the insect cadaver on the behavior and environmental tolerances of infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis (strain UK211).

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S A; Stack, C M; Chubb, M A; Burnell, A M

    1998-08-01

    Infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are obligate parasites of insect larvae. Inside the host they develop into sexually mature adult stages and complete their life cycle. Two or 3 adult nematode generations can occur in the insect host. The increase in nematode population density in the insect cadaver, together with limiting nutrient conditions, result in the formation of IJs. These IJs emerge into the soil to search for a new host. It typically takes 7-8 days for all IJs to emerge from a parasitized insect. We have investigated the effect of the day of emergence of IJs from insect cadavers on the environmental tolerance and behavior of the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis strain UK211. The IJs that emerge early display good initial host-finding ability and increased temperature tolerance but disperse poorly and have poor tolerance to desiccation. Conversely, the IJs that emerge later display poor initial host-finding ability and poor temperature tolerance but they disperse well and possess increased desiccation tolerance. These phenotypic differences are likely to facilitate early-emerging IJs in locating and infecting hosts in the vicinity of the cadaver, whereas IJs that emerge late are adapted to disperse away from their natal cadaver. We hypothesize that adaptive phenotypic plasticity rather than allelic variability may provide the genetic basis for the different physiological and behavioral phenotypes of the early- and late-emerging IJs. PMID:9714191

  15. Normothermia to Prevent Surgical Site Infections After Gastrointestinal Surgery: Holy Grail or False Idol?

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Simon J.; Onicescu, Georgiana; Kuhn, Kathy M.; Cole, David J.; Esnaola, Nestor F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between perioperative normothermia (temperature ≥36°C) and surgical site infections (SSIs) after gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. Summary of Background Data Although active warming during colorectal surgery reduces SSIs, there is limited evidence that perioperative normothermia is associated with lower rates of SSI. Nonetheless, hospitals participating in the Surgical Care Improvement Project must report normothermia rates during major surgery. Methods We conducted a nested, matched, case-control study; cases consisted of GI surgery patients enrolled in our National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between March 2006 and March 2009 who developed SSIs. Patient/surgery risk factors for SSI were obtained from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Perioperative temperature/antibiotic/glucose data were obtained from medical records. Cases/controls were compared using univariate/random effects/logistic regression models. Independent risk factors for SSIs were identified using multivariate/random effects/logistic regression models. Results A total of 146 cases and 323 matched controls were identified; 82% of patients underwent noncolorectal surgery. Cases were more likely to have final intraoperative normothermia compared with controls (87.6% vs. 77.8%, P = 0.015); rates of immediate postoperative normothermia were similar (70.6% vs. 65.3%, respectively, P = 0.19). Emergent surgery/higher wound class were associated with higher rates of intraoperative normothermia. Independent risk factors for SSI were diabetes, surgical complexity, small bowel surgery, and nonlaparoscopic surgery. There was no independent association between perioperative normothermia and SSI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.48–2.33; P = 0.90). Conclusions Pay-for-reporting measures focusing on perioperative normothermia may be of limited value in preventing SSI after GI surgery. Studies to define the benefit

  16. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN). Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes. Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula. GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  17. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  18. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  19. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  20. Comparison of the metal accumulation capacity between the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis and larval nematodes of the genus Eustrongylides sp. infecting barbel (Barbus barbus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metal uptake and accumulation in fish parasites largely depends on the parasite group with acanthocephalans showing the highest accumulation rates. Additionally, developmental stage (larvae or adult) as well as parasite location in the host are suggested to be decisive factors for metal bioconcentration in parasites. By using barbel (Barbus barbus) simultaneously infected with nematode larvae in the body cavity and adult acanthocephalans in the intestine, the relative importance of all of these factors was compared in the same host. Methods Eleven elements Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se), Tin (Sn), Vanadium (V) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in barbel tissues (muscle, intestine, liver) as well as in their acanthocephalan parasites Pomphorhynchus laevis and the larval nematode Eustrongylides sp. (L4) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results Nine elements were detected in significantly higher levels in the parasites compared to host tissues. The element composition among parasites was found to be strongly dependent on parasite taxa/developmental stage and localization within the host. Intestinal acanthocephalans accumulated mainly toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb), whereas the intraperitoneal nematodes bioconcentrated essential elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn). Conclusion Our results suggest that in addition to acanthocephalans, nematodes such as Eustrongylides sp. can also be applied as bioindicators for metal pollution. Using both parasite taxa simultaneously levels of a wide variety of elements (essential and non essential) can easily be obtained. Therefore this host-parasite system can be suggested as an appropriate tool for future metal monitoring studies, if double infected fish hosts are available. PMID:23332036

  1. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:27565497

  2. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  3. The Pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A M

    1978-01-01

    1. The Pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. During 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. Thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. After infection with either Nematospiroides dubius or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the Pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a reduced rate of anaerobic lactate production. 4. The possible relationship of the loss of the Pasteur effect to the immune response is discussed. PMID:318282

  4. Efficacy of Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Nematodes in Experimentally Infected Cats.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Wolken, Sonja; Schnyder, Manuela; Basso, Walter; Deplazes, Peter; Di Cesare, Angela; Deuster, Katrin; Schaper, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The adulticidal efficacy of a topical combination of emodepside 2.1 % (w/v) plus praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) (Profender® spot-on for cats, Bayer) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus nematodes was evaluated in two randomised, placebo-controlled laboratory efficacy studies. Each study involved 16 cats experimentally inoculated with L3 (800 and 600 each in studies no. 1 and 2, respectively) and randomised into two study groups of 8 cats each after onset of patency. While cats in the treatment group in study no. 1 received a single spot-on application at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), cats in study no. 2 were treated twice with an interval of 14 days. The faecal output of first stage larvae was monitored throughout the study. Necropsy was conducted 4 or 5 weeks after the (first) treatment and the worm counts were used for efficacy calculations. The control groups showed a geometric mean of the total worm count (live and dead worms) of 28.8 (study no. 1) and 17.6 (study no. 2), respectively. All control animals were infected. While the single treatment in study no. 1 resulted in a reduction of the total worm burden by 73.0 % (p = 0.0070), the treatment protocol in study no. 2 was 99.2 % effective (p = 0.0035). Based on live worm counts, the efficacy in study no. 2 was 100 % (p = 0.0030). It is concluded that two applications of Profender® spot-on given two weeks apart represent a safe and highly efficacious treatment regime against feline aelurostrongylosis. PMID:26152416

  5. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described. PMID:27565496

  6. Colitis Promotes Adaptation of an Intestinal Nematode: A Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Mouse Model System

    PubMed Central

    Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin α1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD. PMID:24167594

  7. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  8. The epidemiology of nematode and fluke infections in cattle in the Red River Delta in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Holland, W G; Luong, T T; Nguyen, L A; Do, T T; Vercruysse, J

    2000-11-10

    Over a period of 13 months, faecal samples were collected monthly from approximately 45 cattle over 3 months of age. Additionally, 74 calves of 1-2 months were sampled to determine the presence of Toxocara vitulorum eggs. Individual egg counts and infective strongyle larvae from pooled faecal samples were examined. Post-mortem worm counts were carried out on six groups of tracer calves (n=12) that had been kept for 4 weeks on pasture in and around the village studied. The following helminths were identified: T. vitulorum, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, C. oncophora, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Haemonchus spp., Fasciola spp. and Paramphistomum spp. In 8% of the samples collected from young calves, individual egg counts for T. vitulorum were found indicative for pathogenic worm burdens. Strongyle egg counts and worm counts indicated that transmission is low without a distinct seasonality. In animals of 3-9 months old, a strongyle egg count peak can be demonstrated which at a higher age steadily and significantly decreased. In faecal cultures Cooperia spp. were most prominent in all age groups throughout the year with the exception of the period September-November when Haemonchus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. were most prevalent. Fasciola spp. eggs were found in 22% of the collected faecal samples and the egg counts were low indicating that the intensity of Fasciola spp. infection is mild. Based on the present data, regular anthelmintic treatments seem not to be justified, except for a single treatment at the age of 2 weeks against toxocariosis. PMID:11035232

  9. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F.; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species. PMID:26393362

  10. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species. PMID:26393362

  11. Direct and indirect costs of co-infection in the wild: Linking gastrointestinal parasite communities, host hematology, and immune function☆

    PubMed Central

    Budischak, Sarah A.; Jolles, Anna E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.

    2012-01-01

    Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among these parasites may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the direct and indirect physiological costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among gastrointestinal parasite richness, species identity, and abundance and host hematological parameters, body condition, and investment in lymphocyte defenses. Using aggregate-scale parasite data from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), we found few direct or indirect associations between infection and hematology in male hosts, and no significant associations were observed in female hosts or with respect to body condition in either sex. These results suggest that only strong physiological effects are detectable with aggregate-scale parasite data, and that hematological variables may be more sensitive to changes in condition than standard body fat condition indices. Analyses accounting for parasite species identity in female buffalo revealed that different parasites show distinct relationships with host hematology, body condition, and immune investment. However, four of six species-specific associations were obscured when parasites were considered in combination. Overall, fitness-related physiological mediators such as hematological indices may provide assessments of direct and indirect effects of parasite infection, particularly when parasite species identity and community composition are considered. PMID:24533308

  12. A survey of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection in domestic and wild birds in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Haque, Enamul; Shaikat, Amir Hossan; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Alim, Abdul; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Islam, Ariful; Tun, Hein Min; Dissanayake, Ravi; Day, Tapan Kumar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Yamage, Mat

    2014-11-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasitic infection as determined by faecal examination was conducted among domestic and wild birds in Bangladesh. Birds were sampled from households, wet markets and wetlands in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet districts during April 2012 to February 2013. Mist nets were used to catch resident wild and migratory birds. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection ranged among locations from 25 to 55% in indigenous domestic ducks (live bird samples=304), 20% in resident wild birds (environmental faecal samples=40) and 40% in migratory birds (live bird samples=35). The prevalence of parasitic infection was significantly higher in indigenous domestic ducks collected during summer (39%) than winter (22%) (p=0.04). In domestic indigenous ducks and Muscovy ducks, both single and multiple types of parasitic infections were found. However, other domestic birds and wild birds often had a single type of parasitic infection. Ascaridia spp. with an average egg load of 50-900, was commonly detected in faecal samples of domestic and wild birds in this study. Other identified parasites were Capillaria spp. and Heterakis spp. both in domestic and wild birds. Improvement of biosecurity measures for household duck farms through educating and motivating household farmers could help mitigate the effects of parasitic infection on production. PMID:25132060

  13. ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING SECONDARY TO KAPOSI SARCOMA AS INITIAL PRESENTATION OF HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Sara A.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.A.; Forbes, Rachel C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Lindsey, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our decades of experience with Kaposi Sarcoma its true nature remains elusive. This angioproliferative disease of the vascular endothelium has a propensity to involve visceral organs in the immunocompromised population. There are four variants of the disease and each has its own pathogenesis and evolution. While the common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are familiar to surgeons and critical care physicians, here we present the exceedingly rare report of upper gastrointestinal bleeding attributable to this malady, explore its successful management, and review the various forms of Kaposi Sarcoma including the strategies in regard to their management. PMID:24369327

  14. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:20941913

  15. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Segni M; Swai, Birgitta; Maro, Venance P; Kibiki, Gibson S

    2014-01-01

    Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with various upper gastrointestinal pathologies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine endoscopic findings and H. pylori status in two hundred and eight consecutive dyspeptic adult patients between June 2009 and April 2010 at Kilimanjaro Christian medical Centre, a referral and teaching hospital in northern Tanzania. The most commonly identified endoscopic findings were gastritis (61.10%), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (57%), and Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (24.1%). Gastric cancer was identified in 6.7% of patients and all of them were aged 40 years and above (p = 0.00). H. pylori infection was detected in 65% (n = 130) of patients. H. pylori infection was present in 57% (n = 24) of patients who were tested within six months after eradication therapy. Gastritis and duodenal ulcer were statistically significantly associated with H. pylori (p < 0.001). No association was found between GERD and H. pylori infection (p > 0.05). Gastritis, GERD, and PUD are the leading causes of dyspepsia. H. pylori infection is present in significant proportion of dyspeptic patients. Patients with Gastritis and PUD should undergo empirical eradication therapy if a confirmatory test is not available. Patients with dyspepsia who are over 40 years of age should undergo Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option. PMID:26867268

  16. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    PubMed

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively. PMID:27605824

  17. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  18. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  19. A Review of Gastrointestinal Outbreaks in Schools: Effective Infection Control Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marilyn B.; Greig, Judy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to review documented outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in schools, published in the last 10 years, to identify etiology, mode of transmission, the number of children affected, morbidity and mortality patterns, and interventions for control and prevention. Methods: Searches of electronic databases,…

  20. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects. PMID:15267113

  1. A Survey of Seasonal Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Donkeys from a Semiarid Sub-Saharan Region, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed Abdurhman; Ahmed, Nasredin Khogali; Bashar, Ahmed Elhag; Seri, Hisham Ismail; El Tigani-Asil, El Tigani Ahmed; Abakar, Adam Dawoud

    2016-01-01

    Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5 ± 1694.4) in comparison with hot dry (1795.9 ± 399.6) and cool dry (1719.9 ± 522.4) seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3 ± 921.8) in comparison with 2330 ± 744.3 and 2030.2 ± 873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%), Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%), Parascaris equorum (18.5%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%), Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%), large strongyles (84%), small strongyles (72%), and Oxyuris equi (1.1%). PMID:27298739

  2. A Survey of Seasonal Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Donkeys from a Semiarid Sub-Saharan Region, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed Abdurhman; Ahmed, Nasredin Khogali; Bashar, Ahmed Elhag; Seri, Hisham Ismail; El Tigani-Asil, El Tigani Ahmed; Abakar, Adam Dawoud

    2016-01-01

    Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5 ± 1694.4) in comparison with hot dry (1795.9 ± 399.6) and cool dry (1719.9 ± 522.4) seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3 ± 921.8) in comparison with 2330 ± 744.3 and 2030.2 ± 873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%), Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%), Parascaris equorum (18.5%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%), Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%), large strongyles (84%), small strongyles (72%), and Oxyuris equi (1.1%). PMID:27298739

  3. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: The Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Usta, M; Urganci, N

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori infection in the aetiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in children. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight patients (82 girls, 106 boys; mean age 8.43 ± 5.24 years), admitted to the paediatric gastroenterology unit because of UGIB and who underwent endoscopic examination, were studied from their medical records, retrospectively. Results: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in 188 (8.29%) of 2266 patients. The mucosal causes related to the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum were found at the rate of 37%, 58% and 24.5%, respectively with endoscopic examination. The location of bleeding could not be determined in 14.4% of the patients. History of drug intake before admitting to hospital was present in 40 patients (21.3%). When we examined these forty patients, 35% were on acetylsalicylic acid, 47.5% were on ibuprofen and 17.5% were on NSAIDs. Ibuprofen versus acetylsalicylic acid usage was found to be highly significant (p < 0.05) for UGIB. Helicobacter pylori was found in 20.7% of the patients. The relationship between H pylori and UGIB was not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). The relationship between drug intake and presence of H pylori infection was not found significant in our patients (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Ibuprofen and acetylsalicyclic acid intake were found significant in the aetiology of UGIB in children. There was no significant connection with Helicobacter pylori infection in children with UGIB. We did not find a significant relationship with drug intake and H pylori infection. PMID:26360683

  4. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  5. A WHOLE-GENOME ASSOCIATION STUDY OF MAJOR DETERMINANTS FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN ANGUS BREED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most cattle-producing areas of the world, infection by helminth parasites (particularly gastrointestinal nematodes) is considered to be a primary cause of production loss. QTL for parasite indicator traits in cattle are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection. Fecal egg count (FEC) d...

  6. Mucin biosynthesis in the bovine goblet cell induced by Cooperia oncophora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mucin hypersecretion is considered to be one of the most common components of the immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. However, investigations have not been conducted in the Cattle-Cooperia oncophora system to verify the findings largely derived from murine models. In this study, ...

  7. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  8. Localized complement activation in the development of protective immunity against Ostertagia ostertagi infections in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi is one of major causal agents that contribute to production inefficiencies, such as reduced weight gain and milk yield, in cattle industry in the temperate region of the world. Protective immunity to infections develops very slowly and resistance to...

  9. Cattle and Nematodes Under Global Change: Transmission Models as an Ally.

    PubMed

    Verschave, Sien H; Charlier, Johannes; Rose, Hannah; Claerebout, Edwin; Morgan, Eric R

    2016-09-01

    Nematode infections are an important economic constraint to cattle farming. Future risk levels and transmission dynamics will be affected by changes in climate and farm management. The prospect of altered parasite epidemiology in combination with anthelmintic resistance requires the adaptation of current control approaches. Mathematical models that simulate disease dynamics under changing climate and farm management can help to guide the optimization of helminth control strategies. Recent efforts have increasingly employed such models to assess the impact of predicted climate scenarios on future infection pressure for gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in cattle, and to evaluate possible adaptive control measures. This review aims to consolidate progress in this field to facilitate further modeling and application. PMID:27255526

  10. The expression of a naturally occuriing truncated allele of an alpha-SNAP gene suppresses plant parasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    rhg1, defined within a 67 kb region of DNA on chromosome 18, is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in Glycine max (soybean) providing defense to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Transcriptional mapping experiments identified an alpha soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) wi...

  11. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in goat of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Kumar; Das, G; Roy, B; Nath, S; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Sahil

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism in animals is one of the major problems in India causing emaciation, anaemia, oedema, weakness, diarrhoea and death. Present study was designed to generate epidemiological data on GI parasitism of goats of Madhya Pradesh, India. During 8 months study period, a total of 960 samples were collected and examined by sedimentation and floatation methods followed by egg per gram out of 960 samples, 907 (94.48 %) were positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasite, wherein coccidia was predominant (82.4 %) followed by strongyles (69.27 %), amphistomes (22.71 %), Strongyloides sp. (9.17 %), Trichuris sp. (3.85 %), Moniezia sp. (3.02 %), Schistosomes sp. (2.29 %) and Fasciola sp. (1.77 %). The seasonal incidence was found highest in monsoon (98.06 %) and lowest in winter (91.67 %). The incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism was found higher in kids (96.25 %) in comparison with adult goats (93.89 %). PMID:26688640

  12. A Survey of Dung Beetles Infected with Larval Nematodes with Particular Note on Copris lunaris Beetles as a Vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeili, Elmira; Mobedi, Iraj; Kia, Eshratbeigom; Masoomi, Lotfali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Dung beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are one of the largest families of beetles worldwide. Due to biological behavior of these arthropods, they are considered to play an important role in the life cycle of some helminths. In the present study, dung beetles collected from cattle pastures in rural areas of Ardabil province, north-west of Iran were examined for infection with larval stages of helminths. According to the results, nematodes of 2 genera were identified including Rhabditis and Gongylonema. The more common species was Rhabditis sp. which was found in 9 species of beetles. Out of 15 different species of dung beetles, Copris lunaris was the only scarabaeid to be found naturally infected with the larval stages of Gongylonema sp. Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region. PMID:19290086

  13. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Trichuris trichiura egg References Diemert DJ. Intestinal nematode infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 365. Maguire JH. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  14. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    PAVANELLI, Mariana F.; KANESHIMA, Edilson Nobuyoshi; UDA, Carla F.; COLLI, Cristiane M.; FALAVIGNA-GUILHERM, Ana L.; GOMES, Mônica L.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  15. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    KIANI, Hamed; HAGHIGHI, Ali; ROSTAMI, Ali; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TABAEI, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; SOLGI, Abbas; ZEBARDAST, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  16. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Hamed; Haghighi, Ali; Rostami, Ali; Azargashb, Eznollah; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; Solgi, Abbas; Zebardast, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  17. Genotype-dependent expression of specific members of potato protease inhibitor gene families in different tissues and in response to wounding and nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Turrà, David; Bellin, Diana; Lorito, Matteo; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-05-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are small ubiquitous proteins with a variety of biological functions in plants, including protein stabilization, modulation of apoptosis and defense against pathogens. Kunitz-like inhibitors (PKPIs) and proteinase inhibitors 1 (PI-1) are abundant in storage organs of potato plants and are up-regulated in other tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little information is available on genotype-dependent regulation of individual PKPI group- and PI-1 genes. We isolated, sequenced and characterized four novel full-length PI-1 cDNAs (PPI3A2, PPI3A4, PPI2C4 and PPI2C1A) from Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée. Specific primers were developed for PI-1 genes PPI3A2, PPI3B2 and PPI2C4 and the three PKPI homology groups A, B and C. Their expression profiles were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in comparison with transcripts of the PI-1, Pin2 and PR1 gene families in various tissues, after wounding and Globodera rostochiensis infection of nematode-resistant genotypes P40 and LB7/4/c-I-7, and susceptible cv. Desirée. Individual PI-1 genes and PKPI homology groups were expressed in a tissue- and genotype-dependent manner after wounding and nematode infection. The differences in PI expression patterns were related to the intensity, type of inhibitors produced, and the kinetics of induction. Therefore, different genotype-environment combinations produce different sets of PI transcripts. Potato plants reacted to G. rostochiensis infection by modulating PKPI, PI-1 and Pin2, but not PR1 gene expression, suggesting that the jasmonic acid but not the salicylic acid defense signaling pathway is activated. PI expression profiles were not correlated with the resistance status of the potato genotype infected with G. rostochiensis. PMID:19095329

  18. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible. PMID:20532563

  19. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  20. Non-communicable disease in HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries: gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Saloojee, Haroon; Chen, Jennifer Y; Chung, Raymond T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline the interaction between HIV and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to identify research priorities. Non-communicable GI tract disorders are only moderately influenced by HIV, and peptic ulceration is actually less common. However, the impact of HIV on GI cancers needs further investigation. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV has two major effects on non-communicable liver disease: drug-induced liver injury and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (particularly in persons of African genetic descent). The effect of HIV on nutrition was one of the first markers of the epidemic in the 1980s, and HIV continues to have major nutritional consequences. Childhood malnutrition and HIV frequently co-exist in some regions, e.g., southern Africa, resulting in powerful negative interactions with poorer responses to standard nutritional rehabilitation. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered. Across the spectrum of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional disorders in HIV infection, there is increasing evidence that the microbiome may play an important role in disease pathogenesis, but work in this area, especially in LMICs, is in its infancy. PMID:25117963

  1. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  2. Population-specific gene expression in the pathogenic nematode Hederodera glycines exists prior to infection and during the onset of a resistant or susceptible reaction in the roots of Glycine max.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on gene expression experiments, a single Glycine max (soybean) genotype (Peking) reacts differently to two different populations of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) within the first twelve hours of infection. This suggested that H. glycines has population-specific gene expression si...

  3. Microarray detection calls as a means to compare transcripts within syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean (Glycine max) roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate pericycle and syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible or compatible populations of soybean cyst nematode (SCN [Heterodera glycines]). Gene transcript detection calls were assayed using the A...

  4. Activity profiling reveals changes in the diversity and activity of proteins in Arabidopsis roots in response to nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Hütten, Marion; Geukes, Melanie; Misas-Villamil, Johana C; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2015-12-01

    Cyst nematodes are obligate, sedentary endoparasites with a highly specialised biology and a huge economic impact in agriculture. Successful parasitism involves morphological and physiological modifications of the host cells which lead to the formation of specialised syncytial feeding structures in roots. The development of the syncytium is aided by a cocktail of nematode effectors that manipulate the host plant activities in a complex network of interactions through post-translational modifications. Traditional transcriptomic and proteomic approaches cannot display this functional proteomic information. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a powerful technology that can be used to investigate the activity of the proteome through activity-based probes. To better understand the functional proteomics of syncytium, ABPP was conducted on syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots. Our results demonstrated that the activity of several enzymes is differentially regulated in the syncytium compared to the control roots. Among those specifically activated in the syncytium are a putative S-formyl-glutathione hydrolase (SFGH), a putative methylesterase (MES) and two unidentified enzymes. In contrast, the activities of vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are specifically suppressed in the syncytium. Competition labelling, quantitative gene expression and T-DNA knock-out mutants were used to further characterise the roles of the differentially regulated enzymes during plant-nematode interaction. In conclusion, our study will open the door to generate a comprehensive and integrated view of the host-pathogen warfare that results in the formation of long-term feeding sites for pathogens. PMID:26408809

  5. Local and Long-Distance Calling: Conversations between the Gut Microbiota and Intra- and Extra-Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua E.; Powell, Whitney L.; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead. PMID:27148490

  6. Rapid diagnosis of the infection of pine tree with pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) by use of host-tree volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Eun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-08-01

    Attraction of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus nematode toward 18 volatiles of Pinus species was evaluated by a Petri-dish bioassay under laboratory conditions to develop a rapid diagnostic kit. Among these compounds, α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor showed significantly higher attractiveness to B. xylophilus in both the reproductive and dispersal stages, whereas these compounds were not active against Bursaphelenchus mucronatus . A trap tube was developed as a diagnostic kit, which consisted of a tube filled with 0.8% agar and a matrix impregnated with an attractant: α-pinene, β-pinene, or camphor. All tested compounds attracted a significantly higher number of B. xylophilus than that in the control treatment. No significant difference was observed among attractants. The cotton-ball matrix was significantly more effective than the filter-paper matrix for attracting B. xylophilus in the artificial pupal chamber bioassay. In a bioassay with pine wood nematode (PWN)-infected pine tree logs, B. xylophilus was initially attracted after an 8 h trap period and the number of B. xylophilus increased with time. The trap tube using camphor and the cotton-ball matrix were most effective for attracting B. xylophilus . The semiochemical-based tube-trapping method is simple to use, requires minimal labor, and is economical and effective for detecting B. xylophilus living in host pine trees during field sampling. PMID:22725097

  7. Gastrointestinal viral load and enteroendocrine cell number are associated with altered survival in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    van Marle, Guido; Sharkey, Keith A; Gill, M John; Church, Deirdre L

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects and destroys cells of the immune system leading to an overt immune deficiency known as HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The gut associated lymphoid tissue is one of the major lymphoid tissues targeted by HIV-1, and is considered a reservoir for HIV-1 replication and of major importance in CD4+ T-cell depletion. In addition to immunodeficiency, HIV-1 infection also directly causes gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, also known as HIV enteropathy. This enteropathy can manifest itself as many pathological changes in the GI tract. The objective of this study was to determine the association of gut HIV-1 infection markers with long-term survival in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled pre-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy). We examined survival over 15-years in a cohort of 42 HIV-infected cases: In addition to CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load, multiple gut compartment (duodenum and colon) biopsies were taken by endoscopy every 6 months during the initial 3-year period. HIV-1 was cultured from tissues and phenotyped and viral loads in the gut tissues were determined. Moreover, the tissues were subjected to an extensive assessment of enteroendocrine cell distribution and pathology. The collected data was used for survival analyses, which showed that patients with higher gut tissue viral load levels had a significantly worse survival prognosis. Moreover, lower numbers of serotonin (duodenum) and somatostatin (duodenum and colon) immunoreactive cell counts in the gut tissues of patients was associated with significant lower survival prognosis. Our study, suggested that HIV-1 pathogenesis and survival prognosis is associated with altered enteroendocrine cell numbers, which could point to a potential role for enteroendocrine function in HIV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:24146801

  8. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

  9. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  10. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Savilla, Tashina M; Joy, James E; May, Jeffrey D; Somerville, Charles C

    2011-05-31

    Coprological examination was used to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in a sample of 231 dogs (117 females and 114 males) during the summer of 2009 at a veterinary clinic in south central West Virginia, USA. Clinical signs (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain or loss) were noted in addition to a history of anthelmintic usage. A total of 79 dogs (33.6%) were infected with one or more intestinal nematodes. Most dogs (58) were parasitized with a single species, 19 were parasitized with 2 species, and 2 were parasitized by 3 species. There was no significant difference (i.e., X(2)<3.84; P>0.05) in prevalence of infection between female and male dogs for any of the identified nematode species. The chi-square test for equality of proportions was used to determine prevalence of infection in 3 age categories of dogs (females and males combined): young dogs (≤12 months of age); mature dogs (13-83 months); and old dogs >83 months. Prevalences of infection for Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis were significantly (P<0.005) higher in young dogs, whereas there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence by age category for Trichuris vulpis. Dogs exhibiting clinical signs were no more likely to harbor intestinal nematodes than dogs that were asymptomatic. Additionally, dogs receiving heartworm treatment were significantly less likely to be parasitized than dogs receiving no heartworm prophylaxis. PMID:21277089

  11. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-Lucas, S; McKenry, M V

    2004-12-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  12. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  13. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies. PMID:25938277

  14. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  15. Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal Tract as Potential Route of Primary Polyomavirus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Zeng, Gang; Huang, Yuchen; Ramaswami, Bala; Randhawa, Parmjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background Detection of Polyomavirus (PyV) DNA in metropolitan rivers worldwide has led to the suggestion that primary viral infection can occur by the oral route. The aim of this study was to test this notion experimentally. Methods Mouse PyV (MPyV) was used to infect C57BL/6J mice by the nasal or intragastric route. Viral load kinetics was studied 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) using quantitative PCR. Results Following nasal infection, MPyV DNA was readily detected in many organs including lung, heart, aorta, colon, and stool with viral loads in the range of 103–106 copies/mg wet weight that peaked 7–10 dpi. Complete viral clearance occurred in the serum and kidney by 28 dpi, while clearance in other organs was partial with a 10–100 fold decrease in viral load. In contrast, following intragastric infection peak detection of PyV was delayed to 21 dpi, and viral loads were up to 3 logs lower. There was no detectable virus in the heart, colon, or stool. Conclusions The intragastric route of MPyV infection is successful, not as efficacious as the respiratory route, and associated with delayed viral dissemination as well as a lower peak MPyV load in individual organs. PMID:26939117

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    PubMed

    Tylkowska, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Gregorczyk, Aneta; Templin, Ewelina

    2010-01-01

    A total of 763 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Western Pomerania during 2006-2007 to determine the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of dogs in this region. In the city of Szczecin, 648 fecal samples were collected every month in the annual cycle from nine city areas and analysed. Six fecal samples were taken at each collection time from each site. A total of 115 fecal samples from rural areas were investigated. Each fecal sample was dissected with a needle, checked for tapeworm segments and adult forms of nematodes, and examined for parasite eggs using Willis-Schlaff flotation method. The mean prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection among dogs in Western Pomerania was 34.84%. The greatest number of samples containing parasites came from the Chociwel commune (46.67%), and the smallest number from the city of Szczecin (23.92%). The greatest number of samples containing parasites from the city of Szczecin originated from the Słoneczne estate (34.72%), and the smallest number from the Kasprowicz Park (13.89%). Dogs' feces were found to contain segments of Dipylidium caninum (4.07%) and Taenia sp. (3.45%) tapeworms and eggs of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes: Uncinaria stenocephala (11%), Toxocara canis (20.62%), Toxascaris leonina (2.91%), Ancylostoma sp. (4.61%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.27%). The highest prevalence of endoparasite infection among dogs was found in July (42.60%) and the lowest in February (5.56%). Both single- and multi-species infections were observed. In the area of Szczecin, single-species infections were the most common (18.83%). PMID:21174956

  17. Parasite co-infection and interaction as drivers of host heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cattadori, I M; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2008-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the interaction between concomitant infecting parasites modifies host susceptibility, parasite intensity and the pattern of parasite distribution within the host population. We used a 26 year time series of three common parasites in a natural population of rabbits: two gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum) and the immunosuppressive myxoma virus. The frequency distribution of nematodes in the host population and the relationship between host age and nematode intensity were explored in rabbits with either single or dual nematode infections and rabbits infected with the nematodes and myxoma virus. The aggregation of T. retortaeformis and G. strigosum among the rabbits varied with the nature of the co-infection both in male and female hosts. The two nematodes exhibited different age-intensity profiles: G. strigosum intensity increased exponentially with host age while T. retortaeformis intensity exhibited a convex shape. The presence of a secondary infection did not change the age-intensity profile for G. strigosum but for T. retortaeformis co-infection (either both nematodes or myxoma-nematodes) resulted in significantly greater intensities in adult hosts. Results suggest that multi-species infections contributed to aggregation of parasites in the host population and to seasonal variation in intensity, but also enhanced differences in parasitism between sexes. This effect was apparent for T. retortaeformis, which appears to elicit a strong acquired immune response but not for G. strigosum which does not produce any evident immune reaction. We concluded that concomitant infections mediated by host immunity are important in modifying host susceptibility and influencing heterogeneity amongst individual hosts. PMID:17936286

  18. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedipe, Olubukola Deborah; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. PMID:26464944

  19. Diseases caused by nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter comprises an updated review of plant-parasitic nematodes of alfalfa. Many species of plant-parasitic nematodes are associated with alfalfa, but the stem nematode, root-knot nematodes, and root-lesion nematodes are economically the most important. As a result of root injury, aboveground ...

  20. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in healthy Jamaican carriers of HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Murphy, E L; Wilks, R J; Neva, F A; Terry, S I; Hanchard, B; Figueroa, J P; Blattner, W A

    1991-12-01

    A subsample (1.6%; n = 13,260) of a healthy Jamaican population of food-handlers, studied by Murphy et al. (1991), who were serologically positive (n = 99) or negative (n = 113) for HTLV-I was investigated for intestinal parasitic infection using coprological methods. Helminth infection included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.8%), Trichuris trichiura (7.1%) and hookworms (6.1%). Entamoeba coli was found in 21.8% of samples, while E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Chilomastix mesnili each occurred in less than 10% of responders. T. trichiura displayed a higher prevalence (10.6 vs 3%) (chi 2 = 4.623; P = 0.03) in the HTLV-I negative group. G. lamblia was detected more frequently among HTLV-I carriers compared to controls (9.1 and 3.5%, respectively), but the association was not statistically significant (chi 2 = 2.825; P = 0.09). Infection with intestinal parasites is likely to occur independent of HTLV-I status: however, possible HTLV-I-induced immunosuppression may lead to higher intensity infections of certain organisms thus facilitating easier detection using parasitological methods. The immunomodulatory potential of HTLV-I infection in the aetiology of non-malignant diseases requires further investigation. PMID:1758014

  1. Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease Associated with Overwhelming Polymicrobial Gastrointestinal Infection with Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Evan C; Sheffler, Robert L; Wang, James; Ngauy, Viseth

    2016-05-01

    Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) is an extra-nodal B-cell lymphoma most commonly described in the Mediterranean, Africa, and Asia. It is associated with poverty and poor sanitation, and is rarely encountered in developed countries. A 26-year-old previously healthy, Marshallese male was transferred to our facility with a 6-month history of watery diarrhea, weakness, and cachexia refractory to multiple short courses of oral antibiotics. Stool cultures grew Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio fluvialis. Endoscopic evaluation showed histologic evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gross evidence of whipworm infection found in the colon. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy cultures grew Escherichia coli. Histopathology and immunohistochemical stains of the small intestine were consistent with IPSID. He subsequently transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with tonsillar involvement despite treatment with rituximab and an extended course of antibiotics. Systemic chemotherapy with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisone, and lenalidomide, resulted in remission of his diffuse B cell lymphoma. This case is illustrative of IPSID developing in a previously healthy individual due to overwhelming polymicrobial gastrointestinal infection by C. jejuni and other enteric pathogens with subsequent transformation to an aggressive DLBCL. IPSID should be considered in residents of developing countries presenting with refractory chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. PMID:26903604

  2. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported. PMID:25106839

  3. The immunologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Ullrich, R; Zeitz, M

    1996-01-01

    The intestinal (in particular rectal) mucosa is an important portal of entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in homosexual men, who represent the vast majority of HIV-infected patients in Europe and North America. There are several possibilities for HIV to reach the CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and follicular dendritic cells in the intestinal mucosa. HIV may be transported through M cells directly to mucosal lymphoid follicles. Alternatively, HIV may infect enterocytes via Fc-receptor by antibody-bound HIV or via a CD4 independent receptor. By successive budding on the basal side of enterocytes, HIV may be released into the lamina propria. Furthermore, in patients not infected by the intestinal route, HIV may also rapidly enter the intestinal mucosa by other mechanisms: intestinal T-lymphocytes are mainly activated memory T cells reentering the mucosal surfaces after circulating through the peripheral blood. In the periphery they may have been preferentially infected by HIV. Accumulation of infected T cells could thus occur in the intestinal mucosa. The special phenotypical and functional characteristics of intestinal T lymphocytes may affect the replication and cytopathicity of HIV, resulting in an accelerated loss of CD4 positive T cells in the lamina propria. CD4 T cells play a critical role in antigen-dependent B cell differentiation, thus the pronounced CD4 T cell depletion in the intestinal mucosa may be responsible for the observed decrease of IgA plasma cells and a reduced secretion of IgA2. Depletion and functional impairment of activated mucosal lamina propria lymphocytes by HIV infection could explain the break-down of the mucosal immune barrier leading to secondary opportunistic or nonopportunistic infections and secondary malignancies. In addition, because of the interrelation between the mucosal immune system and the epithelium these changes might be responsible for the partial small intestinal mucosal atrophy and maturational defects in

  4. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens of upper gangetic plains of India with special reference to poultry coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Maurya, P S; Banerjee, P S

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of chicken reared under backyard and intensive systems were carried out in two north Indian states viz., Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Out of 58 poultry farms screened for gastrointestinal parasites, 81.03 % were positive for Eimeria spp., 15.52 % for Ascaridia galli, 3.45 % for Hetarakis gallinarum, 1.72 % for Syngamus trachea, 5.17 % for Capillaria spp, 1.72 % for Raillietina spp., 1.72 % for Trichostrongylus tenuis, 1.72 % for Choanotaenia infundibulum and 1.72 % for Strongyloides avium. In broiler farms, the prevalence of Eimeria spp. was higher (88.24 %) as compared to layer farms (71.43 %) and backyard poultry (70 %). Identification of Eimeria spp. using COCCIMORPH software revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. mitis and E. praecox in 94.3, 17.14, 31.44, 85.7 and 2.86 % farms, respectively. However, E. maxima and E. brunetti could not be identified in any of the farms using this software. The prevalence of helminthic infections was higher in poultry farms of Uttarakhand (40.0 %) as compared to Uttar Pradesh (11.62 %) with higher prevalence in backyard poultry (36.4 %), followed by layer farms (28.6 %) and lowest in broiler farms (9.1 %). A. galli was the most common G.I. helminth and it was recorded in free-range (backyard poultry) as well as intensive systems (broiler and layer farms). PMID:25698854

  5. A highly conserved, inhibitable astacin metalloprotease from Teladorsagia circumcincta is required for cuticle formation and nematode development☆

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Page, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide, and many have developed multiple resistance to the currently available anthelmintics. The protective collagenous cuticle of these parasites is required for nematode survival and its synthesis has been studied extensively in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The collagen synthesis pathway is a complex, multi-step process involving numerous key enzymes, including the astacin metalloproteases. Nematode astacinsare crucial for C. elegans development, having specific roles in hatching, moulting and cuticle synthesis. NAS-35 (also called DPY-31) is a homologue of a vertebrate procollagen C-proteinase and performs a central role in cuticle formation of C. elegans as its mutation causes temperature-sensitive lethality and cuticle defects. The characterisation of DPY-31 from the ovine gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta and its ability to rescue the C. elegans mutant is described. Compounds with a hydroxamate functional group have previously been shown to be potent inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinases and were therefore examined for inhibitory activity against the T. circumcincta enzyme. Phenotypic screening against T. circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and C. elegans larval stages identified compounds that caused body morphology phenotypes consistent with the inhibition of proteases involved in cuticle collagen synthesis. These compounds correspondingly inhibited the activity of recombinant T. circumcincta DPY-31, supporting the hypothesis that this enzyme may represent a potentially novel anthelmintic drug target. PMID:25736599

  6. The gastrointestinal tract as a potential infection reservoir of digital dermatitis-associated treponemes in beef cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2015-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  7. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths of the Caspian turtle, Mauremys caspica (Testudines), from Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Ali; Nikzad, Reza; Gonzalez-Solis, David; Halajian, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    The Caspian turtle (Mauremys caspica) is a semi-aquatic and adaptable reptile. To date, there are no reports on the parasites of this turtle in Iran. Hence, the current survey was designed to prepare a list of the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the Caspian turtle in North Iran. A total of 34 road-killed individuals (14 males and 20 females) were collected between July 2011 and October 2012 from the Mazandaran province, Iran. All parts of gastrointestinal were parasitologically scrutinized and collected specimens were fixed and preserved in 70 % ethanol. Half of the examined Caspian turtles (17) were infected with at least one parasitic helminth. The list of helminths includes three nematodes: Serpinema microcephalum (Camallanidae), Falcaustra armenica (Kathlaniidae), Oxyuridae sp., and one digenean: Telorchis sp. (Telorchiidae). This is the first report of the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the Caspian turtle in Iran and all helminth species are reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:27065600

  9. Differences in efficacy of monepantel, derquantel and abamectin against multi-resistant nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Bapst, Beatrice; Stein, Philip A; Strehlau, Guenther A; Allan, Brooke A; Hosking, Barry C; Rolfe, Peter F; Sager, Heinz

    2011-07-01

    Drug resistance has become a global phenomenon in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep, particularly resistance to macrocyclic lactones. New anthelmintics are urgently needed for both the control of infections with multi-resistant nematodes in areas where classical anthelmintics are no longer effective, and the prevention of the spread of resistance in areas where the problem is not as severe. Recently, two new active ingredients became commercially available for the treatment of nematode infections in sheep, monepantel (Zolvix®) and derquantel, the latter used only in a formulated combination with the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin (Startect®). In order to assess the potential of the new actives for the control and prevention of spread of anthelmintic resistance, two characterized multi-resistant field isolates from Australia were used in a GLP (good laboratory practice) conducted efficacy study in sheep. Eight infected sheep in each group were treated orally according to the product labels with 2.5 mg/kg body weight monepantel, 0.2 mg/kg abamectin, or with the combination of 2.0 mg/kg derquantel and 0.2 mg/kg abamectin. The results demonstrate that monepantel was fully effective against multi-resistant species, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus (99.9%). In contrast, the combination of derquantel and abamectin was effective against T. colubriformis (99.9%), but was not effective against larval stages of the barber's pole worm H. contortus (18.3%). PMID:21161271

  10. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  11. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  12. Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-11-01

    Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and

  13. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae.

    PubMed

    Kaliyappan, Raja; Viswanathan, Sriram; Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  14. Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissue to Assess the Impact of Nutrition and a Secondary Nematode Challenge in Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Jones, Leigh A.; Burgess, Stewart T. G.; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Pemberton, Alan D.; Houdijk, Jos G. M.; Huntley, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematode infection is a major challenge to the health and welfare of mammals. Although mammals eventually acquire immunity to nematodes, this breaks down around parturition, which renders periparturient mammals susceptible to re-infection and an infection source for their offspring. Nutrient supplementation reduces the extent of periparturient parasitism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we use a genome wide approach to assess the effects of protein supplementation on gene expression in the small intestine of periparturient rats following nematode re-infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The use of a rat whole genome expression microarray (Affymetrix Gene 1.0ST) showed significant differential regulation of 91 genes in the small intestine of lactating rats, re-infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis compared to controls; affected functions included immune cell trafficking, cell-mediated responses and antigen presentation. Genes with a previously described role in immune response to nematodes, such as mast cell proteases, and intelectin, and others newly associated with nematode expulsion, such as anterior gradient homolog 2 were identified. Protein supplementation resulted in significant differential regulation of 64 genes; affected functions included protein synthesis, cellular function and maintenance. It increased cell metabolism, evident from the high number of non-coding RNA and the increased synthesis of ribosomal proteins. It regulated immune responses, through T-cell activation and proliferation. The up-regulation of transcription factor forkhead box P1 in unsupplemented, parasitised hosts may be indicative of a delayed immune response in these animals. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first evidence for nutritional regulation of genes related to immunity to nematodes at the site of parasitism, during expulsion. Additionally it reveals genes induced following secondary parasite challenge

  15. Attraction of pinewood nematode to endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Zhe Ming; Zhang, Dong Liang; Gu, Li Juan; Liu, Lei; Sung, Chang Keun

    2010-05-01

    The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species. Esteya vermicola is the endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode (PWN) with high infection activity. In the present study, the attraction of PWNs to E. vermicola was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia and exudative substances of E. vermicola were attractive to PWN. Compared with the nematode-trapping fungus A. brochopaga as well as nematode-feeding fungus B. cinerea, E. vermicola showed the significantly strongest attraction ability to nematode. It therefore appeared that the attraction ability reflects the dependence of the fungi on nematodes for nutrients. Furthermore, a new method was developed and used in the study to confirm the effect of volatile substances for the attraction of nematode to fungi. The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds. PMID:20012046

  16. Noncommunicable diseases in HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries: gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Saloojee, Haroon; Chen, Jennifer Y; Chung, Raymond T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to outline the interaction between HIV and noncommunicable diseases affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to identify research priorities. Noncommunicable GI tract disorders are only moderately influenced by HIV, and peptic ulceration is actually less common. However, the impact of HIV on GI cancers needs further investigation. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV has 2 major effects on noncommunicable liver disease: drug-induced liver injury and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (particularly in persons of African genetic descent). The effect of HIV on nutrition was one of the first markers of the epidemic in the 1980s, and HIV continues to have major nutritional consequences. Childhood malnutrition and HIV frequently coexist in some regions, for example, southern Africa, resulting in powerful negative interactions with poorer responses to standard nutritional rehabilitation. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered. Across the spectrum of GI, hepatic, and nutritional disorders in HIV infection, there is increasing evidence that the microbiome may play an important role in disease pathogenesis, but work in this area, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is in its infancy. PMID:25117963

  17. Prevention of Incisional Surgical Site Infection Using a Subcuticular Absorbable Suture in Elective Surgery for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bou, Hideki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maejima, Kentarou; Uchida, Eiji; Tokunaga, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether subcuticular absorbable sutures actually reduce incisional SSI in patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Surgical site infection (SSI) is still a source of major complications in digestive tract surgery. Reportedly, incisional SSI can be reduced using subcuticular suturing. We performed subcuticular suturing using a 4-0 absorbable monofilament in patients undergoing elective surgery for GI cancer beginning in 2008. Using an interrupted technique, sutures were placed 1.5-2.0cm from the edge of the wound, with everted subcuticular sutures created at intervals of 1.5-2.0cm. The control group consisted of cases in which the common subcutaneous suture method using clip. One hundred cases were examined in the subcuticular group. The incidence of SSI was 0% in the subcuticular suture group, compared with 13.9% in the control group; this difference was significant. Incisional SSI can be prevented using the devised subcuticular absorbable sutures in patients undergoing elective surgery for GI cancer. PMID:26414820

  18. Gastrointestinal dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbial transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, L Patrick; Beck, Paul L; MacDonald, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota is a significant concern. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea has been on the rise for the past few decades with the increasing usage of antibiotics. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have become one of the most prominent types of infectious diarrheal disease, with dramatically increased incidence in both the hospital and community setting worldwide. Studies show that variability in the innate host response may in part impact upon CDI severity in patients. That being said, CDI is a disease that shows the most prominent links to alterations to the gut microbiota, in both cause and treatment. With recurrence rates still relatively high, it is important to explore alternative therapies to CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and other types of bacteriotherapy have become exciting avenues of treatment for CDI. Recent clinical trials have generated excitement for the use of FMT as a therapeutic option for CDI; however, the exact components of the human gut microbiota needed for protection against CDI have remained elusive. Additional investigations on the effects of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota and subsequent CDI will help reduce the socioeconomic burden of CDI and potentially lead to new therapeutic modalities. PMID:26600975

  19. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  20. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

  1. Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Dhandaydham, Murali; Charles, Lauren; Zhu, Hongyan; Starr, James L.; Huguet, Thierry; Cook, Douglas R.; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Opperman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) nematodes infect all important crop species, and the annual economic loss due to these pathogens exceeds $90 billion. We screened the worldwide accession collection with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla, soybean cyst nematode (SCN-Heterodera glycines), sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN-Heterodera schachtii) and clover cyst nematode (CLCN-Heterodera trifolii), revealing resistant and susceptible accessions. In the over 100 accessions evaluated, we observed a range of responses to the root-knot nematode species, and a non-host response was observed for SCN and SBCN infection. However, variation was observed with respect to infection by CLCN. While many cultivars including Jemalong A17 were resistant to H. trifolii, cultivar Paraggio was highly susceptible. Identification of M. truncatula as a host for root-knot nematodes and H. trifolii and the differential host response to both RKN and CLCN provide the opportunity to genetically and molecularly characterize genes involved in plant-nematode interaction. Accession DZA045, obtained from an Algerian population, was resistant to all three root-knot nematode species and was used for further studies. The mechanism of resistance in DZA045 appears different from Mi-mediated root-knot nematode resistance in tomato. Temporal analysis of nematode infection showed that there is no difference in nematode penetration between the resistant and susceptible accessions, and no hypersensitive response was observed in the resistant accession even several days after infection. However, less than 5% of the nematode population completed the life cycle as females in the resistant accession. The remainder emigrated from the roots, developed as males, or died inside the roots as undeveloped larvae. Genetic analyses carried out by crossing DZA045 with a susceptible French accession, F83005, suggest that one gene controls resistance in DZA

  2. Influence of symbiotic bacteria on entomopathogenic nematode--host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three players in the infection process of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae): the nematodes themselves, the host insect, and the nematode’s mutualistic bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.). As a host infection progresses, all three of these players...

  3. Heritable, heterogeneous, and costly resistance of sheep against nematodes and potential feedbacks to epidemiological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Garnier, Romain; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Grenfell, Bryan T; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Pemberton, Josephine M; Nussey, Daniel H; Graham, Andrea L

    2014-08-01

    Infected hosts may preserve fitness by resisting parasites (reducing parasite burden) and/or tolerating them (preventing or repairing infection-induced damage). Theory predicts that these individual-level defense strategies generate divergent population-level feedbacks that would maintain genetic heterogeneity for resistance but purge heterogeneity for tolerance. Because resistance reduces parasite abundance, selection for costly resistance traits will weaken as resistance becomes common. Such negative frequency-dependent selection contrasts with predictions for tolerance, which maintains parasite abundance and so is expected to generate positive frequency-dependent selection, unless, for example, tolerance trades off with resistance. Thus far, there have been few tests of this theory in natural systems. Here, we begin testing the predictions in a mammalian field system, using data on individual gastrointestinal nematode burdens, nematode-specific antibody titers (as a resistance metric), the slope of body weight on parasite burden (as a tolerance metric), and fitness from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep. We find that nematode resistance is costly to fitness and underpinned by genetic heterogeneity, and that resistance is independent of tolerance. Drawing upon empirical metrics such as developed here, future work will elucidate how resistance and tolerance feedbacks interact to generate population-scale patterns in the Soay sheep and other field systems. PMID:25061678

  4. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria).

    PubMed

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otegbade, A C; Morenikeji, O A

    2014-03-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites are a major health issue in captive birds. However, prevalence data of gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in Nigeria are scarce. This study was carried out to establish the gastrointestinal parasite profile of birds kept in zoological gardens in the University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ilorin, University of Lagos and Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, all in south-west Nigeria. A total of 178 fecal samples from 83 birds (14 species in eight orders) were examined using three techniques; Feacal sedimentation using ethyl acetate, McMaster Egg Counting Technique and Petri Dish-Filter Paper Slant culture technique (modified Harada-Mori Technique). A total of 39(21.9%) of the 178 samples were infected. The highest prevalence (100%) of infection was recorded in Unilag zoo and a total of five species of parasites including two protozoans (coccidian and Balantidium spp.); and three nematodes Capillaria spp., Ascaris spp. and Strongyloides spp.) were recorded with Capillaria spp. (14.1%) as the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasite. Mixed infections were found in 18(10.1%) samples. Strongyloides larvae were observed in 6(3.4%) samples. All Anseriformes were infected but the Struthioniformes had the highest infection rate. The geometric mean intensity of eggs ranged from 101.98 ± 10.36 to 63.00 ± 16.67 epg and oocyst counts ranged from 332.47 ± 16.67 to 297.89 ± 20.41 opg. Balantidium cyst count was 324.04 ± 25.00. Count of oocyst of coccidian species was significantly higher in all the zoos. The feacal culture yielded Strongyloides species. Regular deworming and hygienic measures are necessary to prevent gastrointestinal infections in captive birds. So also, improved funding and management are necessary to ensure sustainability of Nigerian zoological gardens. PMID:24862045

  6. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Cotton, James A; Amat, Christina B; Buret, Andre G

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host's immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. PMID:26569316

  7. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A.; Amat, Christina B.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed. PMID:26569316

  8. The Hymenolepis diminuta-golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model for the evaluation of gastrointestinal anticestode activity.

    PubMed

    Ostlind, D A; Mickle, W G; Smith, S K; Cifelli, S; Ewanciw, D V

    2004-08-01

    A novel laboratory anticestode assay was developed using Hymenolepis diminuta in the hamster. The commercial anticestode compounds, praziquantel, bunamidine, and niclosamide were active against patent infections of Hymenolepis diminuta in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) when given orally at 3.125, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The gastrointestinal nematode anthelmintics, cambendazole and mebendazole, were active at 50 mg/kg. Rafoxanide (fasciolicide) was active at 25 mg/kg, the lowest level tested. The coccidiostat, nicarbazin, was active at experimental levels (800 mg/kg and up). The anthelmintic-ectoparasiticide (endectocide), ivermectin, was inactive against the tapeworm at 0.5 mg/kg, as expected. PMID:15357098

  9. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis: A 4-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN).Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes.Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula.GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  10. Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are roundworms in the phylum Nematoda. Although most are free-living, some nematodes are parasites of plants, humans, or livestock. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae & Heterorhabditidae only parasitize insects. These nematodes are used as environmentally friend...

  11. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  12. Nematotoxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue toxins and extracts to an in vitro bioassay using the nematode Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the Neotyphodium coenophialum-tall fescue grass symbiota are provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning this symbiotum and its toxicity to nematode species...

  13. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Moses; Sekyere, Jemima Owusu; Adzitey, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi from January 2015 to July 2015. Materials and Methods: The presence of nematodal eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were analyzed using the saturated sodium chloride floatation technique. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts. Results: Out of 110 fecal samples of sheep examined, 108 were infected with GIT parasites, representing a prevalence rate of 98.2%. The total infection rate of GIT nematodes and coccidia oocysts were 94.5% and 51.8%, respectively. Strongyle nematode (94.5%) was the most prevalent GIT nematode detected, followed by strongyloides (27.3%). The average nematodal burden in g/feces was significantly higher (p<0.001) in young rams under 1 year (3482.0) than gimmers (1539.0), lamb (825.0), ewes (420.7), and rams over 1 year (313.3). Nematodal burden in gimmers was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of lambs, ewes, and rams over 1 year. Nematodal counts of lambs, ewes, and rams did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from each other. The average coccidia oocysts count in g/feces was significantly higher (p<0.001) in lambs (2475.0) than rams under 1 year (286.0), gimmers (263.6), ewes (158.6), and rams over 1 year (150.0). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the coccidia oocysts count of rams under 1 year, gimmers, ewes, and rams over 1 year. From the studied animals, 40%, 6.36%, 48.18%, and 5.45% had heavy, moderate, light, and no infestation, respectively, with GIT nematodes. Conclusion: Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, were infested with varying amounts of GIT parasites. The infestation of Djallonke sheep by GIT parasites also varies among different age groups and sexes. PMID:27182130

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2014-12-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  16. Integrating immune mechanisms to model nematode worm burden: an example in sheep.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Romain; Grenfell, Bryan T; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Graham, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes represent important sources of economic losses in farmed ruminants, and the increasing frequency of anthelmintic resistance requires an increased ability to explore alternative strategies. Theoretical approaches at the crossroads of immunology and epidemiology are valuable tools in that context. In the case of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep, the immunological mechanisms important for resistance are increasingly well-characterized. However, despite the existence of a wide range of theoretical models, there is no framework integrating the characteristic features of this immune response into a tractable phenomenological model. Here, we propose to bridge that gap by developing a flexible modelling framework that allows for variability in nematode larval intake which can be used to track the variations in worm burdens. We parameterize this model using data from trickle infection of sheep and show that using simple immunological assumptions, our model can capture the dynamics of both adult worm burdens and nematode fecal egg counts. In addition, our analysis reveals interesting dose-dependent effects on the immune response. Finally, we discuss potential developments of this model and highlight how an improved cross-talk between empiricists and theoreticians would facilitate important advances in the study of infectious diseases. PMID:26283186

  17. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  18. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT DISTRIBUTION AT NECROPSY OF SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN NATURALLY-INFECTED CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy adult cattle with gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) transient luminal presence or mucosal colonization by Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 are a primary zoonotic reservoir of this human pathogen, especially for meat-borne transmission. The GIT distribution of STEC O157 in various experimen...

  19. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Auto