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Sample records for gastrointestinal tract germinal

  1. Evaluation of germination, distribution, and persistence of Bacillus subtilis spores through the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kallapura, G; Menconi, A; Pumford, N R; Morgan, M J; Layton, S L; Bielke, L R; Hargis, B M; Téllez, G

    2014-07-01

    Spores are popular as direct-fed microbials, though little is known about their mode of action. Hence, the first objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro germination and growth rate of Bacillus subtilis spores. Approximately 90% of B. subtilis spores germinate within 60 min in the presence of feed in vitro. The second objective was to determine the distribution of these spores throughout different anatomical segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a chicken model. For in vivo evaluation of persistence and dissemination, spores were administered to day-of-hatch broiler chicks either as a single gavage dose or constantly in the feed. During 2 independent experiments, chicks were housed in isolation chambers and fed sterile corn-soy-based diets. In these experiments one group of chickens was supplemented with 10(6) spores/g of feed, whereas a second group was gavaged with a single dose of 10(6) spores per chick on day of hatch. In both experiments, crop, ileum, and cecae were sampled from 5 chicks at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Viable B. subtilis spores were determined by plate count method after heat treatment (75°C for 10 min). The number of recovered spores was constant through 120 h in each of the enteric regions from chickens receiving spores supplemented in the feed. However, the number of recovered B. subtilis spores was consistently about 10(5) spores per gram of digesta, which is about a 1-log10 reduction of the feed inclusion rate, suggesting approximately a 90% germination rate in the GIT when fed. On the other hand, recovered B. subtilis spores from chicks that received a single gavage dose decreased with time, with only approximately 10(2) spores per gram of sample by 120 h. This confirms that B. subtilis spores are transiently present in the GIT of chickens, but the persistence of vegetative cells is presently unknown. For persistent benefit, continuous administration of effective B. subtilis direct-fed microbials as vegetative

  2. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  3. ARTERIAL EPONYMS IN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

    PubMed

    Kutia, S A; Kiselev, V V; Lyashchenko, O I

    2015-01-01

    Eponym--name of the disease, certain structure or method after the person who usually first discovered and described them. Eponyms are widely spread in medicine which appeared to be in the area of a great interest for a lot of scientists. They can serve as a reflection of the evolution of the medical knowledge and making up the majority of anatomical terms. The article describes 12 arterial eponyms of the gastrointestinal tract giving a full anatomical description. It also gives an explanation of why and how those structures were named after certain scientists and what contribution they've made into the development of medicine. PMID:26817114

  4. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  5. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PERTWEE, R

    2001-01-01

    found to induce "withdrawal" contractions in cannabinoid tolerant guinea pig ileal MPLM. Further research is required to investigate the role both of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists and of non-CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent to which the effects on gastrointestinal function of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists can be exploited therapeutically has yet to be investigated as has the extent to which these drugs can provoke unwanted effects in the gastrointestinal tract when used for other therapeutic purposes.

 PMID:11358910

  6. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  7. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, E.K.; Jones, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters and five case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: CT of the Stomach; CT and Other Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Evaluation of Crohn's Disease; Periotoneal Metastasis; CT and MRI Correlation of the Gastrointestinal Tract; CT of Acute Gastrointestinal Abnormlities; and CT of Colorectal Cancer.

  8. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  9. Water channel proteins in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Laforenza, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Water transport through the human digestive system is physiologically crucial for maintaining body water homeostasis and ensure digestive and absorptive functions. Within the gastrointestinal tract, water recirculates, being secreted with the digestive juices and then almost entirely absorbed by the small and large intestine. The importance of aquaporins (AQPs), transmembrane water channel proteins, in the rapid passage of water across plasma membranes in the gastrointestinal tract appears immediately evident. Several AQP isoforms are found in gastrointestinal epithelia, with AQP1, 3, 7, 10 and 11 being the most abundantly expressed in the whole gut. On the other hand, AQP4 and 8 are located selectively in the stomach and colon, respectively. Here we review AQP expression and localization at the tissue, cellular and subcellular level in gastrointestinal epithelia, and their modification in various gut diseases. PMID:22465691

  10. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sirisanthana, Thira; Brown, Arthur E

    2002-07-01

    When swallowed, anthrax spores may cause lesions from the oral cavity to the cecum. Gastrointestinal anthrax is greatly underreported in rural disease-endemic areas of the world. The apparent paucity of this form of anthrax reflects the lack of facilities able to make the diagnosis in these areas. The spectrum of disease, ranging from subclinical infection to death, has not been fully recognized. In some community-based studies, cases of gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbered those of cutaneous anthrax. The oropharyngeal variant, in particular, is unfamiliar to most physicians. The clinical features of oropharyngeal anthrax include fever and toxemia, inflammatory lesion(s) in the oral cavity or oropharynx, enlargement of cervical lymph nodes associated with edema of the soft tissue of the cervical area, and a high case-fatality rate. Awareness of gastrointestinal anthrax in a differential diagnosis remains important in anthrax-endemic areas but now also in settings of possible bioterrorism. PMID:12095428

  11. Biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Joanne; Willard, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Gastrointestinal biopsy is a potentially powerful tool, but it is easy to do it incorrectly. If clinicians are careless in performing or submitting biopsies, or if they blindly believe whatever the histopathology report says, they are abdicating their responsibility to the client and patient. Two comments seem most appropriate. First, the goal of endoscopy is not to be able to place the tip of an endoscope in a particular location; rather, the goal of endoscopy is to be able to access a particular location and then take a diagnostic specimen well enough that surgery can be avoided. Second, attention to detail is worth at least as much if not more than technology. PMID:14552163

  12. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  13. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dong-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient’s condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19132766

  14. Reconstruction and Visualization of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rong-guo; Guo, Xu-dong; Xu, Changqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Converting the two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional photographs into an intuitive three-dimensional (3D) model is a basic task for medical imaging data for auxiliary disease-linked diagnosis purpose. Methods: Reconstruction and visualization process of gastrointestinal cross-sectional photographs includes image preparation, image registration, image segmentation, 3D surface-rendering reconstruction, and implementation of 3D digital visualization. Results: Using the visualization toolkit (VTK), we implemented 3D digital reconstruction and visualization of gastrointestinal tract, whose visualized model can be zoomed, paned, and rotated, including the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. PMID:23675253

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  16. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  17. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  18. Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation in the Newborn and Child: Imaging Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Gary R; Davis, Joseph T; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal tract perforation can arise from various underlying etiologies ranging from congenital causes to ingested foreign bodies in the pediatric patient population. Imaging assessment in patients with suspected gastrointestinal tract perforation plays a central role in making the diagnosis and follow-up evaluation. This article reviews the more common etiologies of gastrointestinal tract perforation in pediatric patients, their imaging manifestations, and strategies for imaging assessment to assist the radiologist in arriving at a timely and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26827739

  19. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S.; Hughes, T.; Boettcher, T.; Barman, R.; Langer, R.; Swiston, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage. PMID:26580216

  20. [Synchronous tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Tr; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Mihalache, O; Degeratu, D; Predescu, G

    2010-01-01

    The term "synchronous tumors" is reserved for simultaneous evolution of two or more tumors with distinct sites, in which the possibility that one tumor is a metastasis of the other has been excluded. In medical practice, the involvement of two different cavitary organs of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare. We present two clinical cases of synchronous tumors: one of a malignant degeneration of a colonic polyp, associated to a jejunal tumor; the other of a patient with a gastric adenocarcinoma, who also had a bulky rectal villous tumor. We tried to find out the etiology of the tumors and the frequency of these associations, mentioned in medical literature. Immunohistochemistry investigations, genetic analysis and familial screening must complete an individualized medical approach in which the surgical technique must be adequate for each case. PMID:20405687

  1. Gastrothorax following upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaeldin Hassan; Elsayed, Muaz Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with vomiting and breathlessness for 1 day, 5 days after upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. On admission, the patient was breathless but not cyanosed; he had sinus tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min) and was normotensive (blood pressure 120/75 mm Hg). There were signs of mediastinal shift to the right. There were no breath sounds over the left side of the chest but normal breath sounds were heard to the right of the sternum. His chest x ray, CT scan of the chest and a barium meal study revealed gastrothorax. He was operated on and at surgery the stomach and ascending colon were found herniating into the chest through a posterolateral defect of the left hemidiaphragm. These were moved back to the abdomen and the diaphragmatic defect was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remained well when seen in the clinic 2 months following surgery. PMID:22140411

  2. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952

  3. Congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lentze, M

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and

  4. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  5. Prion diseases and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Davies, G A; Bryant, Adam R; Reynolds, John D; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Although they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform (PrPsc) the process by which this isoform is propagated and transported to the brain remains poorly understood. M cells, dendritic cells and possibly enteroendocrine cells are important in the movement of infectious prions across the GI epithelium. From there, PrPsc propagation requires B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells of Peyer's patches. The early accumulation of the disease-causing agent in the plexuses of the enteric nervous system supports the contention that the autonomic nervous system is important in disease transmission. This is further supported by the presence of PrPsc in the ganglia of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the GI tract. Additionally, the lymphoreticular system has been implicated as the route of transmission from the gut to the brain. Although normal cellular prion protein is found in the enteric nervous system, its role has not been characterized. Further research is required to understand how the cellular components of the gut wall interact to propagate and transmit infectious prions to develop potential therapies that may prevent the progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:16432555

  6. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders. PMID:26459157

  7. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  8. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. PMID:27028536

  9. [Congenital gastrointestinal tract obstructions (pictorial essay)].

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Abdulhakim; Sevinç, Halil

    2004-03-01

    A wide spectrum of congenital anomalies may cause obstruction in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Neonates with complete upper intestinal obstruction do not usually require further radiological evaluation after radiography. Barium studies are sometimes needed. Barium studies and other comprehensive methods such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are usually complementary procedures which are not usually helpful and may even delay surgery, resulting in some complications and death. The decision to perform a given imaging examination should be considered carefully to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient. The diagnosis of low intestinal obstruction is usually apparent at abdominal radiography because of the presence of many dilated loops. The differentiation between ileal and colonic obstruction can be made with a contrast enema study. Dilute ionic, water-soluble contrast agents and non-balloon tip catheter of appropriate size is preferred for neonatal contrast enemas. Barium sulphate suspensions typically should not be used because of their potential to exacerbate the impaction of meconium plugs in meconium ileus, whereas water-soluble enemas can be therapeutic. PMID:15054709

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Samiullah; Bhurgri, Hadi; Sohail, Umair

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies. Eosinophilic colitis commonly presents with lower gastrointestinal symptoms and is a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:27545738

  11. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  12. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage. PMID:26347504

  13. Investigation of insoluble endogenous fractions of gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.

    2005-05-01

    For the determination of the elemental composition of insoluble endogenous fractions from gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF (XRF experimental beam line, VEPP-3, INP SU RAS, Novosibirsk), an analytical method was developed for producing epithelial tissue in vivo. The metrological characteristics were determined using a number of international biological standards.

  14. Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, John G.; Marks, Charles; Hearn, David

    1974-01-01

    The charts of 135 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors diagnosed over a 22-year period at 2 hospitals are reviewed and the clinical and pathological aspects discussed. Carcinoids occur most commonly in the appendix, jejunoileum, and rectum. Those smaller than 1 cm in diameter provide evidence of malignant potential only occasionally; lesions in the 1-1.9 cm range do this quite variably, and tumors 2 cm and larger are almost always invasive or metastatic or both. All gastrointestinal carcinoids except those of the appendix enlarge, invade, and metastasize predictably if given sufficient time. Most carcinoids except those of the rectum have already been adequately treated surgically when diagnosed by the pathologist. Local excision is effective treatment for noninvasive rectal carcinoids smaller than 2 cm in diameter, but those that have invaded or grown to 2 cm should undergo more radical resection. In general, gastrointestinal carcinoids carry better prognoses than do adenocarcinomata, and even in the presence of distant metastases long-term survival occurs in a significant number of patients. The frequent concomitance of associated malignant diseases accounts for as many or more deaths in these patients than the carcinoids themselves. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4421375

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  16. Neurostimulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Review of Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Thomas L.; Chen, Jiande; Emmanuel, Anton; Jolley, Christopher; Sarela, Abeezar I.; Törnblom, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Neurostimulation is one manifestation of neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This manuscript reviews the history of neurostimulation of the GI tract with emphasis on current methods of stimulation. Upper GI disorders can be modulated with both temporary (placed endoscopically or surgically) or permanent (placed surgically) gastric electrical stimulation (GES) devices. The current gastrointestinal (GI) neurostimulation of stomach (GES) devices have been used in both children and adults and some patients have been followed in excess of 15 years with good long-term results. Similar GES devices have also been used for a variety of lower GI disorders, including constipation and fecal incontinence, for a number of years. Based on these recent developments, the future uses of neurostimulation in the GI tract are discussed with an emphasis on new applications and innovations. PMID:25581846

  17. Optical Molecular Imaging in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carns, Jennifer; Keahey, Pelham; Quang, Timothy; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in optical molecular imaging allow for real-time identification of morphological and biochemical changes in tissue associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. This review summarizes widefield and high resolution imaging modalities currently in pre-clinical and clinical evaluation for the detection of colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer. Widefield techniques discussed include high definition white light endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluoresence imaging, and chromoendoscopy; high resolution techniques discussed include probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Finally, new approaches to enhance image contrast using vital dyes and molecular-specific targeted contrast agents are evaluated. PMID:23735112

  18. Site and mechanism of morphine tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    AKBARALI, H. I.; INKISAR, A.; DEWEY, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation is a major clinical problem. The effects of morphine, and other narcotics, on the gastrointestinal tract persist over long-term use thus limiting the clinical benefit of these excellent pain relievers. The effects of opioids in the gut, including morphine, are largely mediated by the μ-opioid receptors at the soma and nerve terminals of enteric neurons. Recent studies demonstrate that regional differences exist in both acute and chronic morphine along the gastrointestinal tract. While tolerance develops to the analgesic effects and upper gastrointestinal motility upon repeated morphine administration, tolerance does not develop in the colon with chronic opioids resulting in persistent constipation. Here, we review the mechanisms by which tolerance develops in the small but not the large intestine. The regional differences lie in the signaling and regulation of the μopioid receptor in the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The differential role of β-arrestin2 in tolerance development between central and enteric neurons defines the potential for therapeutic approaches in developing ligands with analgesic properties and minimal constipating effects. PMID:25257923

  19. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  20. Role of nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Lanas, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide osteoarthritis (OA) affects more than 9.6% of men and 18% of women older that 60 years. Treatment for OA often requires chronic use of selective or nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have been associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complications. An increased risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs alone and when combined with low-dose aspirin has been described in numerous studies. Although cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to carry a lower risk for gastrointestinal injury than nonselective NSAIDs, research continues to identify new treatments that not only are effective but also provide an improved benefit/risk profile, including better gastrointestinal tolerability. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. In preclinical studies NO was shown to help maintain gastric mucosal integrity, to inhibit leukocyte adherence to the endothelium, and to repair NSAID-induced damage. In addition, epidemiologic studies have shown that the use of NO-donating agents with NSAIDs or aspirin resulted in reduced risk for gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting NO-donating drugs (CINODs), in which a NO molecule is chemically linked to an NSAID, are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may result in less gastrointestinal damage than is associated with NSAID use. Therefore, these agents provide a potential therapeutic option for patients with arthritis who require long-term NSAID therapy. PMID:19007429

  1. The use of optical imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sabina; Wilson, Ana; Ragunath, Krish

    2016-01-01

    With significant advances in the management of gastrointestinal disease there has been a move from diagnosing advanced pathology, to detecting early lesions that are potentially amenable to curative endoscopic treatment. This has required an improvement in diagnostics, with a focus on identifying and characterising subtle mucosal changes. There is great interest in the use of optical technologies to predict histology and enable the formulation of a real-time in vivo diagnosis, a so-called ‘optical biopsy’. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the use of the current commercially available imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27429735

  2. Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Vanheel, Hanne; Farré, Ricard

    2013-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia is an extremely common disorder of gastrointestinal function. The disorder is thought to be heterogeneous, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varied symptom patterns. A diversity of changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure has been described in functional dyspepsia. These involve alterations in the stomach, such as impaired accommodation, delayed gastric emptying and hypersensitivity, and alterations in the duodenum, such as increased sensitivity to duodenal acid and/or lipids and low-grade inflammation. In this Review, we summarize all these abnormalities in an attempt to provide an integrated overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. PMID:23318268

  3. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  4. Prenatal Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract with Postnatal Imaging Correlation.

    PubMed

    Blask, Anna Nussbaum; Fagen, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal detection of a wide variety of anomalies and masses of the gastrointestinal tract is now possible. Prenatal imaging with ultrasonography and in selected cases magnetic resonance imaging provides invaluable information to the referring obstetrician, the maternal fetal medicine specialist, the neonatologist and pediatrician who will care for the child after birth, the surgeons and pediatric specialists who will repair or manage a prenatally detected anomaly, and of course to the parents, allowing them to prepare psychologically and financially for the specific interventions that may be needed for their child. Additional screening for associated anomalies can take place, route of delivery can be decided, and arrangements for delivery in an appropriate setting can be made. Prenatal detection also allows for consideration for pregnancy termination. This article will give a broad overview of anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract that can be detected prenatally and their imaging appearance postnatally. PMID:26086457

  5. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2016-04-15

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed.Lactobacillaceae(belonging mainly to the genusLactobacillus) represented most of theFirmicutesat all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a "mature" microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances ofLactobacillus salivarius(17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance ofLactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations ofL. salivariusand clostridia. BothL. salivariusand clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  6. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  7. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

  8. Clonal Evolution of Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Fink, Juergen; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The field of gastrointestinal epithelial stem cells is a rapidly developing area of adult stem cell research. The discovery of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells has enabled us to study many hidden aspects of the biology of gastrointestinal adult stem cells. Marked by Lgr5 and Troy, several novel endodermal stem cells have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract. A precise working model of stem cell propagation, dynamics, and plasticity has been revealed by a genetic labeling method, termed lineage tracing. This chapter introduces the reidentification of crypt base columnar cells as Lgr5(+) stem cells in the intestine. Subsequently, it will discuss dynamic clonal evolution and cellular plasticity in the intestinal stem cell zone, as well as in stem cell zones of stomach glands. PMID:27573765

  9. Hedgehog signaling in development and homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Gijs R

    2007-10-01

    The Hedgehog family of secreted morphogenetic proteins acts through a complex evolutionary conserved signaling pathway to regulate patterning events during development and in the adult organism. In this review I discuss the role of Hedgehog signaling in the development, postnatal maintenance, and carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract. Three mammalian hedgehog genes, sonic hedgehog (Shh), indian hedgehog (Ihh), and desert hedgehog (Dhh) have been identified. Shh and Ihh are important endodermal signals in the endodermal-mesodermal cross-talk that patterns the developing gut tube along different axes. Mutations in Shh, Ihh, and downstream signaling molecules lead to a variety of gross malformations of the murine gastrointestinal tract including esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, annular pancreas, midgut malrotation, and duodenal and anal atresia. These congenital malformations are also found in varying constellations in humans, suggesting a possible role for defective Hedgehog signaling in these patients. In the adult, Hedgehog signaling regulates homeostasis in several endoderm-derived epithelia, for example, the stomach, intestine, and pancreas. Finally, growth of carcinomas of the proximal gastrointestinal tract such as esophageal, gastric, biliary duct, and pancreatic cancers may depend on Hedgehog signaling offering a potential avenue for novel therapy for these aggressive cancers. PMID:17928586

  10. Current Techniques for Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young

    2016-01-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arise from the proper muscle layer of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and have a low malignant potential. They are sometimes accompanied by symptoms, but in most cases are detected by chance. Endoscopic surgery of subepithelial tumors in the upper GI tract has been actively performed, and its merits include the need for fewer medical devices compared with other surgical procedures and post-resection organ preservation. However, because endoscopic procedures are still limited to small or pilot studies, a multidisciplinary approach combining laparoscopy and endoscopy is needed for more effective and pathologically acceptable management of GISTs. Many new endoscopic surgeries have been developed, and this review describes the current status of and the new approaches for endoscopic surgery of GISTs in the upper GI tract. PMID:27214386

  11. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for /sup 125/I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells.

  12. Histamine H4 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Deiteren, A; De Man, J G; Pelckmans, P A; De Winter, B Y

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a well-established mediator involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and exerts its effect through activation of four histamine receptors (H1–H4). The histamine H4 receptor is the newest member of this histamine receptor family, and is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the liver, pancreas and bile ducts. Functional studies using a combination of selective and non-selective H4 receptor ligands have rapidly increased our knowledge of H4 receptor involvement in gastrointestinal processes both under physiological conditions and in models of disease. Strong evidence points towards a role for H4 receptors in the modulation of immune-mediated responses in gut inflammation such as in colitis, ischaemia/reperfusion injury, radiation-induced enteropathy and allergic gut reactions. In addition, data have emerged implicating H4 receptors in gastrointestinal cancerogenesis, sensory signalling, and visceral pain as well as in gastric ulceration. These studies highlight the potential of H4 receptor targeted therapy in the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and cancer. PMID:25363289

  13. Listeria monocytogenes: survival and adaptation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic environments (which include the glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase systems), and those which enable the organism to cope with bile acids (including bile salt hydrolase) and competition with the resident microbiota. An increased understanding of how the pathogen survives in this environment is likely to inform the future design of novel prophylactic approaches that exploit specific pharmabiotics; including probiotics, prebiotics, or phages. PMID:24551601

  14. Listeria monocytogenes: survival and adaptation in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic environments (which include the glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase systems), and those which enable the organism to cope with bile acids (including bile salt hydrolase) and competition with the resident microbiota. An increased understanding of how the pathogen survives in this environment is likely to inform the future design of novel prophylactic approaches that exploit specific pharmabiotics; including probiotics, prebiotics, or phages. PMID:24551601

  15. [Eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract: myths and reality].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S

    2013-01-01

    Current data on eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract are discussed along with the role of its microflora in human body under normal and pathological conditions. Certain debatable problems are discussed. Classification of colonic dysbiosis is presented with reference to its stages, functions of normal flora, "myths" related to the science of eubiosis and dysbiosis, the authors views of the problem. Diagnostic methods and their informative value are described. The main diseases and syndromes associated with intestinal dysbiosis are discussed. In conjunction with approaches to its correction. PMID:23659063

  16. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  17. Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju

    2013-02-01

    The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk. PMID:23164499

  18. Cellular Organization of Neuroimmune Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Bogunovic, Milena

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest immune organ; in vertebrates, it is the only organ whose function is controlled by its own intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS), but it is additionally regulated by extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. The GI nervous and immune systems are highly integrated in their common goal, which is to unite digestive functions with protection from ingested environmental threats. This review discusses the physiological relevance of enteric neuroimmune integration by summarizing the current knowledge of evolutionary and developmental pathways, cellular organization, and molecular mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. PMID:27289177

  19. Persistence and reactivation of human adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, K; Geiger, E; Vécsei, A; Huber, W-D; Rauch, M; Brenner, E; Wrba, F; Hammer, K; Innerhofer, A; Pötschger, U; Lawitschka, A; Matthes-Leodolter, S; Fritsch, G; Lion, T

    2016-04-01

    Reactivation of persistent human adenoviruses (HAdVs) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Although invasive HAdV infections mainly arise from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the specific sites of HAdV persistence are not well characterised. We prospectively screened biopsies from 143 non-HSCT paediatric patients undergoing GI endoscopy and monitored serial stool specimens from 148 paediatric HSCT recipients for the presence of HAdV by real-time PCR. Persistence of HAdV in the GI tract was identified in 31% of children, with the highest prevalence in the terminal ileum. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry identified HAdV persistence in lymphoid cells of the lamina propria, whereas biopsies from five transplant recipients revealed high numbers of replicating HAdV in intestinal epithelial cells. The prevalence of HAdV species, the frequencies of persistence in the GI tract and reactivations post transplant indicated a correlation of intestinal HAdV shedding pre-transplant with high risk of invasive infection. HAdV persistence in the GI tract is a likely origin of infectious complications in immunocompromised children. Intestinal lymphocytes represent a reservoir for HAdV persistence and reactivation, whereas the intestinal epithelium is the main site of viral proliferation preceding dissemination. The findings have important implications for assessing the risk of life-threatening invasive HAdV infections. PMID:26711435

  20. Effects of occupational stress on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Tienda, Paola; Delgadillo-Holtfort, Isabel; Balleza-Ordaz, Marco; Flores-Hernandez, Corina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the relationship between occupational stress and gastrointestinal alterations. The International Labour Organization suggests occupational health includes psychological aspects to achieve mental well-being. However, the definition of health risks for an occupation includes biological, chemical, physical and ergonomic factors but does not address psychological stress or other affective disorders. Nevertheless, multiple investigations have studied occupational stress and its physiological consequences, focusing on specific risk groups and occupations considered stressful. Among the physiological effects of stress, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) alterations are highly prevalent. The relationship between occupational stress and GIT diseases is evident in everyday clinical practice; however, the usual strategy is to attack the effects but not the root of the problem. That is, in clinics, occupational stress is recognized as a source of GIT problems, but employers do not ascribe it enough importance as a risk factor, in general, and for gastrointestinal health, in particular. The identification, stratification, measurement and evaluation of stress and its associated corrective strategies, particularly for occupational stress, are important topics to address in the near future to establish the basis for considering stress as an important risk factor in occupational health. PMID:24244879

  1. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  2. Leiomyoma of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal: a mimic of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Anita; Nelson, Dylan; Corless, Christopher L; Deshpande, Vikram; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyomas (LMs) of the gastrointestinal tract arise within the muscularis mucosae (superficial) and muscularis propria (deep). There are isolated reports of KIT-positive cells, presumed interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), within gastrointestinal LMs. We have encountered esophageal LMs with a high proportion of KIT-positive and DOG1-positive spindle-shaped cells, an appearance that mimicked gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of ICCs in LMs of the gastrointestinal tract and the etiopathogenic significance of these cells in this benign neoplasm. We identified 34 esophageal LMs (28 deep, 6 superficial), 8 gastric LMs, and 5 small-bowel LMs (all lesions in muscularis propria). We performed immunohistochemical staining studies for desmin, DOG1, and KIT on these neoplasms. We also evaluated 12 superficial colonic LMs. ICCs were distinguished from mast cells on the basis of morphology (elongated and occasionally branching spindle-shaped cells) and the presence of DOG1 reactivity. Four cases were screened for mutations in PDGFRA exons 12, 14, and 18 and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17. ICCs were identified in all deep esophageal LMs and constituted an average of 20% of the lesional cells; focally, these cells comprised >50% of cells. The density of these cells was significantly higher than the background muscularis propria, and hyperplasia of ICCs was not identified in the adjacent muscle. ICCs were identified in 6 of 8 gastric LMs and 1 of 5 small-bowel LMs and were entirely absent in all superficial esophageal and colonic/rectal LMs. There were no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. ICCs are universally present in deep esophageal LMs, and thus these neoplasms could be mistaken for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, particularly on biopsy samples, an error associated with adverse clinical consequences. ICCs are also identified in gastric and intestinal LMs, albeit in a smaller proportion of cases. Colonization and hyperplasia by non-neoplastic ICCs

  3. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS.A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: ("perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" or "PEComa") and ("gastrointestinal tract" or "GI" or "oral " or "mouth" or "esophagus" or "gullet" or "gastric" or "stomach" or "duodenum" or "jejunum" or "ileum" or "cecum" or "colon" or "colorectal" or "sigmoid" or "rectum" or "anus" or "mesentery") up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches.A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant cases. Eventually, it is necessary for closed and long-term follow-up with endoscope and

  4. Ethanol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and its possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K; Gärtner, U; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A

    1994-01-01

    Ethanol is oxidised not only in the liver, but also in the gastrointestinal tract. Although this ethanol metabolism is less than that of the liver, it has some important relevance with respect to the first pass metabolism of alcohol and to ethanol induced tissue toxicity. In the gastrointestinal tract, ethanol can be metabolised not only in the mucosal cell via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidising system (MEOS), but also in a great variety of bacteria. Depending on the gastrointestinal location, one or the other metabolic pathway of alcohol may be predominant. The metabolism of ethanol by gastric ADH, the so called first pass metabolism, influences ethanol blood concentrations not only in the portal vein and thus in the liver, but also in the systemic circulation. As gastric ADH activity is decreased in younger women, in the elderly, in the alcoholic, during fasting and after treatment with certain H-2-receptor antagonists, increased blood ethanol concentrations may occur in these situations after oral intake of ethanol. However, this first pass metabolism of alcohol is influenced not only by ADH activity but also by the speed of gastric emptying (e.g. slow gastric emptying leads to increased first pass metabolism). Finally, gastric morphology also determines first pass metabolism. Chronic atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric injury lead to a decrease of gastric ADH activity, and thus possibly to a decreased first pass metabolism of alcohol. In addition, the local production of acetaldehyde from ethanol in the oesophagus, where significantly more sigma-ADH is present, may contribute to tissue injury and this may lead to the well known ethanol associated oesophageal cancer development. Various isoenzymes of ADH exist in the colorectum and they are also capable of producing acetaldehyde in amounts sufficient to injure the mucosa. Besides ADH, the MEOS, a mixed function oxidase, also metabolises ethanol. This system is

  5. Prognosis and Survival in Patients With Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shebani, Khaled O.; Souba, Wiley W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Stark, Paul C.; Elgadi, Khaled M.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Ott, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of clinical presentation variables on the management and survival of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract carcinoid tumors. Methods A 20-year (1975–1995) retrospective analysis of 150 patients with GI tract carcinoid tumors at the Massachusetts General Hospital was conducted. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 1–378). Survival estimates for prognostic factors were calculated using Kaplan-Meier product limit estimators, with death from carcinoid as the outcome. Univariate analyses for each factor were obtained using a log-rank test, and multivariate survival analysis was performed. Results All but two patients underwent surgical intervention with the intent to cure (90%) or debulk the tumor (9%). Mean age at presentation was 55 ± 18 years (range 11–90). There was a slight female/male predominance (80:70). Symptoms were nonspecific; the most common were abdominal pain (40%), nausea and vomiting (29%), weight loss (19%), and GI blood loss (15%). Incidental carcinoids, discovered at the time of another procedure, occurred in 40% of patients and were noted at multiple sites throughout the GI tract. The distribution of tumors was ileojejunum (37%), appendix (31%), colon (13%), rectum (12%), stomach (4%), duodenum (1.3%), and Meckel’s diverticulum (1.3%). Of the 27 patients with documented liver metastases, carcinoid syndrome developed in only 13 patients (48%), manifested by watery diarrhea (100%), upper body flushing (70%), asthma (38%), and tricuspid regurgitation (23%). All 13 patients with carcinoid syndrome had elevated levels of 5-HIAA, but the absolute levels did not correlate with the severity of symptoms. An additional 11 patients, 3 without liver metastases, had elevated levels of 5-HIAA without any evidence of carcinoid syndrome. Multicentric carcinoid tumors occurred in 15 patients (10%), and all but one of these tumors were centered around the ileocecal valve. There was no difference in the incidence of

  6. Foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract: cocaine packets.

    PubMed

    Kucukmetin, Nurten Turkel; Gucyetmez, Bulent; Poyraz, Tuncer; Yildirim, Sadik; Boztas, Gungor; Tozun, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in 'body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient. PMID:24574951

  7. Stenting of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun Adam, Andreas

    2011-06-15

    Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Patients with acute bowel obstruction are usually poor surgical candidates with 10-20% operative mortality and 40-50% operative morbidity rates. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery. Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract, the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost-benefit analysis.

  8. [Microbiocenosis of parietal mucin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Korneev, L M

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial community in parietal mucin at different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats was revealed. The pronounced variability in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbiocenosis in parietal mucin of rats at different sections was revealed. The differences were most pronounced in the passage from upper to lower GIT sections, the large intestine found to be the richest biocenosis. The microbial composition of rat feces was faintly associated with the GIT parietal microbiocenosis. The individual areas of GIT mucosa were unique of their microbial characteristics and organization. This makes it possible to regard them as relatively independent biotopes and indicates that it is impossible to evaluate the microbial community by one of the colonic mucosal sifes. PMID:16438365

  9. Targeting the gastrointestinal tract to treat type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Paige V; Duca, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The rising global rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity present a significant economic and social burden, underscoring the importance for effective and safe therapeutic options. The success of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, along with the potent glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery, highlight the gastrointestinal tract as a potential target for diabetes treatment. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the gut plays a prominent role in the ability of metformin to lower glucose levels. As such, the current review highlights some of the current and potential pathways in the gut that could be targeted to improve glucose homeostasis, such as changes in nutrient sensing, gut peptides, gut microbiota and bile acids. A better understanding of these pathways will lay the groundwork for novel gut-targeted antidiabetic therapies, some of which have already shown initial promise. PMID:27496374

  10. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  11. Effect of DSS on Bacterial Growth in Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Hlinková, J; Svobodová, H; Brachtlová, T; Gardlík, R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder that is mainly divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effect and used as a treatment option in different gastrointestinal problems. The aim of our study was to find suitable bacterial vectors for gene therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were investigated as potential vectors. Our results show that the growth of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was inhibited in the majority of samples collected from dextran sodium sulphate-treated animals compared with control growth in phosphate-buffered saline. The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in all investigated samples was enhanced or unaffected in comparison with phosphate-buffered saline; however, it did not reach the growth rates of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Dextran sodium sulphate treatment had a stimulating effect on the growth of both strains in homogenates of distant small intestine and proximal colon samples. The gastrointestinal tract contents and tissue homogenates did not inhibit growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in comparison with the negative control, and provided more suitable environment for growth compared to Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. We therefore conclude that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 is a more suitable candidate for a potential bacterial vector, even though it has no known probiotic properties. PMID:27085009

  12. Autonomous locomotion of capsule endoscope in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sungwook; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Tae Song; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous locomotion in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is achieved with a paddling-based capsule endoscope. For this, a miniaturized encoder module was developed utilizing a MEMS fabrication technology to monitor the position of paddles. The integrated encoder module yielded the high resolution of 0.0025 mm in the linear motion of the paddles. In addition, a PID control method was implemented on a DSP to control the stroke of the paddles accurately. As a result, the average accuracy and the standard deviation were measured to be 0.037 mm and 0.025 mm by a laser position sensor for the repetitive measurements. The locomotive performance was evaluated via ex-vivo tests according to various strokes in paddling. In an in-vivo experiment with a living pig, the locomotion speed was improved by 58% compared with the previous control method relying on a given timer value for reciprocation of the paddles. Finally, the integrated encoder module and the control system allow consistent paddling during locomotion even under loads in GI tract. It provides the autonomous locomotion without intervention in monitoring and controlling the capsule endoscope. PMID:22255866

  13. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. PMID:27593246

  14. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS. A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: (“perivascular epithelioid cell tumor” or “PEComa”) and (“gastrointestinal tract” or “GI” or “oral ” or “mouth” or “esophagus” or “gullet” or “gastric” or “stomach” or “duodenum” or “jejunum” or “ileum” or “cecum” or “colon” or “colorectal” or “sigmoid” or “rectum” or “anus” or “mesentery”) up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches. A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant

  15. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  16. Rectovaginal fistula after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration using a stapler--case report.

    PubMed

    Welanyk, Joanna; Wysocki, Tomasz; Nowobilski, Wiesław; Dobosz, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The authors presented a case of rectovaginal fistula in a 40-year old female patient after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration (Hartmann's operation) performed because of iatrogenic rectal damage. The most likely cause of rectovaginal fistula development was the erroneous introduction of the stapler into the vagina and sigmoidovaginostomy during an attempt to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract the patient was subject to anterior rectal resection, sigmoidorectostomy, and closure of the fistula inside the vaginal wall by its duplication. Additionally, a double protective ileostomy was performed, which was subject to closure after three months. PMID:22343206

  17. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  18. Autonomous device for photostimulation of the gastrointestinal tract immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Sergey A.; Dyrin, Vladimir N.; Vovk, Sergey M.; Petrov, Evgeny Y.; Udut, Vladimir V.; Borodulina, Elena V.

    2000-05-01

    A very small optoelectronic device emitting light in the red and green band has been developed as a small capsule consisting of two semispheres connected with light-transmitted coupling. The device -- a phototablet permits to irradiate all parts of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) including the immunocompetent formations of the small intestine -- Peyer's patches responsible for production of secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA). The main mechanisms of realizing endogenic phototherapy using a phototablet begin functioning when irradiating both the walls of the GIT organs and its contents. The results of clinical trials of the phototablet testify to a favorable effect of endogenic therapy on the human organism in asthenic syndrome, some types of deficiency in the immunity function, in dysbioses, the syndrome of large intestine irritation, duodenostasis, etc. After endogenic phototherapy the patients had an increased level of lysozyme, leukocytes, a number of lactobacteria. There were no side effects when using a phototablet. Indications and contraindications for endogenic phototherapy were represented. Thus, the method of endogenic phototherapy allows us to have an effective and direct influence on the immunocompetent cells of GIT organs without medicamental agents and antigens that makes it possible to use the phototablet in medicine on a large scale.

  19. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  20. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  1. T cell-mediated immunoregulation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Saurer, L; Mueller, C

    2009-04-01

    In the intestinal tract, only a single layer of epithelial cells separates innate and adaptive immune effector cells from a vast amount of antigens. Here, the immune system faces a considerable challenge in tolerating commensal flora and dietary antigens while preventing the dissemination of potential pathogens. Failure to tightly control immune reactions may result in detrimental inflammation. In this respect, 'conventional' regulatory CD4(+) T cells, including naturally occurring and adaptive CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, Th3 and Tr1 cells, have recently been the focus of considerable attention. However, regulatory mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa are highly complex, including adaptations of nonhaematopoietic cells and innate immune cells as well as the presence of unconventional T cells with regulatory properties such as resident TCRgammadelta or TCRalphabeta CD8(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes. This review aims to summarize the currently available knowledge on conventional and unconventional regulatory T cell subsets (Tregs), with special emphasis on clinical data and the potential role or malfunctioning of Tregs in four major human gastrointestinal diseases, i.e. inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease, food allergy and colorectal cancer. We conclude that the clinical data confirms some but not all of the findings derived from experimental animal models. PMID:19210347

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus orisasini SH06, Isolated from a Healthy Thoroughbred Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Misako; Nakano, Akiyo; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Tekefumi; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus orisasini SH06 was isolated from a healthy thoroughbred gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of S. orisasini. PMID:26769944

  3. Screening for Precancerous Lesions of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: From the Endoscopists' Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2013-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are one of the most important leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Diagnosis at late stages always brings about poor outcome of these malignancies. The early detection of precancerous or early cancerous lesions of gastrointestinal tract is therefore of utmost importance to improve the overall outcome and maintain a good quality of life of patients. The desire of endoscopists to visualize the invisibles under conventional white-light endoscopy has accelerated the advancements in endoscopy technologies. Nowadays, image-enhanced endoscopy which utilizes optical- or dye-based contrasting techniques has been widely applied in endoscopic screening program of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. These contrasting endoscopic technologies not only improve the visualization of early foci missed by conventional endoscopy, but also gain the insight of histopathology and tumor invasiveness, that is so-called optical biopsy. Here, we will review the application of advanced endoscopy technique in screening program of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. PMID:23573079

  4. Gut clock: implication of circadian rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2011-04-01

    Circadian and seasonal rhythms are a fundamental feature of all living organisms and their organelles. Biological rhythms are responsible for daily food intake; the period of hunger and satiety is controlled by the central pacemaker, which resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and communicates with tissues via bidirectional neuronal and humoral pathways. The molecular basis for circadian timing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involves interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops which culminate in the rhythmic expression and activity of a set of clock genes and related hormones. Interestingly, it has been found that clocks in the GIT are responsible for the periodic activity (PA) of its various segments and transit along the GIT; they are localized in special interstitial cells, with unstable membrane potentials located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. The rhythm of slow waves is controlled in various segments of the GIT: in the stomach (about 3 cycles per min), in the duodenum (12 cycle per min), in the jejunum and ileum (from 7 to 10 cycles per min), and in the colon (12 cycles per min). The migrating motor complex (MMC) starts in the stomach and moves along the gut causing peristaltic contractions when the electrical activity spikes are superimposed on the slow waves. GIT hormones, such as motilin and ghrelin, are involved in the generation of MMCs, while others (gastrin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, serotonin) are involved in the generation of spikes upon the slow waves, resulting in peristaltic or segmental contractions in the small (duodenum, jejunum ileum) and large bowel (colon). Additionally, melatonin, produced by neuro-endocrine cells of the GIT mucosa, plays an important role in the internal biological clock, related to food intake (hunger and satiety) and the myoelectric rhythm (produced primarily by the pineal gland during the dark period of the light-dark cycle). This appears to be an

  5. [Biocenosis sparing treatment in the surgery of gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, S M; Voronina, O V

    2009-01-01

    The authors present results of investigation of the state of microbiocenosis of the intestine and immune status of organism of 139 patients after emergency operations on the gastro-intestinal tract organs. Disbiosis and reduced indices of the immune system in the postoperative period was a cause of using biocenosis sparing treatment resulting in stabilization of microecology of the gastro-intestinal tract, higher colonization resistance and general reactivity of organism. PMID:19432155

  6. Post-corrosive injuries of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chibishev, A; Simonovska, N; Shikole, A

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisonings with corrosive substances may cause serious chemical injuries to upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common location being the esophagus and the stomach. If the patient survives the acute phase of the poisoning, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis and increased risk for esophageal cancer. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. In establishing the diagnosis of acute corrosive poisonings, the severity of the post-corrosive endoscopic changes of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is of major importance. According to Holinder and Fridman classification, post-corrosive endoscopic changes are classified in three degrees: First degree--superficial damage associated with hyperthermia, epithelial desquamation and mucous edema. Second degree--transmucous damage affecting all of the mucosal layers, followed by exudation, erosions and ulcerations. Third degree--transmural damage associated with ulcer's penetration in the deep layers of the tissue and neighboring organs. Severity of the lesions depends on the nature, quantity and concentration of the corrosive substance, the duration of exposure and current state of the exposed organs. Most often caustic injuries occur to the esophagus and stomach since the corrosive substance remains there for a longer period of time. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. The most common complications that may appear are: perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, sepsis, esophageal strictures and stenosis, stenosis of gastric antrum and pylorus, cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. Today, owing to the substantially enhanced

  7. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ZNT1, 4, 5, 6, AND 7 IN THE MOUSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of five zinc transporters (ZnT1, 4, 5, 6, and 7) of the Slc30 family in the mouse gastrointestinal tract was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. The results demonstrated unique expression patterns, levels, and cellular localization among ZnT proteins in the mouse gastrointestinal tra...

  8. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p < 0.0001 that is an average reduction in risk of 35 % in favour of probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling. PMID:24633989

  9. Screening for Bacillus Isolates in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Teresa M.; Serra, Cláudia R.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2005-01-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  10. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of gastrointestinal tract: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Kadar, Zoltan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Tamasi, Adrian; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-28

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that consists of a dual adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation, each component representing at least 30% of the tumor. To date, only seven cases have been reported in the cecum, and less than 40 in the stomach. Our first case was diagnosed in a 74-years-old female as a polypoid lesion of the cecum with direct invasion in the transverse colon, without lymph node metastases. The second case was diagnosed in the stomach of a 46-years-old male as a polypoid tumor of the antral region that invaded the pancreas and presented metastases in 22 regional lymph nodes. The metastatic tissue was represented by the glandular component. In both cases, the tumor consisted of a moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (with mucinous component in Case 1) intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ki67 index was lower than 20% in Case 1, respectively higher than 20% in Case 2. The neuroendocrine component was marked by synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase, being negative for Keratins 7/20. The neuroendocrine component represented 60% in Case 1, and 40% in Case 2, respectively. The glandular components were marked by carcinoembryonic antigen, maspin and keratin 20/7 (Case 1/2). Both cases were proved to be microsatellite stable. Independently by the localization and tumor stage, MANECs appear to be highly malignant tumors, with high risk for distant metastases. The aggressiveness seems to depend on the endocrine component, independent of its proportion. The neuroendocrine component could be a dedifferentiated adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine phenotype. PMID:25632209

  11. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of gastrointestinal tract: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Kadar, Zoltan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar Jr.; Tamasi, Adrian; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that consists of a dual adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation, each component representing at least 30% of the tumor. To date, only seven cases have been reported in the cecum, and less than 40 in the stomach. Our first case was diagnosed in a 74-years-old female as a polypoid lesion of the cecum with direct invasion in the transverse colon, without lymph node metastases. The second case was diagnosed in the stomach of a 46-years-old male as a polypoid tumor of the antral region that invaded the pancreas and presented metastases in 22 regional lymph nodes. The metastatic tissue was represented by the glandular component. In both cases, the tumor consisted of a moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (with mucinous component in Case 1) intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ki67 index was lower than 20% in Case 1, respectively higher than 20% in Case 2. The neuroendocrine component was marked by synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase, being negative for Keratins 7/20. The neuroendocrine component represented 60% in Case 1, and 40% in Case 2, respectively. The glandular components were marked by carcinoembryonic antigen, maspin and keratin 20/7 (Case 1/2). Both cases were proved to be microsatellite stable. Independently by the localization and tumor stage, MANECs appear to be highly malignant tumors, with high risk for distant metastases. The aggressiveness seems to depend on the endocrine component, independent of its proportion. The neuroendocrine component could be a dedifferentiated adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine phenotype. PMID:25632209

  12. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

  13. Proinflammatory effects of local abdominal irradiation on rat gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, M.G.; Harding, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    Although the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of late changes in the gastrointestinal tract following exposure to ionizing irradiation has been extensively studied, few studies have concentrated on the presence of an acute inflammatory response in the period immediately following radiation. We therefore examined, in rats, whether the local application of 10 Gy cobalt-60 irradiation to the abdomen led to changes in the gut within the first 24 hr that were consistent with an acute inflammatory response. In stomach, small intestine, and colon, local irradiation led to a significant increase in the accumulation of plasma within the tissue by 4-8 hr following irradiation. This increase in tissue plasma volume, indicative of an increased microvascular permeability, was then sustained until the end of the 24-hr assessment period in all tissues examined. Concurrent with this was a consistent transient increase in tissue red blood cell volume, suggestive of vasodilation. Of particular note, a significant increase in the number of mucosal neutrophils was also observed between 2 and 12 hr following irradiation. This elevation in mucosal neutrophils was particularly marked in the pericryptal or deep mucosal regions of small intestine and colon and consistently preceded the vasodilation and enhanced permeability. Furthermore these pathophysiological alterations occurred at a time when histological changes in the mucosa consistent with an impaired mucosal microcirculation (ie, edema of the lamina propria and subepithelial bleb formation) were present. These results support the hypothesis that an inflammatory response occurs in the gut during the first 24 hr following abdominal irradiation. Such changes may then further exacerbate the damage initiated by the ionizing radiation.

  14. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  15. Structural, biological, and evolutionary relationships of plant food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Shewry, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The recently completed genome sequence of the model plant species Arabidopsis has been estimated to encode over 25,000 proteins, which, on the basis of their function, can be classified into structural and metabolic (the vast majority of plant proteins), protective proteins, which defend a plant against invasion by pathogens or feeding by pests, and storage proteins, which proved a nutrient store to support germination in seeds. It is now clear that almost all plant food allergens are either protective or storage proteins. It is also becoming evident that those proteins that trigger the development of an allergic response through the gastrointestinal tract belong primarily to two large protein superfamilies: (1) The cereal prolamin superfamily, comprising three major groups of plant food allergens, the 2S albumins, lipid transfer proteins, and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have related structures, and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. They include major allergens from Brazil nut, peanuts, fruits, such as peaches, and cereals, such as rice and wheat; (2) The cupin superfamily, comprising the major globulin storage proteins from a number of plant species. The globulins have been found to be allergens in plant foods, such as peanuts, soya bean, and walnut; (3) The cyteine protease C1 family, comprising the papain-like proteases from microbes, plants, and animals. This family contains two notable allergens that sensitize via the GI tract, namely actinidin from kiwi fruit and the soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30k/P34. This study describes the properties, structures, and evolutionary relationships of these protein families, the allergens that belong to them, and discusses them in relation to the role protein structure may play in determining protein allergenicity. PMID:15540651

  16. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  17. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  18. Intravenous Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum Leads to a Long-Lasting Infection Restricted to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Luying; Shao, Lili; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Yuyang; Failor, Courtney; Schenken, Robert; Baseman, Joel; He, Cheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, it remains unclear whether the chlamydial organisms can be introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via pathways independent of the oral and anal routes. We have recently shown that Chlamydia muridarum spreads from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract potentially via the circulatory system. To test whether hematogenous C. muridarum can spread to and establish a long-lasting colonization in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we inoculated mice intravenously with a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum strain and monitored its distribution. After tail vein inoculation, most luciferase-generated bioluminescence signals were detected in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiment. The ex vivo imaging revealed that the abdominal signals came from the gastrointestinal tract tissues. Simultaneous monitoring of chlamydial organisms in individual organs or tissues revealed an initial stage of systemic spreading followed by a long-lasting infection in the gastrointestinal tract. A retro-orbital vein inoculation of the C. muridarum organisms at a lower dose in a different mouse strain also led to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated that intravenous C. muridarum inoculation can result in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the chlamydial organisms may use the sexual behavior-independent circulation pathway to infect the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27271744

  19. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell tumors with interstitial cells of Cajal: Prevalence excluding gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Jung; Hwang, Chung Su; Kim, Ahrong; Kim, Kyungbin; Choi, Kyung Un

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas and schwannomas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are mainly comprised of spindle-shaped tumor cells and should always be differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) are well-known diagnostic markers for the detection of a GIST by immunohistochemical staining. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and significance of spindle cell tumors of the GIT with KIT- or DOG1-positive spindle-shaped cells, presumed to be interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), other than GISTs. A total of 71 leiomyomas and 35 schwannomas were examined and clinicopathological information was obtained. KIT and DOG1 immunostaining was performed to determine the proportions of positive cells. Mutation screening of KIT exons 9, 11, 13 and 17, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) exons 12 and 18 was performed in cases with a relatively high proportion of either KIT- or DOG1-positive cells. The frequency of leiomyomas and schwannomas with KIT- and DOG1-positive ICCs was 35.2% (25/71 cases) and 5.7% (2/35 cases), respectively. Among the esophageal leiomyomas with KIT- and DOG-positive ICCs (14/25; 56.0%), 5 leiomyomas involved the muscularis mucosa and 9 leiomyomas involved the muscularis propria. All gastric leiomyomas with KIT- and DOG1-positive ICCs (11/25; 44%) involved the muscularis propria. All schwannomas with an increased proportion of KIT- or DOG1-positive ICCs were of gastric origin. No KIT or PDGFRA mutations were detected in 7 leiomyomas and 2 schwannomas. In conclusion, the majority of leiomyomas and the minority of schwannomas in the GIT had a significant portion of KIT- and DOG1-positive cells. All of the tumors were located in the upper GIT, and could be present in the muscularis propria or muscularis mucosa. The tumors represented a non-neoplastic proliferation of KIT- and DOG1-positive cells in the GIT. Careful evaluation of KIT- or DOG1

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of relative gastrointestinal layer thickness in cats without clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Londono, Leonel; Berry, Clifford R; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to measure normal thickness values of the muscularis, submucosal, mucosal and serosal layers in each gastrointestinal (GI) segment (gastric fundus, body and pyloric antrum; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; colon), and (2) to calculate a ratio of muscularis and mucosal layer thickness to aortic diameter measured at the level of the celiac artery (Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao) in each GI segment in a sample of healthy cats. Ultrasonographic examination of the GI tract was performed, and measurements of the individual layers in each GI segment were obtained in 38 healthy cats without clinical evidence of disease. The muscularis layer was significantly thickest in the ileum, compared with other segments, and it was thicker than the submucosa in all segments except the colon. The mucosa was the thickest layer in all segments, and was thickest in the duodenum and ileum. Measurements of the submucosal and serosal layers were not significantly different between all segments. Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao in each segment were 0.12 and 0.25 (gastric fundus), 0.12 and 0.18 (gastric body), 0.11 and 0.16 (pyloric antrum), 0.08 and 0.27 (duodenum), 0.08 and 0.22 (jejunum), 0.14 and 0.25 (ileum), and 0.05 and 0.08 (colon), respectively. Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao are clinically relevant values that can be used to objectively identify thickening of the muscularis and mucosal layers in response to GI diseases. PMID:23906704

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the digestive tract identified on an upper gastrointestinal examination.

    PubMed

    Zei, Markus; Meyers, Arthur B; Boyd, Kevin P; Larson-Nath, Catherine; Suchi, Mariko

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare and typically identified in patients with systemic disease. We describe a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with bilious vomiting, failure to thrive and a rash. An upper gastrointestinal (GI) examination revealed loss of normal mucosal fold pattern and luminal narrowing within the duodenum, prompting endoscopic biopsy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the digestive tract was confirmed by histopathology. A skeletal survey and skin biopsy identified other systemic lesions. Although uncommon, it is important to consider LCH in the differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin, especially when seen with concurrent rash. Findings of gastrointestinal involvement on upper GI examination include loss of normal mucosal fold pattern and luminal narrowing in the few published case reports. PMID:26886914

  2. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  3. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  4. Heat Shock Protein Alteration in the Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues of Chickens Exposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhang, Kexin; Guo, Guangyang; Sun, Xiao; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in our living environment and is useful for industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and other fields. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an existing form of As. Exposure to As2O3 has a toxic effect on humans and animals. It not only leads to skin cancer, peripheral vascular disease, hyperkeratosis, etc. but also interferes with the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is an important organ for animals to transform the food they eat into the nutrients their body needs for maintenance and growth. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) exist in the non-stress normal cells and their expression increases under stimuli. Therefore, we wonder whether the "stimulus" of As2O3 could change the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance and expression level of Hsps in the gastrointestinal tract of birds. To investigate the relation between arseniasis and Hsp alterations in the chicken's gastrointestinal tract induced by an As2O3-supplemented diet, we selected 72 one-day-old male Hy-line chickens and randomly divided them into four groups. They were fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. The mRNA contents of Hsps (including Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The correlation between As2O3 and Hsp genes was assessed. In addition, the protein expression levels of Hsp60 and Hsp70 in the gastrointestinal tract tissue samples were measured by western blot. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels and the Hsp expression levels in the gastrointestinal tract tissues of chickens with As2O3 supplementation increased at different time points in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). These data suggested that arseniasis influenced the

  5. [Drug-induced anomalous contraction of gastrointestinal tract of mice with impaired c-kit function].

    PubMed

    Tokutomi, Naofumi; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Nishi, Katsuhide

    2004-03-01

    Drug-induced contraction of gastrointestinal tracts seems to depend upon the extent of their rhythmic contraction that is driven by the activity of gastrointestinal pacemaker cells. In BALB/c mice chronically administrated with a neutralizing anti-c-Kit monoclonal antibody (ACK2), rhythmic contraction of the gastrointestinal tract was impaired and contractile responses to drugs, including acetylcholine, prostaglandin F(2alpha), and bradykinin, were anomalously augmented. Histochemical analysis of the c-kit-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract revealed the decreased number of c-kit-positive cells in the ACK2-treated animals, which lead to the impaired rhythmic contraction. Since the intestinal c-kit-positive cells in primary culture developed Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic Cl(-) current, the rhythmic current is supposed to be an origin of gastrointestinal pacemakers. The extent of anomaly in drug-induced contraction correlated with the extent of impairment in rhythmic contraction. The drug-induced anomalous contraction in the preparation from ACK2-treated animals, which is accompanied by the impaired rhythmic contraction, was mimicked when the gastrointestinal segments from control animals were superfused with a low temperature organ bath solution at 25 degrees C. These results suggest that rhythmic discharge of excitation of smooth muscle cells, which is triggered by rhythmic excitatory input from c-kit cells, regulates the extent of drug-induced contraction. PMID:14993728

  6. Planar scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael L; Strober, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, nuclear medicine has paralleled other imaging fields with the development of 3-dimensional techniques, including single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. However, conventional nuclear medicine planar scintigraphy remains a common procedure at most imaging centers. Gastrointestinal studies constitute a significant portion of these planar procedures. The most common gastrointestinal studies, including hepatobiliary, gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal bleeding evaluations, resemble their original protocol. However, serial improvements have optimized the diagnostic efficacy of these procedures. Conventional Technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen imaging and hepatic blood pool imaging with labeled red blood cells now mainly serve an adjunctive role in the evaluation of equivocal findings on computed tomography. Salivary gland imaging is a less commonly requested evaluation, but can be used to evaluate functional capacity in some disease entities. PMID:22117811

  7. Over-the-scope clips in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract iatrogenic perforation: A multicenter retrospective study and a classification of gastrointestinal tract perforations

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Caruso, Angelo; Manta, Raffaele; Di Mitri, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Pagano, Nico; Galloro, Giuseppe; Mocciaro, Filippo; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Luigiano, Carmelo; Antonucci, Enrico; Conigliaro, Rita; Masci, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforations treated by over-the-scope clip (OTSC) placement. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 20 patients (13 female and 7 male; mean age: 70.6 ± 9.8 years) in eight high-volume tertiary referral centers with upper or lower iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforation treated by OTSC placement. Gastrointestinal tract perforation could be with oval-shape or with round-shape. Oval-shape perforations were closed by OTSC only by suction and the round-shape by the “twin-grasper” plus suction. RESULTS: Main perforation diameter was 10.1 ± 4.3 mm (range 3-18 mm). The technical success rate was 100% (20/20 patients) and the clinical success rate was 90% (18/20 patients). Two patients (10%) who did not have complete sealing of the defect underwent surgery. Based upon our observations we propose two types of perforation: Round-shape “type-1 perforation” and oval-shape “type-2 perforation”. Eight (40%) out of the 20 patients had a type-1 perforation and 12 patients a type-2 (60%). CONCLUSION: OTSC placement should be attempted after perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopy. A failed closure attempt does not impair subsequent surgical treatment. PMID:27152138

  8. ERBBs in the gastrointestinal tract: Recent progress and new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, William H.; Threadgill, David; Coffey, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium does much more than provide a physical barrier between the intestinal lumen and our internal milieu. It is actively engaged in absorption and secretion of salt and water via ion transporters, exchangers and selective ion channels. It is also a continuously self-renewing epithelium that undergoes ordered growth and differentiation along its vertical axis. From this dual perspective, we will consider the actions of the ERBB family of ligands and receptors in the maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis and discuss instances when the actions of this family go awry such as in cancer and Ménétrier's disease. PMID:19041864

  9. Some aspects of the effects of PL-10.1.AK-15 on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Erceg, D; Simicevic, V N; Kolega, M; Dohoczky, C

    1997-01-01

    PL-10.1.AK-15 is an active fragment of a naturally occurring protein first isolated from human gastric juice. Among its other protective effects, PL-10.1.AK-15 has demonstrated a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PL-10.1.AK-15 on two functional parameters of gastrointestinal function: gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Gastric acid secretion was assessed in male Wistar rats using a modified method of Shay, while gastrointestinal motility was assessed in male NMRI mice by charcoal propulsion. PL-10.1.AK-15 was given in three different doses (3, 10 and 100 micrograms/kg body weight) in accordance with the experimental protocol. The results of these experiments indicate that PL-10.1.AK-15 in the investigated doses had no influence on gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility. PMID:9403791

  10. Trophic Factors and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the role of trophic factors in fetal and neonatal gastrointestinal and liver growth it is important to first consider the nature of growth. The fetal and neonatal period is the most dynamic period of post conceptual growth and includes critical developmental milestones, such ...

  11. Trophic factors and regulation of gastrointestinal tract and liver development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role of trophic factors in fetal and neonatal gastrointestinal (GI) and liver growth it is important to first consider the nature of growth. The fetal and neonatal period is the most dynamic period of postconceptual growth and includes critical developmental milestones, such as gas...

  12. Sonography of Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases: Correlation With Computed Tomographic Findings and Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Han Na

    2016-07-01

    Sonographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be difficult because of overlying intraluminal bowel gas and gas-related artifacts. However, in the absence of these factors and with the development of high-resolution scanners and the technical experience of radiologists, sonography can become a powerful tool for GI tract assessment. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of GI tract lesions compared with endoscopic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and postoperative complications are illustrated, and the distinctive sonographic characteristics of these entities are highlighted. PMID:27268998

  13. Characterizing the microbiome across the gastrointestinal tract from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bovine rumen and lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) contain diverse microbial ecosystems that are essential for the host to digest plant material and regulate nutrient uptake and utilization. In cattle, optimization of feed efficiency has primarily focused host genetics, management, and diet. ...

  14. Nitrogen transactions along the gastrointestinal tract in cattle: a meta-analytical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous nitrogen (EN) secretions occur along the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract of animals constituting a loss of amino acids for the animal, but a supply of nitrogen (N) for the microbial population of the foregut and hindgut of ruminants. The quantification of these transactions is not only ...

  15. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract; (2) the second one considering the literature regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate at gastric level; (3) the third part considers the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate in the gut. In vivo studies performed on the whole fruit or juice, peel, and flowers demonstrate antiulcer effect in a variety of animal models. Ellagic acid was the main responsible for this effect, although other individual ellagitannins could contribute to the biological activity of the mixture. Different preparations of pomegranate, including extracts from peels, flowers, seeds, and juice, show a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the gut. No clinical studies have been found, thus suggesting that future clinical studies are necessary to clarify the beneficial effects of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23573120

  16. Glucagon-like peptide 2 may mediate growth and development of the bovine gastrointestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), secreted by enteroendocrine cells, promotes growth, reduces apoptosis, and enhances blood flow, nutrient absorption, and barrier function in intestinal epithelium of monogastric species. Regulatory functions of GLP-2 in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are u...

  17. Characterization of a gastrointestinal tract microscale cell culture analog used to predict drug toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest surface exposed to the external environment in the human body. One of the main functions of the small intestine is absorption, and intestinal absorption is a route used by essential nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals to enter the sy...

  18. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26403526

  19. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  20. Navigating the human gastrointestinal tract for oral drug delivery: Uncharted waters and new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Koziolek, Mirko; Grimm, Michael; Schneider, Felix; Jedamzik, Philipp; Sager, Maximilian; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Many concepts of oral drug delivery are based on our comprehension of human gastrointestinal physiology. Unfortunately, we tend to oversimplify the complex interplay between the various physiological factors in the human gut and, in particular, the dynamics of these transit conditions to which oral dosage forms are exposed. Recent advances in spatial and temporal resolution of medical instrumentation as well as improved access to these technologies have facilitated clinical trials to characterize the dynamic processes within the human gastrointestinal tract. These studies have shown that highly relevant parameters such as fluid volumes, dosage form movement, and pH values in the lumen of the upper GI tract are very dynamic. As a result of these new insights into the human gastrointestinal environment, some common concepts and ideas of oral drug delivery are no longer valid and have to be reviewed in order to ensure efficacy and safety of oral drug therapy. PMID:27037063

  1. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably. PMID:25794697

  2. The role of the gastrointestinal tract in calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Schinke, T

    2013-11-01

    While skeletal biology was approached in a rather isolated fashion in the past, an increasing understanding of the interplay between extraskeletal organs and bone remodeling has been obtained in recent years. This review will discuss recent advances in the field that have shed light on how the gastrointestinal tract and bone relate to each other. In particular, the importance of the GI tract in maintaining calcium homeostasis and skeletal integrity will be reviewed as impaired gastric acid production represents a major public health problem with possible implications for sufficient calcium absorption. Osteoporosis, the most prevalent bone disease worldwide, is caused not only by intrinsic defects affecting bone cell differentiation and function but also by a large set of extrinsic factors including hormonal disturbances, malnutrition, and iatrogenic drug application. Given the skeletal requirements of calcium, amino acids, and energy for bone turnover and renewal, it is not surprising that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of major importance for skeletal integrity. PMID:23536255

  3. Immunohistochemical study on distribution of endocrine cells in gastrointestinal tract of flower fish (Pseudophoxinus antalyae)

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Kenan; Şenol, Nurgül; Özen, M Rüştü

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in gastrointestinal tract of flower fish (Pseudophoxinus antalyae). METHODS: The intestinal tract of flower fish was divided into four portions from proximal to distal; the enlarged area after oesophagus and anterior, middle and posterior intestine. Immunohistochemical method using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase complex was employed. All antisera between four portions of flower fish were compared using ANOVA. RESULTS: Eleven types of gut endocrine cells were determined; they were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene related peptide, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, bombesin, somatostatin-14, secretin, TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y, which were found in almost all portions of the gastrointestinal tract. CONCLUSION: The regional distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells in the flower fish, Pseudophoxinus antalyae, are essentially similar to those of other fish. PMID:17106940

  4. Gastro-intestinal tract: The leading role of mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Anna; Radulovic, Katarina; Niess, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of mucosal immunity is essential for the comprehension of intestinal diseases that are often caused by a complex interplay between host factors, environmental influences and the intestinal microbiota. Not only improvements in endoscopic techniques, but also advances in high throughput sequencing technologies, have expanded knowledge of how intestinal diseases develop. This review discusses how the host interacts with intestinal microbiota by the direct contact of host receptors with highly conserved structural motifs or molecules of microbes and also by microbe-derived metabolites (produced by the microbe during adaptation to the gut environment), such as short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, bile acids and amino acids. These metabolites are recognised by metabolite-sensing receptors expressed by immune cells to influence functions of macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells, such as migration, conversion and maintenance of regulatory T cells and regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, which is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and the development of intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. First interventions in these complex interactions between microbe-derived metabolites and the host immune system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, such as modification of the diet, treatment with antibiotics, application of probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, have been introduced into the clinic. Specific targeting of metabolite sensing receptors for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases is in development. In future, precision medicine approaches that consider individual variability in genes, the microbiota, the environment and lifestyle will become increasingly important for the care of patients with gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27045424

  5. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract bleeding in methanol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Talaie, Haleh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mesri, Mehdi; Emanhadi, Mohammadali

    2008-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless liquid with a smell and taste similar to ethanol. Intoxications with methanol are still frequent in large parts of the developing world. Haemodialysis should be done in cases of severe toxicity to eliminate toxic metabolites. In this case report, we describe a 37-year-old chronic alcohol abuser with methanol poisoning, who developed haematuria and upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after haemodialysis. The upper GI endoscopic findings showed only low grade oesophageal ulceration. Haematuria and upper GI bleeding in our patient might also have cause by the effect of heparinisation during haemodialysis. PMID:21716826

  6. Neuroanatomy of extrinsic afferents supplying the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, H R; Blackshaw, L A; Brookes, S J H; Grundy, D

    2004-04-01

    Here we discuss the neuroanatomy of extrinsic gastrointestinal (GI) afferent neurones, the relationship between structure and function and the role of afferents in disease. Three pathways connect the gut to the central nervous system: vagal afferents signal mainly from upper GI regions, pelvic afferents mainly from the colorectal region and splanchnic afferents from throughout. Vagal afferents mediate reflex regulation of gut function and behaviour, operating mainly at physiological levels. There are two major functional classes - tension receptors, responding to muscular contraction and distension, and mucosal receptors. The function of vagal endings correlates well with their anatomy: tracing studies show intramuscular arrays (IMAs) and intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs); IGLEs are now known to respond to tension. Functional mucosal receptors correlate with endings traced to the lamina propria. Pelvic afferents serve similar functions to vagal afferents, and additionally mediate both innocuous and noxious sensations. Splanchnic afferents comprise mucosal and stretch-sensitive afferents with low thresholds in addition to high-threshold serosal/mesenteric afferents suggesting diverse roles. IGLEs, probably of pelvic origin, have been identified recently in the rectum and respond similarly to gastric vagal IGLEs. Gastrointestinal afferents may be sensitized or inhibited by chemical mediators released from several cell types. Whether functional changes have anatomical correlates is not known, but it is likely that they underlie diseases involving visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:15066001

  7. An Elusive Bullet in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Rare Case of Bullet Embolism in the Gastrointestinal Tract and a Review of Relevant Literature

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism within the gastrointestinal system is extremely rare. Such bullet injuries are infrequently covered in the general literature, but the surgeon should be aware of the phenomenon. Smaller caliber bullets are more common in civilian gunshot wound (GSW) events. These bullets are able to tumble through the gastrointestinal tract and cause perforation of the intestinal lumen which is small enough to be easily missed. Bullets retained in the abdominal cavity should not be dismissed as fixed and should be carefully monitored to ensure that they do not embolize within the bowel and cause occult lesions during their migration. We present a unique case wherein a bullet caused a minute perforation in the small bowel, before migrating to the distal colon, which resulted in late presentation of sepsis secondary to peritonitis. PMID:24829839

  8. Tissue engineering for neuromuscular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Kenneth L; Bitar, Khalil N; Fortunato, John E

    2012-01-01

    The digestive tract is designed for the optimal processing of food that nourishes all organ systems. The esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon are sophisticated neuromuscular tubes with specialized sphincters that transport ingested food-stuffs from one region to another. Peristaltic contractions move ingested solids and liquids from the esophagus into the stomach; the stomach mixes the ingested nutrients into chyme and empties chyme from the stomach into the duodenum. The to-and-fro movement of the small bowel maximizes absorption of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Peristaltic contractions are necessary for colon function and defecation. PMID:23322989

  9. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Inflammation and Increased Expression of Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xing, Houjuan; Yu, Jiao; Zhang, Naisheng; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, plays an important role in various aspects of health for a wide range of species, including birds. Se deficiency inhibits the growth of immune organs and decreases immune function, leading to many inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the effects and mechanism of dietary Se deficiency on gastrointestinal tract tissue inflammation. The histopathological changes showed that Se deficiency induced inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum). The expression levels of PTGE (prostagland E synthase), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and NF-κB (nuclear transfer factor κB) in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum) were determined by qPCR on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency induced high expression levels of PTGE, COX-2, TNF-α, and NF-κB in the gastrointestinal tract tissues. The effects were more obvious in the duodenum and small intestine than those in the glandular stomach, gizzard, and rectum. In addition, the expression levels of these proteins in the gastrointestinal tract tissue increased in a time-dependent manner with Se deficiency feeding time. Furthermore, Se deficiency induced the production of pro-inflammatory factors, thus aggravating inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of Se deficiency on inflammation and other gastrointestinal tract diseases should be further studied. PMID:26899319

  10. Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract of athymic (nu/nu) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Owens, W E; Berg, R D

    1980-01-01

    The immune system may be one host defense mechanism preventing viable indigenous bacteria from translocating from the mouse gastrointestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or kidney. The role of T-cell-dependent immunity in preventing bacteria from translocating from the gastrointestinal tract was tested with congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, heterozygous (nu/+) mice, and thymus-grafted nude (nu/nu) mice. Viable bacteria were cultured from 50% of the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, livers, and kidneys of athymic (nu/nu) mice, whereas heterozygous (nu/+) mice exhibited viable bacteria in only 5.2% of these organs. Both aerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured from these organs with Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus predominanting. Grafting thymuses to the athymic (nu/nu) mice restored their immunological responses to sheep erythrocyte antigens. The incidence of bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract was reduced from 50% in the athymic (nu/nu) mice to 7.8% in the thymus-grafted (nu/nu) mice. Thus, T-cell-dependent immunity restored by thymic grafts inhibited the translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the spleen, liver, and kidney in nu/nu mice. PMID:6966611

  11. New therapeutic approach to corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, J; Noirclerc, M; Jouglard, J; Escoffier, J M; Cano, N; Martin, J; Gauthier, A

    1980-01-01

    The therapeutic approach to the management of corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract leaves a considerable morbidity and a heavy mortality rate. This work evaluates the effectiveness of a new therapeutic approach given to 94 consecutive patients. The management has been based on three major points: (1) the definition of extent of upper gastrointestinal lesions by immediate fibroendoscopy; (2) immediate protection of the upper gastrointestinal tract by total parenteral nutrition in cases with serious burns (41 cases), normal oral nutrition being allowed for minor burns (35 cases); (3) reparative surgical procedures for any of the sequelae of such burns during the fibrosing phase. The results were as follows: (a) healing, depending upon the degree of burn, occurred between eight to 90 days; (b) the frequency of subsequent local complications was small with total parenteral nutrition started a few hours after ingestion of the corrosive product; (c) after reconstructive surgery no serious complications occurred; (d) the overall morbidity stayed at a very low level (four patients). We conclude that the general prognosis of a severe burn of the upper gastrointestinal tract, without other trauma, is appreciably improved by the very early institution of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:6776011

  12. Use of Diagnostic Imaging in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Tract Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. Material/Methods The analysis included own material from the years 2002–2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. Results The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel’s diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Conclusions Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy. PMID:25114725

  13. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from different tissues of

  14. The Importance of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shboul, Othman A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI tract, and studies based on different types of techniques have shown that ICC, as an integral part of the GI neuromuscular apparatus, transduce inputs from enteric motor neurons, generate intrinsic electrical rhythmicity in phasic smooth muscles, and have a mechanical sensation ability. Absence or improper function of these cells has been linked to some GI tract disorders. This paper provides a general overview of ICC; their discovery, subtypes, function, locations in the GI tract, and some disorders associated with their loss or disease, and highlights some controversial issues with regard to the importance of ICC in the GI tract. PMID:23319032

  15. Structural transformation of lignan compounds in rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nose, M; Fujimoto, T; Takeda, T; Nishibe, S; Ogihara, Y

    1992-12-01

    Structural transformation of arctiin and tracheloside, major components of seeds of Arctium lappa and Carthamus tinctorius, were investigated using rat gastric juice (pH 1.2-1.5) and rat large intestinal flora in vitro. Quantitative analysis of lignans and their metabolites was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Both lignans were stable in rat gastric juice and arctiin was rapidly transformed to arctigenin in rat large intestinal flora, followed by conversion to the major metabolite, 2-(3",4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-butyrolactone. On the other hand, tracheloside also decreased dependently with time and was converted to trachelogenin and its major metabolite, 2-(3",4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-hydroxybutyrola ctone. These experiments suggest that in the course of metabolism of lignans, firstly a cleavage of the glycosidic bond occurred and then demethylation of the phenolic methoxy group in the alimentary tract followed. PMID:1336605

  16. Passage of particles through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Volkheimer, Gerhard

    1974-01-01

    In the normal process of digestion, not only substances in solution are absorbed. Solid, undissolved particles in macrocorpuscular form, are “kneaded” into the mucosa during their passage through the digestive tract. These particles in the micrometer size range pass between the epithelial cells into the subepithelial layer. From here they are transmitted both by the lymph vessels and by the mesenteric veins into the circulation, where they remain for a considerable time. This phenomenon, termed persorption, was investigated in detail. Imagesfig. 6 6Afig. 6 6Bfig. 6 6CFIGURE 8. 8AFIGURE 8. 8BFIGURE 8. 8CFIGURE 8. 8DFIGURE 8. 8EFIGURE 4. 4AFIGURE 4. 4BFIGURE 4. 4CFIGURE 4. 4DFIGURE 4. 4EFIGURE 4. 4FFIGURE 4. 4GFIGURE 4. 4H PMID:4470938

  17. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Marando, Alessandro; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The systematic application of immunohistochemical techniques to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that neuroendocrine cells occur rather frequently in exocrine neoplasms of the gut. It is now well known that there is a wide spectrum of combinations of exocrine and neuroendocrine components, ranging from adenomas or carcinomas with interspersed neuroendocrine cells at one extreme to classical neuroendocrine tumors with a focal exocrine component at the other. In addition, both exocrine and neuroendocrine components can have different morphological features ranging, for the former, from adenomas to adenocarcinomas with different degrees of differentiation and, for the latter, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. However, although this range of combinations of neuroendocrine and exocrine components is frequently observed in routine practice, mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, now renamed as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs), are rare; these are, by definition, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30% of the lesion. Gastrointestinal MANECs can be stratified in different prognostic categories according to the grade of malignancy of each component. The present paper is an overview of the main clinicopathological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of this specific rare tumor type. PMID:24213223

  18. Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

  19. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  20. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  1. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition. PMID:26852608

  2. Histochemical localization of copper in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi

    1965-01-01

    Three histochemical reactions for the localization of copper were applied to liver and different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of normal as well as of rats poisoned with a solution of copper. Variable quantities of copper were demonstrated in the livers of all the poisoned rats and in 21 out of 24 sections of jejunum. Rubeanic acid counterstained with 0·5% Cresyl violet gave the best results. Copper was not demonstrable in the livers or the gastrointestinal tract of normal rats. As the metal was concentrated in the upper jejunum, it is likely that this is the site of absorption. Detection of this metal may assist in the diagnosis of hepatolenticular degeneration. Images PMID:5844213

  3. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract: an evolving entity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jayson; Thway, Khin

    2015-03-01

    Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the wall of the small bowel, stomach, or large bowel, predominantly in young adults. It is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently presents with metastatic disease and has a high mortality rate. Histologically, it is usually composed of medium-sized primitive ovoid or epithelioid cells with pale or clear cytoplasm that are arranged in sheets or in papillary or alveolar architectures. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract is positive for S100 protein, invariably negative for melanocyte-specific markers and is often also positive for neuroendocrine markers. The etiology of CCSLGT is unknown, but many studies have shown associations with EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusions and, less frequently, with EWSR1-ATF1 fusions. Here, we discuss the current status of CCSLGT, including histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular findings. PMID:25724038

  4. Distribution and density of substance P receptors in the feline gastrointestinal tract using autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, R.D.; Johnson, E.; Ouyang, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Autoradiography was used to localize and quantify substance P receptors in the feline gastrointestinal tract. The specific binding of {sup 125}I-Bolton Hunter substance P was determined in the esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, antrum, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal sphincter, and colon. Competitive binding studies indicated that substance P binding sites or NK-1 receptor sites were demonstrated. The concentration of NK-1 receptors was greatest in the distal half of the gastrointestinal tract, with the highest concentrations in the proximal colon. The circular muscle layer contained the greatest amount of substance P binding. The location and density of binding sites for substance P may be important in understanding the relative importance of both the pharmacological responses to this neuropeptide and the immunohistochemical evidence of the peptide at different sites in the intestine.

  5. Dpp signaling determines regional stem cell identity in the regenerating adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements, but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role for the BMP-like Dpp signaling pathway in diversifying regenerative processes in the adult gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila. Dpp secreted from enterocytes at the boundary between the posterior midgut (PM) and the middle midgut (MM) sets up a morphogen gradient that selectively directs copper cell (CC) regeneration from gastric SCs in the MM and thus determines the size of the CC region. In vertebrates, deregulation of BMP signaling has been associated with Barrett’s metaplasia, where the squamous esophageal epithelium is replaced by a columnar epithelium, suggesting that the maintenance of regional SC identities by BMP is conserved. PMID:23810561

  6. Antimicrobial peptide expression is developmentally regulated in the ovine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huttner, K M; Brezinski-Caliguri, D J; Mahoney, M M; Diamond, G

    1998-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are abundant components of the innate immune system present in species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In mammals, these immune peptides have been localized to epithelial tissues of the pig, mouse, rat, cow and human gastrointestinal tracts. We have identified in sheep two members of the beta-defensin antimicrobial peptide gene family that are expressed in a unique pattern throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Sheep beta-defensin 1 mRNA is the most prevalent from tongue to colon with the exception of the distal ileum, where beta-defensin 2 mRNA predominates. Sheep beta-defensin expression varies significantly between animals and is developmentally regulated both pre- and postnatally. These changes in antimicrobial peptide expression may correlate with anatomical differentiation as well as physiologic adaptations to extra-uterine life. PMID:9478010

  7. [Neoadjuvant therapy for tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract : Complication management].

    PubMed

    Gockel, I; Hoffmeister, A; Lordick, F

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies could demonstrate that neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for esophageal and gastric cancer do not significantly increase the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality as compared to surgery alone. With respect to patient safety and effectiveness of neoadjuvant concepts, quality assured performance of each treatment modality and close interdisciplinary cooperation play an important role. The majority of potential side effects and complications, which might occur during neoadjuvant therapy can be adequately controlled by correct prophylaxis and professional medical complication management. Complications before, during and after neoadjuvant therapy of upper gastrointestinal tract tumors can also be caused by the tumor itself or by medicinal therapy. These comprise bleeding, fistulas, perforations and stenoses. Modern endoscopic techniques are the therapy of choice in these situations. Preoperative conditioning during the period of neoadjuvant therapy opens the possibility of reduced postoperative complications to patients with tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26374651

  8. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: pathological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Feakins, Roger M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an increasingly common problem worldwide and a risk factor for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, both non-neoplastic (e.g. gastro-oesophageal reflux and Barrett's oesophagus) and neoplastic (e.g. oesophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and gallbladder cancer). Furthermore, obesity is associated with worse GI cancer outcomes. Body mass index is a commonly used measure of fat accumulation, although specific patterns such as abdominal/central obesity and visceral fat quantity sometimes predict disease risk more accurately. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a related condition characterized by central adiposity and insulin resistance. The reasons for the associations with neoplasia are diverse. Established cancer-related conditions that have a higher prevalence in overweight subjects include Barrett's oesophagus and gallstones. Preneoplastic lesions such as colorectal adenoma, colorectal serrated lesions and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia are also associated with obesity/MS. At the cellular level, adipocytes can release carcinogens such as adipokines, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Inflammatory cells constitute a further potential source of carcinogens; in obese subjects, their numbers are increased systemically and in adipose tissue. Animal studies have contributed additional information. For example, mice with a genetic predisposition to develop colorectal carcinoma given a high-fat diet have larger and more numerous intestinal adenomas than controls, and there may be demonstrably higher levels of mucosal oncogenic factors. The associations between obesity and GI disease are of variable strength, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but it is clear that obesity and MS have a significant, potentially avoidable and often under-recognized impact on the population burden of GI disease. PMID:26599607

  9. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of the tissue and organ injury-related gene iNOS was upregulated (p < 0.05). These data suggest that As induces the inflammatory response and may trigger digestive function regression of the gastrointestinal tract by affecting inflammation-related genes and iNOS in cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis. PMID:25784090

  10. Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20392477

  11. Expectoration in the gastrointestinal tract. A diagnostic problem in In-111 granulocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Schifter, S.; Madsen, J.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Scintigraphic detection of infectious foci with In-111 labeled granulocytes or leukocytes is a well-established technique in nuclear medicine. The technique is commonly used to demonstrate inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Its application, however, may be influenced by infectious expectoration located within the gastrointestinal tract. In performing this technique, it is important to have this differential diagnostic possibility in mind; it can be clarified by repeated imaging.

  12. Substance P and bradykinin stimulate plasma extravasation in the mouse gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Figini, M; Emanueli, C; Grady, E F; Kirkwood, K; Payan, D G; Ansel, J; Gerard, C; Geppetti, P; Bunnett, N

    1997-04-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by release of tachykinins from sensory nerves, which stimulate plasma extravasation from postcapillary venules. Because there are conflicting results regarding the importance of neurogenic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, we quantified plasma extravasation using Evans blue and identified sites of the leak using Monastral blue in the mouse. Substance P and bradykinin stimulated extravasation from postcapillary venules in the stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, urinary bladder, trachea, and skin by two- to sevenfold by interacting with NK1 and B2 receptors, respectively. Stimulation of sensory nerves with capsaicin also induced extravasation. Capsaicin- and bradykinin-stimulated extravasation was attenuated by an NK1-receptor antagonist and is thus mediated by release of tachykinins and activation of the NK1 receptor. We conclude that 1) substance P stimulates extravasation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of mice by interacting with the NK1 receptors, and 2) capsaicin and bradykinin induce plasma extravasation by stimulating tachykinin release from sensory nerves. Thus neurogenic mechanisms mediate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of the mouse. PMID:9142909

  13. A metronomic schedule as salvage chemotherapy for upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michela; Romiti, Adriana; Onesti, Concetta E; D'Antonio, Chiara; Milano, Annalisa; Falcone, Rosa; Barucca, Viola; Palombi, Lucia; Righini, Riccardo; Marchetti, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, metronomic chemotherapy, consisting of continuous administration of low doses of cytotoxic agents, has being used as rescue therapy for different tumours. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose metronomic, oral capecitabine in pretreated or frail patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. Patients with pretreated upper gastrointestinal tract cancer or who were not candidates for standard chemotherapy because of toxicity concerns received capecitabine at 1500 mg per day continuously until disease progression or occurrence of toxicity. Forty-seven patients (25 oesophagogastric cancer, 22 pancreatobiliary cancer; 25 men, 22 women; median age 69 years, range 42-90) were included in the study. Forty-five percent of the patients had received at least two previous lines of treatment and the median number of previous treatments was 1 (range 0-5). Twelve (31.6%) patients achieved clinical benefit (one partial response, 11 stable disease), whereas nine (23.7%) patients were progression free for at least 6 months. In an exploratory analysis, there was a significant relationship between performance status and clinical benefit (hazard ratio=8.25; P=0.01). The median overall survival was 5 months. A good performance status was associated with a longer survival (hazard ratio=0.26; P<0.01). No severe toxicity or treatment-related death was reported. Metronomic capecitabine showed good safety and moderate activity in frail or pretreated patients with advanced, upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26473528

  14. A wireless platform for in vivo measurement of resistance properties of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Natali, C Di; Beccani, M; Obstein, K L; Valdastri, P

    2014-07-01

    Active locomotion of wireless capsule endoscopes has the potential to improve the diagnostic yield of this painless technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract disease. In order to design effective locomotion mechanisms, a quantitative measure of the propelling force required to effectively move a capsule inside the gastrointestinal tract is necessary. In this study, we introduce a novel wireless platform that is able to measure the force opposing capsule motion, without perturbing the physiologic conditions with physical connections to the outside of the gastrointestinal tract. The platform takes advantage of a wireless capsule that is magnetically coupled with an external permanent magnet. A secondary contribution of this manuscript is to present a real-time method to estimate the axial magnetic force acting on a wireless capsule manipulated by an external magnetic field. In addition to the intermagnetic force, the platform provides real-time measurements of the capsule position, velocity, and acceleration. The platform was assessed with benchtop trials within a workspace that extends 15 cm from each side of the external permanent magnet, showing average error in estimating the force and the position of less than 0.1 N and 10 mm, respectively. The platform was also able to estimate the dynamic behavior of a known resistant force with an error of 5.45%. Finally, an in vivo experiment on a porcine colon model validated the feasibility of measuring the resistant force in opposition to magnetic propulsion of a wireless capsule. PMID:24852810

  15. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients’ physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26957730

  16. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Nitric Oxide as Signaling Molecules in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianrico; Szurszewski, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) used to be thought of simply as lethal and (for H2S) smelly gaseous molecules; now they are known to have important signaling functions in the gastrointestinal tract. CO and H2S, which are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by different enzymes, regulate smooth muscle membrane potential and tone, transmit signals from enteric nerves and can regulate the immune system. The pathways that produce nitric oxide (NO) H2S and CO interact—each can inhibit and potentiate the level and activity of the other. However, there are significant differences between these molecules, such as in half-lives; CO is more stable and therefore able to have effects distal to the site of production, whereas NO and H2S are short lived and act only close to sites of production. We review their signaling functions in the luminal gastrointestinal tract and discuss how their pathways interact. We also describe other physiologic functions of CO and H2S and how they might be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:24798417

  17. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K L; Duncan, M; Sharkey, K A

    2007-01-01

    The emerging potential for the cannabinoid (CB) system in modulating gastrointestinal inflammation has gained momentum over the last few years. Traditional and anecdotal use of marijuana for gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea and abdominal cramps is recognized, but the therapeutic benefit of cannabinoids in the 21st century is overshadowed by the psychoactive problems associated with CB1 receptor activation. However, the presence and function of the CB2 receptor in the GI tract, whilst not yet well characterized, holds great promise due to its immunomodulatory roles in inflammatory systems and its lack of psychotropic effects. This review of our current knowledge of CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract highlights its role in regulating abnormal motility, modulating intestinal inflammation and limiting visceral sensitivity and pain. CB2 receptors represent a braking system and a pathophysiological mechanism for the resolution of inflammation and many of its symptoms. CB2 receptor activation therefore represents a very promising therapeutic target in gastrointestinal inflammatory states where there is immune activation and motility dysfunction. PMID:17906675

  18. Probiotics Shown To Change Bacterial Community Structure in the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, H. J.; Parker, D. S.; O’Donnell, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Culturing and molecular techniques were used to monitor changes in the bacterial flora of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract following introduction of genetically modified (GM) and unmodified probiotics. Community hybridization of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that the bacterial flora of the GI tract changed significantly in response to the probiotic treatments. The changes were not detected by culturing. Although both GM and non-GM strains of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 11508 changed the bacterial flora of the chicken GI tract, they did so differently. Probing the community DNA with an Enterococcus faecalis-specific probe showed that the relative amount of E. faecalis in the total eubacterial population increased in the presence of the non-GM strain and decreased in the presence of the GM probiotic compared with the results obtained with an untreated control group. PMID:10543832

  19. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  20. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  1. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function. PMID:26762039

  2. The importance of radiological controls of anastomoses after upper gastrointestinal tract surgery - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study was designed to analyze whether routine radiological controls of anastomoses in the upper gastrointestinal tract an early detection of anastomotic leaks. Patients and Methods 135 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal tract surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Patients in the first group (n = 55) underwent routine radiological control of the anastomoses. In the second group (n = 80) the radiological control was only performed in case of clinical symptoms or signs of anastomotic leaks. Results The incidence of anastomotic leaks in the patients seen by us was 5.2%, equivalent to 7 of 135 patients In Group 1 leaks were seen in 4 of 55 patients (7,2%) in group 2 leaks were seen in 3 of 80 (3,8%). The radiological control of the anastomoses with contrast swallow showed the leakage in two cases. Twice the results were false negative. The sensitivity of computed tomography was 100%. Discussion Routine radiological control of anastomoses with contrast swallow only has low sensitivity. This procedure should not be performed routinely any more. The radiological control should be used in cases with signs of anastomotic leakage or with postoperatively impaired gastrointestinal passage. PMID:21070633

  3. Quantitative Detection of Clostridium perfringens in the Broiler Fowl Gastrointestinal Tract by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Mark G.; Siragusa, Gregory R.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Clostridium perfringens are a frequent cause of food-borne disease and gas gangrene and are also associated with necrotic enteritis in chickens. To detect and quantify the levels of C. perfringens in the chicken gastrointestinal tract, a quantitative real-time PCR assay utilizing a fluorogenic, hydrolysis-type probe was developed and utilized to assay material retrieved from the broiler chicken cecum and ileum. Primers and probe were selected following an alignment of 16S rDNA sequences from members of cluster I of the genus Clostridium, and proved to be specific for C. perfringens. The assay could detect approximately 50 fg of C. perfringens genomic DNA and approximately 20 cells in pure culture. Measurements of the analytical sensitivity determined with spiked intestinal contents indicated that the consistent limit of detection with ileal samples was approximately 102 CFU/g of ileal material, but only about 104 CFU/g of cecal samples. The decreased sensitivity with the cecal samples was due to the presence of an unidentified chemical PCR inhibitor(s) in the cecal DNA purifications. The assay was utilized to rapidly detect and quantify C. perfringens levels in the gut tract of broiler chickens reared without supplementary growth-promoting antibiotics that manifested symptoms of necrotic enteritis. The results illustrated that quantitative real-time PCR correlates well with quantification via standard plate counts in samples taken from the ileal region of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:16000804

  4. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  5. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-12-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  6. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  7. Survival and Germination of Bacillus cereus Spores without Outgrowth or Enterotoxin Production during In Vitro Simulation of Gastrointestinal Transit

    PubMed Central

    Ceuppens, Siele; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Drieskens, Katrien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rajkovic, Andreja; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    To study the gastrointestinal survival and enterotoxin production of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, an in vitro simulation experiment was developed to mimic gastrointestinal passage in 5 phases: (i) the mouth, (ii) the stomach, with gradual pH decrease and fractional emptying, (iii) the duodenum, with high concentrations of bile and digestive enzymes, (iv) dialysis to ensure bile reabsorption, and (v) the ileum, with competing human intestinal bacteria. Four different B. cereus strains were cultivated and sporulated in mashed potato medium to obtain an inoculum of 7.0 log spores/ml. The spores showed survival and germination during the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal passage, but vegetative outgrowth of the spores was suppressed by the intestinal bacteria during the final ileum phase. No bacterial proliferation or enterotoxin production was observed, despite the high inoculum levels. Little strain variability was observed: except for the psychrotrophic food isolate, the spores of all strains survived well throughout the gastrointestinal passage. The in vitro simulation experiments investigated the survival and enterotoxin production of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal lumen. The results obtained support the hypothesis that localized interaction of B. cereus with the host's epithelium is required for diarrheal food poisoning. PMID:22923409

  8. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  9. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling. PMID:25560599

  10. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Soluble SULTs (sulfotransferases) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. The aim of the present study was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon and rectum (common sites for cancer), and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic or rectal tissue, resected with tumours, was obtained from 39 subjects. For comparison, we additionally studied one to four samples from stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and liver. SULTs were detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and measurement of enzyme activities. SULT1A1, 1A3 and 1B1 were found in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, often exceeding levels in liver (where these forms were present at high, undetectable and low levels respectively). They were predominantly localized in differentiated enterocytes. SULT1E1 and 2A1 were only detected in liver, jejunum, ileum and cecum. SULT1C1 was readily found in stomach, but was negligible elsewhere. SULT1A2 was present at low levels in individual samples. The remaining forms were not detected with the limitation that only high levels could be recognized with the antisera used. In conclusion, SULTs are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of man. We suspect that they are involved in the presystemic elimination of bioactive food-borne components, including aglycones released by gut microbiota, as well as the bioactivation of some procarcinogens. PMID:17335415

  11. Malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract in an area with an asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Curin, K

    1996-06-01

    Data on persons who died of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos-cement plant were analysed for the period 1970-1990. By poll method applied to the families of deceased subjects, additional data on occupation, lifestyle, educational level, length of resistance and cancer mortality among relatives were collected. The investigation showed that in the study area, but also in certain narrower locations within it (subarea settlements), some of the tumours studied occurred at higher rates than expected. Although not conclusive, these findings may indicate a role of environmental exposure to asbestos, particularly in the occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:8635157

  12. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed. PMID:25018641

  13. Microbiota Associated with the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common House Cricket, Acheta domestica.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, R G; Buthala, D A; Klug, M J

    1981-01-01

    The location and morphology of the bacteria associated with the gastrointestinal tract of Acheta domestica were studied, and these bacteria were partially characterized. Bacteria were associated with the peritrophic membrane in the midgut and with the gut wall and cuticular structures of the hindgut. No bacteria were associated with the fat bodies. Colony-forming unit determinations indicated that there were three times more cultivatable bacteria in the hindgut than in the midgut. Of these bacteria, 40 to 85% cleared uric acid anaerobically, and 90 to 100% cleared uric acid aerobically. Of the 25 isolates obtained, 21 belonged to the genera Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Bacteroides, and Fusobacterium. PMID:16345692

  14. Effects of Zuccagnia punctata on the gastrointestinal tract in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ortega, C A; María, A O M; Giordano, O S; Gianello, J C

    2003-04-01

    A pharmacological evaluation of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) on the gastrointestinal tract was made in rats and mice. 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone were isolated from Zuccagnia punctata. The data reported in the present work indicate that the acetone extract and infusion of Zuccagnia punctata reduced intestinal transit in rats and mice and offered protection against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. The Z. punctata effect could be due, in part, to the presence of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone in this plant. PMID:12722150

  15. Message in a bottle: decoding medication injury patterns in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

    2014-10-01

    Medication injury in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rapidly evolving topic. Increasing endoscopy together with an ageing population, polypharmacy, and a burgeoning drug industry offer heightened opportunities to observe the unintended side effects of therapeutic ingestants. In this review, we emphasise the most commonly encountered medication injuries involving the GIT, as well as emerging agents and mimics. While topics are organised by organ system, the reader should keep in mind that injury patterns are generally not site-specific. As such, awareness of these major morphologic patterns can be translated to multiple tissue sites to more broadly facilitate the diagnostic process. PMID:25028528

  16. Current status of endoscopic ultrasound for the upper gastrointestinal tract in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Hilmi, Ida Normiha; Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Hara, Kazuo; Goda, Kenichi

    2015-04-01

    We summarize the current status of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract solely in Asia, focusing on the staging of superficial cancers and the diagnosis of submucosal tumors (SMT), by analysis of questionnaire responses and a literature review. EUS for assessing the depth of superficial cancers of the upper GI tract is useful; however, evidence is lacking to support that EUS is superior to other modalities. The current status of EUS varies across different Asian countries, and standardization of the methods used both during the procedure and for depth subclassification is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Although EUS alone is limited in the diagnosis of SMT, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is an effective and safe diagnostic tool. Although there is a role for EUS, there are still many limitations both technically and in terms of accessibility. PMID:25537645

  17. Induction of nuclear anomalies in the gastrointestinal tract by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Stober, J.A.; Olson, G.R.; Daniel, F.B.

    1991-01-01

    A selective list of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with varied carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, which are identified as common contaminants at industrial sites and which often contaminate the neighboring ground water, are investigated for their ability to induce nuclear anomalies (NA) in the mouse gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract. These studies examined the hypothesis that a relationship between NA induction and carcinogenic potency of these PAH exists. Among the PAH tested, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthrene (DMBA) was most effective inducer of NA in all G.I. tract tissues examined, with the relative potency in duodenum of DMBA > > > benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) > > benzo(b)fluoranthene (B(b)F). The induction of NA by benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A), pyrene (PY) and benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P) was not different from that elicited by vehicle controls. MNU, a known potent inducer of NA in the mouse G.I. tract, yielded a high level of NA in duodenum and proximal colon but was less effective than DMBA in the forestomach. The data suggest that induction of NA by DMBA and B(a)P PAH are in approximate accordance with their relative carcinogenic potency in the gastrointestinal tract. When binary mixtures of some PAH were administered the yield of NA was less than that expected by simple additivity and closer to that expected by averaging the activities of the two PAH comprising the mixture. Thus, this short-term in vivo assay may be useful as a predictor of the genotoxic or carcinogenic strength of individual PAH and/or mixtures of these compounds. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)

  18. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Viraj; Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC) and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric) retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal) accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ∼60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated) degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum). Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal) passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum) retention when compared to control IgG counterparts, suggesting GI targeting. This was validated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which

  19. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. PMID:27240159

  20. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Luhovyy, Bohdan L.; Khoury, Dalia El; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake. PMID:22254112

  1. Effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shinji; Haruma, Ken; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    Prokinetic agents are effective not only for disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but also for those external to the GI tract such as the central nervous system, and the respiratory, urologic, and metabolic organs. This article reviews the effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the GI tract. Studies were identified by computerized and manual searches of the available literature. A Medline search was performed (1975-July, 2008) using the following medical subject headings: prokinetic agent, metoclopramide, domperidone, trimebutine, cisapride, itopride, mosapride, tegaserod, and human. The identified diseases for which prokinetic agents may be effective are various: bronchial asthma, chronic cough, hiccup, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, acute migraine, Parkinson's disease, anorexia nervosa, Tourette's disorder, urologic sequelae of spinal cord injury and of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, laryngeal dysfunction and so on. These agents are also useful for prevention of aspiration pneumonia during anesthesia, and in tube-fed patients. Prokinetic agents should be a valuable addition to our currently limited pharmacological armamentarium not only for functional bowel disease, but also for diseases external to the GI tract. PMID:19220673

  2. Geographical spread of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence in the Caspian Sea region of Iran: Spatial analysis of cancer registry data

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Wolfe, Rory; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    Background High incidence rates of gastrointestinal tract cancers have been reported in the Caspian region of Iran. This study aimed to: 1) describe the geographical spatial patterns of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence based on cancer registry data and, 2) determine whether geographical clusters of statistical significance exist. Methods The Babol Cancer Registry, which covers the two major northern Iranian provinces of Mazandaran and Golestan (total population = 4,484,622) was used to identify new gastrointestinal tract cancer cases during 2001 to 2005. Age-specific cancer incidence rates were calculated for 7 gastrointestinal tract cancer sites in 26 wards of the Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Spatial autocorrelation indices, hierarchical Bayesian Poisson models, and spatial scan statistics were used in measuring the geographic pattern and clusters. Results There were non-random spatial patterns in esophageal and stomach cancers that were similar for both sexes. Clusters of high incidence were identified in esophageal, stomach, colorectal and liver cancer for both sexes, as well as a possible cluster of pancreas cancer in males. Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract cancers exhibit significant spatial clustering of risk in northern Iran. Further work is needed to relate these geographical patterns to information on potential life-style and environmental factors. PMID:18479519

  3. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  4. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  5. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Encarnação, J A; Becker, N I; Trenczek, T E

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling

  6. Histological and Histochemical Analysis of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus)

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, S.; Encarnação, J.A.; Becker, N.I.; Trenczek, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (acid alizarin blue, haematoxylin-eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus is organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus is simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach is globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum-ileum and ileum-colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine is short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling the

  7. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  8. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  9. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-09-23

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multi-purpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  10. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  11. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  12. Gastrointestinal tract and digestion in the young ruminant: ontogenesis, adaptations, consequences and manipulations.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; Blum, J W

    2009-10-01

    Young calves have to deal with at least three major situations that require profound physiological and digestive adaptations: adaptation to extra-uterine life (up to the first postnatal week), maintenance at a pre-ruminant stage over a long period (3 to 5 months or more), and weaning. This paper reports results obtained on the development (growth and differentiation) of the gastrointestinal tract, and on digestive enzyme activities as well as some aspects of the regulation by gut regulatory peptides. In the newborn calf, the maturation of the small intestine depends on pregnancy duration (preterm vs. full term) and ingestion of colostrum from first milking. The function of gut enterocytes evolves along with the changes from fetal to adult enterocytes. The origin of dietary protein in pre-ruminant and weaning calves modifies SI morphology. Chymosin, elastase II and lactase are typical postnatal enzymes, whereas pepsin, ribonuclease and amylase become important especially following weaning. Nitrogen digestibility increases during the first month of life and is modified by replacement of skim milk powder with non-milk proteins. Milk formula supplementation with Nabutyrate increases pancreatic secretions and digestibility. The gastrointestinal tract development depends on gut regulatory peptides plasma and luminal concentrations. The response to exogenous peptides is in relation with their number and type of functional receptors and with the animal age. Experimental work with young ruminants is important not only for the species involved, but also for its implications to other mammalians. PMID:19996480

  13. [The role of endoscopy in the therapy for perforations and leakages of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Feisthammel, J; Jonas, S; Mössner, J; Hoffmeister, A

    2013-06-01

    Perforations and leakages of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract can occur spontaneously among other causes. They can also develop as complications of an endoscopic intervention or after surgical construction of an anastomosis. For the patient, these situations usually are serious and life-threatening. Standard therapy has always been - and most of the time still is - major surgery. These procedures usually are technically difficult and their mortality and morbidity are not satisfactory due to, among others, the occurrence of local infections. Thus, various endoscopic techniques as therapy for perforations and leakages have been developed over the last years. These include above all the endoscopic placement of clip systems and stents and the relatively new vacuum drainage systems. In case of perforations and leakages of the bile duct and the rectum especially, these minimal invasive techniques are widely used, also increasingly in lesions of the esophagus. However, these new, endoscopic procedures suffer from a lack of evidence. This paper highlights the possibilities and limitations of endoscopic options in therapy for perforations and leakages of organs of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22562158

  14. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-12-10

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  15. Role of Toll-like receptors in health and diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Chen, Wangxue

    2006-04-14

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by non-pathogenic commensal microflora and frequently exposed to many pathogenic organisms. For the maintenance of GI homeostasis, the host must discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and initiate effective and appropriate immune and inflammatory responses. Mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family that plays a central role in the initiation of innate cellular immune responses and the subsequent adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Recent studies have shown that gastrointestinal epithelial cells express almost all TLR subtypes characterized to date and that the expression and activation of TLRs in the GI tract are tightly and coordinately regulated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the crucial dual roles of TLRs in the development of host innate and adaptive immune responses to GI infections and the maintenance of the immune tolerance to commensal bacteria through down-regulation of surface expression of TLRs in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:16610014

  16. Role of enteric neurotransmission in host defense and protection of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.; Savidge, Tor C.

    2014-01-01

    Host defense is a vital role played by the gastrointestinal tract. As host to an enormous and diverse microbiome, the gut has evolved an elaborate array of chemical and physicals barriers that allow the digestion and absorption of nutrients without compromising the mammalian host. The control of such barrier functions requires the integration of neural, humoral, paracrine and immune signaling, involving redundant and overlapping mechanisms to ensure, under most circumstances, the integrity of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. Here we focus on selected recent developments in the autonomic neural control of host defense functions used in the protection of the gut from luminal agents, and discuss how the microbiota may potentially play a role in enteric neurotransmission. Key recent findings include: the important role played by subepithelial enteric glia in modulating intestinal barrier function, identification of stress-induced mechanisms evoking barrier breakdown, neural regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, the role of afferent and efferent vagal pathways in regulating barrier function, direct evidence for bacterial communication to the enteric nervous system, and microbial sources of enteric neurotransmitters. We discuss these new and interesting developments in our understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in gastrointestinal host defense. PMID:24412639

  17. The Dynamic Interactions between Salmonella and the Microbiota, within the Challenging Niche of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Khan, C. M. Anjam

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how Salmonella species establish successful infections remains a foremost research priority. This gastrointestinal pathogen not only faces the hostile defenses of the host's immune system, but also faces fierce competition from the large and diverse community of microbiota for space and nutrients. Salmonella have solved these challenges ingeniously. To jump-start growth, Salmonella steal hydrogen produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Type 3 effector proteins are subsequently secreted by Salmonella to trigger potent inflammatory responses, which generate the alternative terminal electron acceptors tetrathionate and nitrate. Salmonella exclusively utilize these electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, permitting metabolic access to abundant substrates such as ethanolamine to power growth blooms. Chemotaxis and flagella-mediated motility enable the identification of nutritionally beneficial niches. The resulting growth blooms also promote horizontal gene transfer amongst the resident microbes. Within the gastrointestinal tract there are opportunities for chemical signaling between host cells, the microbiota, and Salmonella. Host produced catecholamines and bacterial autoinducers form components of this chemical dialogue leading to dynamic interactions. Thus, Salmonella have developed remarkable strategies to initially shield against host defenses and to transiently compete against the intestinal microbiota leading to successful infections. However, the immunocompetent host is subsequently able to reestablish control and clear the infection. PMID:27437481

  18. Comparative ultrasonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver in healthy and diseased pigeons.

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Filippich, Lucio; Kiefer, Juergen; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    The use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in birds has been documented for cardiac, urogenital, and liver disease. However, its use in gastrointestinal tract disease is not defined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the ultrasonographic findings of the intestine and liver of six healthy racing pigeons with those of six racing pigeons with gastrointestinal disease. The echogenicity of the liver was significantly different between the two groups. Pigeons with gastrointestinal disease had less homogeneous liver echogenicity with focal heterogeneous areas and the hepatic blood vessels were visible and dilated. The duodenum was visualized and its mean diameter of 7.2 +/- 0.3 mm in the diseased pigeons was significantly wider (P < or = 0.001) than the 5.7 +/- 0.2 mm in healthy birds. The thickness of the duodenal wall in healthy and diseased pigeons was 1.6 +/- 0.1 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 mm, respectively, and they were significantly different (P < or = 0.001). We defined baseline measurements for the duodenal loop in pigeons and provided evidence that ultrasound can be a useful diagnostic tool for investigating intestinal disease in pigeons. PMID:16863056

  19. Control of Strongyloides westeri by nematophagous fungi after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana Milani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides westeri is the most prevalent nematode among equines aged up to four months and causes gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to observe the control of infective S. westeri larvae (L3) by the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of female donkeys. Twelve dewormed female donkeys that were kept in stables were used. Two treatment groups each comprising four animals received orally 100 g of pellets made of sodium alginate matrix containing a mycelial mass of either D. flagrans (AC001) or M. thaumasium (NF34). The control group consisted of four animals that received pellets without fungus. Feces samples were then collected from the animal groups at different times (after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours). These feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar medium and 1000 L3 of S. westeri. AC001 and NF34 isolates showed the ability to destroy the L3, after gastrointestinal transit, thus demonstrating their viability and predatory activity. PMID:22832758

  20. Histologic analysis of eosinophils and mast cells of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elizaveta; Sullivan, Katrina; de Nanassy, Joseph; Barkey, Janice; Mack, David; Nasr, Ahmed; El Demellawy, Dina

    2016-08-01

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including GI eosinophilia and inflammatory bowel disease, can be characterized by increased mucosal eosinophils (EOs) or mast cells (MCs). Normal mucosal cellular counts along the GI tract in healthy children have not been established for a Canadian pediatric population. To establish a benchmark reference, we quantified EO and MC from 356 mucosal biopsies of the GI tract obtained during upper and lower endoscopic biopsies of 38 pediatric patients in eastern Ontario. Mean total counts of EO varied for the 11 tissues we examined, from a low of 7.6±6.5/high-power field (HPF) (×40 [×400, 0.55mm(2)]) in the body of the stomach to a high of 50.3±17.4/HPF in the cecum. The lower GI tract (ileum, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum) generally had higher total EO counts than the upper GI tract (antrum and body of stomach, duodenum, and duodenal cap) (combined average of 32.1±20.6 versus 19.3±15.8, respectively). Similarly, the number of mucosal MC was different in the various regions of the GI tract ranging from 0.04±0.2/HPF in the duodenal cap to 0.9±2.6/HPF in the ileum. Total counts for EO and MC in the lamina propria were not significantly different between sexes when adjusted for multiple testing. EO polarity was absent in many cases, irrespective of the GI region. These numeration and localization of EO and MC will provide normative data for upper and lower endoscopic GI biopsies in the pediatric population of Eastern Ontario. PMID:27045513

  1. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  2. Stimulation of sympathetic innervation in the upper gastrointestinal tract as a treatment for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jolene; DiLorenzo, Daniel J.; McLaughlin, Leslie; Roberts, Andrew T.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Sympathetic activity and obesity have a reciprocal relationship. Firstly, hypothalamic obesity is associated with decreased sympathetic activity. Caffeine and ephedrine increase sympathetic activity and induce weight loss, of which 25% is due to increased metabolic rate and 75% is due to a reciprocally decreased food intake. Secondly, hormones and drugs that affect body weight have an inverse relationship between food intake and metabolic rate. Neuropeptide Y decreases sympathetic activity and increases food intake and body weight. Thirdly, a gastric pacemaker Transcend® and vagotomy increase the ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic activation, decrease food intake, and block gut satiety hormones. Weight loss with the pacemaker or vagotomy is variable. Significant weight reduction is seen only in a small group of those treated. This suggests that activation of the sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system may be most important for weight loss. Systemic sympathetic activation causes weight loss in obese patients, but side effects limited its use. We hypothesize that selective local electrical sympathetic stimulation of the upper gastrointestinal tract may induce weight loss and offer a safer, yet effective, obesity treatment. Celiac ganglia delivers sympathetic innervation to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Voltage regulated electrical simulation of the rat celiac ganglia increased metabolic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of 6, 3, or 1.5 V increased metabolic rate 15.6%, 6.2%, and 5%, respectively in a single rat. These responses support our hypothesis that selective sympathetic stimulation of the upper GI tract may treat obesity while avoiding side effects of systemic sympathetic activation. PMID:19246162

  3. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    PubMed

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  4. Submucosal mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a target of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hisaya K; Nishizawa, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hu, Dong-Liang; Nakane, Akio; Shinagawa, Kunihiro; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a leading causative toxin of staphylococcal food poisoning. However, it remains unclear how this toxin induces emesis in humans, primates, and certain experimental animals. To understand the mechanism of SEA-induced emesis, we investigated the behavior of SEA in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in vivo using the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Immunofluorescence of GI sections showed that perorally administered SEA translocated from the lumen to the interior tissues of the GI tract and rapidly accumulated in certain submucosa cells. These SEA-binding cells in the submucosa were both tryptase- and FcεRIα-positive, suggesting these SEA-binding cells were mast cells. These SEA-binding mast cells were 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-positive, but the intensity of the 5-HT signal decreased over time compared to that of mast cells in the negative control. Furthermore, toluidine blue staining showed the number of metachromatic mast cells was decreased in the duodenal submucosa, suggesting that SEA binding induced degranulation and release of 5-HT from submucosal mast cells. These observations suggest that the target cells of SEA are submucosal mast cells in the GI tract and that 5-HT released from submucosal mast cells plays an important role in SEA-induced emesis. PMID:22211567

  5. Effect of dihydrotestosterone on gastrointestinal tract of male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Karri, Sritulasi; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica; Coimbatore, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-05-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. While research contributions identifying brain as locus of the disease is growing, evidence of severely impaired gastrointestinal (GI) functions with ageing too is accumulating, there is an equal dearth of information on GI tract in AD condition. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular, histological, morphological and microflora alterations of GI tract in male Alzheimer's transgenic mice. The present study also investigates the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment (1 mg/kg) on AD mice. Histoarchitecture data revealed a significant decrease in the villi number, muscular layer thickness, villi length, width, crypt length, enterocyte length and nuclei length. A shift in colon feces microbial community composition was observed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression levels in intestine significantly increased in AD mice revealing its toxicity. DHT treatment attenuated the effect caused by AD on GI morphometrics, APP expression and colon micro flora population. These results for the first time reveal the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of GI tract in male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. PMID:20795362

  6. Ontogeny of apelin and its receptor in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyun; Kundu, Ramendra; Han, Song; Qi, Xiang; Englander, Ella W; Quertermous, Thomas; Greeley, George H

    2009-11-27

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor and both apelin and APJ are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to define ontogeny of apelin and APJ in the developing rodent GI tract by measuring expression levels and characterizing abundance and cellular localization at an embryonic stage (E18.5 or E21), two postnatal stages (P4, P16) and in the adult. Apelin and APJ mRNA levels were measured by real time RT-PCR, apelin and APJ-containing cells were identified by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Gastric, duodenal and colonic apelin and APJ mRNA levels were highest at birth and declined postnatally. In the postnatal rat stomach, few apelin peptide-containing cells were identified, the density of gastric apelin-containing cells increased progressively after weaning and into adulthood. A robust APJ immunostaining was observed postnatally in the epithelium, intestinal goblet cells and in smooth muscle cells. In the adult rat, APJ immunostaining in the surface epithelium and goblet cells decreased markedly. During the early postnatal period, in an apelin-deficient mouse, APJ expression and immunostaining in the gut were reduced suggesting that apelin regulates APJ. Together, our data support a role for the apelin-APJ system in the regulation of smooth muscle, epithelial and goblet cell function in the GI tract. PMID:19660504

  7. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  8. Microbial interference and colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Zachar, Z; Savage, D C

    1979-01-01

    Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes, one that formed smooth colonies on agar surfaces and a varient of it that formed rough colonies, colonized the gastrointestinal tracts of germfree mice. Within 24 h after mice were inoculated orally with about 100 bacteria, the population levels per gram (wet weight) of tissue of both strains were 10(5) to 10(7) in the stomach and ileum and 10(8) to 10(9) in the cecum and colon, respectively. As detected in Gram-stained histological sections, in such gnotobiotes, the bacteria colonized the lumen in all areas of the tract and much of the mucus layer on the epithelial surface in the proximal colon. The strain that formed smooth colonies did not colonize the tracts of specific-pathogen-free mice, but did colonize, to the same levels as in germfree mice, the stomachs and bowels of ex-germfree mice previously associated with two members of the indigenous flora (Bacteroides and Clostridium). In the latter animals, however, the listeria did not form layers on the colonic epithelium as efficiently as they did in monoassociated gnotobiotes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:106003

  9. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Trusov, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  10. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Results Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p < 0.05) with the emergence of gastric proteolytic activity, suggesting that the stomach’s role in appetite regulation occurs simultaneously with the establishment of proteolytic function. A 3D models series of the GI-tract development indicated a functional pyloric sphincter prior to first feeding. Observations of fed larvae in vivo confirmed that stomach reservoir function was established before metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach’s proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor induces proliferation of hepatocytes and epithelial cells throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Housley, R M; Morris, C F; Boyle, W; Ring, B; Biltz, R; Tarpley, J E; Aukerman, S L; Devine, P L; Whitehead, R H; Pierce, G F

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, was identified as a specific keratinocyte mitogen after isolation from a lung fibroblast line. Recently, recombinant (r)KGF was found to influence proliferation and differentiation patterns of multiple epithelial cell lineages within skin, lung, and the reproductive tract. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify additional target tissues, and focused on the rat gastrointestinal (GI) system, since a putative receptor, K-sam, was originally identified in a gastric carcinoma. Expression of KGF receptor and KGF mRNA was detected within the entire GI tract, suggesting the gut both synthesized and responded to KGF. Therefore, rKGF was administered to adult rats and was found to induce markedly increased proliferation of epithelial cells from the foregut to the colon, and of hepatocytes, one day after systemic treatment. Daily treatment resulted in the marked selective induction of mucin-producing cell lineages throughout the GI tract in a dose-dependent fashion. Other cell lineages were either unaffected (e.g., Paneth cells), or relatively decreased (e.g., parietal cells, enterocytes) in rKGF-treated rats. The direct effect of rKGF was confirmed by demonstrating markedly increased carcinoembryonic antigen production in a human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM1899. Serum levels of albumin were specifically and significantly elevated after daily treatment. These results demonstrate rKGF can induce epithelial cell activation throughout the GI tract and liver. Further, endogenous KGF may be a normal paracrine mediator of growth within the gut. Images PMID:7962522

  12. Enteric reovirus infection as a probe to study immunotoxicity of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cuff, C F; Fulton, J R; Barnett, J B; Boyce, C S

    1998-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex immune system that defends the host against a wide range of pathogens and toxins. The GI tract is also exposed to many environmental toxins that could adversely affect intestinal immunity, and few systems to study immunotoxicity of the GI tract have been described. We demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection can be used as a system to assess the effects of toxins on intestinal and systemic immunity. Mice were given various doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 5 days at doses ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg by the oral route or 200 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route. On day 3 of dosing, mice were orally infected with reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang. The effects of CY on viral clearance, intestinal and systemic immune responses, and distribution of intestinal lymphocytes were assessed. Mice treated with CY failed to clear the virus in a dose-dependent manner, and serum anti-reovirus antibody titers were suppressed. Virus-specific IgA in cultures of intestinal tissue from CY-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to controls, although total IgA production was not affected. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in spleen was also suppressed in CY-treated animals. Cyclophosphamide treatment reduced the number and percentage of B-cells in Peyer's patches. Reovirus infection did not increase cellularity of Peyer's patches in CY-treated mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment also had little effect on the phenotype of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection is useful in studying exposure of the GI tract to immunotoxic agents. PMID:9579022

  13. Concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor and digestive tract carcinoma: a single institution experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Rui; Xia, Zefeng; Shuai, Xiaoming; Chang, Weilong; Gao, Jinbo; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and digestive tract carcinoma. Among 585 patients diagnosed with GIST from January 2005 to July 2014, 32 (5.5%) had synchronous digestive tract carcinoma, including 19 (59.4%) men and 13 (40.6%) women. The median age was 64 years (range, 43-84). GIST was located in the stomach (n=24), small intestine (n=6), duodenum (n=1) and retroperitoneum (n=1). GISTs were intra- or postoperatively discovered (n=28) or preoperatively identified (n=4). The tumor size was less than 10 mm (microGIST) in 23 (71.9%) GIST patients. The preoperatively identified GIST subgroup showed a significantly larger tumor size, more mitotic figures and a higher risk grade than the intra- or postoperatively identified GIST subgroup. Concurrent digestive tract carcinomas were most frequently located in the stomach (24 cases, 75%). The other involved sites were the esophagus (n=5), duodenum (n=2) and colon (n=1). With a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 9-80), 24 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 6 patients had died of carcinoma progression, 1 patient had died from an accident, and 1 patient experienced GIST metastasis to the liver. In summary, we discovered that 5.5% of GIST patients also developed a concurrent digestive tract carcinoma in a series of 585 GIST cases. The majority of GISTs are incidentally identified microGISTs. The concurrent carcinoma seems to have a greater unfavorable effect on prognosis than the GIST. However, for a GIST that is identified preoperatively with a high risk of progression, adjuvant therapy is warranted. PMID:26885079

  14. Host-microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract and the Lactobacillus reuteri paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jens; Britton, Robert A.; Roos, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates engage in symbiotic associations with vast and complex microbial communities that colonize their gastrointestinal tracts. Recent advances have provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiome to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped symbiotic interactions in the gut and the consequences that arise for both the microbes and the host. Here we discuss the biological principles that underlie microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and the potential of the development of mutualism. We then review phylogenetic and experimental studies on the vertebrate symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri that have provided novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary strategy of a gut microbe and its relationship with the host. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of the microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and its evolution will be important to determine how this relationship can go awry, and it may reveal possibilities by which the gut microbiome can be manipulated to support health. PMID:20615995

  15. Studies on the role of gastrointestinal tract contents in the methylation of inorganic mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.

    1989-02-01

    The toxic action of the mercury compounds and their bioavailability depends on the chemical structure of the compound. It is well known that mercury compounds can be transformed into metallic mercury or to alkyl mercury compounds in the environment. This transformation caused by microorganisms was observed in the soil and human feces. Therefore, the idea that inorganic mercury ingested in small quantities with daily meals can be partly transformed into alkyl mercury compounds can not be rejected without prior experiments. Result of such studies should be of special importance, because of the exceptionally high toxicity of methylmercury ion (MeHg) and its delayed neurotoxic action especially when in utero exposure is concerned. This study aimed at the investigation of the fate of inorganic mercury compounds influenced by the contents of the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract of East African wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Maloiy, G M; Sutton, J D

    1983-01-01

    The molar proportions of seven individual VFA's were determined at select sites along the gastrointestinal tract of sixteen species of East African wild ruminants. The resulting data were statistically analyzed for species effect, and for effects due to major feeding groups (browsers, grazers, fresh grass grazers, etc.) and for body weight groups (5-750 kg animals). Present data suggest that body weight, rather than diet, is the more influential factor in reticulo-rumen fermentation rate, and in the molar proportion of fatty acids present. The molar proportions of VFA's observed in the mid and hindgut of these wild ruminants appeared more responsive to diet and body weight of the animal than did foregut VFA values. PMID:6139202

  17. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  18. Effects of berberine in the gastrointestinal tract - a review of actions and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqiu; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present in several plant species, including Coptis sp. and Berberis sp. In traditional medicine, extracts of berberine are used in the treatment of diarrhea of different origins. Recent studies have shown that berberine and its derivatives have significant biological effects on gastrointestinal (GI) and other functions and may become therapeutics for the treatment of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the actions of berberine in the GI tract. Binding and target sites, activated intracellular pathways, as well as the absorption and metabolism of berberine are discussed. Effects that may be useful in future clinical treatment, like antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects are critically reviewed and potential clinical applications are presented in detail. PMID:25183302

  19. Long-term exposure to zero-g and the gastro-intestinal tract function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percial D.

    1989-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) function is described with emphasis placed on its important role to smooth, delay, and modify sudden fluid load stress applied to the fluid distribution control system in the body. Two basic components of the GIT are considered: stomach dynamics, which involves storage, mixing, and discharge of food into the intestine after addition of gastric juices; and absorption of water and electrolytes from the small intestine. A dynamic model of these components is described, along with performance characteristics computed consecutively for one g and zero g conditions. The main impact of the zero g condition appears to be through a change in osmotic driven transport across the gut wall. A dramatic change in transport characteristics is predicted with implication for many body systems (the immune system in particular) during long-term exposure to zero g. Experimental measurements in zero g are needed to evaluate these predictions.

  20. Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Uniform-Sized Bismuth Nanoparticles for CT Visualization of Gastrointestinal Tract in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Boxiong; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Cai; Jiang, Ying; Fu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Chunshui; Sun, Shao-Kai; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-05-25

    High-performance and biocompatible contrast agents are the key to accurate diagnosis of various diseases in vivo via CT imaging. Fabrication of pure Bi nanoparticles is the best way to maximize X-ray absorption efficiency due to the ultrahigh X-ray attenuation ability of Bi and 100% content of Bi element. However, high-quality Bi nanoparticles prepared through a facile strategy are still lacking. Herein, we report a simple noninjection method to fabricate uniformly sized pure Bi nanoparticles using only two commercial reagents by simply heating the mixture of raw materials in a short time. The obtained Bi nanoparticles owned highly uniform size, excellent monodispersity, and impressive antioxidant capacity. After being modified with oligosaccharide, the "sweet" Bi nanoprobe with comfortable patient experience and favorable biocompatibility was successfully used in CT visualization of gastrointestinal tract in detail. PMID:27144639

  2. Pharmacological effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) with focus on the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Vinter-Jensen, L

    1999-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) belongs to a family of growth factor ligands and receptors. At present, five ligands have been recognized which as EGF exert their effects via binding to the same EGF receptor. The family has three other receptors erbB2, erbB3, and erbB4, which have their own ligands (the heregulins). The system is ubiquitously distributed in mammals, and has important roles in normal development, and in regenerative and neoplastic growth. Mouse and human EGF were discovered in 1962 and 1975 by Stanley Cohen and Harry Gregory, respectively, due to EGFs potent systemic effects. EGF accelerated eyelid opening in newborn mice and inhibited gastric acid secretion in humans. Already in the late thirties, a factor in human urine was recognized which prevented or accelerated healing of experimental damage in the gastrointestinal tract. This factor appeared to be EGF. Around 1980, an effect of commercial interest was described-EGF caused shedding of the fleece in sheep. In line with the original observations, several studies have examined effects of EGF on developmental processes. Amongst other effects, EGF accelerates lung and intestinal maturation before birth and in newborn mammals. Due to the possible use of EGF in the wool industry, it was mandatory to know more about EGF. Amongst other effects in mature sheep and other animals are haemodynamic changes, changes in electrolyte homeostasis, and endocrinological changes. In relation to experimental damage, the therapeutic potential of systemic EGF has been demonstrated in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, in the kidneys, in the liver and in the trachea. EGF has even been tried in humans in gastric ulcer healing and in necrotising enterocolitis. Studies on prolonged treatment with EGF have first recently appeared. We described effects of 4-5 weeks of treatment in Goettingen minipigs and in rats, and two other groups described effects in monkeys and in rats. In summary, species differences were observed

  3. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine. PMID:18191353

  4. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  5. Effects of cereal β-glucans and enzyme inclusion on the porcine gastrointestinal tract microbiota.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Padraigin; Bello, Fabio Dal; O'Doherty, John V; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect barley-based diets vs. oats based diets on levels of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacterium in the porcine gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In addition the effect of enzyme supplementation in both diets was explored. Twenty-eight boars were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: barley-based (B) diet; barley-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (B + ES); oat-based (O) diet or oat-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (O + ES). The enzyme supplement contained endo-1,3-β-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Faecal samples were collected from the pigs prior to initiations of the experiment and at slaughter. At slaughter digesta samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus species composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed by genus-specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE profiles indicated that cereal source provoked shifts in Lactobacillus population. The most diverse populations of lactobacilli emerged after feeding the O diets. Enzymes inclusion altered the composition of Lactobacillus species prevalent throughout the GIT in animals fed the B diet, causing a shift in the dominant lactobacilli present in the caecum and proximal colon. No such effect was evident in animals fed the enzyme supplemented O + ES diet. Microbial plate counts revealed that the O diets gave rise to higher counts of Lactobacillus in the caecum and colon and Bifidobacterium counts in the ileum, caecum and colon than the B diets. The O diet caused a 2 log increase in Enterobacterium counts in the proximal colon, no such effects were observed in animals fed the B, the B + ES or the O + ES diets. Overall both O diets had a more positive influence on the counts of the beneficial microorganisms and richness of the Lactobacillus population in the porcine GIT. PMID:23022204

  6. Viability of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2010-03-25

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) embedded in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses was assessed in vitro against Oxyuris equi eggs. Twelve previously dewormed crossbred mares, average weight of 362.5kg (+/-21) were used in the experiment. Each animal of the treated group received an oral dose (100g) of sodium alginate pellets containing P. chlamydosporia mycelial mass. The control group received pellets without fungus. Faecal samples from fungus-treated and control groups were collected at intervals of 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h after pellet administration and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar. One thousand eggs of O. equi were plated in Petri dishes of both treated and control groups, with six replicates, and incubated in oven, 25 degrees C, in the dark, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with hyphae adhered to the shell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo without hyphal penetration, and type 3, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Chlamydospore production was observed in Petri dishes of the treated group. The isolate VC4 remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and maintained the ovicidal activity against O. equi eggs when compared with the control group (p<0.01) after each collection interval: 29.1% (8h), 28.2% (12h), 31.1% (24h), 27.4% (36h), 30.9% (48h) and 28.4% (72h). The results suggest that P. chlamydosporia could be used as an effective biological control agent of O. equi eggs in natural conditions. PMID:20036059

  7. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  8. Postmortem photonic imaging of lux-modified Salmonella typhimurium within the gastrointestinal tract of swine following oral inoculation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract following oral inoculation. Pigs (~ 80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1×10*10 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lu...

  9. Evaluation of Photonic Imaging in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Swine Following Oral Inoculation With Lux-Modified Salmonella typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate photonic emitting bacteria through different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of swine. Pigs (~ 80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1×10^10 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lux (S. typh-lux) for a 6 (n=6) or 12 (n=6) h incubatio...

  10. Postmortem Photonic Imaging of Lux-Modified Salmonella Typhimuium Within the Gastrointestinal Tract of Swine Following Oral Inoculation In Vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract after oral inoculation. Pigs (~80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1 x 1010 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lux for a 6-h (n = 6) or 12-h...

  11. The QseBC Quorum Sensing System is Involved in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colonization of the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of bacteria to hormone-like, chemical molecules is termed quorum sensing, a mechanism for cell-to-cell communication that includes sensing the host environment. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least two quorum sensing molecules are present that activate the bacterial QseBC quorum sen...

  12. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT DISTRIBUTION AT NECROPSY OF SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN NATURALLY-INFECTED CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy adult cattle with gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) transient luminal presence or mucosal colonization by Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 are a primary zoonotic reservoir of this human pathogen, especially for meat-borne transmission. The GIT distribution of STEC O157 in various experimen...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Coccoid Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697T Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Healthy Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Toh, Hidehiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Takefumi; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697(T) was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy thoroughbreds. This strain produced unique spherical or oval cells, which is rare in the genus Lactobacillus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. PMID:26847890

  14. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shoji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2015-03-01

    The in vivo genotoxicity of CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) was examined using repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats. Sudan I is a mono-azo dye based on aniline and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene. This dye was demonstrated as a rat liver carcinogen in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay, and genotoxicity was noted in a rat bone marrow micronucleus (BMMN) assay. In the present study, Sudan I was administered orally to rats for 14-days, and the MN frequency in the liver, stomach, colon, and bone marrow were analyzed. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was not significantly increased by the administration of the Sudan I. Gastrointestinal tract MNs were also not induced. However, in the BMMN assay, a significant increase in micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. While Sudan I has been reported to lack hepatic genotoxicity, it has also exhibited tumor-promoting activities. These results are consistent with the lack of induction of MN in the hepatocytes. The lack of MN induction in cells of the gastrointestinal tract was also logical because azo-compounds are reported to be unlikely to induce DNA damage in the rat gut. The repeated-dose rat liver and gastrointestinal tract MN assays have the potential to be used in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a chemical in each organ in accordance with its mode of action. PMID:25892626

  15. Altered Innate Defenses in the Neonatal Gastrointestinal Tract in Response to Colonization by Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birchenough, George M. H.; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Stabler, Richard A.; Dalgakiran, Fatma; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Wren, Brendan W.; Luzio, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Two-day-old (P2), but not 9-day-old (P9), rat pups are susceptible to systemic infection following gastrointestinal colonization by Escherichia coli K1. Age dependency reflects the capacity of colonizing K1 to translocate from gastrointestinal (GI) tract to blood. A complex GI microbiota developed by P2, showed little variation over P2 to P9, and did not prevent stable K1 colonization. Substantial developmental expression was observed over P2 to P9, including upregulation of genes encoding components of the small intestinal (α-defensins Defa24 and Defa-rs1) and colonic (trefoil factor Tff2) mucus barrier. K1 colonization modulated expression of these peptides: developmental expression of Tff2 was dysregulated in P2 tissues and was accompanied by a decrease in mucin Muc2. Conversely, α-defensin genes were upregulated in P9 tissues. We propose that incomplete development of the mucus barrier during early neonatal life and the capacity of colonizing K1 to interfere with mucus barrier maturation provide opportunities for neuropathogen translocation into the bloodstream. PMID:23798529

  16. Oxidative stress in inflammation-based gastrointestinal tract diseases: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2012-06-01

    Oxygen free radicals in excessively high amounts are all very reactive chemically and can impose a detrimental influence on living organisms by provoking "oxidative stress" that can damage major cellular constituents. The latter includes the cell membrane, cytoplasmic proteins, and nuclear DNA. Conversely, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS) when present in low amounts play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes, through which, paradoxically, many ROS-mediated responses can protect the cells against oxidative stress by induction of "redox homeostasis." Therefore, diseases associated with free radical overproduction are provoked by "blazed ROS productions" far beyond the host's capacity to quench. Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, enteritis, colitis and associated cancers as well as pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis. This article provides an overview of the role of oxidative stress in inflammation-based GI tract diseases, including reflux esophagitis, Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteritis, ulcerative colitis, and associated colorectal cancer. The challenging issue that ROS can contribute to diverse gastrointestinal dysfunction, or manifest dual roles in cancer promotion or cancer suppression will also be discussed for the opportunity to enhance understanding of inflammation-based GI diseases. PMID:22413852

  17. The emergency room diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract perforation: the role of CT.

    PubMed

    Borofsky, Samuel; Taffel, Myles; Khati, Nadia; Zeman, Robert; Hill, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with a suspected spontaneous gastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation. Prospective identification of the site of perforation helps the emergency department physician plan the appropriate treatment in a potentially unstable patient. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT approach a radiologist should take when evaluating the patient with suspected perforation in the emergent setting. A series of patients presenting to the emergency department with surgically proven GIT perforations were retrospectively reviewed, and key images were obtained. For the purposes of this review, the anatomy of the abdominal cavity in relation to sites of GIT perforation will be discussed. CT findings of perforation will be described, including free intraperitoneal/extraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and localized inflammatory changes. The use of a bone window setting to increase the free air conspicuity will be emphasized. The mimics of pneumoperitoneum will be demonstrated, including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and venous air. Using a systematic approach, CT can precisely determine the presence and site of a gastrointestinal perforation in a majority of patients. This greatly assists the surgeon in planning the correct surgical approach. PMID:25417073

  18. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications. PMID:26931430

  19. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  20. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Debbie; Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac GM

    2008-01-01

    Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI) delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P < 0.001), following heterologous expression of the Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P < 0.001), than control strains from the faeces and intestines of mice (n = 5), following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract. PMID:18844989

  1. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  2. Endoscopic Ultrasound of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract and Mediastinum: Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Priyajit; Wittmann, Johannes; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2006-12-15

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has developed significantly over the last two decades and has had a considerable impact on the imaging and staging of mass lesions within or in close proximity to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In conjunction with conventional imaging such as helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the indications for EUS include (1) differentiating between benign and malignant lesions of the mediastinum and upper GI tract, (2) staging malignant tumors of the lung, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas prior to surgery or oncological treatment, (3) excluding common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thereby avoiding the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in some patients, and (4) assessing suspected lesions that are either equivocal or not seen on conventional imaging. In recent years, EUS has charted a course similar to that taken by ERCP, evolving from a purely diagnostic modality to one that is interventional and therapeutic. These indications include (5) obtaining a tissue diagnosis by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration or trucut-type needle biopsy and (6) providing therapy such as coeliac plexus neurolysis and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage-in many cases, more accurately and safely than conventional techniques. Emerging investigational techniques include EUS-guided enteric anastomosis formation and fine-needle injection therapy for malignant disease.

  3. Transport of d-galactose by the gastrointestinal tract of the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Pascual, I; Berjón, A; Lostao, M P; Barber, A

    2006-01-01

    Due to exoskeleton, the absorption of nutrients in adult insects takes place across the gastrointestinal tract epithelium. In most physiological studies, sugar intestinal absorption has been described as a diffusional process and to date no sugar transporter has been cloned from the digestive tract of insects. In the present work, the existence of a saturable transport system for galactose in the gastric caeca of Locusta migratoria is clearly demonstrated. This transport shows a relatively high affinity for galactose (apparent K0.5=2-3 mM) and is inhibited by glucose, 2-deoxyglucose and with less potency by fructose and alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. The absence of sodium or the presence of phloridzin hardly affects galactose absorption, indicating that it is not mediated by a SGLT1-like transporter. The absence of K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ or changes in the pH do not modify galactose absorption either. Nevertheless, phloretin, cytochalasin B and theophylline (inhibitors of facilitative transporters) decrease sugar uptake around 50%. Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with poly A+ RNA isolated from gastric caeca show sodium-independent galactose uptake that is three times higher than in non-injected oocytes, further supporting the existence of a mRNA coding for at least one equilibrative sugar transporter in L. migratoria gastric caeca. PMID:16314134

  4. Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Cummins, Thomas; Shung, K. Kirk; Van Dam, Jacques; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer, the most common type of cancer, has a very low survival rate, especially for pancreatic cancer (five year survival rate of 5%) and bile duct cancer (five year survival rate of 12%). Here, we propose to use an integrated OCT-US catheter for cancer detection. OCT is targeted to acquire detailed information, such as dysplasia and neoplasia, for early detection of tumors. US is used for staging cancers according to the size of the primary tumor and whether or not it has invaded lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Considering the lumen size of the GI tract, an OCT system with a long image range (>10mm) and a US imaging system with a center frequency at 40MHz (penetration depth > 5mm) were used. The OCT probe was also designed for long-range imaging. The side-view OCT and US probes were sealed inside one probe cap piece and one torque coil and became an integrated probe. This probe was then inserted into a catheter sheath which fits in the channel of a duodenoscope and is able to be navigated smoothly into the bile duct by the elevator of the duodenoscope. We have imaged 5 healthy and 2 diseased bile ducts. In the OCT images, disorganized layer structures and heterogeneous regions demonstrated the existence of tumors. Micro-calcification can be observed in the corresponding US images.

  5. The effects of cannabidiolic acid and cannabidiol on contractility of the gastrointestinal tract of Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Cluny, Nina L; Naylor, Robert J; Whittle, Brian A; Javid, Farideh A

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI) transit in pathophysiologic in vivo models, while having no effect in physiologic controls. The actions of the precursor of CBD, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have not been investigated in the GI tract. The actions of these phytocannabinoids on the contractility of the GI tract of Suncus murinus were investigated in the current study. The effects of CBDA and CBD in resting state and pre-contracted isolated intestinal segments, and on the contractile effects of carbachol and electrical field stimulation (EFS) on the intestines of S. murinus were examined. CBDA and CBD induced a reduction in resting tissue tension of isolated intestinal segments which was not blocked by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, the CB(2) receptor antagonist AM630, or tetrodotoxin. CBDA and CBD reduced the magnitude of contractions induced by carbachol and the tension of intestinal segments that were pre-contracted with potassium chloride. In tissues stimulated by EFS, CBDA inhibited contractions induced by lower frequencies (0.1-4.0 Hz) of EFS, while CBD inhibited contractions induced by higher frequencies (4.0-20.0 Hz) of EFS. The data suggest that CBDA and CBD have inhibitory actions on the intestines of S. murinus that are not neuronallymediated or mediated via CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. PMID:21975813

  6. Purinergic neuromuscular transmission in the gastrointestinal tract; functional basis for future clinical and pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere; Accarino, Anna; Gallego, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Nerve-mediated relaxation is necessary for the correct accomplishment of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the GI tract, NO and a purine are probably released by the same inhibitory motor neuron as inhibitory co-transmitters. The P2Y1 receptor has been recently identified as the receptor responsible for purinergic smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation in the human gut. This finding has been confirmed in P2Y1-deficient mice where purinergic neurotransmission is absent and transit time impaired. However, the mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated relaxation, including the identification of the purinergic neurotransmitter(s) itself, are still debatable. Possibly different mechanisms of nerve-mediated relaxation are present in the GI tract. Functional demonstration of purinergic neuromuscular transmission has not been correlated with structural studies. Labelling of purinergic neurons is still experimental and is not performed in routine pathology studies from human samples, even when possible neuromuscular impairment is suspected. Accordingly, the contribution of purinergic neurotransmission in neuromuscular diseases affecting GI motility is not known. In this review, we have focused on the physiological mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated purinergic relaxation providing the functional basis for possible future clinical and pharmacological studies on GI motility targeting purine receptors. PMID:24910216

  7. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  8. The Effects of Pharmaceutical Excipients on Gastrointestinal Tract Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters-an Update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenpeng; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Wu, Man; Zhang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence from the last decade has shown that many pharmaceutical excipients are not pharmacologically inert but instead have effects on metabolic enzymes and/or drug transporters. Hence, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) may be altered due to the modulation of their metabolism and transport by excipients. The impact of excipients is a potential concern for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)-based biowaivers, particularly as the BCS-based biowaivers have been extended to class 3 drugs in certain dosage forms. The presence of different excipients or varying amounts of excipients between formulations may result in bio-inequivalence. The excipient impact may lead to significant variations in clinical outcomes as well. The aim of this paper is to review the recent findings of excipient effects on gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, focusing on their interactions with the metabolic enzymes and transporters in the GI tract. A wide range of commonly used excipients such as binders, diluents, fillers, solvents, and surfactants are discussed here. We summarized the reported effects of those excipients on GI tract phase I and phase II enzymes, uptake and efflux transporters, and relevant clinical significance. This information can enhance our understanding of excipient influence on drug absorption and is useful in designing pharmacokinetic studies and evaluating the resultant data. PMID:27184579

  9. Absorption of rivastigmine from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy; Hossain, Mohammad; Wang, Yanfeng; Sedek, Greg

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate and extent of absorption and metabolism of rivastigmine (Exelon), ENA 713) after site-specific delivery of the drug in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a naso-intestinal intubation technique. Healthy adult subjects (n = 7) received, on four separate occasions, a 3-mg dose of a rivastigmine solution (2 mg/mL) orally and via a naso-intestinal tube to three GI sites (jejunum, ileum, and ascending colon). On each of the 3 treatment days for regional GI dosing, the tube was progressed to each of the three GI sites, which was determined by a radiographical technique prior to dosing. On the fourth day, following tube withdrawal, the subject received a 3-mg oral dose of a rivastigmine solution. Plasma samples were obtained at different multiple time points, and the plasma concentrations of rivastigmine and its metabolite, NAP 226-90, were determined using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Rivastigmine was rapidly absorbed following both oral administration and site-specific delivery to different regions of the GI tract (jejunum, ileum, and ascending colon). Compared with oral administration (AUV(0- infinity ) = 21 ng*h/mL, C(max) = 12.8 ng/mL, and t(max) = 0.87 h), delivery of the drug directly into the ileum, jejunum, and ascending colon did not change the extent of absorption, but the time to peak concentration appeared to be smaller (mean t(max) ranged from 0.4-0.6 h, with no change in C(max)). The relative bioavailability of rivastigmine from all three regions of the GI tract was comparable to that following oral administration. The metabolite levels (AUC, C(max)) were also similar among the three different regions of the GI tract when compared to the oral dose. It was concluded that rivastigmine is rapidly and equally well absorbed following an oral dose and after specific delivery to different regions of the small intestine and ascending colon. GI metabolism of rivastigmine to its major

  10. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores. PMID:27116964

  11. Expression of Reg family genes in the gastrointestinal tract of mice treated with indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Fukui, Hirokazu; Hara, Ken; Kitayama, Yoshitaka; Eda, Hirotsugu; Yang, Mo; Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Watari, Jiro; Takasawa, Shin; Chiba, Tsutomu; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-05-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg) family proteins, which are classified into four types, commonly act as trophic and/or antiapoptotic factors in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. However, it remains unclear how these proteins coordinate their similar roles under such pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the interrelationships of Reg family gene expression with mucosal cell proliferation and apoptosis in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced GI injury. GI injury was induced by subcutaneous injection of indomethacin into Reg I knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and its severity was scored histopathologically. Temporal changes in the expression of Reg family genes, mucosal proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated throughout the GI tract by real-time RT-PCR, Ki-67 immunoreactivity, and TUNEL assay, respectively. Reg I, Reg III family, and Reg IV were predominantly expressed in the upper, middle, and lower GI mucosa, respectively. Expression of Reg I and Reg III family genes was upregulated in specific portions of the GI tract after indomethacin treatment. Ki-67-positive epithelial cells were significantly decreased in the gastric and small-intestinal mucosa of Reg I KO mice under normal conditions. After treatment with indomethacin, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly greater throughout the GI mucosa in Reg I KO mice than in WT mice. Expression of Reg I was independent of that of other Reg family genes in, not only normal GI tissues, but also indomethacin-induced GI lesions. Members of the Reg gene family show distinct profiles of expression in the GI tract, and Reg I independently plays a role in protecting the GI mucosa against NSAID-induced injury. PMID:25747353

  12. Removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Birk, Michael; Bauerfeind, Peter; Deprez, Pierre H; Häfner, Michael; Hartmann, Dirk; Hassan, Cesare; Hucl, Tomas; Lesur, Gilles; Aabakken, Lars; Meining, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults. Recommendations Nonendoscopic measures 1 ESGE recommends diagnostic evaluation based on the patient's history and symptoms. ESGE recommends a physical examination focused on the patient's general condition and to assess signs of any complications (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 ESGE does not recommend radiological evaluation for patients with nonbony food bolus impaction without complications. We recommend plain radiography to assess the presence, location, size, configuration, and number of ingested foreign bodies if ingestion of radiopaque objects is suspected or type of object is unknown (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends computed tomography (CT) scan in all patients with suspected perforation or other complication that may require surgery (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 ESGE does not recommend barium swallow, because of the risk of aspiration and worsening of the endoscopic visualization (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends clinical observation without the need for endoscopic removal for management of asymptomatic patients with ingestion of blunt and small objects (except batteries and magnets). If feasible, outpatient management is appropriate (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 ESGE recommends close observation in asymptomatic individuals who have concealed packets of drugs by swallowing ("body packing"). We recommend against endoscopic retrieval. We recommend surgical referral in cases of suspected packet rupture, failure of packets to progress, or intestinal obstruction (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). Endoscopic measures 7 ESGE recommends emergent (preferably within 2 hours, but at the latest within 6 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for

  13. Ecological determinants in microbial colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract: adherence of Torulopsis pintolopesii to epithelial surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Suegara, N; Siegel, J E; Savage, D C

    1979-01-01

    Torulopsis pintolopesii is a yeast indigenous to the gastrointestinal tracts of conventional mice and rats from many colonies. In such natively colonized animals, the organism forms layers on the surface of the epithelium in the secreting portion of the stomach and can be cultured from all areas of the gastrointestinal tract. When given in water or food to germfree mice or specific pathogen-free mice possessing an indigenous microbiota free of yeast, T. pintolopesii also can be cultured from all areas of the tract at population levels ranging from 10(5) to 10(8) cells per g (wet weight). Likewise, as in its native hosts, the organism forms layers on gastric surfaces in the associated animals. The layers form on the secreting surface in both the specific pathogen-free and monoassociated ex-germfree mice. In the latter animal, however, a layer of yeast also forms on the nonsecreting gastric surface. In tests of its capacity to adhere to gastrointestinal surfaces in vitro, the organism adheres to epithelia from all areas of the mouse tract. These findings support an hypothesis that the capacity of T. pintolopesii to adhere to epithelial surfaces may be only one determinant influencing it to form layers on the gastric secreting surface in its native hosts. PMID:157978

  14. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH OF CANDIDATES FOR SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    SILVEIRA, Thalita Morgana Guimarães; de SOUSA, Juliana Barbosa; STRINGHINI, Maria Luiza Ferreira; FREITAS, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; MELO, Paulla Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values ​​of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. Results The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (

  15. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25287236

  16. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Andrzej; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Pertkiewicz, Jan; Karpińska, Katarzyna; Marlicz, Wojciech; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the indications, resection rate, and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract at a European referral center. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ESD procedures performed in our center for mucosal neoplastic and submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The duration of the procedure, en bloc and complete (R0) resection rates, and complication rates were evaluated. Variables were reported as mean ± SD or simple proportions. Univariate analysis and comparisons of procedure times and resection rates were performed using Mann-Whitney U tests, or χ2 tests for dichotomous variables. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, ESD was performed in a total of 103 patients (46.7% male, mean age 64.0 ± 12.7 years). The indications for the procedure were epithelial tumor (n = 54), submucosal tumor (n = 42), or other (n = 7). The total en bloc resection rate was 90.3% (93/103) and R0 resection rate 80.6% (83/103). The median speed of the procedure was 15.0 min/cm2. The complete resection rate was lower for submucosal tumors arising from the muscle layer (68%, 15/22, P < 0.05). Resection speed was quicker for submucosal tumors localized in the submucosal layer than for lesions arising from the muscularis propria layer (8.1 min/cm2 vs 17.9 min/cm2, P < 0.05). The R0 resection rate and speed were better in the last 24 mo (90.1%, 49/54 and 15.3 min/cm2) compared to the first 3 years of treatment (73.5%, 36/49, P < 0.05 and 22.0 min/cm2, P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 14.6% (n = 15) of patients, including perforation in 5.8% (n = 6), pneumoperitoneum in 3.9% (n = 4), delayed bleeding in 1.9% (n = 2), and other in 2.9% (n = 3). Only one patient with delayed perforation required surgical treatment. During the mean follow-up of 26 ± 15.3 mo, among patients with R0 resection, recurrence occurred in one patient (1.2%). CONCLUSION: ESD is an effective and safe method for resection of

  17. GABA and GABA receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: from motility to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Auteri, Michelangelo; Zizzo, Maria Grazia; Serio, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Although an extensive body of literature confirmed γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as mediator within the enteric nervous system (ENS) controlling gastrointestinal (GI) function, the true significance of GABAergic signalling in the gut is still a matter of debate. GABAergic cells in the bowel include neuronal and endocrine-like cells, suggesting GABA as modulator of both motor and secretory GI activity. GABA effects in the GI tract depend on the activation of ionotropic GABAA and GABAC receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors, resulting in a potential noteworthy regulation of both the excitatory and inhibitory signalling in the ENS. However, the preservation of GABAergic signalling in the gut could not be limited to the maintenance of physiologic intestinal activity. Indeed, a series of interesting studies have suggested a potential key role of GABA in the promising field of neuroimmune interaction, being involved in the modulation of immune cell activity associated with different systemic and enteric inflammatory conditions. Given the urgency of novel therapeutic strategies against chronic immunity-related pathologies, i.e. multiple sclerosis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, an in-depth comprehension of the enteric GABAergic system in health and disease could provide the basis for new clinical application of nerve-driven immunity. Hence, in the attempt to drive novel researches addressing both the physiological and pathological importance of the GABAergic signalling in the gut, we summarized current evidence on GABA and GABA receptor function in the different parts of the GI tract, with particular focus on the potential involvement in the modulation of GI motility and inflammation. PMID:25526825

  18. Connection between inflammation and carcinogenesis in gastrointestinal tract: Focus on TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suntaek; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is a primary defense process against various extracellular stimuli, such as viruses, pathogens, foods, and environmental pollutants. When cells respond to stimuli for short periods of time, it results in acute or physiological inflammation. However, if the stimulation is sustained for longer time or a pathological state occurs, it is known as chronic or pathological inflammation. Several studies have shown that tumorigenesis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is closely associated with chronic inflammation, for which abnormal cellular alterations that accompany chronic inflammation such as oxidative stresses, gene mutations, epigenetic changes, and inflammatory cytokines, are shared with carcinogenic processes, which forms a critical cross-link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multi-potent cytokine that plays an important role in regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. Most importantly, TGF-β is a strong anti-inflammatory cytokine that regulates the development of effector cells. TGF-β has a suppressive effect on carcinogenesis under normal conditions by inhibiting abnormal cell growth, but on the other hand, many GI cancers originate from uncontrolled cell growth and differentiation by genetic loss of TGF-β signaling molecules or perturbation of TGF-β adaptors. Once a tumor has developed, TGF-β exerts a promoting effect on the tumor itself and stromal cells to enhance cell growth, alter the responsiveness of tumor cells to stimulate invasion and metastasis, and inhibited immune surveillance. Therefore, novel development of therapeutic agents to inhibit TGF-β-induced progression of tumor and to retain its growth inhibitory activities, in addition to anti-inflammatory actions, could be useful in oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of TGF-β in inflammation and carcinogenesis of the GI tract related to abnormal TGF-β signaling. PMID:20440848

  19. A novel finding of anoctamin 5 expression in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Yan; Tian, Yue-Min; Zhang, Yi-Min; Zhou, Li; Lian, Hui; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2014-08-22

    Anoctamin 5 (Ano5) belongs to the anoctamin gene family and acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). A mutation in the Ano5 gene causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2L, the third most common LGMD in Northern and Central Europe. Defective sarcolemmal membrane repair has been reported in patients carrying this Ano5 mutant. It has also been noted that LGMD patients often suffer from nonspecific pharyngoesophageal motility disorders. One study reported that 8/19 patients carrying Ano5 nutations suffered from dysphagia, including the feeling that solid food items become lodged in the upper portion of the esophagus. Ano5 is widely distributed in bone, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, brain, heart, kidney and lung tissue, but no report has examined its expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of Ano5 in the GI tracts of mice via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. The results indicated that Ano5 mRNA and protein are widely expressed in the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the colon and the rectum but that Ano5 immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer, except for the muscular layer of the upper esophagus, which consists of skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our present results demonstrate for the first time the expression of Ano5 in the GI epithelium and in skeletal muscle in the esophagus. This novel finding facilitates clinical differential diagnosis and treatment. However, further investigation of the role of Ano5 in GI function is required. PMID:25094048

  20. Massive bleeeding from upper gastrointestinal tract as a symptom of rupture of splenic artery aneurysm to stomach

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Szmeja, Jacek; Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Męczyński, Michał; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Katulska, Katarzyna; Drews, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Splenic artery aneurysm is the most common aneurysm of visceral vessels. Their rupture usually leads to massive bleeding, being a direct life threat. Splenic artery aneurysms usually rupture into the free peritoneal cavity, and much less frequently into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Case Report We describe the case of a 38-year-old male patient, who, as a result of chronic pancreatitis, developed a false aneurysm of the splenic artery, which initially caused necrosis of the large intestine and bleeding into its lumen, and subsequently necrosis of the posterior stomach wall with the aneurysm rupture to the stomach lumen with a dramatic course. Conclusions The case described confirms that splenic artery aneurysm can be a cause of bleeding to both upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and the aneurysm rupture is usually of a dramatic and life-threatening course. PMID:22293886

  1. Parenteral nutrition in adult inpatients with functioning gastrointestinal tracts: assessment of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2006-04-01

    Malnutrition is a common comorbidity that places inpatients at risk of complications, infections, long length of stay, higher costs, and increased mortality. Thus, nutrition support has become an important therapeutic adjunctive to the care of these patients. For patients unable to feed themselves, nutrition can be delivered via the parenteral or enteral routes. The formulations used to deliver nutrients and the route of nutrient delivery, absorption, and processing differ substantially between parenteral and enteral nutrition. Over the past two decades, many randomised clinical trials have assessed the effects of parenteral versus enteral nutrition on outcomes (ie, complications, infections, length of stay, costs, mortality) in diverse inpatient populations. From a search of medical publications, studies were selected that assessed important clinical outcomes of parenteral versus enteral feeding or intravenous fluids in patients with trauma/burn injuries, surgery, cancer, pancreatic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, critical illness, liver failure, acute renal failure, and organ transplantation. Our goal was to determine the optimum route of feeding in these patient groups. The available evidence lends support to the use of enteral over parenteral feeding in inpatients with functioning gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:16581410

  2. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%. PMID:25608285

  3. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% ± 5.5% to 25.3% ± 8.3% with a 0.7% tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  4. [Neuroendocrine system of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract: origin and development].

    PubMed

    Díaz Pérez, José Angel

    2009-04-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs) originate from the neuroendocrine cells through the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine pancreas. The embryologic development of the pancreas is a complex process that begins with the "stem cell" that come from the endodermus. These cells go through two phases: in the first transition the "stem cell" differentiates in exocrine and endocrine cells. This process is regulated by transcription factors such as Pdx1 ("insulin promoter factor 1"), Hlxb6 and SOX9. In the second transition the neuroendocrine cell differentiates in the 5 cell types (alpha, beta, delta, PP y epsilon.). This process is regulated through the balance between factors favoring differentiation (mainly neurogenin 3) and inhibitor factors which depend on Notch signals. The existence of a third transition in postnatal pancreas is hypothesized. The "stem cell" from pancreatic ducts would become adult beta cells, through autoduplication and neogenesis. In the small gut of the adult the stem cell are placed in the intestinal crypts and develop to villi in secretor lines (enterocytes, globet and Paneths cells) or neuroendocrine cells from which at least 10 cell types depend. This process is regulated by transcription factors: Math1, neurogenina 3 and NeuroD. PMID:19627763

  5. Reduced expression of Ca2+-regulating proteins in the upper gastrointestinal tract of patients with achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Harald; Fischer, Judith; Boknik, Peter; Gergs, Ulrich; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Domschke, Wolfram; Konturek, Jan W; Neumann, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare expression of Ca2+-regulating proteins in upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of achalasia patients and healthy volunteers and to elucidate their role in achalasia. METHODS: Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) isoforms 2a and 2b, phospholamban (PLB), calsequestrin (CSQ), and calreticulin (CRT) were assessed by quantitative Western blotting in esophagus and heart of rats, rabbits, and humans. Furthermore, expression profiles of these proteins in biopsies of lower esophageal sphincter and esophagus from patients with achalasia and healthy volunteers were analyzed. RESULTS: SERCA 2a protein expression was much higher in human heart (cardiac ventricle) compared to esophagus. However, SERCA 2b was expressed predominantly in the esophagus. The highest CRT expression was noted in the human esophagus, while PLB, although highly expressed in the heart, was below our detection limit in upper GI tissue. Compared to healthy controls, CSQ and CRT expression in lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophageal body were significantly reduced in patients with achalasia (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PLB in the human esophagus might be of lesser importance for regulation of SERCA than in heart. Lower expression of Ca2+ storage proteins (CSQ and CRT) might contribute to increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure in achalasia, possibly by increasing free intracellular Ca2+. PMID:17009399

  6. Identification, Recovery, and Refinement of Hitherto Undescribed Population-Level Genomes from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Laczny, Cedric C.; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Herold, Malte; Lebrun, Laura A.; Hogan, Angela; May, Patrick; de Beaufort, Carine; Wilmes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Linking taxonomic identity and functional potential at the population-level is important for the study of mixed microbial communities and is greatly facilitated by the availability of microbial reference genomes. While the culture-independent recovery of population-level genomes from environmental samples using the binning of metagenomic data has expanded available reference genome catalogs, several microbial lineages remain underrepresented. Here, we present two reference-independent approaches for the identification, recovery, and refinement of hitherto undescribed population-level genomes. The first approach is aimed at genome recovery of varied taxa and involves multi-sample automated binning using CANOPY CLUSTERING complemented by visualization and human-augmented binning using VIZBIN post hoc. The second approach is particularly well-suited for the study of specific taxa and employs VIZBIN de novo. Using these approaches, we reconstructed a total of six population-level genomes of distinct and divergent representatives of the Alphaproteobacteria class, the Mollicutes class, the Clostridiales order, and the Melainabacteria class from human gastrointestinal tract-derived metagenomic data. Our results demonstrate that, while automated binning approaches provide great potential for large-scale studies of mixed microbial communities, these approaches should be complemented with informative visualizations because expert-driven inspection and refinements are critical for the recovery of high-quality population-level genomes. PMID:27445992

  7. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Singh, Satyavir; Potliya, Sandeep; Kumar, Kailash; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48%) were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32%) and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%). In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocytic count (TEC). Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALKP) and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin. PMID:27046991

  8. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. PMID:27473961

  9. Cytomegalovirus infection in gastrointestinal tracts of patients infected with HIV-1 or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, N D; Boylston, A W; Roberts, A H; Parkin, J M; Pinching, A J

    1989-01-01

    All gastrointestinal tract biopsy specimens from 190 patients positive for HIV-1 or with AIDS were reviewed to assess the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, morphology of infected cells, and the associated histopathological features. Eighteen patients (10 (7.7%) of 129 HIV antibody positive and eight (13.1%) of 61 with AIDS) had CMV identified in 35 biopsy specimens from the following sites: oesophagus (n = 3); stomach (n = 6); small intestine (n = 4); colorectum (n = 18) and perianal area (n = 4). Eleven patients had CMV alone as the potential cause of symptoms and in seven there were coexistent pathogens or Kaposi's sarcoma. The appearance and type of infected cells at different sites was highly variable. Immunocytochemical techniques and electron microscopic examination were performed to confirm the presence of CMV antigen and CMV virus particles and to exclude the possibility of an adenovirus producing similar cytopathic changes. It is important to recognise the different morphological forms of infected cells, and the use of immunocytochemical techniques is recommended in patients at risk for CMV or in whom CMV infection is suspected. Images PMID:2555397

  10. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays for quinoline in rats.

    PubMed

    Uno, Fuyumi; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Nagai, Miho; Fukumuro, Masahito; Natsume, Masakatsu; Oba, Michiyo; Akahori, Ayaka; Masumori, Shoji; Takami, Shigeaki; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kougo, Yuriko; Ohyama, Wakako; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Okada, Emiko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-dose liver, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays that use young adult rats were evaluated in a collaborative study that was organized by the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. A genotoxic hepatocarcinogen quinoline was orally administered to independent groups of five Crl:CD (SD) male rats at doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg for 14 days and at doses of 15, 30 and 60mg/kg for 28 days. After treatment, the livers were harvested and hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase treatment. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated dose studies. However, the frequency of micronucleated cells did not increase in the bone marrow, stomach or colon cells, which were not quinoline-induced carcinogenic target organs in the rats. These results indicate that a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats is capable of detecting the genotoxicity of quinoline at the target organ of carcinogenicity. The protocol may also permit the integration of the genotoxic endpoint into general repeated-dose toxicity studies. Furthermore, we elucidated that conducting the micronucleus assay in multiple organs could potentially assess organ specificity. PMID:25892622

  11. Gastrointestinal Tract Commensal Bacteria and Probiotics: Influence on End-Organ Physiology.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Palacios, Talia; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria represent the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included cooperative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). It is generally agreed upon that the fusion of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryotic cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryotes. This is expressed by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells (an alpha-proteobacteria input), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. As such, the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activities. Hence, microbial colonization of mammals has been a progressively driven process. The interactions between the human host and the microbiome inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for example, afford the human host the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals that in part are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This regulated activity then promotes immunological tolerance and metabolic regulation and stability, which then helps establish control of local and extraintestinal end-organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the targeted administration of live probiotic cultures, is an advancing area of potential therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Hence the continued scientific understanding of the human microbiome in health and disease may further lead to fine tuning the targeted delivery of probiotics for a therapeutic gain. PMID:26462363

  12. Magnetic study on biodistribution and biodegradation of oral magnetic nanostructures in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Martín, Miguel; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Garcés, Víctor; Gálvez, Natividad; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Gálvez, Julio; Rondón, Deyanira; Olivares, Mónica; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2016-08-11

    We have undertaken a magnetic study on the oral biodistribution and biodegradation of nude maghemite nanoparticles of 10 nm average size (MNP) and probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum, containing thousands of these same nanoparticles (MNP-bacteria). Using AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of the stomach, small intestine, cecum and large intestine obtained after rat sacrifice, and iron content determination by ICP-OES, we have monitored the biodistribution and biodegradation of the maghemite nanoparticles along the gastrointestinal tract, after oral administration of both MNP and MNP-bacteria. The results revealed that the amount of magnetic nanoparticles accumulated in intestines is sensibly higher when MNP-bacteria were administered, in comparison with MNP. This confirms our initial hypothesis that the use of probiotic bacteria is a suitable strategy to assist the magnetic nanoparticles to overcome the stomach medium, and to achieve their accumulation in intestines. This finding opens doors to different applications. Since iron absorption in humans takes place precisely in the intestines, the use of MNP-bacteria as an iron supplement is a definite possibility. We have actually illustrated how the administration of MNP-bacteria to iron-deficient rats corrects the iron levels after two weeks of treatment. PMID:27477118

  13. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  14. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  15. Immunologically confirmed disseminated, asymptomatic Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C; Schwartz, D A; Visvesvara, G S; Müller, A; Schwenk, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Hartmann, P; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V

    1995-12-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They are increasingly recognized as human pathogens, especially in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Organisms of the genus Encephalitozoon have been implicated as a major cause of disseminated microsporidian infections in persons with AIDS. Until recently, E. hellem was the only Encephalitozoon species confirmed by antigenic or nucleic acid methods to have infected humans. We describe the clinical course and morphological features of a case of disseminated microsporidian infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in an HIV-infected patient with chronic sinusitis, rhinitis, and keratoconjunctivitis. Parasites were found in conjunctival swab, nasal discharge, sputum, urine, stool, and duodenal biopsy specimens, but no pulmonary, renal, or gastrointestinal symptoms were documented. The patient was treated with albendazole (400 mg po b.i.d.), resulting in complete remission of his ocular and nasal symptoms, and microsporidian spores disappeared from all sites. To our knowledge, this case is only the second of E. cuniculi infection in humans that has been confirmed by either antibody- or nucleic acid-based methods, and it is the first in which an Encephalitozoon species has been found in the intestinal tract of a human. Microsporidiosis is an important emerging opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients and, as documented in this report, has an expanding clinicopathologic spectrum. PMID:8749639

  16. Methanogen prevalence throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Chen, Yanhong; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic community throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-weaned calves has not been well studied. The current study firstly investigated the distribution and composition of the methanogenic community in the rumen, ileum, and colon of 3–4 week-old milk-fed dairy calves (n = 4) using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The occurrence of methanogens in the GIT of pre-weaned calves was further validated by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to quantify the methanogenic community in the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of 8 3–4 week old animals. Both cloning libraries and PCR-DGGE revealed that phylotypes close to Methanobrevibacter were the main taxon along the GIT in pre-weaned sucking calves. The composition and abundance of methanogens varied significantly among individual animals, suggesting that host conditions may influence the composition of the symbiotic microbiota. Segregation of methanogenic communities throughout the GIT was also observed within individual animals, suggesting possible functional differences among methanogens residing in different GIT regions. This is the first study to analyze methanogenic communities throughout the GIT of milk-fed newborn dairy calves and reveal both their diversity and abundance. The identification of methanogens in the lower GIT of pre-weaned dairy calves warrants further investigation to better define methanogen roles in GIT function and their impact on host metabolism and health. PMID:25483332

  17. Genomic analysis of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the calf gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kelly, William J; Cookson, Adrian L; Altermann, Eric; Lambie, Suzanne C; Perry, Rechelle; Teh, Koon Hoong; Otter, Don E; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Leahy, Sinead C

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. The present study provides a starting point from which we can define the role of potential beneficial microbes in the nutrition of young ruminants and begin to influence the interactions between the microbiota and the host. The differences observed in genomic content hint at niche partitioning among the bifidobacterial species analysed and the different strategies they employ to successfully adapt to this habitat. PMID:27468806

  18. Sex, lies, and gastrointestinal tract biopsies: a review of selected sexually transmitted proctocolitides.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Ali, M Aamir; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

    2014-03-01

    There are many insults that result in gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Infections can be particularly challenging because (1) only a limited number of organisms provoke a specific endoscopic and/or histologic appearance; and (2) although some organisms may be present on biopsies, the findings may be so subtle or organisms so few that they are easily missed if the reviewer is not performing a specific search for the offender. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are rarely a consideration at the time of GI biopsy examination and clinicians rarely inquire about sexual behavior at the time of initial patient interview. Although establishing a definitive STI diagnosis is not possible on histology alone, these infections are associated with inflammatory patterns that may help raise this diagnostic possibility. Becoming familiar with these patterns is necessary as worldwide outbreaks of these infections are being reported. This review aims to provide the pathologist with histologic clues associated with the most frequently encountered bacterial pathogens in the setting of STI proctitis, namely, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. PMID:24508691

  19. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Pirone, Andrea; Ding, Bao An; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra; Stornelli, Maria Rita; di Cossato, Margherita Marzoni Fecia; Piano, Ilaria; Lenzi, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant using immunohistochemistry. GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were common in the small intestine, in the proventriculus and in the pancreas. Immunostained cells were not seen in the crop, in the gizzard and in the large intestine. Double labelling demonstrated that GLP-1 and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were occasionally co-localized only in the duodenal villi. In contrast to what was previously described in the chicken and ostrich, we noted GLP-1 positive cells in the duodenum. These data were consistent with the presence of proglucagon mRNA in the chicken duodenum. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 might have an inhibitory effect on gastric and crop emptying and on acid secretion also in the pheasant. Moreover, the results of the present research regarding the initial region of the small intestine suggest a further direct mechanism of the GLP-1 release during the early digestion phase and an enhancement of its incretin role. PMID:22036174

  20. Single bioreactor gastrointestinal tract simulator for study of survival of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sumeri, Ingrid; Arike, Liisa; Adamberg, Kaarel; Paalme, Toomas

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an in vitro model system to evaluate the probiotic potential of food. A single bioreactor system-gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS) was chosen for process simulation on account of its considerable simplicity compared to multi-vessel systems used in previous studies. The bioreactor was evaluated by studying the viability of four known probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) as a function of their physiological state. L. acidophilus and L. johnsonii survived in GITS better when introduced at an early stationary or exponential phase compared to being previously stored for 2 weeks at 4 degrees C. These two species were more resistant to bile salts and survived better than L. casei and L. rhamnosus GG. The latter two species gave large losses (up to 6 log) in plate counts independent of growth state due to the bile. However, experiments with some commercial probiotic products containing Lb. GG bacteria showed much better survival compared with model food (modified deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe growth medium), thus demonstrating the influence of the food matrix on the viability of bacteria. The study demonstrated that GITS can be successfully used for evaluation of viability of probiotic bacteria and functionality of probiotic food. PMID:18581109

  1. The Geographical Clusters of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Goli, Ali; Oroei, Mahbobeh; Faramarzi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal tract cancer (GI.C) is one of the common cancers in world-wide. The incidence rate of it is different in various geographical regions. This study was performed to assess spatial clusters of the occurrence of GI.C in Fars Province. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the new cases were 4569 cases from 2001 to 2009. The crude incidence rates were standardized based on world population for both sexes. The spatial analysis was conducted using the geographical information systems. We used the local Indicators of spatial association measure, in order to identify local spatial clusters. Results: From a total of the new cases, 62.8% cases were male. The most common GI.Cs were stomach and colorectal cancer in men and women respectively. The significant cluster patterns were discovered from 2002 to 2007. The common type of spatial clustering was a high-high cluster, that to indicate from North-west to South-east of Fars Province. Conclusions: Analysis of the geographical distribution of GI.C will provide opportunities for policymakers for applying preventive measures. Furthermore, it could be helpful for researchers for future epidemiological studies for investigation of etiological agents in regions with significant spatial clustering of high incidence of cancer. PMID:25104997

  2. A Molecular Basis for Bifidobacterial Enrichment in the Infant Gastrointestinal Tract123

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Daniel; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are commonly used as probiotics in dairy foods. Select bifidobacterial species are also early colonizers of the breast-fed infant colon; however, the mechanism for this enrichment is unclear. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prototypical bifidobacterial species that can readily utilize human milk oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source. MS-based glycoprofiling has revealed that numerous B. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides, abundant in human milks. Genome sequencing revealed that B. infantis possesses a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates. Many of these genomic features encode enzymes that are active on milk oligosaccharides including a novel 40-kb region dedicated to oligosaccharide utilization. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the encoded glycosidases and transport proteins has further resolved the mechanism by which B. infantis selectively imports and catabolizes milk oligosaccharides. Expression studies indicate that many of these key functions are only induced during growth on milk oligosaccharides and not expressed during growth on other prebiotics. Analysis of numerous B. infantis isolates has confirmed that these genomic features are common among the B. infantis subspecies and likely constitute a competitive colonization strategy used by these unique bifidobacteria. By detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms responsible, these studies provide a conceptual framework for bifidobacterial persistence and host interaction in the infant gastrointestinal tract mediated in part through consumption of human milk oligosaccharides. PMID:22585920

  3. Genomic analysis of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the calf gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, William J.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Altermann, Eric; Lambie, Suzanne C.; Perry, Rechelle; Teh, Koon Hoong; Otter, Don E.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Leahy, Sinead C.

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. The present study provides a starting point from which we can define the role of potential beneficial microbes in the nutrition of young ruminants and begin to influence the interactions between the microbiota and the host. The differences observed in genomic content hint at niche partitioning among the bifidobacterial species analysed and the different strategies they employ to successfully adapt to this habitat. PMID:27468806

  4. Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia in the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Dayane M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Soares, Filippe E F; Benjamin, Laércio dos A

    2012-10-01

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of dogs was assessed in vivo against Toxocara canis eggs. Twelve dogs previously wormed were divided into two groups of six animals and caged. The treatments consisted of a fungus-treated group (VC4) and a control group without fungus. Each dog of the fungus-treated group received a single 4 g dose of mycelial mass of P. chlamydosporia (VC4). Fecal samples from animals of both groups (treated and control) were collected at five different times (6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) after fungal administration, and placed in Petri dishes. Each Petri dish of both groups for each studied time interval received approximately 1000 T. canis eggs. Thirty days after the fecal samples were collected, approximately one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish of each studied time interval and evaluated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microscopy examination of plates inoculated with the fungus showed that the isolate VC4 was able to destroy the T. canis eggs with destruction percentages of 28.6% (6 h), 29.1% (12 h), 32.0% (24 h), 31.7% (36 h), and 37.2% (48 h). These results suggest that P. chlamydosporia can be used as a tool for the biological control of T. canis eggs in feces of contaminated dogs. PMID:22100247

  5. Dysphagia, melanosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and a germinal mutation of the KIT gene in an Argentine family.

    PubMed

    Adela Avila, Silvia; Peñaloza, José; González, Flavia; Abdo, Ivana; Rainville, Irene; Root, Elizabeth; Carrero Valenzuela, Roque Daniel; Garber, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymatous neoplasms of the human digestive tract. They locate preferentially in stomach, duodenum or small bowel. Usually sporadic, familial cases unrelated to neurofibromatosis may be due to germline mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. We describe the first Argentine family with GIST in which we found, diffuse cutaneous melanosis, lentiginosis, and dysphagia. Dysphagia was not observed in the four families previously described with the same mutation. Histopathology resulted consistent with GIST, and tumor immunohistochemistry was likewise positive for DOG-1, CD117 (KIT) and CD34. The search for germline mutations identified the KIT c.1697T > C (p.559V > A) substitution in exon 11. Treatment with imatinib is furnishing positive results. PMID:24847623

  6. Endoscopic laser surgery of patients with pretumoral diseases and tumors of the organs of respiration and gastro-intestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddubny, Boris K.; Ungiadze, G. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Mazurov, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    The result of treatment of 566 patients with precancerous diseases, cancer and benign tumors of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract are presented. The `Raduga-1' as a source of laser radiation has been used. The wavelength of radiation 1060 nm. The maximum of basic radiation at the end of lightguide is 50 W. It is shown that the method of endoscopic laser destruction is a highly effective one and may be recommended for radical treatment.

  7. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  8. Differentiation between diseases using a programmable hand-held calculator and Bayes' theorem: application to lower gastrointestinal tract disorders.

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, J P

    1984-01-01

    A program is presented for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable pocket calculator that computes posterior probabilities of more than 200 diseases on the basis of Bayes' theorem. Data for specific applications are stored in ASCII files. The program and data are retained in the non-volatile memory of the calculator. An example of the application of the program to six lower gastrointestinal tract disorders is given using data from the literature. PMID:6391801

  9. The Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) Harbors Distinct Consortia of Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Kevin D.; Dearing, M. Denise

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota inhabiting the mammalian gut is a functional organ that provides a number of services for the host. One factor that may regulate the composition and function of gut microbial communities is dietary toxins. Oxalate is a toxic plant secondary compound (PSC) produced in all major taxa of vascular plants and is consumed by a variety of animals. The mammalian herbivore Neotoma albigula is capable of consuming and degrading large quantities of dietary oxalate. We isolated and characterized oxalate-degrading bacteria from the gut contents of wild-caught animals and used high-throughput sequencing to determine the distribution of potential oxalate-degrading taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. Isolates spanned three genera: Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Enterococcus. Over half of the isolates exhibited significant oxalate degradation in vitro, and all Lactobacillus isolates contained the oxc gene, one of the genes responsible for oxalate degradation. Although diverse potential oxalate-degrading genera were distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, they were most concentrated in the foregut, where dietary oxalate first enters the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesize that unique environmental conditions present in each gut region provide diverse niches that select for particular functional taxa and communities. PMID:24362432

  10. Campylobacter pylori: prospective analysis of clinical and histological factors associated with colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Börsch, G; Schmidt, G; Wegener, M; Sandmann, M; Adamek, R; Leverkus, F; Reitemeyer, E

    1988-04-01

    The association of Campylobacter pylori (C.p.) colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract with five predefined anamnestic variables, seven symptoms of dyspepsia, and various blindly evaluated histological criteria, was prospectively investigated in a consecutive series of 149 patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. Colonization was determined by biopsy urease tests and histological searches. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) between C.p.-positive and C.p.-negative patients were found for smoker status and the frequency of therapy with ulcer-healing drugs (positive association with C.p.) and antibiotics (negative association), but not for any other of the anamnestic data or symptoms. These data were further submitted to stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses. Concerning histological findings, C.p. colonization was significantly associated with the degree of antrum and body gastritis (P less than 0.01), and also with lymphocellular infiltration in antrum and body biopsies and neutrophil cellular grading in gastric antra. We conclude that C.p. colonization of the upper gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastritic change of the antrum and, albeit to a lesser extent, of the body mucosa. However, a specific pattern of symptoms to predict C.p. colonization could not be established. PMID:3133219

  11. An efficient nano-based theranostic system for multi-modal imaging-guided photothermal sterilization in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Since understanding the healthy status of gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is of vital importance, clinical implementation for GI tract-related disease have attracted much more attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a multifunctional theranostic system combining X-rays/CT/photothermal/photoacoustic mapping of GI tract and imaging-guided photothermal anti-bacterial treatment is designed and constructed. PEGylated W18O49 nanosheets (PEG-W18O49) are created via a facile solvothermal method and an in situ probe-sonication approach. In terms of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of PEG-W18O49, we demonstrate the first example of high-performance four-modal imaging of GI tract by using these nanosheets as contrast agents. More importantly, due to their intrinsic absorption of NIR light, glutaraldehyde-modified PEG-W18O49 are successfully applied as fault-free targeted photothermal agents for imaging-guided killing of bacteria on a mouse infection model. Critical to pre-clinical and clinical prospects, long-term toxicity is further investigated after oral administration of these theranostic agents. These kinds of tungsten-based nanomaterials exhibit great potential as multi-modal contrast agents for directed visualization of GI tract and anti-bacterial agents for phothothermal sterilization. PMID:25934293

  12. Silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods as multimodal contrast agents for a non-invasive visualization of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaopeng; Shi, Junxin; Bu, Yang; Tian, Gan; Zhang, Xiao; Yin, Wenyan; Gao, Bifen; Yang, Zhiyong; Hu, Zhongbo; Liu, Xiangfeng; Yan, Liang; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-07-01

    Non-invasive and real-time imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is particularly desirable for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from gastrointestinal diseases. Here, we designed and fabricated silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods (Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs) for a non-invasive spatial-temporally imaging of the GI tract. The Bi2S3 NRs were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and then coated with a SiO2 layer to improve their biocompatibility and stability in the harsh environments of the GI tract, such as the stomach and the small intestine. Due to their strong X-ray- and near infrared-absorption abilities, we demonstrate that, following oral administration in mice, the Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs can be used as a dual-modal contrast agent for the real-time and non-invasive visualization of NRs distribution and the GI tract via both X-ray computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) techniques. Importantly, integration of PAT with CT provides complementary information on anatomical details with high spatial resolution. In addition, we use Caenorhabditis Elegans (C. Elegans) as a simple model organism to investigate the biological response of Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs by oral administration. The results indicate that these NRs can pass through the GI tract of C. Elegans without inducing notable toxicological effects. The above results suggest that Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs pave an alternative way for the fabrication of multi-modal contrast agents which integrate CT and PAT modalities for a direct and non-invasive visualization of the GI tract with low toxicity.Non-invasive and real-time imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is particularly desirable for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from gastrointestinal diseases. Here, we designed and fabricated silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods (Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs) for a non-invasive spatial-temporally imaging of the GI tract. The Bi2S3 NRs were synthesized by a facile

  13. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling. PMID:25852573

  14. Diet-Induced Regulation of Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment. PMID:25238152

  15. Ex vivo optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy imaging of murine gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida; Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Wade, Norman; Besselsen, David; Utzinger, Urs; Gerner, Eugene; Barton, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) have separately been found to have clinical potential in identifying human gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, yet their diagnostic capability in mouse models of human disease is unknown. We combine the two modalities to survey the GI tract of a variety of mouse strains and sample dysplasias and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the small and large intestine. Segments of duodenum and lower colon 2.5 cm in length and the entire esophagus from 10 mice each of two colon cancer models (ApcMin and AOM treated A/J) and two IBD models (Il-2 and Il-10) and 5 mice each of their respective controls were excised. OCT images and LIF spectra were obtained simultaneously from each tissue sample within 1 hour of extraction. Histology was used to classify tissue regions as normal, Peyer"s patch, dysplasia, adenoma, or IBD. Features in corresponding regions of OCT images were analyzed. Spectra from each of these categories were averaged and compared via the student's t-test. Features in OCT images correlated to histology in both normal and diseased tissue samples. In the diseased samples, OCT was able to identify early stages of mild colitis and dysplasia. In the sample of IBD, the LIF spectra displayed unique peaks at 635nm and 670nm, which were attributed to increased porphyrin production in the proliferating bacteria of the disease. These peaks have the potential to act as a diagnostic for IBD. OCT and LIF appear to be useful and complementary modalities for imaging mouse models.

  16. Sevelamer crystals in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): a new entity associated with mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Benjamin J; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Nazari, Kamran; Park, Jason Y; Santangelo, William C; Torbenson, Michael S; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Yearsley, Martha M; Arnold, Christina A

    2013-11-01

    We report the first description of sevelamer crystals (Renagel and Renvela, Genzyme; phosphate-lowering agents) in the gastrointestinal tract. We prospectively collected cases with novel, histologically identical crystals from 4 major academic centers over a 1-year period and studied pertinent clinicopathologic features. Sevelamer usage in the setting of chronic kidney disease was demonstrated in all cases (n=15 total cases, 7 patients). Sites of involvement included the esophagus (n=2), small bowel (n=2), and colon (n=11). The background mucosa was normal in only 1 case. Notable mucosal abnormality included chronic mucosal damage (n=5), acute inflammation (n=4), inflammatory polyp (n=2), extensive ulceration (n=2), ischemia (n=1), and necrosis (n=1). In general, sevelamer crystals displayed broad, curved, and irregularly spaced "fish scales" with a variably eosinophilic to rusty brown color on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and violet color on periodic acid-Schiff-alcian special staining with diastase (PAS/D). To validate these findings, sevelamer tablets (Renvela) were crushed and submitted for histologic processing; the findings were identical to those in the patient specimens. The possibility of Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and cholestyramine had been raised in error. However, Kayexalate has narrow, rectangular "fish scales" and is violet on H&E and magenta on PAS/D; cholestyramine lacks internal "fish scales," is bright orange on H&E, variably gray or hot pink on PAS/D, and is unassociated with mucosal injury. Further study is required to determine whether sevelamer plays a causal role in these injuries; however, its crystal is an important mimic of both Kayexalate and choleystyramine. As the history of sevelamer administration was not documented in any pathology requisition, awareness of sevelamer's characteristic morphology is crucial to avoid the diagnostic pitfalls of its mimics. PMID:24061514

  17. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFP (ChAT) ) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFP (ChAT) cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFP (ChAT) cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFP (ChAT) cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFP (ChAT) cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFP (ChAT) cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFP (ChAT) cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFP (ChAT) brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling. PMID:25852573

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog buserelin causes neuronal loss in rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sand, Elin; Voss, Ulrikke; Hammar, Oskar; Alm, Ragnar; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ekblad, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are given to women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Case reports describing the development of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and auto-antibodies against GnRH after such treatment suggest a strong association between intestinal dysfunction and GnRH analogs. No experimental model for studying such a relationship is currently at hand. Our main goal was to investigate possible enteric neurodegeneration and titers of GnRH antibodies in response to repeated administration of the GnRH analog buserelin in rat. Rats were treated for 1-4 sessions with daily subcutaneous injections of buserelin or saline for 5 days, followed by 3 weeks of recovery. Buserelin treatment caused significant loss of submucous and myenteric neurons in the fundus, ileum, and colon. The loss of enteric neurons can, at least partly, be explained by increased apoptosis. No GnRH- or GnRH-receptor-immunoreactive (IR) enteric neurons but numerous luteinizing hormone (LH)-receptor-IR neurons were detected. After buserelin treatment, the relative number of enteric LH-receptor-IR neurons decreased, whereas that of nitric-oxide-synthase-IR neurons increased. No intestinal inflammation or increased levels of circulating interleukins/cytokines were noted in response to buserelin treatment. Serum GnRH antibody titers were undetectable or extremely low in all rats. Thus, repeated administrations of buserelin induce neurodegeneration in rat gastrointestinal tract, possibly by way of LH-receptor hyperactivation. The present findings suggest that enteric neurodegenerative effects of GnRH analog treatment in man can be mimicked in rat. However, in contrast to man, no production of GnRH auto-antibodies has been noted in rat. PMID:23254679

  19. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. PMID:23706491

  20. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  1. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  2. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  3. Live probiotic cultures and the gastrointestinal tract: symbiotic preservation of tolerance whilst attenuating pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Linnane, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co-operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti-microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro-organisms. It is now well-documented that the GIT microbiome is comprised of a complex cohort of commensal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. Microbial interactions in the GIT provide the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals [in part by reactive oxygen species (ROS)] that promote immunological tolerance, metabolic regulation and stability, and other factors, which may then help control local and extra-intestinal end organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the administration of live probiotic cultures is an exciting growth area of potential therapeutics, developing together with an increased scientific understanding of GIT microbiome symbiosis in health and disease. Hence probiotic bacteria may provide a therapeutic connect with the GIT microbiome that

  4. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oesophagus to cloaca.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. In view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these birds. Three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the GIT. The oesophagus was identified as a muscle-membranous tube continuous with the crop, which was intimately attached to the skin. The internal longitudinal folds of the cervical oesophagus were sparser cranial to the crop and less evident compared to the portion caudal to the crop. The duodenum began in the pylorus and was grey-coloured exhibiting a large lumen. The jejunum was formed by loops in a spiral-fashion model supported by mesojejunum. The ileum was also composed by small loops and was continuous with the colo-rectum forming the large intestine, because the caeca were absent. The large intestine was short, median in position, suspended in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesentery and ended in the cloaca. The GIT was similar to the basic patterns in birds, in general, and also presented new unreported morphological data that might be important when studying nutrition and health of the macaws. PMID:23414512

  5. Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract due to medications: an update for the surgical pathologist (part II of II).

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Caldero, Sonia Gatius; Chen, Longwen; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Dhungel, Bal M; Spizcka, Amy J Wendel; Lam-Himlin, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In keeping with the stated goal of providing the surgical pathologist with tools to recognize abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDS), in part II of this review we embark in a more organ-based description of AGIDS. Adequate space is given to the numerous adverse gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pill esophagitis, esophagitis dissecans, proton pump inhibitors' effects, diaphragm disease, and the recently described effects of drugs such as olmesartan, mycophenolate, and of compounds such as yttrium-90 are highlighted among several others. The inclusion of drug effects in the differential diagnosis of "conventional" diseases (such as gastric antral vascular ectasia, graft-versus-host disease, ischemic colitis, acute colitis, collagenous enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease) is underscored to avoid sometimes significant diagnostic pitfalls. We reiterate the message of the necessary collaboration between pathologist and clinician in the recognition of these entities to provide the best patient care. PMID:24021900

  6. Increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract among Geneva professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M; Raymond, L; Bolay, J; Fioretta, G; Puissant, J

    1992-05-01

    possible casual relation between exposure to engine exhaust emissions and the increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract found among professional drivers is discussed. PMID:1376139

  7. A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents. Each wall was divided into many small regions so that the histologic and radiosensitive variations of the tissues across the wall could be distinguished. The characteristic parameters were determined based on the newest information available in the literature. Each of these sections except the stomach was subdivided into multiple subsections to include the spatiotemporal variations in the shape and characteristic parameters. This new GIT was integrated into an anthropomorphic phantom representing both an adult male and a larger-than-average adult female. The current phantom contains 14 different types of tissue. This phantom was coupled with the MCNP 4C Monte Carlo simulation package. The initial design and coding of the phantom and the Monte Carlo treatment employed in this study were validated using the results obtained by Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The code was used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) in various organs and radiosensitive tissues from uniformly distributed sources of fifteen monoenergetic photons and electrons, 10 keV - 4 MeV, in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. The present studies showed that the average photon SAFs to the walls were significantly different from that to the radiosensitive cells (stem cells) for the energies below 50 keV. Above 50 keV, the photon SAFs were found to be almost constant across the walls. The electron SAF at the depth of the stem cells was a small fraction of the SAF routinely estimated at the contents-mucus interface. Electron studies

  8. Bacteria and Methanogens Differ along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chinese Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G.; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01) different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum. PMID:25490208

  9. Inflammatory fibroid polyps of the gastrointestinal tract: spectrum of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemistry features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Chiang; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Singhi, Aatur D

    2013-04-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare, benign tumors that can arise throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions has been well characterized, their morphologic features often vary. We report the clinicopathologic findings of the largest series of IFPs to date. A total of 83 IFPs seen at our institution were collected between 1999 and 2012. The specimens included 64 biopsies and 19 resections. A review of the clinical features identified a modest female predominance (47 women and 36 men) with patients ranging in age from 26 to 87 years (mean, 60 y). Involved sites included the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=31; mainly antrum), small intestines (n=17), appendix (n=1), large intestines (n=31; majority within the rectosigmoid), and anal canal (n=1). Although most patients had a nonspecific presentation, those with small intestinal lesions frequently presented with intussusception. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.2 cm (mean, 1.7 cm). Histologically, IFPs were centered within the submucosa in all resection specimens, but mucosal extension was found in 74 of 83 (89%) cases. The tumors varied in both cellularity and degree of vascularity. However, the characteristic feature of perivascular onion skinning was present in only 54% (45/83) of the cases. In addition, a short fascicular growth pattern was also noted in 36% (30 of 83) of cases, whereas both features were present in 14 cases (17%). Eosinophils were present in 94% (78 of 83) of cases but varied widely in number from abundant (20/hpf) to sparse (1/hpf). Interestingly, in those cases with sparse eosinophils, prominent hyalinization was also present (11 of 78, 13%). In addition, although the majority of IFPs expressed CD34, 6 of 44 (14%) were negative. No associated dysplasia or malignancy was seen. IFPs represent a diverse set of submucosal-based lesions that commonly extend into the mucosa, making them amenable to endoscopic biopsy. Although their

  10. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  11. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  12. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants.

    PubMed

    Damilakis, John; Stratakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Kourbetis, Nikiforos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to (a) provide normalized dose data for the estimation of the radiation dose from upper gastrointestinal tract contrast (UGIC) studies carried out to infants and (b) estimate the average patient dose and risks associated with radiation from UGIC examinations performed in our institution. Organ and effective doses, normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) were estimated for UGIC procedures utilizing the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code and two mathematical phantoms, one corresponding to the size of a newborn and one to the size of a 1-year-old child. The validity of the MCNP results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained in physical anthropomorphic phantoms simulating a newborn and a 1-year-old infant using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Data were also collected from 25 consecutive UGIC examinations performed to infants. Study participants were (a) 12 infants aged from 0.5 to 5.9 months (group 1) and (b) 13 infants aged from 6 to 15 months (group 2). For each examination, ESD and dose to comforters were measured using TLD. Patient effective doses were estimated using normalized dose data obtained in the simulation study. The risk for fatal cancer induction was estimated using appropriate coefficients. The results consist of tabulated dose data normalized to ESD or DAP for the estimation of patient dose. Conversion coefficients were estimated for various tube potentials and beam filtration values. The mean total fluoroscopy time was 1.26 and 1.62 min for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average effective dose was 1.6 mSv for group 1 and 1.9 mSv for group 2. The risk of cancer attributable to the radiation exposure associated with a typical UGIC study was found to be up to 3 per 10 000 infants undergoing an UGIC examination. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 47 microGy. In conclusion, estimation of radiation doses associated with UGIC studies

  13. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, John; Stratakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Kourbetis, Nikiforos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the current study was to (a) provide normalized dose data for the estimation of the radiation dose from upper gastrointestinal tract contrast (UGIC) studies carried out to infants and (b) estimate the average patient dose and risks associated with radiation from UGIC examinations performed in our institution. Organ and effective doses, normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) were estimated for UGIC procedures utilizing the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code and two mathematical phantoms, one corresponding to the size of a newborn and one to the size of a 1-year-old child. The validity of the MCNP results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained in physical anthropomorphic phantoms simulating a newborn and a 1-year-old infant using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Data were also collected from 25 consecutive UGIC examinations performed to infants. Study participants were (a) 12 infants aged from 0.5 to 5.9 months (group 1) and (b) 13 infants aged from 6 to 15 months (group 2). For each examination, ESD and dose to comforters were measured using TLD. Patient effective doses were estimated using normalized dose data obtained in the simulation study. The risk for fatal cancer induction was estimated using appropriate coefficients. The results consist of tabulated dose data normalized to ESD or DAP for the estimation of patient dose. Conversion coefficients were estimated for various tube potentials and beam filtration values. The mean total fluoroscopy time was 1.26 and 1.62 min for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average effective dose was 1.6 mSv for group 1 and 1.9 mSv for group 2. The risk of cancer attributable to the radiation exposure associated with a typical UGIC study was found to be up to 3 per 10 000 infants undergoing an UGIC examination. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 47 {mu}Gy. In conclusion, estimation of radiation doses associated with UGIC studies performed

  14. Ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Jeremy R; Maddox, Thomas W; White, Gillian M; Blundell, Richard J; Monné, Josep M; Lillis, Susannah M

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla (MDP) in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. ANIMALS 40 adult client-owned dogs examined because of conditions that did not include hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. PROCEDURES Ultrasonographic examination of the MDP was performed. Each MDP was measured in 3 planes. Intraobserver reliability of measurements was determined, and associations between MDP dimensions and characteristics of the dogs were investigated. Histologic examination of longitudinal sections of the MDP was performed for 1 dog to compare the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance. RESULTS The MDP appeared as a layered structure with a hyperechoic outer layer, hypoechoic middle layer, and hyperechoic inner layer that corresponded to the duodenal serosa, duodenal muscularis, and duodenal submucosa, respectively. Layers visible during ultrasonographic examinations were consistent with layers identified histologically. Intraobserver reliability was substantial for each plane of measurement. Mean ± SD length, width, and height of the MDP were 15.2 ± 3.5 mm, 6.3 ± 1.6 mm, and 4.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. An increase in body weight of dogs was significantly associated with increased values for all measurements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The ultrasonographic appearance and approximate dimensions of the MDP of dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease were determined. Additional studies are needed to evaluate possible ultrasonographic lesions of the MDP in dogs with hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or intestinal diseases and to investigate clinical implications of these lesions with regard to diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:27227497

  15. Expression of Ghrelin in gastrointestinal tract and the effect of early weaning on Ghrelin expression in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Cheng, Liang; Guo, Jiangpeng; Ma, Youji; Li, Fadi

    2014-02-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, plays an important role in stimulating hormone secretion, development of gastrointestinal tract, food intake and regulating energy balance of animals. In this study we isolated the cDNA sequence of ovine Ghrelin from the abomasums of 7-day-aged lambs. Real-time PCR was used to determine the abundance of Ghrelin mRNA in lamb gastrointestinal tract, and analyze the development changes of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA expression in 0-56 days lambs, as well as find the effects of 42-day weaning on Ghrelin mRNA expression in lamb abomasums. The results showed that: (1) Ghrelin mRNA was expressed widely in gastrointestinal tract and was significantly higher in the abomasums than in other tissues (rumen, reticulum, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum) (P < 0.01); (2) The expression of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA in lamb increased with the growth of age, it reached a plateau at the age of 49 days, however, got a slightly decrease at the age of 56 days; (3) The expression of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA of the 42 days-weaned groups were significantly lower than the no-weaned groups (P < 0.05), and the Ghrelin mRNA expression of the two treatments reached a maximum at the age of 49 days; (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the linear correlativity between abomasums Ghrelin mRNA expression and abomasums weight was very prominent (R(2) = 0.647, P = 0.009). Our results suggested that ovine Ghrelin gene may play an important role in the development of lamb abomasums and 42-day weaning could down regulate the expression of abomasum Ghrelin mRNA, but the mechanism of these needs further research. PMID:24385298

  16. Structural transformation of lignan compounds in rat gastrointestinal tract; II. Serum concentration of lignans and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nose, M; Fujimoto, T; Nishibe, S; Ogihara, Y

    1993-04-01

    Serum concentrations of arctiin, tracheloside, and their metabolites formed in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated in the rat. Arctiin or tracheloside was not detected in the serum after oral administration (200 mg/kg). In regard to their metabolites, each metabolite 1 (AM1, TM1), their genuine genins, appeared in the serum, and the serum concentration of arctiin metabolite 1 (AM1) reached its peak at 4 h and that of tracheloside metabolite 1 (TM1) reached its peak at 8 h. On the other hand, both metabolites 2 (AM2, TM2), which each possess a catechol moiety as reported previously, were not found in the serum. Now, we have studied the detection of their metabolites in the rat large intestinal contents after oral administration. It was revealed that all metabolites reported previously were certainly formed in rat gastrointestinal tract in vivo. Thus, we presumed a possibility that metabolite 2 was converted into metabolite 1 through C-3" methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in rat liver. Each metabolite 2 was incubated with rat liver cytosol in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. It was proved that metabolite 2 was rapidly converted into metabolite 1 within 3 min. We suggest that arctiin or tracheloside was transformed to at least two metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract, and after absorption from the intestine, metabolite 2 was converted into metabolite 1 through methylation by COMT in the liver, and arctiin and tracheloside existed as metabolite 1, the genuine genin, in the blood stream. PMID:8387675

  17. Long term results of treatment of vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract by neodymium Yag laser photocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rutgeerts, P; Van Gompel, F; Geboes, K; Vantrappen, G; Broeckaert, L; Coremans, G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Yag laser photocoagulation on the course of bleeding of gastrointestinal vascular malformations was studied in 59 patients, with a total of 482 lesions. The lesions were located in the upper gastrointestinal tract alone in 25 patients, in the lower tract alone in 31 patients and in both the lower and the upper gastrointestinal tract in three patients. In the month before laser therapy the number of bleeding episodes averaged 1.09 +/- 0.6 (SD) per patient (n = 57) and the transfusion requirements 2.4 +/- 2.6 red blood cells units per patient, while in the month after treatment the bleeding incidence averaged 0.16 +/- 0.5 and the transfusion requirements 0.21 +/- 0.8 (both p less than 0.001). Long term results were analysed considering for each patient an equally long pretreatment and follow up period. After a mean follow up period of 11.5 months (1-48 months), 17 of the 57 patients available for follow up rebled. The reduction of the bleeding rate was statistically significant at one, six, 12, and 18 months of follow up, while transfusion rate was significantly decreased at one, six, and 12 months. The results were disappointing in patients with Osler-Weber-Rendu (n = 4) and in patients with angiomas associated with Von Willebrand's disease (n = 3), who all rebled. In angiodysplasia the treatment was successful in 82% of the 49 patients. The more numerous the lesions, the less effective the reduction in bleeding rate by laser treatment was. Histological studies showed that the haemostatic effect of Yag laser photocoagulation was obtained by destruction of the lesion. Rebleeding was due to lesions missed at the first treatment, incompletely treated lesions and recurrence of new lesions. In two patients a free caecal perforation necessitated a right hemicolectomy. In both patients numerous or very large lesions had been treated in the caecum. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3874122

  18. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  19. Immunohistochemical study on localization of serotonin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European catfish (Silurus glanis, L.).

    PubMed

    Köprücü, S; Yaman, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the distribution of serotonin immunoreactive cells within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of European catfish (Silurus glanis). For this purpose, the tissue samples were taken from the stomach (cardia, fundus and pylorus region) and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior region). They were examined by applying the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. The serotonin containing immunoreactive cells are presented in all regions of the GIT. It was determined to be localized generally in different distribution within the stomachs and intestines of S. glanis. It was found that the most intensive regions of immunoreactive cells were the cardia stomach and posterior of intestine. PMID:25041659

  20. Effects of ghrelin and motilin on smooth muscle contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal tract from the bullfrog and Japanese fire belly newt.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Shimazaki, Misato; Kikuta, Ayumi; Yaosaka, Noriko; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin has been identified in some amphibians and is known to stimulate growth hormone release and food intake as seen in mammals. Ghrelin regulates gastrointestinal motility in mammals and birds. The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin affects gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility in bullfrogs (anuran) and Japanese fire belly newts (urodelian) in vitro. Neither bullfrog ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected longitudinal smooth muscle contractility of gastrointestinal strips from the bullfrog. Expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) mRNA was confirmed in the bullfrog gastrointestinal tract, and the expression level in the gastric mucosa was lower than that in the intestinal mucosa. In contrast, some gastrointestinal peptides, including substance P, neurotensin and motilin, and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol showed marked contraction, indicating normality of the smooth muscle preparations. Similar results were obtained in another amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt. Newt ghrelin and rat ghrelin did not cause any contraction in gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle, whereas substance P and carbachol were effective causing contraction. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect contractility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle in anuran and urodelian amphibians, similar to results for rainbow trout and goldfish (fish) but different from results for rats and chickens. The results suggest diversity of ghrelin actions on the gastrointestinal tract across animals. This study also showed for the first time that motilin induces gastrointestinal contraction in amphibians. PMID:26704852

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Microbial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Panaque nigrolineatus, a Wood-Eating Fish

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Schreier, Harold J.; Watts, Joy E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical detritivorous catfish Panaque nigrolineatus imbibes large quantities of wood as part of its diet. Due to the interest in cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin degradation pathways, this organism provides an interesting model system for the detection of novel microbial catabolism. In this study, we characterize the microbial community present in different regions of the alimentary tract of P. nigrolineatus fed a mixed diet of date palm and palm wood in laboratory aquaria. Analysis was performed on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from anterior and posterior regions of the alimentary tract and the auxiliary lobe (AL), an uncharacterized organ that is vascularly attached to the midgut. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct microbial communities in each tissue region. The foregut community shared many phylotypes in common with aquarium tank water and included Legionella and Hyphomicrobium spp. As the analysis moved further into the gastrointestinal tract, phylotypes with high levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp. and Clostridium xylanovorans and Clostridium saccharolyticum, dominated midgut and AL communities. However, the hindgut was dominated almost exclusively by phylotypes with the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Species richness was highest in the foregut (Chao1 = 26.72), decreased distally through the midgut (Chao1 = 25.38) and hindgut (Chao1 = 20.60), with the lowest diversity detected in the AL (Chao1 = 18.04), indicating the presence of a specialized microbial community. Using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we report that the P. nigrolineatus gastrointestinal tract possesses a microbial community closely related to microorganisms capable of cellulose degradation and nitrogen fixation. Further studies are underway to determine the role of this resident microbial community in Panaque

  2. A dendritic cell targeted vaccine induces long-term HIV-specific immunity within the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ruane, D; Do, Y; Brane, L; Garg, A; Bozzacco, L; Kraus, T; Caskey, M; Salazar, A; Trumpheller, C; Mehandru, S

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances for HIV-1 infected individuals, a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive. Studies focusing on early transmission events, including the observation that there is a profound loss of gastrointestinal (GI) CD4(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection, highlight the importance of inducing HIV-specific immunity within the gut. Here we report on the generation of cellular and humoral immune responses in the intestines by a mucosally administered, dendritic cell (DC) targeted vaccine. Our results show that nasally delivered α-CD205-p24 vaccine in combination with polyICLC, induced polyfunctional immune responses within naso-pulmonary lymphoid sites that disseminated widely to systemic and mucosal (GI tract and the vaginal epithelium) sites. Qualitatively, while α-CD205-p24 prime-boost immunization generated CD4(+) T-cell responses, heterologous prime-boost immunization with α-CD205-p24 and NYVAC gag-p24 generated high levels of HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within the GI tract. Finally, DC-targeting enhanced the amplitude and longevity of vaccine-induced immune responses in the GI tract. This is the first report of a nasally delivered, DC-targeted vaccine to generate HIV-specific immune responses in the GI tract and will potentially inform the design of preventative approaches against HIV-1 and other mucosal infections. PMID:26732678

  3. Cadherin expression in gastrointestinal tract endometriosis: possible role in deep tissue invasion and development of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Van Patten, Katy; Parkash, Vinita; Jain, Dhanpat

    2010-01-01

    Cadherins are cell surface proteins crucial for cell adhesion and tissue integrity. The mechanism of deep tissue invasion in gastrointestinal endometriosis is unknown and may be related to the altered expression of these cell surface proteins. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in peritoneal endometriotic implants, gastrointestinal endometriosis, and carcinoma arising in gastrointestinal endometriosis. Cases of peritoneal endometriosis, gastrointestinal endometriosis, and carcinoma arising in gastrointestinal endometriosis were identified from our pathology database. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin on representative tissue sections. Cases of normal proliferative and secretory endometrium and adenomyosis were included in the study for comparison. The intensity and extent of staining for each marker was scored semiquantitatively. Appropriate positive and negative controls were used. A total of 38 cases (peritoneal endometriosis (n=14), gastrointestinal endometriosis (n=21: 11 colon, 8 appendix, 2 small bowel), and 3 cases of endometrioid carcinoma arising in colonic endometriosis (n=3)) were included in the study. Compared with normal proliferative endometrium, N-cadherin expression was decreased in intensity and extent in secretory endometrium. Peritoneal and gastrointestinal endometriosis also showed markedly decreased expression of N-cadherin compared with proliferative endometrium. All three cases of carcinoma arising in colonic endometriosis showed a total loss of N-cadherin in the tumor, but preserved E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression. In these cases, areas of benign endometriotic glands near the tumor showed weak and focal N-cadherin expression that was gradually lost. Moderate-to-strong membranous staining for beta-catenin expression and variable intensity of E-cadherin expression was seen diffusely in normal endometrium and

  4. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  5. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  6. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  7. Concomitant surgical treatment of a chondrosarcoma of the chest wall and a desmoid tumor of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Andrzej; Chruścicka, Iwona; Rak, Piotr; Ptach, Anna; Maliszewski, Daniel; Pęksa, Rafał; Haponiuk, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    The co-existence of a chondrosarcoma of the chest wall and a desmoid tumor in the gastrointestinal tract is rare. In both Polish and global literature, cases of chest wall chondrosarcomas are presented in the form of case reports. Desmoids of the gastrointestinal tract are more common; notwithstanding, their incidence in Europe is estimated at approximately 2 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. We present the case of a 62-year-old female patient who suffered from both a chest wall chondrosarcoma and a desmoid tumor of the intestine; both neoplasms were operated on simultaneously. The former tumor was located in the region of the right costal margin, whereas the latter was located in the mesojejunum. The surgery was performed with two independent surgical incisions. The postoperative period was uneventful. The case is noteworthy in view of the extremely rare synchronous occurrence of the described tumors and due to the fact that any such operation requires an individualized surgical approach. PMID:26336503

  8. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli protein secretion is induced in response to conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B; Abe, A; Stein, M; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is associated with the expression and secretion of specific bacterial factors. EspB is one such secreted protein which is required to trigger host signaling pathways resulting in effacement of microvilli and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These events presumably contribute to the ensuing diarrhea associated with EPEC infections. EPEC encounters several environmental changes and stimuli during its passage from the external environment into the host gastrointestinal tract. In this paper we show that the secretion of EspB is subject to environmental regulation, and maximal secretion occurs under conditions reminiscent of those in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, secretion is maximal at 37 degrees C, pH 7, and physiological osmolarity. In addition, maximal secretion requires the presence of sodium bicarbonate and calcium and is stimulated by millimolar concentrations of Fe(NO3)3. The secretion of the four other EPEC-secreted proteins appears to be modulated in a manner similar to that of EspB. Our results also show that secretion is not dependent on CO2, as originally reported by Haigh et al. (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 129: 63-67, 1995), but that CO2 more likely acts as a component of the medium buffering system, since CO2 dependence was abolished by the use of alternative buffers. PMID:9199427

  9. Distribution of α-transducin and α-gustducin immunoreactive cells in the chicken (Gallus domesticus) gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Bombardi, C; Vallorani, C; Sirri, F; De Giorgio, R; Caio, G; Grandis, A; Sternini, C; Clavenzani, P

    2016-07-01

    The expression and distribution patterns of the taste signaling molecules, α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G-protein subunits, were studied in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken (Gallus domesticus) using the immunohistochemical method. Gαgust and Gαtran immunoreactive (-IR) cells were observed in the mucosal layer of all examined segments, except the esophagus, crop, and the saccus cranialis of the gizzard. The highest numbers of Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were found in the proventriculus glands and along the villi of the pyloric, duodenum, and rectal mucosa. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells located in the villi of the jejunum, ileum, and cloaca were much less numerous, while only a few Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were detected in the mucosa of the proventriculus and cecum. In the crypts, IR cells were observed in the small and large intestine as well as in the cloaca. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells displayed elongated ("bottle-" or "pear-like") or rounded shape. The demonstration of Gαgust and Gαtran expression provides evidence for taste receptor mediated mucosal chemosensitivity in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26957624

  10. Localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA in the human gastrointestinal tract by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Strong, T V; Boehm, K; Collins, F S

    1994-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization to localize expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in the human gastrointestinal tract and associated organs. The stomach exhibits a low level of CFTR expression throughout gastric mucosa. In the small intestine, expression is relatively high in the mucosal epithelium, with a decreasing gradient of expression along the crypt to tip axis. The cells of the Brunner's glands express high levels of CFTR mRNA. In addition, there is a small subpopulation of highly positive cells scattered along the epithelium in the duodenum and jejunum, but not in the ileum. These cells do not represent endocrine cells, as determined by lack of colocalization with an endocrine-specific marker. The distribution of CFTR mRNA in the colon is similar to the small intestine, with highest level of expression in the epithelial cells at the base of the crypts. In the pancreas, CFTR is expressed at high levels in the small, intercalated ducts and at lower levels in the interlobular ducts. CFTR transcripts are expressed at uniformly high levels in the epithelium of the gallbladder. Throughout the gastrointestinal tract, CFTR expression is increased in mucosal epithelial cells that are near lymph nodules. Images PMID:7506713

  11. Considerations concerning a tailored, individualized therapeutic management of patients with (neuro)endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    de Herder, W W; Krenning, E P; Van Eijck, C H J; Lamberts, S W J

    2004-03-01

    Endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas may present at different disease stages with either hormonal or hormone-related symptoms/syndromes, or without hormonal symptoms. They may occur either sporadically or as part of hereditary syndromes. In the therapeutic approach to a patient with these tumours, excessive hormonal secretion and/or its effects should always be controlled first. Tumour-related deficiencies or disorders should also be corrected. Subsequently, control should be aimed at the tumour growth. Surgery is generally considered as first-line therapy for patients with localized disease, as it can be curative. However, in patients with metastatic disease the role of first-line surgery is not clearly established and other therapies should be considered, such as non-surgical cytoreductive therapies, biotherapy (with somatostatin analogues or interferon-alpha), embolization and chemoembolization of liver metastases, chemotherapy (with single or multiple dose regimens) and peptide receptor-targeted radiotherapy. The delicate balance of the use of the different therapeutical options in patients with endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas emphasizes the importance of team approach and team expertise. PMID:15027883

  12. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies. PMID:25284307

  13. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05–1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08–1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  14. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  15. Seasonal changes in morphology and function of the gastrointestinal tract of free-living alpine marmots ( Marmota marmota).

    PubMed

    Hume, D; Beiglböck, C; Ruf, T; Frey-Roos, F; Bruns, U; Arnold, W

    2002-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 76 free-living alpine marmots ( Marmota marmota) shot during a population control program in Switzerland were collected and analysed for patterns of change in morphology and function over the period from emergence from hibernation in April to just before re-entry into hibernation in September. Between first emergence and mid-summer (July) the fresh tissue mass of the stomach increased by 105%, the small intestine by 259% (among the largest recorded for a mammal), caecum by 185%, proximal colon by 138%, and distal colon by 144%. Mitotic activity was greatest in the small intestine; the mitotic index was high (40%) compared with indexes in the stomach and hindgut (approximately 4%) even at emergence, and increased to approximately 60% by mid-summer. Microbial activity in the caecum was also significant at emergence. The stomach (length) and caecum (length and fresh mass) increased in response to ingested food earlier than did the small intestine. Between mid-summer and September there were decreases in small intestinal tissue mass and mitotic activity. It is concluded that the gastrointestinal tract of alpine marmots probably continues to function throughout hibernation at a low level, with a mid-winter trough as part of an endogenous circannual rhythm. However, after emergence in spring, increases in size and activity of the tract appear to be a response to ingested food rather than to an endogenous signal. The early signs of down-regulation of the small intestine before re-entry into hibernation, together with its delayed up-regulation in response to food in spring, are consistent with the high costs of maintaining this section of the digestive system. PMID:11919701

  16. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  17. Differential Expression of Motilin Receptor in Various Parts of Gastrointestinal Tract in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Wang, Hui; Yang, DongYan; Wang, ChengYan; Yang, LanLan; Jin, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The presence of motilin receptor in the GI tract of different animal species has been verified. However, the quantitation of motilin receptor expression in different regions of the GI tract remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of motilin receptor in the GI tract and semiquantitatively compare the expression difference in different GI regions in dogs. Methods. Antrum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal colon, middle colon, and distal colon were obtained from various parts of the GI tract of six sacrificed dogs. The distribution of motilin receptor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of motilin receptor mRNA in different regions were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Motilin receptor was expressed throughout the GI tract in dogs. Multiple comparisons of the mean motilin receptor mRNA expression among various regions were significant (P < 0.05). Motilin receptor mRNA was extensively expressed in duodenum, followed by ileum, jejunum, proximal colon, antrum, middle colon, and distal colon. Immunohistochemistry revealed that motilin receptor immunoreactivity was observed only in the enteric nervous system. Conclusion. Motilin receptor is expressed differentially along the GI tract in dogs. The significantly high expression of motilin receptor mRNA is found in the duodenum. PMID:25918525

  18. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA) can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions. Results An in vitro model that simulates the normal physiological conditions in the human digestive tract, as well as Caco-2 epithelial human cell lines, was used to challenge L. brevis IOEB 9809, which produced both tyramine and putrescine under all conditions tested. In the presence of BA precursors and under mild gastric stress, a correlation between enhancement of bacterial survival and a synchronous transcriptional activation of the tyramine and putrescine biosynthetic pathways was detected. High levels of both BA were observed after exposure of the bacterium to Caco-2 cells. Conclusions L. brevis IOEB 9809 can produce tyramine and putrescine under simulated human digestive tract conditions. The results indicate that BA production may be a mechanism that increases bacterial survival under gastric stress. PMID:23113922

  19. Local and Long-Distance Calling: Conversations between the Gut Microbiota and Intra- and Extra-Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua E.; Powell, Whitney L.; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead. PMID:27148490

  20. Diagnosis of follicular lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: A better initial diagnostic workup

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Kondo, Eisei; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to an increasing incidence and more frequent recognition by endoscopists, gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma has been established as a variant of follicular lymphoma. However, due to its rarity, there are no established guidelines on the optimal diagnostic strategy for patients with primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma or secondary gastrointestinal involvement of systemic follicular lymphoma. This review offers an overview and pitfalls to avoid during the initial diagnostic workup of this disease entity. Previously reported case reports, case series, and retrospective studies are reviewed and focus on the disease’s endoscopic and histological features, the roles of computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning, the clinical utility of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and the possible pathogenesis. PMID:26819532

  1. Diagnosis of follicular lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: A better initial diagnostic workup.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Kondo, Eisei; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-28

    Due to an increasing incidence and more frequent recognition by endoscopists, gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma has been established as a variant of follicular lymphoma. However, due to its rarity, there are no established guidelines on the optimal diagnostic strategy for patients with primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma or secondary gastrointestinal involvement of systemic follicular lymphoma. This review offers an overview and pitfalls to avoid during the initial diagnostic workup of this disease entity. Previously reported case reports, case series, and retrospective studies are reviewed and focus on the disease's endoscopic and histological features, the roles of computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning, the clinical utility of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and the possible pathogenesis. PMID:26819532

  2. Radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy of barium passage through the gastrointestinal tract in six healthy Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Vink-Nooteboom, Mariette; Lumeij, J T; Wolvekamp, W T C

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed in six clinically healthy blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy. During examination, the birds were confined in a perspex cage. The quality of the lateral radiographs was adequate for assessment of the contrast medium-filled gastrointestinal tract. Thirty minutes after administration of 20 mL/kg of a 25% barium sulphate suspension directly in the crop, in all birds the ventriculus was totally outlined by barium. After 60 min, the small intestine was filled in five of six birds. After 180 min, the crop was empty in all birds. The barium-outlined ventriculus had differences in shape on radiographs of individual birds and also between birds. The colon and cloaca had further filling after 120 to 300 min. With image-intensified fluoroscopy, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated. Contractions of the crop were seen, and boluses of contrast medium passing through the esophagus toward the proventriculus were easily identified. Proventricular contractions were rarely noted, but ventriculus motility was present and clearly defined. The ventriculus had a mean of 3.7 contraction cycles/min. In the duodenum and small intestine, rapid antegrade and retrograde peristaltic movements in combination with segmental contractions were seen. In the colon, occasionally very slow peristaltic activity, mainly of segmental nature, was present. During the examinations, no defeacation was recorded. Confinement in a small perspex cage provides an adequate and handy radiological set-up for evaluation of gastrointestinal passage and motility in birds, minimizing the influences of stress and anesthesia. PMID:12620049

  3. Community acquired fulminant Pseudomonas infection of the gastrointestinal tract in previously healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C K; Lee, K H

    1998-12-01

    Three previously healthy infants presented with diarrhoea and pyrexia and deteriorated rapidly. Two patients had necrotizing bowel disease requiring aggressive surgical intervention. All survived. P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection in previously healthy children is an extremely rare condition with a high mortality. Ecthyma gangrenosum was present in over 60% of reported cases although often not recognized initially. A high index of clinical suspicion, including prompt recognition of ecthyma gangrenosum, is mandatory for an early diagnosis of P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the prognosis. PMID:9928656

  4. Predicting liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer by diffusion-weighted imaging of apparent diffusion coefficient values

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, De-Xian; Meng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Qing-Jun; Li, Chuan-Ting; Shang, Xi-Dan; Zhu, Yu-Seng; Bai, Tian-Jun; Xu, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if efficacy of chemotherapy on liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer can be predicted by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: In total, 86 patients with liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer (156 metastatic lesions) diagnosed in our hospital were included in this study. The maximum diameters of these tumors were compared with each other before treatment, 2 wk after treatment, and 12 wk after treatment. Selected patients were classified as the effective group and the ineffective group, depending on the maximum diameter of the tumor after 12 wk of treatment; and the ADC values at different treatment times between the two groups were compared. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the relationship between ADC value and tumor diameter. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the ADC values before treatment to predict the patient’s sensitivity and specificity degree of efficacy to the chemotherapy. RESULTS: There was no difference in age between the two groups and in maximum tumor diameter before treatment and 2 wk after treatment. However, after 12 wk of treatment, maximum tumor diameter in the effective group was significantly lower than that in the ineffective group (P < 0.05). Before treatment, ADC values in the ineffective group were significantly higher than those in the effective group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ADC values between the effective and ineffective groups after 2 and 12 wk of treatment. However, ADC values were significantly higher after 2 and 12 wk of treatment compared to before treatment in the effective group (P < 0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ADC value before treatment and the reduced percentage of the maximum tumor diameter after 12 wk of treatment were negatively correlated, while the increase in the percentage of the ADC value 12 wk after treatment and the decrease in the

  5. Galectin-11 induction in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle following nematode and protozoan infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galectin-11 (LGALS11) has been suggested to play an important role in protective immunity against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. However, in cattle this molecule has not been characterized in detail. In the current study, it was shown that transcription of LGALS11 was highly inducible in t...

  6. Changes in Bacterial Population of Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs Fed with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Mercè; Nofrarías, Miquel; Majó, Natàlia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana María; Espinal, Anna; Pujols, Joan; Badiola, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide novel insights into the gastrointestinal microbial diversity from different gastrointestinal locations in weaning piglets using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the effect of different feed additives was analyzed. Thirty-two piglets were fed with four different diets: a control group and three enriched diets, with avilamycin, sodium butyrate, and a plant extract mixture. Digesta samples were collected from eight different gastrointestinal segments of each animal and the bacterial population was analysed by a PCR-RFLP technique that uses 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the number of bands and the Shannon-Weaver index. Dendrograms were constructed to estimate the similarity of bacterial populations. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in large intestine compared to small intestine. Among diets, the most relevant microbial diversity differences were found between sodium butyrate and plant extract mixture. Proximal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon were identified as those segments that could be representative of microbial diversity in pig gut. Results indicate that PCR-RFLP technique allowed detecting modifications on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology in pigs fed with different additives, such as increased biodiversity by sodium butyrate in feed. PMID:24575403

  7. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25382707

  8. Persistent Gastric Colonization with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Dissemination from the Gastrointestinal Tract following Mucosal Inoculation of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Andrew; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Schweizer, Herbert; Dow, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans caused by opportunistic infection with the soil and water bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can manifest as an acute, overwhelming infection or as a chronic, recurrent infection. At present, it is not clear where B. pseudomallei resides in the mammalian host during the chronic, recurrent phase of infection. To address this question, we developed a mouse low-dose mucosal challenge model of chronic B. pseudomallei infection and investigated sites of bacterial persistence over 60 days. Sensitive culture techniques and selective media were used to quantitate bacterial burden in major organs, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We found that the GI tract was the primary site of bacterial persistence during the chronic infection phase, and was the only site from which the organism could be consistently cultured during a 60-day infection period. The organism could be repeatedly recovered from all levels of the GI tract, and chronic infection was accompanied by sustained low-level fecal shedding. The stomach was identified as the primary site of GI colonization as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Organisms in the stomach were associated with the gastric mucosal surface, and the propensity to colonize the gastric mucosa was observed with 4 different B. pseudomallei isolates. In contrast, B. pseudomallei organisms were present at low numbers within luminal contents in the small and large intestine and cecum relative to the stomach. Notably, inflammatory lesions were not detected in any GI tissue examined in chronically-infected mice. Only low-dose oral or intranasal inoculation led to GI colonization and development of chronic infection of the spleen and liver. Thus, we concluded that in a mouse model of melioidosis B. pseudomallei preferentially colonizes the stomach following oral inoculation, and that the chronically colonized GI tract likely serves as a reservoir for dissemination of infection to

  9. Survival of probiotic lactobacilli in the upper gastrointestinal tract using an in vitro gastric model of digestion.

    PubMed

    Lo Curto, Alberto; Pitino, Iole; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Dainty, Jack Richard; Faulks, Richard Martin; John Wickham, Martin Sean

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate survival of three commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei subsp. shirota, L. casei subsp. immunitas, Lactobacillus acidophilus subsp. johnsonii) in the human upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM) of digestion followed by incubation under duodenal conditions. Water and milk were used as food matrices and survival was evaluated in both logarithmic and stationary phase. The % of recovery in logarithmic phase ranged from 1.0% to 43.8% in water for all tested strains, and from 80.5% to 197% in milk. Higher survival was observed in stationary phase for all strains. L. acidophilus subsp. johnsonii showed the highest survival rate in both water (93.9%) and milk (202.4%). Lactic acid production was higher in stationary phase, L. casei subsp. shirota producing the highest concentration (98.2 mM) after in vitro gastric plus duodenal digestion. PMID:21839386

  10. Detection of Clostridium botulinum type C cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, P.; Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    We established a method of directly detecting Clostridium botulinum type C cells, while minimizing spore detection, in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). This technique involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA from tilapia intestinal tracts and used a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C1 toxin gene. We consistently detected C. botulinum type C cells in tilapia gastrointestinal contents at a level of 7.5 ?? 10 4 cells per 0.25 g material or 1.9 ?? 10 3 cells. This technique is useful for determining prevalence of the potentially active organisms within a given population of fish and may be adapted to other types of C. botulinum and vertebrate populations as well. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  11. Helicobacter apodemus sp. nov., a new Helicobacter species identified from the gastrointestinal tract of striped field mice in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo Jin; Dong, Hee-Jin; Shin, Jae Hoon; Kim, Il Yong; Ho, Hungwui; Oh, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Min; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Suh, Jun Gyo; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Kim, Hyoung-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel Helicobacter species was identified from the gastrointestinal tract of the Korean striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Biochemical testing, ultrastructure characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that this bacterium represents a distinct taxon. The bacterium was positive for urease activity, susceptible to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, and weakly positive for oxidase and catalase activity. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium has spirally curved rod morphology with singular bipolar nonsheathed flagella. Genotypically, the isolated bacterial strains (YMRC 000215, YMRC 000216, and YMRC 000419) were most closely related to a reference strain of Helicobacter mesocricetorum (97.25%, 97.32%, and 97.03% 16S rRNA sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequences of these strains were deposited into GenBank under accession numbers AF284754, AY009129, and AY009130, respectively. We propose the name Helicobacter apodemus for this novel species. PMID:25797297

  12. [Functional state of the gastrointestinal tract organs in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, K V; Goland-Ruvinova, L G; Goncharova, N P; Zhiznevskaia, O V; Medkova, I L

    1982-01-01

    The enzyme-excretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129 were studied. Immediately postflight, the pepsin synthesis decreased and the dipeptide parietal hydrolysis increased. At R + 6, the activity of the enzymes responsible for the cavitary and parietal hydrolysis of lipids significantly grew and that of the enzymes involved in protein hydrolysis fell. At R + 30, the carbohydrate hydrolysis was inhibited and the activity of lipolytic enzymes enhanced markedly. The amplitude and rhythm of stomach biopotentials were dysbalanced. The so-called immobilization stress of intact rats brought about activation of lipase, monoglyceridyl lipase, dipeptidase and inhibition of amylase and invertase. The immobilization exposure of flight rats caused inhibition of the membrane hydrolysis of proteins and carbohydrates and lack of the pancreatic reaction. PMID:7070039

  13. Clinical application of kampo medicine (rikkunshito) for common and/or intractable symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kazunari; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenterological reflux disease and functional dyspepsia are usually treatable using Western medical practices. Nonetheless, some cases present with intractable symptoms that are not amenable to these therapies. Treatment with kampo, a traditional Japanese medicine, recently has been proposed as an alternative therapy for use in combination with the Western practices. In general, traditional Japanese medicines have been used empirically for intractable symptoms correctively designated as "general malaises." Accumulating lines of evidence, including basic and clinical researches, have demonstrate detailed mechanisms where traditional Japanese medicines exert pharmacological action to improve symptoms. Therefore, traditional Japanese medicines have been gaining use by various medical doctors as the specific modes of pharmacological action are recognized. This review covers both the pharmacological functions and the clinical efficacies of rikkunshito for use in treating disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25688209

  14. Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract due to drugs: an update for the surgical pathologist (part I of II).

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Gatius Caldero, Sonia; Chen, Longwen; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Dhungel, Bal M; Wendel Spizcka, Amy J; Lam-Himlin, Dora

    2014-04-01

    Abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDs) are numerous and have significant impact. The aim of this narrative review is to help the practicing surgical pathologist recognize selected AGIDs. The adverse drug effects presented were chosen with an emphasis on recent and significant pathological and clinical contributions. The selection was based on a thorough review of the PUBMED-based literature and on the authors' opinions and experience. In the first part of the review, diagnostic abnormalities due to crystals (eg, iron, biphosphonates, nonsystemic drugs), mitosis arresting drugs (colchicine, taxanes), and biological agents, especially ipilimumab, are discussed. Some AGIDs' histopathologic features can be easily recognized. It is however the clinical correlation that in many cases of AGIDs will provide the necessary support for a drug effect diagnosis. The identification of AGIDs requires heightened awareness of the medical team in which close collaboration of pathologists and clinicians cannot be overemphasized. PMID:24021899

  15. Metagenomic evidence for taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance in the gastrointestinal tracts of children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Ohad; Levy, Roie; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Carr, Rogan; Radey, Matthew C.; Hager, Kyle R.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Miller, Samuel I.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results in inflammation, malabsorption of fats and other nutrients, and obstruction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, yet the mechanisms linking these disease manifestations to microbiome composition remain largely unexplored. Here we used metagenomic analysis to systematically characterize fecal microbiomes of children with and without CF, demonstrating marked CF-associated taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance. We further showed that these taxonomic and functional shifts were especially pronounced in young children with CF and diminished with age. Importantly, the resulting dysbiotic microbiomes had significantly altered capacities for lipid metabolism, including decreased capacity for overall fatty acid biosynthesis and increased capacity for degrading anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids. Notably, these functional differences correlated with fecal measures of fat malabsorption and inflammation. Combined, these results suggest that enteric fat abundance selects for pro-inflammatory GI microbiota in young children with CF, offering novel strategies for improving the health of children with CF-associated fat malabsorption. PMID:26940651

  16. Phenolic Acids in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract of Pigs Fed Black Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black raspberries (BRB) contain high levels of anthocyanins and have been demonstrated to be chemopreventative against colon cancer. In this study, pigs were fed freeze-dried BRB powder and three segments of the GI tract (small intestine, cecum and colon; 4 hours after feeding) were collected for an...

  17. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  18. Recovery of gastrointestinal tract motility detection using Naive Bayesian and minimum statistics.

    PubMed

    Ulusar, Umit D

    2014-08-01

    Loss of gastrointestinal motility is a significant medical setback for patients who experience abdominal surgery and contributes to the most common reason for prolonged hospital stays. Recent clinical studies suggest that initiating feeding early after abdominal surgery is beneficial. Early feeding is possible when the patients demonstrate bowel motility in the form of bowel sounds (BS). This work provides a data collection, processing and analysis methodology for detection of recovery of gastrointestinal track motility by observing BSs in auscultation recordings. The approach is suitable for real-time long-term continuous monitoring in clinical environments. The system was developed using a Naive Bayesian algorithm for pattern classification, and Minimum Statistics and spectral subtraction for noise attenuation. The solution was tested on 59h of recordings and 94.15% recognition accuracy was observed. PMID:24971526

  19. Gastrointestinal tract obstruction secondary to post-operative oedema: does dexamethasone administration help?

    PubMed Central

    Atie, M.; Khoma, O.; Dunn, G.; Falk, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Oedema can occur in handled tissues following upper gastrointestinal surgery with anastomosis formation. Obstruction of the lumen may result in delayed return of enteric function. Intravenous steroid use may be beneficial. Three cases of delayed emptying following fundoplication, gastro-enteric and entero-enteric anastomoses are reviewed. Conservative management with supportive measures failed. Dexamethasone was administered to treat the oedematous obstruction. A literature review in PubMed, Cochrane database and Medline for English language publications on the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute post surgical oedema of the upper gastrointestinal was conducted. Administration of dexamethasone led to resolution of symptoms and successful outcome. No reports on the use of steroids in this context were identified in the literature. The use of dexamethasone may effectively treat intestinal obstruction due to inflammatory or oedematous cause in the early post-operative period. PMID:27554826

  20. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen W.; Sims, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, Paul; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oxalate-Degrading Strain of Clostridium sporogenes from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula).

    PubMed

    Oakeson, Kelly F; Miller, Aaron; Dale, Colin; Dearing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the white-throated woodrat Neotoma albigula harbors a diverse microbial population that functions in the degradation of ingested plant secondary compounds. Here, we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of Clostridium sporogenes strain 8-O, a novel oxalate-degrading bacterium isolated from the feces of N. albigula. PMID:27198026

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oxalate-Degrading Strain of Clostridium sporogenes from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Dale, Colin; Dearing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the white-throated woodrat Neotoma albigula harbors a diverse microbial population that functions in the degradation of ingested plant secondary compounds. Here, we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of Clostridium sporogenes strain 8-O, a novel oxalate-degrading bacterium isolated from the feces of N. albigula. PMID:27198026

  3. Conjugative transfer of plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids between bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, a prevalent pest in poultry production facilities was determined. Lesser mealworm larvae were exposed to a negative bacterial control (PBS), a don...

  4. Distribution of Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Naturally O157-Shedding Cattle at Necropsy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) occurrence was determined along the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of four naturally-infected cattle and at specific locations for 61 additional animals. STECO157 was recovered along the entire length of the GIT, though inter-animal distributio...

  5. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  6. Histological Features of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wild Indonesian Shortfin Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), Captured in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nasruddin, Nurrul Shaqinah; Azmai, Mohammad Noor Amal; Ismail, Ahmad; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth), the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric), and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum) for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish. PMID:25587561

  7. Conjugative plasmid transfer between Salmonella enterica Newport and Escherichia coli within the gastrointestinal tract of the lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids could occur within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm beetles, a common pest in poultry production facilities. In three replicate studies (n=40), beetles were exposed for 2 h to a mu...

  8. Radiographic anatomy and barium sulfate contrast transit time of the gastrointestinal tract of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Daniaux, Lise; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Weber, Ernest Scott; Zwingenberger, Allison; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The positive contrast gastrointestinal study is a common non-invasive diagnostic technique that does not require anesthesia and enables good visualization of the digestive tract. Radiographic anatomy and reference intervals for gastrointestinal contrast transit time in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were established using seven animals administered 15 ml/kg of a 35% w/v suspension of barium by esophageal gavage. Dorso-ventral and lateral radiographic views were performed at 0, 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h, and then every 12 h up to 96 h after barium administration. Gastric emptying was complete at a median time of 10 h (range 4-24 h). Median jejunum and small intestinal emptying times were 1 h (range 30 min-2 h) and 29 h (range 24-48 h), respectively. Median transit time for cecum was 10 h (range 8-12 h). Median time for contrast to reach the colon was 31 h (range 12-72 h) after administration. Results were compared to those obtained in other reptilian species. This technique appeared safe in fasted bearded dragons and would be clinically applicable in other lizard species. PMID:24945023

  9. Colonization and distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in chicken gastrointestinal tract and their relationship with host immunity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ningbo; Yin, Yeshi; Sun, Guochang; Xiang, Charlie; Liu, Donghong; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Uncultivable segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals and can boost the host immunity. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) from mother's milk has been previously shown to be a key factor in regulating SFB colonization. Because neonatal chicken cannot acquire IgA from maternal milk, they are a good model to examine the role of IgA in SFB colonization. Here, we used the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor the colonization and distribution of SFB in chickens aged from 2-day-old to 6-week-old. Early SFB colonization, which primarily occurred in the ileal mucosa (< 13 days old), was IgA independent. From the age of 17-42 days, there was an increase in IgA in the gut mucosa, which was correlated with a decrease in SFB. To examine the effect of probiotics and immunosuppression on SFB colonization, we treated the chickens by feeding them Lactobacillus delbrueckii or giving them a subcutaneous injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Feeding lactobacilli at birth rendered SFB colonization occurring 4 days earlier, while CTX treatment increases the SFB colonization through reducing the other non-SFB bacteria. Altogether, our data suggest that early colonization of SFB in chicken occurs independently of IgA and the population of SFB in the GI tract of chicken may be manipulated from birth via probiotic or CTX treatment. PMID:22429007

  10. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  11. Telomeres and telomere dynamics: relevance to cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Nivedita; Skinner, Halcyon G.; Litzelman, Kristin; Vanderboom, Russell; Baichoo, Esha; Boardman, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aberrations in telomere length and telomere maintenance contribute to cancer development. In this article, we review basic principles of telomere length in normal and tumor tissue and the presence of the two main telomere maintenance pathways as they pertain to GI tract cancer. Peripheral blood telomeres are shorter in patients with many types of GI tract cancers. Telomere length in tumor DNA also appears to shorten early in cancer development. Tumor telomere shortening is often accompanied by telomerase activation to protect genetically damaged DNA from normal cell senescence or apoptosis, allowing immortalized but damaged DNA to persist. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is another mechanism used by cancer to maintain telomere length in cancer cells. Telomerase and ALT activators and inhibitors may become important chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents as our understanding of telomere biology, specific telomere related phenotypes, and its relationship to carcinogenesis increases. PMID:24161135

  12. Metaphylogenomic and Potential Functionality of the Limpet Patella pellucida’s Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Magda; Adams, Jessica; Swain, Martin; Hegarty, Matthew; Huws, Sharon; Gallagher, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity associated with the digestive tract of the seaweed grazing marine limpet Patella pellucida. Using a modified indirect DNA extraction protocol and performing metagenomic profiling based on specific prokaryotic marker genes, the abundance of bacterial groups was identified from the analyzed metagenome. The members of three significantly abundant phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were characterized through the literature and their predicted functions towards the host, as well as potential applications in the industrial environment assessed. PMID:25334059

  13. New Principles In Operating Gastro-Intestinal Tract With CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Litwin, G. D.; Smoljaninov, M. V.; Brehov, E. I.; Rjabov, V. I.; Kirpitchev, A. G.

    1988-06-01

    Laser devicea are becoming morn popular in surgery. They are mainly used for controling hemorrages through an endoscope, for radicalevaporating benign and small malignant tumors in esophagus, stomach, colon, and for palliative destruction of inoperable tumors to recanalize the lumen. According, to literature operations on abdominal parenchymal organs with laser are rather seldom. And the operations with laser on hollow organs of digestive tract are being mainly performed in the USSR, and they being rather effective.

  14. The gastrointestinal tract as a potential infection reservoir of digital dermatitis-associated treponemes in beef cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2015-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  15. Rates of gastrointestinal tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdalhamid, B; Elhadi, N; Alabdulqader, N; Alsamman, K; Aljindan, R

    2016-03-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPAE) are globally a major medical issue, especially in intensive care units. The digestive tract is the main reservoir for these isolates; therefore, rectal swab surveillance is highly recommended. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE in patients admitted to intensive care units in Saudi Arabia. This project also aimed to characterize carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme production in these isolates. From February to May 2015, 200 rectal swab specimens were screened by CHROMagar KPC. Organism identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system. One CRE and 13 CRPAE strains were identified, for a prevalence of 0.5% (1/200) and 6.5% (13/200) respectively. Strains showed high genetic diversity using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR. NDM type and VIM type were detected by PCR in four and one CRPAE isolates respectively. ampC overexpression was detected in eight CRPAE isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1000 μg/mL cloxacillin. CTX-M-15 type was detected in 1 CRE by PCR. The prevalence of CRE strain colonization was lower than that of CRPAE isolates. The detection of NDM and VIM in the colonizing CRPAE strains is a major infection control concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia and the gulf region focusing on digestive tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE organisms and characterizing the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26933499

  16. Rates of gastrointestinal tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhamid, B.; Elhadi, N.; Alabdulqader, N.; Alsamman, K.; Aljindan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPAE) are globally a major medical issue, especially in intensive care units. The digestive tract is the main reservoir for these isolates; therefore, rectal swab surveillance is highly recommended. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE in patients admitted to intensive care units in Saudi Arabia. This project also aimed to characterize carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme production in these isolates. From February to May 2015, 200 rectal swab specimens were screened by CHROMagar KPC. Organism identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system. One CRE and 13 CRPAE strains were identified, for a prevalence of 0.5% (1/200) and 6.5% (13/200) respectively. Strains showed high genetic diversity using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR. NDM type and VIM type were detected by PCR in four and one CRPAE isolates respectively. ampC overexpression was detected in eight CRPAE isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1000 μg/mL cloxacillin. CTX-M-15 type was detected in 1 CRE by PCR. The prevalence of CRE strain colonization was lower than that of CRPAE isolates. The detection of NDM and VIM in the colonizing CRPAE strains is a major infection control concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia and the gulf region focusing on digestive tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE organisms and characterizing the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26933499

  17. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  18. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Disorders in Women, Gastroparesis, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Zia, Jasmine K; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions. More research still needs to be conducted to better understand sex differences in upper GI motility. PMID:27261896

  19. [Possibilities and limits of endoscopic therapy in hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Fleig, W E

    1987-04-01

    Most of the hemostatic modalities currently used for endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding are based on the principle of thermic coagulation of protein. Injection of vasoactive and sclerosing agents is also widely used, while the application of various other methods is rather limited. There are specific benefits and drawbacks inherent with each of the treatment modalities. The efficacy of laser photocoagulation in stopping upper gastrointestinal bleeding has been demonstrated in several controlled trials; however, effects on survival are controversial. None of the other methods used has been evaluated sufficiently by controlled clinical trials up to date. Depending on the availability at a local institution, each of the various methods may be used for an attempt of endoscopic hemostasis when Forrest type I and II (visible vessel) lesions are detected at emergency endoscopy. However, patients suffering from lesions, which are notable for their high risk of recurrent bleeding like ulcers with a spurting artery, with a visible vessel and lesions at the posterior wall of the duodenum, should be transferred to the surgeon for operative treatment in the absence of active bleeding immediately after successful endoscopic treatment. In the future, patients requiring surgery despite effective endoscopic hemostasis might be identified with high accuracy by checking the coagulated or injected ulcer base with an endoscopic Doppler device. PMID:3495714

  20. Superficial leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Janevska, Vesna; Qerimi, Adelina; Basheska, Neli; Stojkova, Elena; Janevski, Vlado; Jovanovic, Rubens; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Spasevska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Some authors suggest common origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from stem cells, which may show diverse differentiation. There are reports in which cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal are found in deep leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to demonstrate CD117 positive cells in superficial gastrointestinal (GI) leiomyomas and to find other cells that would suggest diverse differentiation in histologically typical leiomyoma. Materials and methods: We analyzed 8 cases of superficial leiomyomas and one deep leiomyoma, received in our institutions as endoscopically or surgically obtained material. The tumor sections were immunohistochemicaly stained with CD117, CD34, NF, S100, αSMA, desmin, caldesmon and mast cell antigen. Results: All leiomyomas showed diffuse positivity for αSMA, caldesmon and desmin. All of them had CD117 and CD34 positive cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal between smooth muscle fibers, 5 had S-100 and NF positive cells and 2 showed positivity for GFAP. The cells were found in different quantity; they were usually diffusely scattered through the tumors without predilection site, forming small groups in some areas. Conclusion: CD177, CD34, S-100 and NF positive cells are present in superficial leiomyomas and they may suggest common origin of GI stromal tumors. PMID:26884872

  1. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage. PMID:26562556

  2. About the presence of interstitial cells of Cajal outside the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Jan D; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    Santiago Ramon y Cajal observed a special cell type that appeared to function as endstructures of the intrinsic nervous system in several organs. These cells were structurally and functionally further characterized in the gut musculature and named interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In recent years, interstitial cells have been identified in the vasculature, urinary tract, glands and other organs. Their morphologies and functions are just beginning to be clarified. It is likely that amongst them, subtypes will be discovered that warrant the classification of interstitial cells of Cajal. This "point of view" continues the discussion on the criteria that should be used to identify ICC outside the musculature of the gut. PMID:15963266

  3. Trends of primary and subsequent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in the Czech population, 1976-2005.

    PubMed

    Dítě, Petr; Geryk, Edvard

    2010-01-01

    A total of 355,624 new gastrointestinal (GI) cancers were registered in 1976-2005 in the Czech Cancer Registry. Of these, there were 14,744 (4.1%) primary and 26,790 (7.5%) subsequent cases, of which all were GI multiple cancers (12.1% males and 11.1% females). The primary GI cancers were followed by 16,362 other neoplasms (60.7% males, 39.3% females); the subsequent GI cancers were preceded by 31,519 other neoplasms (55.8% males, 44.2% females). Double neoplasms were higher in females, and multiple cases were higher in males. The number of primary cases peaked in 1997, the number of subsequent cases increased until 2005. Almost half of the cases were registered in the age group of 50-69 years. The average interval between primary GI cancers and subsequent neoplasms was 6.1 years; the ratio of synchronous to metachronous cases was 1:3.6 in males and 1:5 in females. The most frequent synchronous cases in males were cancers of other GI, urinary, genital and respiratory tract; in females these were cancers of other GI, genital and urinary tract and the breast. The most frequent cancers preceding the next subsequent GI cancer included primary cancers of the skin, other GI, genital, urinary and respiratory tract for males, and those of the skin, genital and other GI tract and breast cancer for females. The 23,462 subsequent GI cancers reported as a 2nd cancer included early stages in 29.6% of males and 27.9% of females, advanced stages in 31.2% males and 31.3% females, and unknown stages in 39.3% males and 40.8% females. Of 3,562 primary neoplasms of advanced stages before subsequent GI cancers, 2,093 were cases at stage III (51.4% males, 48.6% females) and 1,469 cases were at stage IV (60.2% males, 39.8% females); the most frequent in males were primary cancers of other GI, respiratory and genital tract, and cancers of other GI, breast and genital cancers in females. Of 9,568 primary neoplasms before subsequent GI cancers at advantage stages, 3,325 cases were

  4. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Uma; Kovarova, Martina; Ho, Phong T.; Schramm, Nathaniel; Wahl, Angela; Parniak, Michael A.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    Background The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB) and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect. Results EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens. PMID:27438728

  5. Expression and Function of miR-155 in Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jianhua; Xia, Liang; Xu, Wenting; Lu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of small noncoding RNA that can regulate the expression of target genes under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. miR-155 is a multifunctional miRNA with inflammation-related and oncogenic roles. In particular, the dysregulation of miR-155 has been strongly implicated in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer in addition to being involved in molecular changes of important targets and signaling pathways. This review focuses on the expression and function of miR-155 during inflammation and carcinogenesis and its potential use as an effective therapeutic target for certain gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27187359

  6. [Emergency admission with suspected anemia-causing bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Schulthess, G; Schleiffenbaum, B

    1996-10-29

    The 33-year-old woman was violently beaten and suffered from concussion of the upper abdomen. Because of pain she took mefenamic acid for two days. Then she reported hematemesis, melena and vertigo. The value for hemoglobin was determined as 5.8 g/dl. Acute blood loss was suspected, but neither intraabdominal nor upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage could be detected. Further investigations revealed a Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolysis was suggested by the detection of fragmentocytes in a peripheral blood smear. The diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was made, though the patient did not suffer from manifestations of impaired microcirculation like neurological symptoms or renal failure. The TTP was found to be associated with HIV infection. The hematological disease responded well to the treatment with fresh-frozen plasma. PMID:8966448

  7. Molecular mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis in solid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Langheinrich, Melanie C; Schellerer, Vera; Perrakis, Aristotelis; Lohmüller, Clemens; Schildberg, Claus; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Stürzl, Michael; Hohenberger, Werner; Croner, Roland S

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cell dissemination from the primary tumor site to distant organs is one of the characteristic properties of malignant tumors and represents a crucial step in the progression of disease. Although the pattern of spread may vary in different types of carcinomas, dissemination via the lymphatic system represents a common event in metastasis. The extent of lymph node metastasis is one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas and guides the therapeutically management. During the last decades, significant attention has been given to the molecular mechanisms that control lymphatic metastasis. The process of lymphangiogenesis has come into the focus. Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of newly lymphatics, comprises a series of complex cellular events and is controlled by a balance between pro- and anti-lymphangiogenic signals. This article will briefly describe the lymphatic system and then provide an overview of the molecular players involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis. PMID:22977656

  8. Nutrition, the gastrointestinal tract and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Rothkopf, M M; Kvetan, V; Gaare, J; Mello, L; Askanazi, J

    1989-12-01

    Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common findings in patients with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In this disease, enteropathy leads to fat and D-xylose malabsorption and chronic non-specific inflammation of the small bowel. Moreover, gastrointestinal infection can induce severe diarrhoea. Depletion in real body cell mass, body fat content, and weight loss have been observed. Nutritional therapy is mandatory when weight loss is 10% or greater. Enteral feeding is not easily achieved. Parenteral feeding including fat as a nonprotein calorie source improves general condition. The use of intravenous fat emulsions has been hypothesized to have several beneficial effects. Fluidisation of human immunodeficiency virus membranes by lipid emulsions through cholesterol extraction could decrease the infectivity of the virus. Long term intravenous nutrition may be more than a treatment for malabsorption and depletion; it may possibly have direct pharmacological effects. PMID:16837303

  9. Amyloid in biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract-a retrospective observational study on 542 patients.

    PubMed

    Freudenthaler, Sophie; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Krüger, Sandra; Röcken, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    In this retrospective observational study, we investigated the histopathological and demographic characteristics of amyloid in gastrointestinal biopsies. From the Amyloid Registry Kiel, we retrieved all cases with amyloid in biopsies of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum submitted for tertiary referral between January 2003 and April 2013. Amyloid was identified by Congo red staining in combination with polarization microscopy and classified by immunohistochemistry. The TTR-genotype was assessed in 56 patients. Amyloid type was correlated with demographic patient characteristics. Six hundred sixty-three biopsies from 542 patients were retrieved. Amyloid was found in each biopsy as vascular and/or interstitial amyloid deposits. Biopsies were obtained from the colon [254 biopsies (38.3 %)], stomach, [153 (23.1 %)], rectum [112 (16.9 %)], duodenum [105 (15.8 %)], and jejunum/ileum [39 (5.9 %)]. ALλ amyloid was found in 286 (52.8 %), ATTR in 88 (16.2 %), ALκ in 74 (13.7 %), AA in 58 (10.7 %), and ApoAI amyloid in 4 (0.7 %) patients. The remaining 21 cases were ALys amyloid in 4 (0.7 %), AL n.o.s. in 14 (2.6 %), and mixed type amyloidosis in 3 (0.6 %). The amyloid of 11 (2.0 %) cases remained unclassified. The median age of the patients was 68 years. Men [332 (61.7 %)] were significantly more prevalent than women [206 (38.3 %); p < 0.001]. TTR mutations were found in 24 % of the patients with ATTR amyloidosis. The median age, the histoanatomical distribution (proximal to distal; mucosal to submucosal), and the deposition pattern (vascular/interstitial) varied between different amyloid types. Amyloid in gastrointestinal biopsies mainly affects male elderly patients and shows amyloid-type-specific demographic patient characteristics. PMID:26915034

  10. The distribution of mucous secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of three small rodents from Saudi Arabia: Acomys dimidiatus, Meriones rex and Meriones libycus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Olga; Marais, Sumine; Walters, Jacklynn; van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of mucin phenotypes (which form the protective biofilm of the gastrointestinal tract) differs between intestinal regions. This study examines the distribution of mucin secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of the Eastern spiny mouse (Acomys dimidiatus), King jird (Meriones rex) and Libyan jird (Meriones libycus), which inhabit the dry and hot deserts of Saudi Arabia. Intestinal tract samples were processed to wax and tissue sections stained with Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) and High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue (HID-AB) in order to determine different mucin phenotypes by quantitative analysis. Mixed mucin secreting cells (combined neutral and acid) was the predominant mucin secreting cell type observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract in all species. Acid mucin secreting goblet cells were mainly located in the colon. A. dimidiatus presented with significantly more total sialo than sulfomucin secreting cells while the opposite was true for both Meriones species. The distribution of mucin secreting cells is therefore similar to previously reported results for small mammals not living under arid conditions. PMID:26743350

  11. [Quality of diagnostic procedures and frequency of endoscopically defined diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Bartels, F; Hahn, H-J; Stolte, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, H A

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this clinical investigation was to register the frequency of endoscopically defined diseases of the upper intestinal tract in a given region (Münster and Münsterland) within the period of one year (1.8.1999-31.7.2000). Furthermore, we tried to get an impression on the quality of the upper intestinoscopies by standardised conditions which had been developed by a steering committee (endoscopists and pathologists). 20 physicians (internal specialists and gastroenterologists) examined non-preselected patients and registered all relevant findings in the upper intestinal tract. The following items were of special interest: sex, age, operations in the past, indication, way of preparation, local findings (in the upper intestinal tract), and histological assessment. The examination forms were gathered, checked for completeness and evaluated statistically. Within the given period 8859 examinations forms (45.2% male and 54% female) could be evaluated. In 16% of the patients a reflux oesophagitis was diagnosed, three times more frequently than could have been expected anamnestically regarding the patients' complaints. In 274 patients (3%) the endoscopist suspected a Barrett's oesophagus; the according histological examination confirmed this suspicion in only 125 cases. Furthermore 17 adenocarcinomas and 13 squamous cell carcinomas were found. Macroscopically 44 polyps were registered but not all of them were biopsied. In 257 patients oesophageal varices (of varying degrees) were described. Only in 30.7% of the patients a H. pylori infection (diagnosed by urease test and by histological examination) was detected in the mucosa of the stomach. In 172 patients a gastritis was macroscopically suspected but the following histological assessments were not sufficient. The prevalence of gastric ulcers was 10 %, higher than the prevalence of duodenal ulcers. Only in 50% of the patients with a duodenal ulcer a H. pylori infection could be detected. In 51 cases carcinomas

  12. Fecal transplantation - the new, inexpensive, safe, and rapidly effective approach in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Oprita, R; Bratu, M; Oprita, B; Diaconescu, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Fecal transplantation was shown to effectively reduce the reoccurrence in patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection. New data suggest that fecal transplantation could also be efficient in other gastrointestinal diseases, for instance in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, but, there are also some data that could imply the efficacy outside the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal transplantation should be considered a unique agent, capable of treating severe diseases, with essentially no adverse reactions, presenting a cure rate of over 90%. Materials and methods. This prospective study included 33 patients, of whom 28 patients with recurrent or resistant Clostridium difficile infection, who failed to be treated with conventional therapy, which presupposed vancomycin administration and 5 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, more precisely with ulcerative colitis, refractory on biologic agents (infliximab and adalimumab). In most of the cases, fecal transplant was realized with the infusion of stool through colonoscopy. Results. Most of the patients from both groups (Clostridium difficile infection and Ulcerative Colitis) responded (31 patients) with a total relief of the symptoms, after 1 FMT for Clostridium difficile group and after more than one for the ulcerative colitis group. The so-called primary cure rate was 96.42% for Clostridium group. For ulcerative colitis, group 3 of the patients needed 3 or 4 infusions for symptom relief. One patient was categorized as non-responsive (patient with UC) and needed surgery. Due to non-fecal transplant related causes, one death was reported. Conclusions. Fecal transplant is highly effective, safe, with practically no adverse effects, inexpensive, a procedure easy to be done that could be introduced in Clostridium difficile treatment protocols. As for ulcerative colitis treatment with FMT, future randomized controlled trials are needed to prove its efficiency. PMID:27453747

  13. Novel treatment options for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract: endoscopic vacuum therapy and over-the-scope clips.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Senninger, Norbert; Laukoetter, Mike G

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic management of leakages and perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract has gained great importance as it avoids the morbidity and mortality of surgical intervention. In the past years, covered self-expanding metal stents were the mainstay of endoscopic therapy. However, two new techniques are now available that enlarge the possibilities of defect closure: endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT), and over-the-scope clip (OTSC). EVT is performed by mounting a polyurethane sponge on a gastric tube and placing it into the leakage. Continuous suction is applied via the tube resulting in effective drainage of the cavity and the induction of wound healing, comparable to the application of vacuum therapy in cutaneous wounds. The system is changed every 3-5 d. The overall success rate of EVT in the literature ranges from 84% to 100%, with a mean of 90%; only few complications have been reported. OTSCs are loaded on a transparent cap which is mounted on the tip of a standard endoscope. By bringing the edges of the perforation into the cap, by suction or by dedicated devices, such as anchor or twin grasper, the OTSC can be placed to close the perforation. For acute endoscopy associated perforations, the mean success rate is 90% (range: 70%-100%). For other types of perforations (postoperative, other chronic leaks and fistulas) success rates are somewhat lower (68%, and 59%, respectively). Only few complications have been reported. Although first reports are promising, further studies are needed to define the exact role of EVT and OTSC in treatment algorithms of upper gastrointestinal perforations. PMID:24976714

  14. Novel treatment options for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Endoscopic vacuum therapy and over-the-scope clips

    PubMed Central

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Senninger, Norbert; Laukoetter, Mike G

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic management of leakages and perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract has gained great importance as it avoids the morbidity and mortality of surgical intervention. In the past years, covered self-expanding metal stents were the mainstay of endoscopic therapy. However, two new techniques are now available that enlarge the possibilities of defect closure: endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT), and over-the-scope clip (OTSC). EVT is performed by mounting a polyurethane sponge on a gastric tube and placing it into the leakage. Continuous suction is applied via the tube resulting in effective drainage of the cavity and the induction of wound healing, comparable to the application of vacuum therapy in cutaneous wounds. The system is changed every 3-5 d. The overall success rate of EVT in the literature ranges from 84% to 100%, with a mean of 90%; only few complications have been reported. OTSCs are loaded on a transparent cap which is mounted on the tip of a standard endoscope. By bringing the edges of the perforation into the cap, by suction or by dedicated devices, such as anchor or twin grasper, the OTSC can be placed to close the perforation. For acute endoscopy associated perforations, the mean success rate is 90% (range: 70%-100%). For other types of perforations (postoperative, other chronic leaks and fistulas) success rates are somewhat lower (68%, and 59%, respectively). Only few complications have been reported. Although first reports are promising, further studies are needed to define the exact role of EVT and OTSC in treatment algorithms of upper gastrointestinal perforations. PMID:24976714

  15. The impact of meals on a probiotic during transit through a model of the human upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, T A; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y

    2011-12-01

    Commercial literature on various probiotic products suggests that they can be taken before meals, during meals or after meals or even without meals. This has led to serious confusion for the industry and the consumer. The objective of our study was to examine the impact of the time of administration with respect to mealtime and the impact of the buffering capacity of the food on the survival of probiotic microbes during gastrointestinal transit. We used an in vitro Digestive System (IViDiS) model of the upper gastrointestinal tract to examine the survival of a commercial multi-strain probiotic, ProtecFlor®. This product, in a capsule form, contains four different microbes: two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011), Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii. Enumeration during and after transit of the stomach and duodenal models showed that survival of all the bacteria in the product was best when given with a meal or 30 minutes before a meal (cooked oatmeal with milk). Probiotics given 30 minutes after the meal did not survive in high numbers. Survival in milk with 1% milk fat and oatmeal-milk gruel were significantly better than apple juice or spring water. S. boulardii was not affected by time of meal or the buffering capacity of the meal. The protein content of the meal was probably not as important for the survival of the bacteria as the fat content. We conclude that ideally, non-enteric coated bacterial probiotic products should be taken with or just prior to a meal containing some fats. PMID:22146689

  16. Characterization of the Dynamic Germination of Individual Clostridium difficile Spores Using Raman Spectroscopy and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Shen, Aimee; Setlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Spores of C. difficile initiate infection when triggered to germinate by bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed germination kinetics of individual C. difficile spores using Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Similar to Bacillus spores, individual C. difficile spores germinating with taurocholate plus glycine began slow leakage of a ∼15% concentration of a chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) at a heterogeneous time T1, rapidly released CaDPA at Tlag, completed CaDPA release at Trelease, and finished peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis at Tlysis. T1 and Tlag values for individual spores were heterogeneous, but ΔTrelease periods (Trelease − Tlag) were relatively constant. In contrast to Bacillus spores, heat treatment did not stimulate spore germination in the two C. difficile strains tested. C. difficile spores did not germinate with taurocholate or glycine alone, and different bile salts differentially promoted spore germination, with taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate being best. Transient exposure of spores to taurocholate plus glycine was sufficient to commit individual spores to germinate. C. difficile spores did not germinate with CaDPA, in contrast to B. subtilis and C. perfringens spores. However, the detergent dodecylamine induced C. difficile spore germination, and rates were increased by spore coat removal although cortex hydrolysis did not follow Trelease, in contrast with B. subtilis. C. difficile spores lacking the cortex-lytic enzyme, SleC, germinated extremely poorly, and cortex hydrolysis was not observed in the few sleC spores that partially germinated. Overall, these findings indicate that C. difficile and B. subtilis spore germination exhibit key differences. IMPORTANCE Spores of the Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium difficile are responsible for initiating infection

  17. [Oral magnetic particles as an MR contrast medium for the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Rinck, P A; Myhr, G; Smevik, O; Børseth, A

    1992-12-01

    The authors summarise their experience of four clinical studies with a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. 140 patients were enrolled in the studies. These were partly comparative studies pre- and post-contrast, partly at 0.5 and 1.5 T, partly pre-injection and post-injection of glucagon. All patients received 800 ml of a suspension of oral magnetic particles "OMP". The distribution of this contrast agent was homogeneous throughout the entire GI tract. A complete or partial signal void was observed in all patients in T1, T2-, and intermediately weighted images. Generally, diagnostic information was higher after contrast. Artifacts caused by peristalsis and movement of the diaphragm were fewer after contrast. After contrast metallic artifacts were observed in a minority of patients. Adverse events after contrast were minimal; they included nausea and vomiting. PMID:1457787

  18. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  19. The effect of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers.

    PubMed

    Bartell, S M; Batal, A B

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental Gln on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers. Immediately after hatch 6 replicate pens of 6 chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 (experiment 1) or 5 (experiment 2) dietary treatments for 21 d. On d 4, 7, 14, and 21, twelve chicks per treatment (2 chicks/pen) were killed for thymus, spleen, bursa, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, bile, and blood sample collections and weights. In experiment 1, the effect of 1 or 4% Gln addition to the feed, water, or both was compared with a corn-soybean meal (SBM) control diet. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Weight gain improved significantly (P < 0.05) when chicks were fed diets with 1% Gln as compared with chicks fed the control diet (11% average improvement). The addition of 4% Gln to the diet or water depressed (P < 0.05) growth performance. Based on the results from experiment 1, 1% Gln supplementation to the diet was determined to be ample and most practical. Thus in experiment 2, diets supplemented with 1% Gln were fed for 4, 7, 14, or 21 d after which time chicks were fed the corn-SBM control diet until the experiment was terminated at 21 d. Weight gain improved significantly (P < 0.05) when chicks were fed diets supplemented with 1% Gln throughout the 21-d study. In both experiments, chicks fed diets supplemented with 1% Gln for 21 d had higher concentrations of bile, intestinal, and sera IgA and sera IgG (P < 0.05). Chicks fed diets with 1% Gln had heavier intestinal relative weights and longer intestinal villi (P < 0.05) as compared with the chicks fed the corn-SBM diet. Our results indicate that the addition of 1% Gln to the diet of broiler chicks improves growth performance and may stimulate development of the gastrointestinal tract and humoral immune response. PMID:17704382

  20. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  1. Pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Odgren, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal examinations are common procedures in many radiology departments. Performing this examination on pediatric patients requires understanding the formation of the gastrointestinal tract and the various disease processes and anatomical variances that can occur. The examination also requires a thorough patient history. This article discusses embryologic development and anatomy of the small bowel and colon, disease processes and conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal tract examinations performed on the pediatric and neonatal patient. PMID:24806054

  2. Isolation of high-purity myenteric plexus from adult human and mouse gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, David; Klotz, Markus; Rabe, Holger; Glanemann, Matthias; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) orchestrates a broad range of important gastrointestinal functions such as intestinal motility and gastric secretion. The ENS can be affected by environmental factors, diet and disease. Changes due to these alterations are often hard to evaluate in detail when whole gut samples are used. Analyses based on pure ENS tissue can more effectively reflect the ongoing changes during pathological processes. Here, we present an optimized approach for the isolation of pure myenteric plexus (MP) from adult mouse and human. To do so, muscle tissue was individually digested with a purified collagenase. After incubation and a gentle mechanical disruption step, MP networks could be collected with anatomical integrity. These tissues could be stored and used either for immediate genomic, proteomic or in vitro approaches, and enteric neurospheres could be generated and differentiated. In a pilot experiment, the influence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on human MP was analyzed using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The method also allows investigation of factors that are secreted by myenteric tissue in vitro. The isolation of pure MP in large amounts allows new analytical approaches that can provide a new perspective in evaluating changes of the ENS in experimental models, human disease and aging. PMID:25791532

  3. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans. PMID:22679063

  4. Usefulness of Double-Balloon Endoscopy in the Postoperative Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Masaki; Abiko, Yukito; Oana, Syuhei; Kudara, Norihiko; Kosaka, Takashi; Chiba, Toshimi; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Background. The small intestine has been considered to be a highly difficult organ to visualize in imaging examinations due to its anatomical location compared with the stomach and the colon. In recent years, many imaging modalities have become available, such as CT enterography, MR enterography, capsule endoscopy (CE), and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). Patients and Methods. DBE was performed in the postoperative intestines of 91 patients (128 DBE examinations) at Iwate Medical University between 2004 and 2010. There were 61 male and 30 female patients, and their mean age was 69.7 years (range: 30–80 years). Results. A total of 124 DBE examinations were performed with endoscope insertion into the reconstructed intestines. The endoscope reached the blind end in 115 of 124 examinations, (92.7%). There were 17 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in whom 30 DBE examinations were performed. The bleeding site was identified in 12 patients (70.6%). Nine patients underwent endoscopic treatment. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Conclusion. DBE is very useful modality for the assessment and application of endotherapy to areas of the small bowel which have been altered by surgery. PMID:22194738

  5. The role of gallium 67 imaging in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, M; Kawamura, M; Tsuda, T; Itoh, H; Komatsu, A; Tanada, S; Iio, A; Hamamoto, K

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of gallium 67 imaging in the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and in the assessment of the therapeutic effects, images were reviewed in 24 cases (25 lesions: stomach, 20; ileum, 2; and terminal ileum and or cecum, 3) and were compared using barium studies and, in 16 cases, computerized tomography (CT). In all, 23 (92.0%) of the 25 lesions were detected by 67Ga citrate imaging, the barium studies detected all 25, and CT detected 15 of 16 lesions (93.8%). The two lesions not identified by imaging and the one not found by CT were the smallest of all. In 2 (8.7%) of the 23 lesions positively identified by 67Ga-citrate imaging, both CT and imaging revealed the extent of the tumor more accurately than did the barium studies. In all but one of the patients, a close correlation existed between the imaging results and the therapeutic effects. These data suggest that 67Ga imaging is useful in conjunction with CT and barium studies for the detection of GI NHL and for the assessment of both the spatial extent of disease and the therapeutic effects, although a lack of 67Ga uptake after therapy does not always indicate a good therapeutic effect. PMID:2279495

  6. The chemical coding of 5-hydroxytryptamine containing enteroendocrine cells in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yohan; Fakhry, Josiane; Fothergill, Linda; Callaghan, Brid; Ringuet, Mitchell; Hunne, Billie; Bravo, David M; Furness, John B

    2016-06-01

    The majority of 5-HT (serotonin) in the body is contained in enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. From the time of their discovery over 80 years ago, the 5-HT-containing cells have been regarded as a class of cell that is distinct from enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the concept of there being distinct classes of enteroendocrine cells, each containing a single hormone or occasionally more than one hormone. Instead, data are rapidly accumulating that there are complex patterns of colocalisation of hormones that identify multiple subclasses of enteroendocrine cells. In the present work, multiple labelling immunohistochemistry is used to investigate patterns of colocalisation of 5-HT with enteric peptide hormones. Over 95 % of 5-HT cells in the duodenum also contained cholecystokinin and about 40 % of them also contained secretin. In the jejunum, about 75 % of 5-HT cells contained cholecystokinin but not secretin and 25 % contained 5-HT plus both cholecystokinin and secretin. Small proportions of 5-HT cells contained gastrin or somatostatin in the stomach, PYY or GLP-1 in the small intestine and GLP-1 or somatostatin in the large intestine. Rare or very rare 5-HT cells contained ghrelin (stomach), neurotensin (small and large intestines), somatostatin (small intestine) and PYY (in the large intestine). It is concluded that 5-HT-containing enteroendocrine cells are heterogeneous in their chemical coding and by implication in their functions. PMID:26803512

  7. Review on sedation for gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in children by non-anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Orel, Rok; Brecelj, Jernej; Dias, Jorge Amil; Romano, Claudio; Barros, Fernanda; Thomson, Mike; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To present evidence and formulate recommendations for sedation in pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy by non-anesthesiologists. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for the following keywords “endoscopy, GI”, “endoscopy, digestive system” AND “sedation”, “conscious sedation”, “moderate sedation”, “deep sedation” and “hypnotics and sedatives” for publications in English restricted to the pediatric age. We searched additional information published between January 2011 and January 2014. Searches for (upper) GI endoscopy sedation in pediatrics and sedation guidelines by non-anesthesiologists for the adult population were performed. RESULTS: From the available studies three sedation protocols are highlighted. Propofol, which seems to offer the best balance between efficacy and safety is rarely used by non-anesthesiologists mainly because of legal restrictions. Ketamine and a combination of a benzodiazepine and an opioid are more frequently used. Data regarding other sedatives, anesthetics and adjuvant medications used for pediatric GI endoscopy are also presented. CONCLUSION: General anesthesia by a multidisciplinary team led by an anesthesiologist is preferred. The creation of sedation teams led by non-anesthesiologists and a careful selection of anesthetic drugs may offer an alternative, but should be in line with national legislation and institutional regulations. PMID:26240691

  8. Low-Dose Aspirin-Associated Upper and Mid Gastrointestinal Tract Damage and Gene Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is increased in association with the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA). There are few studies of the association between genetic polymorphisms and the risks of aspirin-induced ulcer or its complications. Individuals with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), A-842G and C50T, exhibit increased sensitivity to aspirin and lower prostaglandin synthesis capacity but the polymorphism lacked statistical significance in relation to an association with bleeding peptic ulcer. In our previous Japanese study, SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1 *1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding in patients taking LDA, especially in the patients with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), or statin co-treatment. Protonpump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper GI bleeding. The interaction between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of clopidogrel has caused concern regarding the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 which mediates conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The later recent genome-wide analysis of SNPs indicated the association of several SNPs with small bowel bleeding in Japanese patients taking LDA. The data are still lacking and further prospective studies are needed to identify the specific gene polymorphisms as risk or protective factors for GI bleeding associated with LDA. PMID:26369686

  9. Intoxication from an accidentally ingested lead shot retained in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Per; Gerhardsson, Lars

    2005-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in January 2002 because of increased blood lead concentrations of unknown origin. She suffered from malaise, fatigue, and diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms. She had a blood lead level of 550 microg/L (normal range < 40 microg/L). The patient had not been occupationally exposed to lead, and no potential lead sources, such as food products or lead-glazed pottery, could be identified. Her food habits were normal, but she did consume game occasionally. Clinical examination, including standard neurologic examination, was normal. No anemia was present. Laboratory tests showed an increased excretion of lead in the urine, but there were no signs of microproteinuria. An abdominal X ray in October 2002 revealed a 6-mm rounded metal object in the colon ascendens. Before the object could be further localized, the patient contracted winter vomiting disease (gastroenteritis) and the metal object was spontaneously released from the colon during a diarrhea attack. The object was a lead shot pellet, possibly but not normally used in Sweden for hunting wild boar or roe deer. Blood lead levels slowly decreased. Nine months later the patient's blood lead levels were almost normal (approximately 70 microg/L) and her symptoms had almost completely disappeared. In this case, a rare source of lead exposure was found. In investigations of blood lead elevations of unknown origin, we recommend abdominal X ray in parallel with repeated blood lead determinations. PMID:15811841

  10. Microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase producing Lactobacillus reuteri for oral targeted delivery in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Martoni, Christopher; Bhathena, Jasmine; Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Prakash, Satya

    2008-11-01

    This is the first study of its kind to screen probiotic lactic acid bacteria for the purpose of microencapsulating a highly bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active strain. A Lactobacillus reuteri strain and a Bifidobacterium longum strain were isolated as the highest BSH producers among the candidates. Microcapsules were prepared with a diameter of 619 +/- 31 mum and a cell load of 5 x 10(9) cfu/ml. Post de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth-acid challenge, L. reuteri microcapsules metabolized glyco- and tauro-conjugated bile salts at rates of 10.16 +/- 0.46 and 1.85 +/- 0.33 micromol/g microcapsule per hour, respectively, over the first 2 h. Microencapsulated B. longum had minimal BSH activity and were significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible to acid challenge. Further testing of L. reuteri microcapsules in a simulated human gastrointestinal (GI) model showed an improved rate, with 49.4 +/- 6.21% of glyco-conjugates depleted after 60 min and complete deconjugation after 4 h. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach maintaining L. reuteri viability above 10(9), 10(8), and 10(6) cfu/ml after 2 h at pH 3.0, 2.5, and 2.0, respectively. Results show excellent potential for this highly BSH-active microencapsulation system in vitro, highlighted by improved viability and substrate utilization in simulated GI transit. PMID:18719901

  11. Elevated C-reactive protein level predicts lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be caused by colorectal polyps or cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify blood test variables and medications that can predict lower GI bleeding, which would allow for appropriate colonoscopy. The medical records of patients who underwent colonoscopy from September 2014 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The selected patients included 278 men (mean age, 67.0±11.5 years) and 249 women (mean age, 69.6±12.0 years). The diagnosis, medications, and blood test variables were compared between patients with and without bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with lower GI bleeding. The presence of colorectal polyp and cancer was associated with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0044) with an odds ratio of 6.71 (P=0.0148). No lower GI bleeding was observed in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, or anticoagulants. The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with lower GI bleeding (P=0.0227). The Hb levels were lower in patients with lower GI bleeding, however this finding was not statistically significant (P>0.05). No blood test variable was associated with lower GI bleeding. Elevated CRP was associated with lower GI bleeding, while there was no association between the medications and lower GI bleeding. PMID:27284411

  12. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than <1 log CFU mL(-1)) and there were no significant differences between lab cultures and cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability. PMID:26611167

  13. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

  14. The Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Role in the Development and Function of Newborn Calf Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial population colonizes the sterile mammalian gastrointestinal tract during and after the birth. There is increasing evidence that this complex microbiome plays a crucial role in the development of the mucosal immune system and influences newborn health. Microbial colonization is a complex process influenced by a two-way interaction between host and microbes and a variety of external factors, including maternal microbiota, birth process, diet, and antibiotics. Following this initial colonization, continuous exposure to host-specific microbes is not only essential for development and maturation of the mucosal immune system but also the nutrition and health of the animal. Thus, it is important to understand host-microbiome interactions within the context of individual animal species and specific management practices. Data is now being generated revealing significant associations between the early microbiome, development of the mucosal immune system, and the growth and health of newborn calves. The current review focuses on recent information and discusses the limitation of current data and the potential challenges to better characterizing key host-specific microbial interactions. We also discuss potential strategies that may be used to manipulate the early microbiome to improve production and health during the time when newborn calves are most susceptible to enteric disease. PMID:26664965

  15. The Role of Cell Surface Architecture of Lactobacilli in Host-Microbe Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Anderson, Rachel C.; McNabb, Warren C.; Moughan, Paul J.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus species can exert health promoting effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through many mechanisms, which include pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Different species of the genus Lactobacillus can evoke different responses in the host, and not all strains of the same species can be considered beneficial. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of lactobacilli and the bacteria's ability to express certain surface components or secrete specific compounds in response to the host environment. Lactobacilli are known to modify their surface structures in response to stress factors such as bile and low pH, and these adaptations may help their survival in the face of harsh environmental conditions encountered in the GIT. In recent years, multiple cell surface-associated molecules have been implicated in the adherence of lactobacilli to the GIT lining, immunomodulation, and protective effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Identification of the relevant bacterial ligands and their host receptors is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lactobacilli exert their beneficial effects on human health. PMID:23576850

  16. Contemporary methods of therapy and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Jakub; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Ruchała, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The growing interest in neuroendocrine tumours is due to the dynamic growth of detection of this type of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumours (neuroendocrine neoplasms – NENs / neuroendocrine tumours – NETs) derive from glands, groups of endocrine cells and diffuse neuroendocrine system cells. Mainly they derive from the gastrointestinal tract (gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumours – GEP-NETs). Currently the modified WHO classification from 2010 is widely used. An important element in the choice of treatment is histological maturity based on mitotic activity and on assessment of proliferation activity (Ki-67). The treatment of choice is surgery. In most cases, complete surgical removal is impossible because of the advanced staging at the time of diagnosis. In well-differentiated neoplasms where the expression of somatostatin receptors is expected, patients are qualified for somatostatin analogues therapy. Poorly differentiated lesions are qualified for chemotherapy. In the guidelines of ENETS (European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society) from 2007 the rules concerning monitoring depending on the WHO classification were specified. PMID:23788913

  17. Transepithelial transport of a natural cholinesterase inhibitor, huperzine A, along the gastrointestinal tract: the role of ionization on absorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Burshtein, Gregory; Friedman, Michael; Greenberg, Sarit; Hoffman, Amnon

    2013-03-01

    During recent years there has been increasing interest in the Lycopodium alkaloid huperzine A as a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to characterize huperzine A's permeability across the enterocyte barrier along the gastrointestinal tract with an emphasis on the effect of ionization on the drug absorption. Intestinal permeability of huperzine A was evaluated by in vitro Caco-2 and parallel artificial membrane permeation assay models and by the ex vivo Ussing chamber model. The permeability rate was strongly dependent on the degree of ionization and increased with elevation of the donor medium pH in all studied models. The transport of the unionized fraction was similar to the permeability of the markers for passive transcellular diffusion. Addition of the paracellular permeability modulator palmitoylcarnitine in the Caco-2 model led to significant enhancement in the permeability of the ionized huperzine A fraction. No evidence of active transport of huperzine A was detected in this study. The Ussing chamber model experiments showed similar drug permeability along the entire rat intestine. In conclusion, huperzine A permeates the intestinal border mainly by passive transcellular diffusion whereas some fraction, dependent on the degree of huperzine A ionization, is absorbed by the paracellular route. Huperzine A's permeability characteristics pave the way to the development of its oral extended release dosage form. The specific population of the potential users of huperzine A and the high potency of this molecule support the rationale for such a delivery. PMID:23345165

  18. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    PubMed

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted. PMID:26900430

  19. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue and yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oral cavity and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue and yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to describe the macaw's oropharyngeal cavity in order to supply the deficiency of anatomical data and as part of a broad study of the GIT of these birds. Two male and one female adult blue and yellow macaws were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The macaw oropharynx was 'V-shaped' and flattened laterally being composed of maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca of the beak. The tongue, lingual frenulum and laryngeal mound (containing 'spindle-shaped' glottis and prominent mucosal papillae) formed the floor of the oropharynx. The roof revealed two distinct regions separated by a 'step-like depression', whereas in the floor, the mandibular rhamphotheca was separated from the oral cavity mucosa by a large vestibulum enclosing the lingual frenulum. The palate was hard without any signs of rugae nor palatine raphe. A smooth ridge extended caudally from the choana to the common opening of the Eustachian tubes. This study, in addition to confirming the basic features of the oropharynx previously described for birds in general, provided new, unreported morphological data, some of which may be important when studying nutrition and health of these birds. PMID:23410201

  20. Effect of trimebutine maleate on bethanechol-induced contractions of gastrointestinal tract in conscious and anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Iizuka, M; Takaiti, O

    1983-04-01

    The effect of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on bethanechol-induced contractions of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs was studied by means of chronically implanted force transducers, and it was compared with that of metoclopramide and atropine. During the period of motor quiescence in the fasted state of conscious dog, a bolus i.v. injection of 10 to 50 micrograms/kg bethanechol caused rhythmic contractions in the stomach and small intestine, in which an increase in basal tone was often accompanied in the distal ileum. The stomach responded to a less extent than the small intestine. Intravenous infusion of TM-906 at 3.0 mg/kg-hr for 20 to 60 min reduced the gastric contractions induced by 20 to 30 micrograms/kg bethanechol in five out of six conscious animals examined. The drug, however, enhanced the contractions of the duodenum and jejunum in a majority of the animals. Metoclopramide (1.8 mg/kg-hr) showed a tendency to potentiate the bethanechol-induced contractions in the stomach and small intestine, and atropine (0.06 mg/kg-hr) diminished them. In pentobarbital-Na anaesthetized dogs, effects of TM-906 on bethanechol-induced contractions resembled those in conscious dogs, inhibition in the stomach and potentiation in the small intestine. PMID:6136618

  1. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  2. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  3. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    PAVANELLI, Mariana F.; KANESHIMA, Edilson Nobuyoshi; UDA, Carla F.; COLLI, Cristiane M.; FALAVIGNA-GUILHERM, Ana L.; GOMES, Mônica L.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  4. The role of cell surface architecture of lactobacilli in host-microbe interactions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ranjita; Altermann, Eric; Anderson, Rachel C; McNabb, Warren C; Moughan, Paul J; Roy, Nicole C

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus species can exert health promoting effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through many mechanisms, which include pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Different species of the genus Lactobacillus can evoke different responses in the host, and not all strains of the same species can be considered beneficial. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of lactobacilli and the bacteria's ability to express certain surface components or secrete specific compounds in response to the host environment. Lactobacilli are known to modify their surface structures in response to stress factors such as bile and low pH, and these adaptations may help their survival in the face of harsh environmental conditions encountered in the GIT. In recent years, multiple cell surface-associated molecules have been implicated in the adherence of lactobacilli to the GIT lining, immunomodulation, and protective effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Identification of the relevant bacterial ligands and their host receptors is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lactobacilli exert their beneficial effects on human health. PMID:23576850

  5. Decades of research in drug targeting to the upper gastrointestinal tract using gastroretention technologies: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Giriraj T

    2016-01-01

    A major constraint in oral controlled release drug delivery is that not all the drug candidates are absorbed uniformly throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Drugs having "absorption window" are absorbed in a particular portion of GIT only or are absorbed to a different extent in various segments of the GIT. Thus, only the drug released in the region preceding and in close vicinity to the absorption window is available for absorption. The drug must be released from the dosage form in solution form; otherwise, it is generally not absorbed. Hence, much research has been dedicated to the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems that may optimize the bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of such drugs, as these systems have unique properties to bypass the gastric emptying process. These systems show excellent in vitro results but fail to give desirable in vivo performance. During the last 2-3 decades, researchers from the academia and industries are giving considerable importance in this field. Unfortunately, till date, few so-called gastroretentive dosage forms have been brought to the market in spite of numerous academic publications. The manuscript considers strategies that are commonly used in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with a special attention on various parameters, which needs to be monitored during formulation development. PMID:25026414

  6. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Decorating Soybean Seed Ferritin as a Rutin Nanocarrier with Prolonged Release Property in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Sun, Guoyu; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Zhongkai; Li, Quanhong; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The instability and low bioavailability of polyphenols limit their applications in food industries. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and soybean seed ferritin deprived of iron (apoSSF) were fabricated as a combined double shell material to encapsulate rutin flavonoid molecules. Firstly, due to the reversible assembly characteristics of phytoferritin, rutin was successfully encapsulated within apoSSF to form a ferritin-rutin complex (FR) with an average molar ratio of 28.2: 1 (rutin/ferritin). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin were 18.80 and 2.98 %, respectively. EGCG was then bound to FR to form FR-EGCG composites (FRE), and the binding number of EGCG was 27.30 ± 0.68 with a binding constant K of (2.65 ± 0.11) × 10(4) M(-1). Furthermore, FRE exhibited improved rutin stability, and displayed prolonged release of rutin in simulated gastrointestinal tract fluid, which may be attributed to the external attachment of EGCG to the ferritin cage potentially reducing enzymolysis in GI fluid. In summary, this work demonstrates a novel nanocarrier for stabilization and sustained release of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:27323763

  7. Tear Film Mucins: Front Line Defenders of the Ocular Surface; Comparison with Airway and Gastrointestinal Tract Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23954166

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake

    PubMed Central

    Colston, Timothy J.; Noonan, Brice P.; Jackson, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities. PMID:26039313

  9. Aflatoxin B1 in Affecting Broiler’s Performance, Immunity, and Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of History and Contemporary Issues

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Agha W.; Razzazi-Fazeli, E.; Bohm, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B1 to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B1 level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed. PMID:22069726

  10. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  11. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L.; Correa, Raquel F.; Cunha, Raquel S.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  12. Association between common variable immunodeficiency and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: A series of four patients.

    PubMed

    Mandaliya, Rohan; Burkart, Ashlie L; DiMarino, Anthony J; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia/common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may lead to disruption of the gut mucosal immune barrier. Collagenous infiltrative disorders of the intestinal tract (colitis, gastritis, sprue) constitute a relatively new spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. Our aims were (1) to determine the association between immunoglobulin deficiency state like CVID and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and (2) to study the clinic-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in these patients. A retrospective search was conducted to identify cases with concurrence of these two conditions at an academic center from 2007 to 2013. Four such patients were identified from our database: three with collagenous colitis and one with collagenous gastritis. All patients with collagenous colitis had normal colonic mucosa while the patient with collagenous gastritis had nodular gastric mucosa. Only one patient out of four had decreased plasma cells in the submucosa as expected in low immunoglobulin states. All patients had improvement in their symptoms on immunoglobulin therapy with considerable remission on budesonide. Literature search revealed reporting of four similar patients. In conclusion, (1) the association between collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and CVID and its prompt response to immunoglobulins with effective maintenance with budesonide are novel findings. Our study also shows that the presence of plasma cells should not rule out the possibility of CVID. (2) In patients with chronic diarrhea, hypogammaglobulinemia and collagenous colitis/sprue should be considered for the available effective treatments such as immunoglobulins and budesonide. PMID:27053352

  13. The Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Role in the Development and Function of Newborn Calf Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Griebel, Philip J.; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial population colonizes the sterile mammalian gastrointestinal tract during and after the birth. There is increasing evidence that this complex microbiome plays a crucial role in the development of the mucosal immune system and influences newborn health. Microbial colonization is a complex process influenced by a two-way interaction between host and microbes and a variety of external factors, including maternal microbiota, birth process, diet, and antibiotics. Following this initial colonization, continuous exposure to host-specific microbes is not only essential for development and maturation of the mucosal immune system but also the nutrition and health of the animal. Thus, it is important to understand host–microbiome interactions within the context of individual animal species and specific management practices. Data is now being generated revealing significant associations between the early microbiome, development of the mucosal immune system, and the growth and health of newborn calves. The current review focuses on recent information and discusses the limitation of current data and the potential challenges to better characterizing key host-specific microbial interactions. We also discuss potential strategies that may be used to manipulate the early microbiome to improve production and health during the time when newborn calves are most susceptible to enteric disease. PMID:26664965

  14. Biological control of Fasciola hepatica eggs with the Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus after passing through the cattle gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Dias, Anderson S; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fábio R; Araujo, Juliana M; Puppin, André C; Fernandes, Fernanda M; Ramos, Rafael F; Bertonceli, Raul M; da Silva, Renata G; Perboni, Wilber R

    2012-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease caused by Fasciola hepatica responsible for causing significant losses in livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus (isolate VC1) on F. hepatica eggs after passing through the cattle gastrointestinal tract. For this evaluation, 1 g pellet was given in sodium alginate matrix per kilogram live weight containing 25% of fungal mycelium from isolate VC1 per animal. Twelve animals were used, six treated and six untreated (control). Some stool samples were collected from the groups of treated and control animals, at the times of 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the pellets' administration. Then, from each stool sample of treated and control groups, 2 g was placed in a Petri dish of 9 cm in diameter, containing 2% water-agar and 1,000 eggs of F. hepatica. It was observed that the fungus was effective in preying upon the eggs in the samples recovered at all of the schedules starting at 12 h. Furthermore, differences were observed (p < 0.01) in the destruction of eggs in the Petri dishes in the treated group compared with the control group. The ovicidal effect was observed after 7 days of interaction. The ovicidal P. chlamydosporia fungus was effective in destroying F. hepatica eggs; therefore, it is suggested that this fungus could be employed as agent for the control of helminth eggs. PMID:21773773

  15. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116

  16. Deoxynivalenol in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Immature Gilts under per os Toxin Application

    PubMed Central

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Zielonka, Łukasz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Because of concerns related to deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on the presence of this mycotoxin in selected tissues of the alimentary canal of gilts. The study was performed on 39 animals divided into two groups (control, C; n = 21 and experimental, E; n = 18), of 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received the toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b.w./day (experimental group) or placebo (control group) over a period of 42 days. Three animals from two experimental groups were sacrificed on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, excluding day 1 when only three control group animals were scarified. Tissues samples were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with the application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. The highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples ranged from 7.2 (in the duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in the ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse the colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in the caecum). In liver tissues, the deoxynivalenol contents ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g. PMID:24603665

  17. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, Thanila A. Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of the veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy.

  18. Is nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tubular gastrointestinal tract a distinct disease entity?

    PubMed

    Shia, Jinru; Tang, Laura H; Weiser, Martin R; Brenner, Baruch; Adsay, N Volkan; Stelow, Edward B; Saltz, Leonard B; Qin, Jing; Landmann, Ron; Leonard, Gregory D; Dhall, Deepti; Temple, Larissa; Guillem, Jose G; Paty, Philip B; Kelsen, David; Wong, W Douglas; Klimstra, David S

    2008-05-01

    Although small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is well-recognized, nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNEC) of this site remains undefined. At the current time, neither the World Health Organization nor American Joint Committee on Cancer includes this condition in the histologic classifications, and consequently it is being diagnosed and treated inconsistently. In this study, we aimed at delineating the histologic and immunophenotypical spectrum of HGNECs of the GI tract with emphasis on histologic subtypes. Guided primarily by the World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer criteria for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, we were able to classify 87 high-grade GI tract tumors that initially carried a diagnosis of either poorly differentiated carcinoma with or without any neuroendocrine characteristics, small cell carcinoma, or combined adenocarcinoma-neuroendocrine carcinoma into the following 4 categories. The first was small cell carcinoma (n=23), which had features typical of pulmonary small cell carcinoma, although the cells tended to have a more round nuclear contour. The second was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=31), which had a morphology similar to its pulmonary counterpart and showed positive immunoreactivity for either chromogranin (71%) or synaptophysin (94%) or both. The third was mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=11), which had intermediate histologic features (eg, cells with an increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio but with apparent nucleoli), and positive immunoreactivity for at least 1 neuroendocrine marker. The fourth was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (n=17). In addition, 5 of the 87 tumors showed either nonsmall cell type neuroendocrine morphology (n=3) or immunohistochemical reactivity for neuroendocrine markers (n=2), but not both. Further analysis showed that most HGNECs arising in the squamous lined parts (esophagus and anal canal) were small cell type (78

  19. Distribution of iron in the gastrointestinal tract of the common vampire bat: evidence for macrophage-linked iron clearance.

    PubMed

    Morton, D; Wimsatt, W A

    1980-10-01

    Iron in the tissues of the digestive tract of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) has been studied using histochemical, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic methods. This animal is an obligate sanguivore and has a daily intake of dietary iron 800 times that of man. The amount and distribution of tissue iron is not affected by either a single blood meal or starvation but does reflect the degree of siderosis of each animal's liver and spleen. By 7 days after the injection of a trace amount of 55Fe into the peritoneal cavity, labelled siderotic macrophages are present both on the serosa and within the walls of the stomach and intestine. In the lower intestine, such cells can be derived from the germinal centers of Peyer's patches. Siderotic macrophages are often situated in the lamina propria under areas of siderotic epithelium. Label is also present in the apical cytoplasm of mucosal epithelial cells, a region of abundant siderosomes. The ultrastructure of these organelles is extremely variable. Accumulations of membranous whorls and stacks, "stippled bodies," ferritin molecules, and larger "ferruginous" complexes are bounded by one or a number of membranes. Iron is excreted when these epithelial cells are desquamated into the gut lumen. Similar Prussian blue-positive granules are present in the feces. Unlike other glandular cells, the parietal cells of the fundic caecum are siderotic. Their cytoplasm contains abundant siderosomes and ferritin with accumulations of amembranous ferritin bodies in the intracellular canalicular spaces. Prussian blue-positive granules are present in the lumens of fundic glands. PMID:7212303

  20. Impact of bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and performance of weaned piglets: a review.

    PubMed

    Lallès, J P; Bosi, P; Janczyk, P; Koopmans, S J; Torrallardona, D

    2009-12-01

    The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a bactericidal action mediated by non-dissociated OA, by lowering gastric pH, increasing gut and pancreas enzyme secretion and improving gut wall morphology. It has been postulated that they may also enhance non-specific immune responses and improve disease resistance. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of OA on the stomach but recent data show they can differently affect gastric histology, acid secretion and gastric emptying. Butyrate and precursors of butyric acid have received special attention and although promising results have been obtained, their effects are dependent upon the dose, treatment duration, initial age of piglets, gastrointestinal site and other factors. The amino acids (AA) like glutamine, tryptophan and arginine are supportive in improving digestion, absorption and retention of nutrients by affecting tissue anabolism, stress and (or) immunity. Glutamine, cysteine and threonine are important for maintaining mucin and permeability of intestinal barrier function. Spray-dried plasma (SDP) positively affects gut morphology, inflammation and reduces acquired specific immune responses via specific and a-specific influences of immunoglobulins and other bioactive components. Effects are more pronounced in early-weaned piglets and under poorer health conditions. Little interaction between plasma protein and antibiotics has been found, suggesting distinct modes of action and additive effects. Bovine colostrum may act more or less similarly to SDP. The composition of essential oils is highly variable, depending on environmental and climatic conditions and distillation methods. These oils differ widely in their antimicrobial

  1. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  2. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  3. Regulation of α-Transducin and α-Gustducin Expression by a High Protein Diet in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Vallorani, Claudia; Latorre, Rocco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica; Falconi, Mirella; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The expression of taste receptors (TASRs) and their signalling molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells, including enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggests they participate in chemosensing mechanisms influencing GI physiology via the release of endocrine messengers. TASRs mediate gustatory signalling by interacting with different transducers, including α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G protein subunits. This study tested whether Gαtran and Gαgust immunoreactive (-IR) cells are affected by a short-term (3 days) and long-term (30 days) high protein (Hp) diet in the pig GI tract. Result In the stomach, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells contained serotonin (5-HT) and ghrelin (GHR), while in the small and large intestine, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR colocalized with 5-HT-, cholecystokinin (CCK)- and peptide YY (PYY)-IR. There was a significant increase in the density of Gαtran-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa in both short- and long-term Hp diet groups (Hp3 and Hp30) vs. the control group (Ctr) (P<0.05), while the increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa was significant in Hp30 group vs. Ctr and vs. Hp3 (P<0.05); these cells included Gαtran / 5HT-IR and Gαtran / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.001 vs. Ctr, respectively) as well as Gαgust /5-HT-IR or Gαgust / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01 vs. Ctr, respectively). In the small intestine, we recorded a significant increase in Gαtran-IR cells in the duodenal crypts and a significant increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the jejunal crypts in Hp3 group compared to HP30 (P<0.05). With regard to the number of Gαtran-Gαgust IR cells colocalized with CCK or 5-HT, there was only a significant increase of Gαtran / CCK-IR cells in Hp3 group compared to Ctr (P = 0.01). Conclusion This study showed an upregulation of selected subpopulations of Gαgust / Gαtran-IR cells in distinct regions of the pig GI tract by short- and long-term Hp diet lending support to TASR-mediated effects in

  4. Transducer like proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Kassem, Issmat I; Jeon, Byeong H; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP), enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis toward or away from specific chemoeffector molecules. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8) were not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis toward various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the Δtlp6 and Δtlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis toward aspartate, whereas the Δtlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis toward Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis toward the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). The Δtlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The Δtlp8 and Δtlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The Δtlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the Δtlp6 and Δtlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni's adaptation and pathobiology. PMID:26075188

  5. Individual sympathetic postganglionic neurons coinnervate myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle layers in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary C; Phillips, Robert J; McAdams, Jennifer L; Powley, Terry L

    2016-09-01

    A full description of the terminal architecture of sympathetic axons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has not been available. To label sympathetic fibers projecting to the gut muscle wall, dextran biotin was injected into the celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG) of rats. Nine days postinjection, animals were euthanized and stomachs and small intestines were processed as whole mounts (submucosa and mucosa removed) to examine CSMG efferent terminals. Myenteric neurons were counterstained with Cuprolinic Blue; catecholaminergic axons were stained immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase. Essentially all dextran-labeled axons (135 of 136 sampled) were tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Complete postganglionic arbors (n = 154) in the muscle wall were digitized and analyzed morphometrically. Individual sympathetic axons formed complex arbors of varicose neurites within myenteric ganglia/primary plexus and, concomitantly, long rectilinear arrays of neurites within circular muscle/secondary plexus or longitudinal muscle/tertiary plexus. Very few CSMG neurons projected exclusively (i.e., ∼100% of an arbor's varicose branches) to myenteric plexus (∼2%) or smooth muscle (∼14%). With less stringent inclusion criteria (i.e., ≥85% of an axon's varicose branches), larger minorities of neurons projected predominantly to either myenteric plexus (∼13%) or smooth muscle (∼27%). The majority (i.e., ∼60%) of all individual CSMG postganglionics formed mixed, heterotypic arbors that coinnervated extensively (>15% of their varicose branches per target) both myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle. The fact that ∼87% of all sympathetics projected either extensively or even predominantly to smooth muscle, while simultaneously contacting myenteric plexus, is consistent with the view that these neurons control GI muscle directly, if not exclusively. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2577-2603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850701

  6. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, R. S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-07-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13 21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains ofmore » Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.« less

  7. Identification of Rothia Bacteria as Gluten-Degrading Natural Colonizers of the Upper Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Zamakhchari, Maram; Wei, Guoxian; Dewhirst, Floyd; Lee, Jaeseop; Schuppan, Detlef; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gluten proteins, prominent constituents of barley, wheat and rye, cause celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and the protease-resistant domains contain multiple immunogenic epitopes. The aim of this study was to identify novel sources of gluten-digesting microbial enzymes from the upper gastro-intestinal tract with the potential to neutralize gluten epitopes. Methodology/Principal Findings Oral microorganisms with gluten-degrading capacity were obtained by a selective plating strategy using gluten agar. Microbial speciations were carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Enzyme activities were assessed using gliadin-derived enzymatic substrates, gliadins in solution, gliadin zymography, and 33-mer α-gliadin and 26-mer γ-gliadin immunogenic peptides. Fragments of the gliadin peptides were separated by RP-HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. Strains with high activity towards gluten were typed as Rothia mucilaginosa and Rothia aeria. Gliadins (250 µg/ml) added to Rothia cell suspensions (OD620 1.2) were degraded by 50% after ∼30 min of incubation. Importantly, the 33-mer and 26-mer immunogenic peptides were also cleaved, primarily C-terminal to Xaa-Pro-Gln (XPQ) and Xaa-Pro-Tyr (XPY). The major gliadin-degrading enzymes produced by the Rothia strains were ∼70–75 kDa in size, and the enzyme expressed by Rothia aeria was active over a wide pH range (pH 3–10). Conclusion/Significance While the human digestive enzyme system lacks the capacity to cleave immunogenic gluten, such activities are naturally present in the oral microbial enzyme repertoire. The identified bacteria may be exploited for physiologic degradation of harmful gluten peptides. PMID:21957450

  8. Correction of Chloride Transport and Mislocalization of CFTR Protein by Vardenafil in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhooghe, Barbara; Noël, Sabrina; Bouzin, Caroline; Behets-Wydemans, Gaëtane; Leal, Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Although lung disease is the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF), gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are the first hallmarks in 15–20% of affected newborns presenting with meconium ileus, and remain major causes of morbidity throughout life. We have previously shown that cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors rescue defective CF Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR)-dependent chloride transport across the mouse CF nasal mucosa. Using F508del-CF mice, we examined the transrectal potential difference 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of the PDE5 inhibitor vardenafil or saline to assess the amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and the chloride gradient and forskolin-dependent chloride transport across the GI tract. In the same conditions, we performed immunohistostaining studies in distal colon to investigate CFTR expression and localization. F508del-CF mice displayed increased sodium transport and reduced chloride transport compared to their wild-type littermates. Vardenafil, applied at a human therapeutic dose (0.14 mg/kg) used to treat erectile dysfunction, increased chloride transport in F508del-CF mice. No effect on sodium transport was detected. In crypt colonocytes of wild-type mice, the immunofluorescence CFTR signal was mostly detected in the apical cell compartment. In F508del-CF mice, a 25% reduced signal was observed, located mostly in the subapical region. Vardenafil increased the peak of intensity of the fluorescence CFTR signal in F508del-CF mice and displaced it towards the apical cell compartment. Our findings point out the intestinal mucosa as a valuable tissue to study CFTR transport function and localization and to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic strategies in CF. From our data we conclude that vardenafil mediates potentiation of the CFTR chloride channel and corrects mislocalization of the mutant protein. The study provides compelling support for targeting the cGMP signaling pathway in CF

  9. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, Ryan S; Young, Jacque C; Morowitz, Michael J; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential. PMID:26191049

  10. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit < 1 transformant per 1,1 × 108 cultured bacteria). The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals. PMID:22463741

  11. Transducer like proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Kassem, Issmat I.; Jeon, Byeong H.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP), enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis toward or away from specific chemoeffector molecules. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8) were not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis toward various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the Δtlp6 and Δtlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis toward aspartate, whereas the Δtlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis toward Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis toward the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). The Δtlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The Δtlp8 and Δtlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The Δtlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the Δtlp6 and Δtlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni's adaptation and pathobiology. PMID:26075188

  12. Effects of rice husk diluted dietary switching on the phenotypic change of gastrointestinal tract in adult ganders.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Shi, S R; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Zou, J M

    2011-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to test the directionality, scaling and reversibility of phenotypic responses of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of adult ganders to rice husk (RH) diluted dietary switching. 2. A total of 96 140-d-old ganders were acclimatised to a basal diet for 2 weeks. The birds were randomly assigned to 4 treatments. On d 1, diets in the experimental groups were switched from the basal diet to diets which contained 200, 400 or 600 g/kg RH by mass, with no RH in the basal diet. After 21 d, the diet of all the experimental birds was switched back to the basal diet until d 42. 3. Increasing RH content significantly increased feed intake, and a decreased trend appeared after diet-switching. The weights of geese fed on the 600 g/kg RH diet for 21 d reduced, and were significantly less than those of the other three groups, while body weights (BW) of the geese in all groups increased after diet-switching back to the basal diet. At d 21, significantly heavier relative weights of proventriculus, gizzard and all gut components, except duodenum, were observed in birds fed on a 600 g/kg RH diet, and significantly heavier relative weights of gizzard were observed in birds given a 400 g/kg RH diet. Thickness of the two gastric walls, gizzard length and all gut components lengths increased significantly in birds given a 600 g/kg RH diet compared with the other three groups. At d 42, no significant differences were noted in the relative weights or lengths of GIT, except for the caeca, which were significantly heavier in birds fed on 600 g/kg RH diet. 4. The results of the experiment were in accordance with the predictions of the hypothesis that there is matching between loads and capacities. The observed phenotypic responses were directional and scaled to the demands. PMID:21732880

  13. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Brandon; Mueller, Ryan S.; Young, Jacque C.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13–21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential. PMID:26191049

  14. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of TCDP, PA, and PB to the NC diets. The TCDP had higher residual activity (P < 0.05) in the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum as compared with the PA and PB activity. There was a decrease (P < 0.01) in the phytate P content of the digesta from all sources of phytase supplementation in the NC diets. Residual phytate P content decreased caudally along the GIT of hens. The results of this research indicate that phytase expressed in corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets. PMID:24135596

  15. Repeated dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tomomi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hori, Hisako; Fujii, Wataru; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a direct-acting mutagen that induces tumors in the glandular stomach, but not in the liver or colon, of rats after oral administration. To evaluate the performance of repeated dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats, MNNG was administered by oral gavage to male CD (SD) rats aged 6 weeks at doses of 0 (vehicle; 2.5% DMSO aqueous solution), 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25mg/kg/day once daily for 14 and 28 days, and the MN frequencies were examined in the hepatocytes, glandular stomach cells, and colonic cells. The MN induction in immature erythrocytes in the bone marrow of these animals was also simultaneously evaluated. The frequencies of micronucleated (MNed) glandular stomach cells were significantly increased in all MNNG treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner in both repeated dose studies. In contrast, the frequencies of MNed hepatocytes and colonic cells were not significantly increased compared to the vehicle control. In the bone marrow, a small but significant increase in the frequency of MNed immature erythrocytes was observed only at the highest dose in the 28-day study. Since a clear positive result in the glandular stomach agrees with the tissue specificity of tumor induction by this chemical, the MN assay with the glandular stomach, which is a direct contact site with high concentrations of test substances administered by oral gavage, may be useful for detecting genotoxic compounds that are short-lived in vivo, such as MNNG. PMID:25892628

  16. Amrubicin in patients with platinum-refractory metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tomonori; Takashima, Atsuo; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Honma, Yoshitaka; Iwasa, Satoru; Okita, Natsuko; Kato, Ken; Yamada, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Hironobu; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kushima, Ryoji; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Boku, Narikazu; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Although the same treatment strategy as used for small cell lung cancer, including second-line chemotherapy, is generally applied to metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT; GIT-NEC/MANEC), the efficacy of amrubicin (AMR) for GIT-NEC/MANEC is not well known. We retrospectively analyzed platinum-refractory GIT-NEC/MANEC patients who received AMR between February 2004 and July 2012 at the National Cancer Center Hospital. The AMR dose administered was 30-45 mg/m on days 1-3 every 3-4 weeks. The overall response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines, version 1.0, progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events by National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events guidelines, version 4.0 were evaluated. Nineteen patients received AMR. The response rate for 16 assessable patients was 18.8% (95% confidence interval, 4.1-45.7), the median progression-free survival was 3.8 months (2.3-5.3), and the median overall survival was 7.7 months (7.1-8.2). Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 52.6% of patients and febrile neutropenia occurred in 10.5%. Other nonhematological toxicities were mild and treatment-related deaths were not observed. AMR may have a modest effect, with tolerable toxicities, on patients with platinum-refractory GIT-NEC/MANEC. Further prospective evaluations are warranted. PMID:27341105

  17. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  18. Taxonomic identification of commensal bacteria associated with the mucosa and digesta throughout the gastrointestinal tracts of preweaned calves.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial colonization in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of preweaned calves is very important, since it can influence early development and postweaning performance and health. This study investigated the composition of the bacteria along the GIT (rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of preweaned bull calves (3 weeks old) using pyrosequencing to understand the segregation of bacteria between the mucosal surface and digesta. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a total of 83 genera belonging to 13 phyla were distributed throughout the GIT of preweaned calves, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria predominating. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of selected abundant bacterial genera (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Faecalibacterium) revealed that their prevalence was significantly different among the GIT regions and between mucosa- and digesta-associated communities. Rumens contained the most diverse bacterial population, consisting of 47 genera, including 16 rumen-specific genera, followed by the large intestine and then the small intestine. Bacterial species richness was higher at the mucosal surface than in the local digesta, with the exception of the rumen. The majority of bacteria found on the rumen epithelial surface and within the small intestine could not be identified due to a lack of known genus-level information. Thus, future studies will be required to fully characterize the microbiome during the development of the rumens and the mucosal immune systems of newborn calves. This is the first study to analyze in depth the bacterial composition of the GIT microbiome in preweaned calves, which extends previous findings regarding early rumen colonization and bacterial segregation between mucosa- and digesta-associated microbial communities. PMID:24441166

  19. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT. PMID:26049797

  20. Reliability and validity of UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0) Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Dinesh; Hays, Ron D.; Maranian, Paul; Seibold, James R.; Impens, Ann; Mayes, Maureen D.; Clements, Philip J.; Getzug, Terri; Fathi, Nihal; Bechtel, Amber; Furst, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To refine the previously developed scleroderma gastrointestinal tract (SSC-GIT 1.0) instrument. Methods We administered the SSC-GIT 1.0 and SF-36 to 152 patients with SSc; 1 item was added to SSC-GIT 1.0 to assess rectal incontinence. In addition, subjects completed a rating of the severity of their GIT involvement (from very mild to very severe). Evaluation of psychometric properties included internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability (1.1 week mean time interval), and multitrait scaling analysis. Results Study participants were female (84%) and Caucasian (81%); 55% had diffuse SSc. Self-rated severity of GIT involvement ranged from no symptoms to very mild (39%), to mild (21%), to moderate (31%), to severe/ very severe (9%). Of an initial 53 items in SSC-GIT 1.0, 19 items were excluded, leaving a 34-item revised instrument (UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium GIT 2.0 [UCLA SCTC 2.0]). Analyses supported 7 multi-item scales: reflux, distention/bloating, diarrhea, fecal soilage, constipation, emotional well-being, and social functioning. Test-retest reliability estimates were ≥ 0.68 and coefficient alphas ≥0.67. Participants who rated their GIT disease as mild had lower scores on a 0-3 scale on all 7 scales. Also symptom scales were able to discriminate subjects with corresponding clinical GIT diagnoses. Total GIT Score, developed by averaging 6 of 7 scales (excluding constipation), was reliable and provided greater discrimination between mild, moderate, and severe self-rated GIT involvement than individual scales. Conclusion This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the UCLA-SCTC GIT 2.0, an improvement over SSC-GIT 1.0 and supports a Total GIT Score in SSc-GIT. PMID:19714600

  1. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.05) of males but not females. The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01) from 0 to 49 d but improved adjusted feed conversion ratio (AdjFCR) from 35 to 49 d (P<0.05). Male broilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01), and improved FCR (P<0.01), but with increased mortality (P<0.05). The inclusion of CC increased relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased relative proventriculus weight (P<0.01) at 49 d. Experiment 2 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 CC levels (0 or 50%) and 2 litter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (P<0.01). New litter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (P<0.01). At 49 d, the birds fed the CC diet had reduced excreta nitrogen (P<0.05) and litter moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, 50% CC inclusion initially produced negative effects on live performance that became positive as BW increased. The effects of CC became evident at an earlier age for males. New litter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance. PMID:25681480

  2. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ren, J S; Freedman, N D; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, C C

    2010-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  3. Molecular identification of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) and its functional role in the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Saeki, Atsuki; Teraoka, Hiroki; Hiraga, Takeo; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility in vivo in the guinea-pig through activation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In this study, we identified GHS-R1a in the guinea-pig, and examined its distribution and cellular function and compared them with those in the rat. Effects of ghrelin in different regions of gastrointestinal tract were also examined. GHS-R1a was identified in guinea-pig brain cDNA. Amino acid identities of guinea-pig GHS-R1a were 93% to horses and 85% to dogs. Expression levels of GHS-R1a mRNA were high in the pituitary and hypothalamus, moderate in the thalamus, cerebral cortex, pons, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb, and low in the cerebellum and peripheral tissues including gastrointestinal tract. Comparison of GHS-R1a expression patterns showed that those in the brain were similar but the expression level in the gastrointestinal tract was higher in rats than in guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig GHS-R1a expressed in HEK 293 cells responded to rat ghrelin and GHS-R agonists. Rat ghrelin was ineffective in inducing mechanical changes in the stomach and colon but caused a slight contraction in the small intestine. 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium and electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused cholinergic contraction in the intestine, and these contractions were not affected by ghrelin. Ghrelin did not change spontaneous and EFS-evoked [(3)H]-efflux from [(3)H]-choline-loaded ileal strips. In summary, guinea-pig GHS-R1a was identified and its functions in isolated gastrointestinal strips were characterized. The distribution of GHS-R1a in peripheral tissues was different from that in rats, suggesting that the functional role of ghrelin in the guinea-pig is different from that in other animal species. PMID:21843569

  4. Analysis of occurrence of bacteraemia with pathogens from gastrointestinal tract in patients fed parenterally and enterally in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Różowicz, Aleksandra; Spychalska, Katarzyna; Nakonowska, Beata; Kupczyk, Kinga; Kusza, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial translocation is a migration of microorganisms and their toxins from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, blood, and abdominal organs. It can lead to local inflammatory response and a potential increase in intestinal permeability leading to systemic infections and multiple organ failure. Enteral nutrition stimulates gastrointestinal motility, increases blood flow, and improves the integration of the intestinal barrier. Aim The impact of enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition on occurrence of bacteraemia caused by pathogens from the gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods It was a retrospective analysis of medical documentation of 254 patients. Microbiological tests were analysed, assessing the presence of bacteraemia or sepsis pathogens from the gastrointestinal tract. In 52 patients gastrointestinal pathogens in blood were found: 29 patients were fed enterally (I group – EN and EN + PN) and 23 only parenterally (II group – PN). Results The mean length of stay in hospital until the occurrence of bacteraemia in group I was 14, and in group II it was 13 days. Mean time without EN was 4 days (first group) and 12 days (second group). Time of stay in ICU and mortality in the group of patients fed parenterally was observed: group I – 25 days, mortality 34%; group II – 37 days, mortality 56%. In the analysed group the EN and the length of the absence of this kind of feeding did not affect the occurrence of bacteraemia by gastrointestinal pathogens. Conclusions However, patients fed only parenterally who had bacteraemia required a longer stay in the ICU and had a higher rate of mortality than the patients with EN. PMID:27350841

  5. Mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A expression in body fluid and gastrointestinal tract associated with drug-related fatal anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Ying-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Yue; Jin, Qian-Qian; Gao, Cai-Rong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis. METHODS: The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in 15 autopsy cases of drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and 20 normal autopsy cases were detected. First, the expression of mast cell tryptase was determined in stomach, jejunum, lung, heart, and larynx by immunofluorescence. Different tissues were removed and fixed in paraformaldehyde solution, then paraffin sections were prepared for immunofluorescence. Using specific mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A antibodies, the expression of tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in gastroenterology tract and other tissues were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were collected from drug-related fatal anaphylaxis and normal autopsy cases. The level of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid were measured using fluor enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (FEIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. The expression of mast cell tryptase and carboxypeptidase A was analyzed in drug-related fatal anaphylaxis cases and compared to normal autopsy cases. RESULTS: The expression of carboxypeptidase A was less in the gastroenterology tract and other tissues from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers than normal controls. Immunofluorescence revealed that tryptase expression was significantly increased in multiple organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract, from anaphylaxis-related death cadavers compared to normal autopsy cases (46.67 ± 11.11 vs 4.88 ± 1.56 in stomach, 48.89 ± 11.02 vs 5.21 ± 1.34 in jejunum, 33.72 ± 5.76 vs 1.30 ± 1.02 in lung, 40.08 ± 7.56 vs 1.67 ± 1.03 in larynx, 7.11 ± 5.67 vs 1.10 ± 0.77 in heart, P < 0.05). Tryptase levels, as measured with FEIA, were significantly increased in both sera (43.50 ± 0.48 μg/L vs 5.40 ± 0.36 μg/L, P < 0.05) and pericardial fluid (28.64 ± 0

  6. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M.; Bertucci, Juan I.; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L.; Valenciano, Ana I.; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  7. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Blanco, Ayelén M; Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M; Bertucci, Juan I; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Valenciano, Ana I; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  8. Selective Exposure of the Fetal Lung and Skin/Amnion (but Not Gastro-Intestinal Tract) to LPS Elicits Acute Systemic Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis. PMID:23691033

  9. Genetics Home Reference: gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some ... Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal ...

  10. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Cesar E.; Bereza-Malcolm, Lara T.; De Groef, Bert; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0–20 mins after birth), day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth), day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth), and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth). Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose. PMID:26186002

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Loren

    1991-01-01

    This discussion was selected from the weekly staff conferences in the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Taken from a transcription, it has been edited by Nathan M. Bass, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, under the direction of Lloyd H. Smith Jr, MD, Professor of Medicine and Associate Dean in the School of Medicine. PMID:1949775

  12. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  13. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  14. Co-localization of the zinc transporter ZnT8 (slc30A8) with ghrelin and motilin in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Markus; Steffl, Martin; Amselgruber, Werner M

    2016-02-01

    Zinc is an important co-factor for insulin storage in pancreatic β-cells of different species and the uptake of this ion into insulin containing secretory vesicles is managed by the zinc transporter, ZnT8, a member of the slc30A gene family. Recent studies indicate that this protein is a major autoimmune target in human type 1A diabetes and has also been implicated by genome-wide association studies in type 2 diabetes. Since individuals suffering from type 1 diabetes often develop gastrointestinal motility disorders, we investigated the expression of ZnT8 in the porcine gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we studied the cell-type specific expression of ZnT8 in the gut and its co-expression with endocrine hormones that are closely linked to intestinal motility regulation. Nested RT-PCR and immunostaining of sequential serial sections, as well as double-immunostaining using antibodies directed against ZnT8, ghrelin, motilin, neurotensin, serotonin and glucagon-like peptide 1, indicated that ZnT8 is co-localized with ghrelin and motilin. Our findings provide important information about the cell-type specific expression of ZnT8 in the porcine gastrointestinal system. The selective and exclusive expression of ZnT8 in two endocrine cell-types that are engaged in motility functions may be of particular interest for further investigations into type I diabetes-associated gastrointestinal dysfunctions. PMID:26388512

  15. The HMI™ module: a new tool to study the Host-Microbiota Interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent scientific developments have shed more light on the importance of the host-microbe interaction, particularly in the gut. However, the mechanistic study of the host-microbe interplay is complicated by the intrinsic limitations in reaching the different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in vivo. In this paper, we present the technical validation of a new device - the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module - and the evidence that it can be used in combination with a gut dynamic simulator to evaluate the effect of a specific treatment at the level of the luminal microbial community and of the host surface colonization and signaling. Results The HMI module recreates conditions that are physiologically relevant for the GIT: i) a mucosal area to which bacteria can adhere under relevant shear stress (3 dynes cm−2); ii) the bilateral transport of low molecular weight metabolites (4 to 150 kDa) with permeation coefficients ranging from 2.4 × 10−6 to 7.1 × 10−9 cm sec−1; and iii) microaerophilic conditions at the bottom of the growing biofilm (PmO2 = 2.5 × 10−4 cm sec−1). In a long-term study, the host’s cells in the HMI module were still viable after a 48-hour exposure to a complex microbial community. The dominant mucus-associated microbiota differed from the luminal one and its composition was influenced by the treatment with a dried product derived from yeast fermentation. The latter - with known anti-inflammatory properties - induced a decrease of pro-inflammatory IL-8 production between 24 and 48 h. Conclusions The study of the in vivo functionality of adhering bacterial communities in the human GIT and of the localized effect on the host is frequently hindered by the complexity of reaching particular areas of the GIT. The HMI module offers the possibility of co-culturing a gut representative microbial community with enterocyte-like cells up to 48 h and may therefore contribute to the mechanistic understanding of

  16. A critical review of the toxicological effects of carrageenan and processed eucheuma seaweed on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Samuel M; Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-09-01

    Carrageenan is a high-molecular-weight, strongly anionic polymer derived from several species of red seaweed that is used for the textural stabilization of foods. Processed Eucheuma Seaweed (PES) is a form of carrageenan with a higher cellulose content. Food-grade carrageenan has a weight average molecular weight greater than 100,000 Da, with a low percentage of smaller fragments. Carrageenan is not degraded to any extent in the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed from it in species examined, such as rodents, dogs, and non-human primates. Systemically administered carrageenan has been reported to have a variety of effects, particularly on the immune system, but these are not pertinent to orally administered carrageenan. The substance poligeenan (formerly referred to as degraded carrageenan) is not a food additive. It exhibits toxicological properties at high doses that do not occur with the food additive carrageenan. In-long term bioassays, carrageenan has not been found to be carcinogenic, and there is no credible evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect or a tumor-promoting effect on the colon in rodents. Also, like many dietary fibers, there is significant cecal enlargement in rodents when it is administered at high doses, but this does not appear to be associated with any toxicological consequences to the rodent. Many toxicological studies on carrageenan have involved administration at doses in excess of today's standards for dietary feeding levels in bioassays, and they are orders of magnitude in excess of those to which humans are exposed. Previous reviews of carrageenan and PES by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have recommended a group allowable daily intake (ADI) of "not specified". The lack of carcinogenic, genotoxic, or tumor-promoting activity with carrageenan strongly supports continuing such an ADI, and JECFA, during its most recent review in 2001, continued this

  17. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging.

    PubMed

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K0.94Gd0.02Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26890149

  18. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jakobsen, Kirsten

    2008-08-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246 g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability (ME/GE) of the rapeseed oil was estimated to 85% yielding an apparent metabolisable energy value of 34.30 MJ/kg. PMID:18763627

  19. Transcriptional analysis of genes associated with stress and adhesion in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM during the passage through an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Jespersen, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the transcription of genes associated with stress and adhesion in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM during the passage through an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. As acidified milk exerted a protective effect on the bacteria leading to increased survival, the gene expression studies were carried out with pre-inoculation of L. acidophilus NCFM in acidified milk. The induction of the genes encoding the stress-related proteins GroEL, DnaK and ClpP, and adhesion-related genes encoding mucin-binding proteins, fibronectin-binding protein and S-layer was analyzed by real-time PCR. The genes encoding GroEL, DnaK and ClpP were significantly up-regulated (9- to 16-fold) during gastric digestion and declined upon subsequent duodenal digestion. The genes encoding mucin-binding proteins and fibronectin-binding protein were not influenced by saliva and gastric juice, but they were significantly upregulated during incubation in duodenal juice and bile (6- to 7-fold). A significant induction of the gene encoding the S-layer protein was not detected. Our results give a better understanding of the functionality of L. acidophilus NCFM and other probiotics during passage through the gastrointestinal tract; hence, they provide an implementable basis for the selection of prospective probiotic candidates. PMID:20559014

  20. The effects of liquid versus spray-dried Laminaria digitata extract on selected bacterial groups in the piglet gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota.

    PubMed

    Murphya, Padraigin; Dal Bello, Fabio; O'Doherty, John; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementing animal feed with a liquid and spray-dried fucoidan and laminarin extract, derived from the seaweed Laminaria digitata on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the communities of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria were evaluated. Twenty four piglets were fed one of three diets over a 21-day period to determine the effect that each had on the bacterial communities. The dietary treatments were as follows; (1) control diet, (2) control diet plus spray-dried formulation of laminarin fucoidan (L/F-SD) extract, (3) control diet plus a liquid formulation of (L/F-WS) extract. Control diet consisted of wheat, soya bean meal, soya oil and a vitamin and mineral mixture. The L/F-SD and L/F-WS supplemented diets had equal proportion of 500 ppm laminarin and fucoidan. At the end of the 21 day feeding period all animals were sacrificed and samples were collected from the ileum, caecum and colon. Counts were determined for Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria. Plate count analysis revealed that the L/F-SD diet caused a statistically significant 1.5 log and 2 log increases in the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts of ileum samples respectively. A greater difference was observed with the L/F-WS diet in that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased by 2 log and 3 log respectively. Alterations in the Lactobacillus species composition of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE profiles indicated that Lactobacillus species richness decreased along the gastrointestinal tract i.e. the number of dominant species detected in the colon was less than those detected in the ileum and caecum irrespective of the diet consumed. Consumption of both the L/F-SD and L/F-WS diets resulted in a richer Lactobacillus species composition in the ileum, with the L/F-SD diet being associated the emergence of Lactobacillus

  1. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) a