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Sample records for gastrointestinal tract germinal

  1. Evaluation of germination, distribution, and persistence of Bacillus subtilis spores through the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kallapura, G; Menconi, A; Pumford, N R; Morgan, M J; Layton, S L; Bielke, L R; Hargis, B M; Téllez, G

    2014-07-01

    Spores are popular as direct-fed microbials, though little is known about their mode of action. Hence, the first objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro germination and growth rate of Bacillus subtilis spores. Approximately 90% of B. subtilis spores germinate within 60 min in the presence of feed in vitro. The second objective was to determine the distribution of these spores throughout different anatomical segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a chicken model. For in vivo evaluation of persistence and dissemination, spores were administered to day-of-hatch broiler chicks either as a single gavage dose or constantly in the feed. During 2 independent experiments, chicks were housed in isolation chambers and fed sterile corn-soy-based diets. In these experiments one group of chickens was supplemented with 10(6) spores/g of feed, whereas a second group was gavaged with a single dose of 10(6) spores per chick on day of hatch. In both experiments, crop, ileum, and cecae were sampled from 5 chicks at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Viable B. subtilis spores were determined by plate count method after heat treatment (75°C for 10 min). The number of recovered spores was constant through 120 h in each of the enteric regions from chickens receiving spores supplemented in the feed. However, the number of recovered B. subtilis spores was consistently about 10(5) spores per gram of digesta, which is about a 1-log10 reduction of the feed inclusion rate, suggesting approximately a 90% germination rate in the GIT when fed. On the other hand, recovered B. subtilis spores from chicks that received a single gavage dose decreased with time, with only approximately 10(2) spores per gram of sample by 120 h. This confirms that B. subtilis spores are transiently present in the GIT of chickens, but the persistence of vegetative cells is presently unknown. For persistent benefit, continuous administration of effective B. subtilis direct-fed microbials as vegetative

  2. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  3. ARTERIAL EPONYMS IN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

    PubMed

    Kutia, S A; Kiselev, V V; Lyashchenko, O I

    2015-01-01

    Eponym--name of the disease, certain structure or method after the person who usually first discovered and described them. Eponyms are widely spread in medicine which appeared to be in the area of a great interest for a lot of scientists. They can serve as a reflection of the evolution of the medical knowledge and making up the majority of anatomical terms. The article describes 12 arterial eponyms of the gastrointestinal tract giving a full anatomical description. It also gives an explanation of why and how those structures were named after certain scientists and what contribution they've made into the development of medicine. PMID:26817114

  4. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  5. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PERTWEE, R

    2001-01-01

    found to induce "withdrawal" contractions in cannabinoid tolerant guinea pig ileal MPLM. Further research is required to investigate the role both of endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists and of non-CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent to which the effects on gastrointestinal function of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists can be exploited therapeutically has yet to be investigated as has the extent to which these drugs can provoke unwanted effects in the gastrointestinal tract when used for other therapeutic purposes.

 PMID:11358910

  6. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  7. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, E.K.; Jones, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters and five case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: CT of the Stomach; CT and Other Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Evaluation of Crohn's Disease; Periotoneal Metastasis; CT and MRI Correlation of the Gastrointestinal Tract; CT of Acute Gastrointestinal Abnormlities; and CT of Colorectal Cancer.

  8. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  9. Water channel proteins in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Laforenza, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Water transport through the human digestive system is physiologically crucial for maintaining body water homeostasis and ensure digestive and absorptive functions. Within the gastrointestinal tract, water recirculates, being secreted with the digestive juices and then almost entirely absorbed by the small and large intestine. The importance of aquaporins (AQPs), transmembrane water channel proteins, in the rapid passage of water across plasma membranes in the gastrointestinal tract appears immediately evident. Several AQP isoforms are found in gastrointestinal epithelia, with AQP1, 3, 7, 10 and 11 being the most abundantly expressed in the whole gut. On the other hand, AQP4 and 8 are located selectively in the stomach and colon, respectively. Here we review AQP expression and localization at the tissue, cellular and subcellular level in gastrointestinal epithelia, and their modification in various gut diseases. PMID:22465691

  10. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sirisanthana, Thira; Brown, Arthur E

    2002-07-01

    When swallowed, anthrax spores may cause lesions from the oral cavity to the cecum. Gastrointestinal anthrax is greatly underreported in rural disease-endemic areas of the world. The apparent paucity of this form of anthrax reflects the lack of facilities able to make the diagnosis in these areas. The spectrum of disease, ranging from subclinical infection to death, has not been fully recognized. In some community-based studies, cases of gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbered those of cutaneous anthrax. The oropharyngeal variant, in particular, is unfamiliar to most physicians. The clinical features of oropharyngeal anthrax include fever and toxemia, inflammatory lesion(s) in the oral cavity or oropharynx, enlargement of cervical lymph nodes associated with edema of the soft tissue of the cervical area, and a high case-fatality rate. Awareness of gastrointestinal anthrax in a differential diagnosis remains important in anthrax-endemic areas but now also in settings of possible bioterrorism. PMID:12095428

  11. Biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Joanne; Willard, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Gastrointestinal biopsy is a potentially powerful tool, but it is easy to do it incorrectly. If clinicians are careless in performing or submitting biopsies, or if they blindly believe whatever the histopathology report says, they are abdicating their responsibility to the client and patient. Two comments seem most appropriate. First, the goal of endoscopy is not to be able to place the tip of an endoscope in a particular location; rather, the goal of endoscopy is to be able to access a particular location and then take a diagnostic specimen well enough that surgery can be avoided. Second, attention to detail is worth at least as much if not more than technology. PMID:14552163

  12. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  13. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dong-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient’s condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19132766

  14. Reconstruction and Visualization of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rong-guo; Guo, Xu-dong; Xu, Changqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Converting the two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional photographs into an intuitive three-dimensional (3D) model is a basic task for medical imaging data for auxiliary disease-linked diagnosis purpose. Methods: Reconstruction and visualization process of gastrointestinal cross-sectional photographs includes image preparation, image registration, image segmentation, 3D surface-rendering reconstruction, and implementation of 3D digital visualization. Results: Using the visualization toolkit (VTK), we implemented 3D digital reconstruction and visualization of gastrointestinal tract, whose visualized model can be zoomed, paned, and rotated, including the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. PMID:23675253

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  16. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  17. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  18. Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation in the Newborn and Child: Imaging Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Gary R; Davis, Joseph T; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal tract perforation can arise from various underlying etiologies ranging from congenital causes to ingested foreign bodies in the pediatric patient population. Imaging assessment in patients with suspected gastrointestinal tract perforation plays a central role in making the diagnosis and follow-up evaluation. This article reviews the more common etiologies of gastrointestinal tract perforation in pediatric patients, their imaging manifestations, and strategies for imaging assessment to assist the radiologist in arriving at a timely and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26827739

  19. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S.; Hughes, T.; Boettcher, T.; Barman, R.; Langer, R.; Swiston, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage. PMID:26580216

  20. [Synchronous tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Tr; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Mihalache, O; Degeratu, D; Predescu, G

    2010-01-01

    The term "synchronous tumors" is reserved for simultaneous evolution of two or more tumors with distinct sites, in which the possibility that one tumor is a metastasis of the other has been excluded. In medical practice, the involvement of two different cavitary organs of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare. We present two clinical cases of synchronous tumors: one of a malignant degeneration of a colonic polyp, associated to a jejunal tumor; the other of a patient with a gastric adenocarcinoma, who also had a bulky rectal villous tumor. We tried to find out the etiology of the tumors and the frequency of these associations, mentioned in medical literature. Immunohistochemistry investigations, genetic analysis and familial screening must complete an individualized medical approach in which the surgical technique must be adequate for each case. PMID:20405687

  1. Gastrothorax following upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaeldin Hassan; Elsayed, Muaz Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    A 27-year-old man presented with vomiting and breathlessness for 1 day, 5 days after upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. On admission, the patient was breathless but not cyanosed; he had sinus tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min) and was normotensive (blood pressure 120/75 mm Hg). There were signs of mediastinal shift to the right. There were no breath sounds over the left side of the chest but normal breath sounds were heard to the right of the sternum. His chest x ray, CT scan of the chest and a barium meal study revealed gastrothorax. He was operated on and at surgery the stomach and ascending colon were found herniating into the chest through a posterolateral defect of the left hemidiaphragm. These were moved back to the abdomen and the diaphragmatic defect was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remained well when seen in the clinic 2 months following surgery. PMID:22140411

  2. Congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lentze, M

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and

  3. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952

  4. Prion diseases and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Davies, G A; Bryant, Adam R; Reynolds, John D; Jirik, Frank R; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Although they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform (PrPsc) the process by which this isoform is propagated and transported to the brain remains poorly understood. M cells, dendritic cells and possibly enteroendocrine cells are important in the movement of infectious prions across the GI epithelium. From there, PrPsc propagation requires B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells of Peyer's patches. The early accumulation of the disease-causing agent in the plexuses of the enteric nervous system supports the contention that the autonomic nervous system is important in disease transmission. This is further supported by the presence of PrPsc in the ganglia of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the GI tract. Additionally, the lymphoreticular system has been implicated as the route of transmission from the gut to the brain. Although normal cellular prion protein is found in the enteric nervous system, its role has not been characterized. Further research is required to understand how the cellular components of the gut wall interact to propagate and transmit infectious prions to develop potential therapies that may prevent the progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:16432555

  5. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  6. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders. PMID:26459157

  7. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  8. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. PMID:27028536

  9. [Congenital gastrointestinal tract obstructions (pictorial essay)].

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Abdulhakim; Sevinç, Halil

    2004-03-01

    A wide spectrum of congenital anomalies may cause obstruction in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Neonates with complete upper intestinal obstruction do not usually require further radiological evaluation after radiography. Barium studies are sometimes needed. Barium studies and other comprehensive methods such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are usually complementary procedures which are not usually helpful and may even delay surgery, resulting in some complications and death. The decision to perform a given imaging examination should be considered carefully to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient. The diagnosis of low intestinal obstruction is usually apparent at abdominal radiography because of the presence of many dilated loops. The differentiation between ileal and colonic obstruction can be made with a contrast enema study. Dilute ionic, water-soluble contrast agents and non-balloon tip catheter of appropriate size is preferred for neonatal contrast enemas. Barium sulphate suspensions typically should not be used because of their potential to exacerbate the impaction of meconium plugs in meconium ileus, whereas water-soluble enemas can be therapeutic. PMID:15054709

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Samiullah; Bhurgri, Hadi; Sohail, Umair

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies. Eosinophilic colitis commonly presents with lower gastrointestinal symptoms and is a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:27545738

  11. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  12. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage. PMID:26347504

  13. Investigation of insoluble endogenous fractions of gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.

    2005-05-01

    For the determination of the elemental composition of insoluble endogenous fractions from gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF (XRF experimental beam line, VEPP-3, INP SU RAS, Novosibirsk), an analytical method was developed for producing epithelial tissue in vivo. The metrological characteristics were determined using a number of international biological standards.

  14. Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, John G.; Marks, Charles; Hearn, David

    1974-01-01

    The charts of 135 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors diagnosed over a 22-year period at 2 hospitals are reviewed and the clinical and pathological aspects discussed. Carcinoids occur most commonly in the appendix, jejunoileum, and rectum. Those smaller than 1 cm in diameter provide evidence of malignant potential only occasionally; lesions in the 1-1.9 cm range do this quite variably, and tumors 2 cm and larger are almost always invasive or metastatic or both. All gastrointestinal carcinoids except those of the appendix enlarge, invade, and metastasize predictably if given sufficient time. Most carcinoids except those of the rectum have already been adequately treated surgically when diagnosed by the pathologist. Local excision is effective treatment for noninvasive rectal carcinoids smaller than 2 cm in diameter, but those that have invaded or grown to 2 cm should undergo more radical resection. In general, gastrointestinal carcinoids carry better prognoses than do adenocarcinomata, and even in the presence of distant metastases long-term survival occurs in a significant number of patients. The frequent concomitance of associated malignant diseases accounts for as many or more deaths in these patients than the carcinoids themselves. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4421375

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  16. Neurostimulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Review of Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Thomas L.; Chen, Jiande; Emmanuel, Anton; Jolley, Christopher; Sarela, Abeezar I.; Törnblom, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Neurostimulation is one manifestation of neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This manuscript reviews the history of neurostimulation of the GI tract with emphasis on current methods of stimulation. Upper GI disorders can be modulated with both temporary (placed endoscopically or surgically) or permanent (placed surgically) gastric electrical stimulation (GES) devices. The current gastrointestinal (GI) neurostimulation of stomach (GES) devices have been used in both children and adults and some patients have been followed in excess of 15 years with good long-term results. Similar GES devices have also been used for a variety of lower GI disorders, including constipation and fecal incontinence, for a number of years. Based on these recent developments, the future uses of neurostimulation in the GI tract are discussed with an emphasis on new applications and innovations. PMID:25581846

  17. Optical Molecular Imaging in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carns, Jennifer; Keahey, Pelham; Quang, Timothy; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in optical molecular imaging allow for real-time identification of morphological and biochemical changes in tissue associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. This review summarizes widefield and high resolution imaging modalities currently in pre-clinical and clinical evaluation for the detection of colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer. Widefield techniques discussed include high definition white light endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluoresence imaging, and chromoendoscopy; high resolution techniques discussed include probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Finally, new approaches to enhance image contrast using vital dyes and molecular-specific targeted contrast agents are evaluated. PMID:23735112

  18. Site and mechanism of morphine tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    AKBARALI, H. I.; INKISAR, A.; DEWEY, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation is a major clinical problem. The effects of morphine, and other narcotics, on the gastrointestinal tract persist over long-term use thus limiting the clinical benefit of these excellent pain relievers. The effects of opioids in the gut, including morphine, are largely mediated by the μ-opioid receptors at the soma and nerve terminals of enteric neurons. Recent studies demonstrate that regional differences exist in both acute and chronic morphine along the gastrointestinal tract. While tolerance develops to the analgesic effects and upper gastrointestinal motility upon repeated morphine administration, tolerance does not develop in the colon with chronic opioids resulting in persistent constipation. Here, we review the mechanisms by which tolerance develops in the small but not the large intestine. The regional differences lie in the signaling and regulation of the μopioid receptor in the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The differential role of β-arrestin2 in tolerance development between central and enteric neurons defines the potential for therapeutic approaches in developing ligands with analgesic properties and minimal constipating effects. PMID:25257923

  19. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  20. Role of nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Lanas, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide osteoarthritis (OA) affects more than 9.6% of men and 18% of women older that 60 years. Treatment for OA often requires chronic use of selective or nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have been associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complications. An increased risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs alone and when combined with low-dose aspirin has been described in numerous studies. Although cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to carry a lower risk for gastrointestinal injury than nonselective NSAIDs, research continues to identify new treatments that not only are effective but also provide an improved benefit/risk profile, including better gastrointestinal tolerability. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. In preclinical studies NO was shown to help maintain gastric mucosal integrity, to inhibit leukocyte adherence to the endothelium, and to repair NSAID-induced damage. In addition, epidemiologic studies have shown that the use of NO-donating agents with NSAIDs or aspirin resulted in reduced risk for gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting NO-donating drugs (CINODs), in which a NO molecule is chemically linked to an NSAID, are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may result in less gastrointestinal damage than is associated with NSAID use. Therefore, these agents provide a potential therapeutic option for patients with arthritis who require long-term NSAID therapy. PMID:19007429

  1. The use of optical imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sabina; Wilson, Ana; Ragunath, Krish

    2016-01-01

    With significant advances in the management of gastrointestinal disease there has been a move from diagnosing advanced pathology, to detecting early lesions that are potentially amenable to curative endoscopic treatment. This has required an improvement in diagnostics, with a focus on identifying and characterising subtle mucosal changes. There is great interest in the use of optical technologies to predict histology and enable the formulation of a real-time in vivo diagnosis, a so-called ‘optical biopsy’. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the use of the current commercially available imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27429735

  2. Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Vanheel, Hanne; Farré, Ricard

    2013-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia is an extremely common disorder of gastrointestinal function. The disorder is thought to be heterogeneous, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varied symptom patterns. A diversity of changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure has been described in functional dyspepsia. These involve alterations in the stomach, such as impaired accommodation, delayed gastric emptying and hypersensitivity, and alterations in the duodenum, such as increased sensitivity to duodenal acid and/or lipids and low-grade inflammation. In this Review, we summarize all these abnormalities in an attempt to provide an integrated overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. PMID:23318268

  3. Prenatal Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract with Postnatal Imaging Correlation.

    PubMed

    Blask, Anna Nussbaum; Fagen, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal detection of a wide variety of anomalies and masses of the gastrointestinal tract is now possible. Prenatal imaging with ultrasonography and in selected cases magnetic resonance imaging provides invaluable information to the referring obstetrician, the maternal fetal medicine specialist, the neonatologist and pediatrician who will care for the child after birth, the surgeons and pediatric specialists who will repair or manage a prenatally detected anomaly, and of course to the parents, allowing them to prepare psychologically and financially for the specific interventions that may be needed for their child. Additional screening for associated anomalies can take place, route of delivery can be decided, and arrangements for delivery in an appropriate setting can be made. Prenatal detection also allows for consideration for pregnancy termination. This article will give a broad overview of anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract that can be detected prenatally and their imaging appearance postnatally. PMID:26086457

  4. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  5. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  6. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2016-04-15

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed.Lactobacillaceae(belonging mainly to the genusLactobacillus) represented most of theFirmicutesat all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a "mature" microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances ofLactobacillus salivarius(17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance ofLactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations ofL. salivariusand clostridia. BothL. salivariusand clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  7. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

  8. Clonal Evolution of Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Fink, Juergen; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The field of gastrointestinal epithelial stem cells is a rapidly developing area of adult stem cell research. The discovery of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells has enabled us to study many hidden aspects of the biology of gastrointestinal adult stem cells. Marked by Lgr5 and Troy, several novel endodermal stem cells have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract. A precise working model of stem cell propagation, dynamics, and plasticity has been revealed by a genetic labeling method, termed lineage tracing. This chapter introduces the reidentification of crypt base columnar cells as Lgr5(+) stem cells in the intestine. Subsequently, it will discuss dynamic clonal evolution and cellular plasticity in the intestinal stem cell zone, as well as in stem cell zones of stomach glands. PMID:27573765

  9. Hedgehog signaling in development and homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Gijs R

    2007-10-01

    The Hedgehog family of secreted morphogenetic proteins acts through a complex evolutionary conserved signaling pathway to regulate patterning events during development and in the adult organism. In this review I discuss the role of Hedgehog signaling in the development, postnatal maintenance, and carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract. Three mammalian hedgehog genes, sonic hedgehog (Shh), indian hedgehog (Ihh), and desert hedgehog (Dhh) have been identified. Shh and Ihh are important endodermal signals in the endodermal-mesodermal cross-talk that patterns the developing gut tube along different axes. Mutations in Shh, Ihh, and downstream signaling molecules lead to a variety of gross malformations of the murine gastrointestinal tract including esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, annular pancreas, midgut malrotation, and duodenal and anal atresia. These congenital malformations are also found in varying constellations in humans, suggesting a possible role for defective Hedgehog signaling in these patients. In the adult, Hedgehog signaling regulates homeostasis in several endoderm-derived epithelia, for example, the stomach, intestine, and pancreas. Finally, growth of carcinomas of the proximal gastrointestinal tract such as esophageal, gastric, biliary duct, and pancreatic cancers may depend on Hedgehog signaling offering a potential avenue for novel therapy for these aggressive cancers. PMID:17928586

  10. Current Techniques for Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young

    2016-01-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arise from the proper muscle layer of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and have a low malignant potential. They are sometimes accompanied by symptoms, but in most cases are detected by chance. Endoscopic surgery of subepithelial tumors in the upper GI tract has been actively performed, and its merits include the need for fewer medical devices compared with other surgical procedures and post-resection organ preservation. However, because endoscopic procedures are still limited to small or pilot studies, a multidisciplinary approach combining laparoscopy and endoscopy is needed for more effective and pathologically acceptable management of GISTs. Many new endoscopic surgeries have been developed, and this review describes the current status of and the new approaches for endoscopic surgery of GISTs in the upper GI tract. PMID:27214386

  11. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for /sup 125/I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells.

  12. Histamine H4 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Deiteren, A; De Man, J G; Pelckmans, P A; De Winter, B Y

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a well-established mediator involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and exerts its effect through activation of four histamine receptors (H1–H4). The histamine H4 receptor is the newest member of this histamine receptor family, and is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the liver, pancreas and bile ducts. Functional studies using a combination of selective and non-selective H4 receptor ligands have rapidly increased our knowledge of H4 receptor involvement in gastrointestinal processes both under physiological conditions and in models of disease. Strong evidence points towards a role for H4 receptors in the modulation of immune-mediated responses in gut inflammation such as in colitis, ischaemia/reperfusion injury, radiation-induced enteropathy and allergic gut reactions. In addition, data have emerged implicating H4 receptors in gastrointestinal cancerogenesis, sensory signalling, and visceral pain as well as in gastric ulceration. These studies highlight the potential of H4 receptor targeted therapy in the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and cancer. PMID:25363289

  13. Listeria monocytogenes: survival and adaptation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic environments (which include the glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase systems), and those which enable the organism to cope with bile acids (including bile salt hydrolase) and competition with the resident microbiota. An increased understanding of how the pathogen survives in this environment is likely to inform the future design of novel prophylactic approaches that exploit specific pharmabiotics; including probiotics, prebiotics, or phages. PMID:24551601

  14. Listeria monocytogenes: survival and adaptation in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic environments (which include the glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase systems), and those which enable the organism to cope with bile acids (including bile salt hydrolase) and competition with the resident microbiota. An increased understanding of how the pathogen survives in this environment is likely to inform the future design of novel prophylactic approaches that exploit specific pharmabiotics; including probiotics, prebiotics, or phages. PMID:24551601

  15. [Eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract: myths and reality].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S

    2013-01-01

    Current data on eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract are discussed along with the role of its microflora in human body under normal and pathological conditions. Certain debatable problems are discussed. Classification of colonic dysbiosis is presented with reference to its stages, functions of normal flora, "myths" related to the science of eubiosis and dysbiosis, the authors views of the problem. Diagnostic methods and their informative value are described. The main diseases and syndromes associated with intestinal dysbiosis are discussed. In conjunction with approaches to its correction. PMID:23659063

  16. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  17. Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju

    2013-02-01

    The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk. PMID:23164499

  18. Cellular Organization of Neuroimmune Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Bogunovic, Milena

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest immune organ; in vertebrates, it is the only organ whose function is controlled by its own intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS), but it is additionally regulated by extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. The GI nervous and immune systems are highly integrated in their common goal, which is to unite digestive functions with protection from ingested environmental threats. This review discusses the physiological relevance of enteric neuroimmune integration by summarizing the current knowledge of evolutionary and developmental pathways, cellular organization, and molecular mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. PMID:27289177

  19. Persistence and reactivation of human adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, K; Geiger, E; Vécsei, A; Huber, W-D; Rauch, M; Brenner, E; Wrba, F; Hammer, K; Innerhofer, A; Pötschger, U; Lawitschka, A; Matthes-Leodolter, S; Fritsch, G; Lion, T

    2016-04-01

    Reactivation of persistent human adenoviruses (HAdVs) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Although invasive HAdV infections mainly arise from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the specific sites of HAdV persistence are not well characterised. We prospectively screened biopsies from 143 non-HSCT paediatric patients undergoing GI endoscopy and monitored serial stool specimens from 148 paediatric HSCT recipients for the presence of HAdV by real-time PCR. Persistence of HAdV in the GI tract was identified in 31% of children, with the highest prevalence in the terminal ileum. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry identified HAdV persistence in lymphoid cells of the lamina propria, whereas biopsies from five transplant recipients revealed high numbers of replicating HAdV in intestinal epithelial cells. The prevalence of HAdV species, the frequencies of persistence in the GI tract and reactivations post transplant indicated a correlation of intestinal HAdV shedding pre-transplant with high risk of invasive infection. HAdV persistence in the GI tract is a likely origin of infectious complications in immunocompromised children. Intestinal lymphocytes represent a reservoir for HAdV persistence and reactivation, whereas the intestinal epithelium is the main site of viral proliferation preceding dissemination. The findings have important implications for assessing the risk of life-threatening invasive HAdV infections. PMID:26711435

  20. Effects of occupational stress on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Tienda, Paola; Delgadillo-Holtfort, Isabel; Balleza-Ordaz, Marco; Flores-Hernandez, Corina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the relationship between occupational stress and gastrointestinal alterations. The International Labour Organization suggests occupational health includes psychological aspects to achieve mental well-being. However, the definition of health risks for an occupation includes biological, chemical, physical and ergonomic factors but does not address psychological stress or other affective disorders. Nevertheless, multiple investigations have studied occupational stress and its physiological consequences, focusing on specific risk groups and occupations considered stressful. Among the physiological effects of stress, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) alterations are highly prevalent. The relationship between occupational stress and GIT diseases is evident in everyday clinical practice; however, the usual strategy is to attack the effects but not the root of the problem. That is, in clinics, occupational stress is recognized as a source of GIT problems, but employers do not ascribe it enough importance as a risk factor, in general, and for gastrointestinal health, in particular. The identification, stratification, measurement and evaluation of stress and its associated corrective strategies, particularly for occupational stress, are important topics to address in the near future to establish the basis for considering stress as an important risk factor in occupational health. PMID:24244879

  1. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  2. Leiomyoma of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal: a mimic of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Anita; Nelson, Dylan; Corless, Christopher L; Deshpande, Vikram; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyomas (LMs) of the gastrointestinal tract arise within the muscularis mucosae (superficial) and muscularis propria (deep). There are isolated reports of KIT-positive cells, presumed interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), within gastrointestinal LMs. We have encountered esophageal LMs with a high proportion of KIT-positive and DOG1-positive spindle-shaped cells, an appearance that mimicked gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of ICCs in LMs of the gastrointestinal tract and the etiopathogenic significance of these cells in this benign neoplasm. We identified 34 esophageal LMs (28 deep, 6 superficial), 8 gastric LMs, and 5 small-bowel LMs (all lesions in muscularis propria). We performed immunohistochemical staining studies for desmin, DOG1, and KIT on these neoplasms. We also evaluated 12 superficial colonic LMs. ICCs were distinguished from mast cells on the basis of morphology (elongated and occasionally branching spindle-shaped cells) and the presence of DOG1 reactivity. Four cases were screened for mutations in PDGFRA exons 12, 14, and 18 and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17. ICCs were identified in all deep esophageal LMs and constituted an average of 20% of the lesional cells; focally, these cells comprised >50% of cells. The density of these cells was significantly higher than the background muscularis propria, and hyperplasia of ICCs was not identified in the adjacent muscle. ICCs were identified in 6 of 8 gastric LMs and 1 of 5 small-bowel LMs and were entirely absent in all superficial esophageal and colonic/rectal LMs. There were no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. ICCs are universally present in deep esophageal LMs, and thus these neoplasms could be mistaken for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, particularly on biopsy samples, an error associated with adverse clinical consequences. ICCs are also identified in gastric and intestinal LMs, albeit in a smaller proportion of cases. Colonization and hyperplasia by non-neoplastic ICCs

  3. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS.A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: ("perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" or "PEComa") and ("gastrointestinal tract" or "GI" or "oral " or "mouth" or "esophagus" or "gullet" or "gastric" or "stomach" or "duodenum" or "jejunum" or "ileum" or "cecum" or "colon" or "colorectal" or "sigmoid" or "rectum" or "anus" or "mesentery") up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches.A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant cases. Eventually, it is necessary for closed and long-term follow-up with endoscope and

  4. Ethanol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and its possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K; Gärtner, U; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A

    1994-01-01

    Ethanol is oxidised not only in the liver, but also in the gastrointestinal tract. Although this ethanol metabolism is less than that of the liver, it has some important relevance with respect to the first pass metabolism of alcohol and to ethanol induced tissue toxicity. In the gastrointestinal tract, ethanol can be metabolised not only in the mucosal cell via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidising system (MEOS), but also in a great variety of bacteria. Depending on the gastrointestinal location, one or the other metabolic pathway of alcohol may be predominant. The metabolism of ethanol by gastric ADH, the so called first pass metabolism, influences ethanol blood concentrations not only in the portal vein and thus in the liver, but also in the systemic circulation. As gastric ADH activity is decreased in younger women, in the elderly, in the alcoholic, during fasting and after treatment with certain H-2-receptor antagonists, increased blood ethanol concentrations may occur in these situations after oral intake of ethanol. However, this first pass metabolism of alcohol is influenced not only by ADH activity but also by the speed of gastric emptying (e.g. slow gastric emptying leads to increased first pass metabolism). Finally, gastric morphology also determines first pass metabolism. Chronic atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric injury lead to a decrease of gastric ADH activity, and thus possibly to a decreased first pass metabolism of alcohol. In addition, the local production of acetaldehyde from ethanol in the oesophagus, where significantly more sigma-ADH is present, may contribute to tissue injury and this may lead to the well known ethanol associated oesophageal cancer development. Various isoenzymes of ADH exist in the colorectum and they are also capable of producing acetaldehyde in amounts sufficient to injure the mucosa. Besides ADH, the MEOS, a mixed function oxidase, also metabolises ethanol. This system is

  5. Prognosis and Survival in Patients With Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shebani, Khaled O.; Souba, Wiley W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Stark, Paul C.; Elgadi, Khaled M.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Ott, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of clinical presentation variables on the management and survival of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract carcinoid tumors. Methods A 20-year (1975–1995) retrospective analysis of 150 patients with GI tract carcinoid tumors at the Massachusetts General Hospital was conducted. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 1–378). Survival estimates for prognostic factors were calculated using Kaplan-Meier product limit estimators, with death from carcinoid as the outcome. Univariate analyses for each factor were obtained using a log-rank test, and multivariate survival analysis was performed. Results All but two patients underwent surgical intervention with the intent to cure (90%) or debulk the tumor (9%). Mean age at presentation was 55 ± 18 years (range 11–90). There was a slight female/male predominance (80:70). Symptoms were nonspecific; the most common were abdominal pain (40%), nausea and vomiting (29%), weight loss (19%), and GI blood loss (15%). Incidental carcinoids, discovered at the time of another procedure, occurred in 40% of patients and were noted at multiple sites throughout the GI tract. The distribution of tumors was ileojejunum (37%), appendix (31%), colon (13%), rectum (12%), stomach (4%), duodenum (1.3%), and Meckel’s diverticulum (1.3%). Of the 27 patients with documented liver metastases, carcinoid syndrome developed in only 13 patients (48%), manifested by watery diarrhea (100%), upper body flushing (70%), asthma (38%), and tricuspid regurgitation (23%). All 13 patients with carcinoid syndrome had elevated levels of 5-HIAA, but the absolute levels did not correlate with the severity of symptoms. An additional 11 patients, 3 without liver metastases, had elevated levels of 5-HIAA without any evidence of carcinoid syndrome. Multicentric carcinoid tumors occurred in 15 patients (10%), and all but one of these tumors were centered around the ileocecal valve. There was no difference in the incidence of

  6. [Microbiocenosis of parietal mucin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Korneev, L M

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial community in parietal mucin at different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats was revealed. The pronounced variability in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbiocenosis in parietal mucin of rats at different sections was revealed. The differences were most pronounced in the passage from upper to lower GIT sections, the large intestine found to be the richest biocenosis. The microbial composition of rat feces was faintly associated with the GIT parietal microbiocenosis. The individual areas of GIT mucosa were unique of their microbial characteristics and organization. This makes it possible to regard them as relatively independent biotopes and indicates that it is impossible to evaluate the microbial community by one of the colonic mucosal sifes. PMID:16438365

  7. Targeting the gastrointestinal tract to treat type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Paige V; Duca, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The rising global rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity present a significant economic and social burden, underscoring the importance for effective and safe therapeutic options. The success of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, along with the potent glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery, highlight the gastrointestinal tract as a potential target for diabetes treatment. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the gut plays a prominent role in the ability of metformin to lower glucose levels. As such, the current review highlights some of the current and potential pathways in the gut that could be targeted to improve glucose homeostasis, such as changes in nutrient sensing, gut peptides, gut microbiota and bile acids. A better understanding of these pathways will lay the groundwork for novel gut-targeted antidiabetic therapies, some of which have already shown initial promise. PMID:27496374

  8. Foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract: cocaine packets.

    PubMed

    Kucukmetin, Nurten Turkel; Gucyetmez, Bulent; Poyraz, Tuncer; Yildirim, Sadik; Boztas, Gungor; Tozun, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in 'body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient. PMID:24574951

  9. Stenting of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun Adam, Andreas

    2011-06-15

    Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Patients with acute bowel obstruction are usually poor surgical candidates with 10-20% operative mortality and 40-50% operative morbidity rates. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery. Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract, the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost-benefit analysis.

  10. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  11. Effect of DSS on Bacterial Growth in Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Hlinková, J; Svobodová, H; Brachtlová, T; Gardlík, R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder that is mainly divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effect and used as a treatment option in different gastrointestinal problems. The aim of our study was to find suitable bacterial vectors for gene therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were investigated as potential vectors. Our results show that the growth of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was inhibited in the majority of samples collected from dextran sodium sulphate-treated animals compared with control growth in phosphate-buffered saline. The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in all investigated samples was enhanced or unaffected in comparison with phosphate-buffered saline; however, it did not reach the growth rates of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Dextran sodium sulphate treatment had a stimulating effect on the growth of both strains in homogenates of distant small intestine and proximal colon samples. The gastrointestinal tract contents and tissue homogenates did not inhibit growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in comparison with the negative control, and provided more suitable environment for growth compared to Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. We therefore conclude that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 is a more suitable candidate for a potential bacterial vector, even though it has no known probiotic properties. PMID:27085009

  12. Autonomous locomotion of capsule endoscope in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sungwook; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Tae Song; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous locomotion in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is achieved with a paddling-based capsule endoscope. For this, a miniaturized encoder module was developed utilizing a MEMS fabrication technology to monitor the position of paddles. The integrated encoder module yielded the high resolution of 0.0025 mm in the linear motion of the paddles. In addition, a PID control method was implemented on a DSP to control the stroke of the paddles accurately. As a result, the average accuracy and the standard deviation were measured to be 0.037 mm and 0.025 mm by a laser position sensor for the repetitive measurements. The locomotive performance was evaluated via ex-vivo tests according to various strokes in paddling. In an in-vivo experiment with a living pig, the locomotion speed was improved by 58% compared with the previous control method relying on a given timer value for reciprocation of the paddles. Finally, the integrated encoder module and the control system allow consistent paddling during locomotion even under loads in GI tract. It provides the autonomous locomotion without intervention in monitoring and controlling the capsule endoscope. PMID:22255866

  13. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. PMID:27593246

  14. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS. A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: (“perivascular epithelioid cell tumor” or “PEComa”) and (“gastrointestinal tract” or “GI” or “oral ” or “mouth” or “esophagus” or “gullet” or “gastric” or “stomach” or “duodenum” or “jejunum” or “ileum” or “cecum” or “colon” or “colorectal” or “sigmoid” or “rectum” or “anus” or “mesentery”) up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches. A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant

  15. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  16. Rectovaginal fistula after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration using a stapler--case report.

    PubMed

    Welanyk, Joanna; Wysocki, Tomasz; Nowobilski, Wiesław; Dobosz, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The authors presented a case of rectovaginal fistula in a 40-year old female patient after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration (Hartmann's operation) performed because of iatrogenic rectal damage. The most likely cause of rectovaginal fistula development was the erroneous introduction of the stapler into the vagina and sigmoidovaginostomy during an attempt to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract the patient was subject to anterior rectal resection, sigmoidorectostomy, and closure of the fistula inside the vaginal wall by its duplication. Additionally, a double protective ileostomy was performed, which was subject to closure after three months. PMID:22343206

  17. T cell-mediated immunoregulation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Saurer, L; Mueller, C

    2009-04-01

    In the intestinal tract, only a single layer of epithelial cells separates innate and adaptive immune effector cells from a vast amount of antigens. Here, the immune system faces a considerable challenge in tolerating commensal flora and dietary antigens while preventing the dissemination of potential pathogens. Failure to tightly control immune reactions may result in detrimental inflammation. In this respect, 'conventional' regulatory CD4(+) T cells, including naturally occurring and adaptive CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, Th3 and Tr1 cells, have recently been the focus of considerable attention. However, regulatory mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa are highly complex, including adaptations of nonhaematopoietic cells and innate immune cells as well as the presence of unconventional T cells with regulatory properties such as resident TCRgammadelta or TCRalphabeta CD8(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes. This review aims to summarize the currently available knowledge on conventional and unconventional regulatory T cell subsets (Tregs), with special emphasis on clinical data and the potential role or malfunctioning of Tregs in four major human gastrointestinal diseases, i.e. inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease, food allergy and colorectal cancer. We conclude that the clinical data confirms some but not all of the findings derived from experimental animal models. PMID:19210347

  18. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  19. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  20. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  1. Autonomous device for photostimulation of the gastrointestinal tract immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Sergey A.; Dyrin, Vladimir N.; Vovk, Sergey M.; Petrov, Evgeny Y.; Udut, Vladimir V.; Borodulina, Elena V.

    2000-05-01

    A very small optoelectronic device emitting light in the red and green band has been developed as a small capsule consisting of two semispheres connected with light-transmitted coupling. The device -- a phototablet permits to irradiate all parts of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) including the immunocompetent formations of the small intestine -- Peyer's patches responsible for production of secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA). The main mechanisms of realizing endogenic phototherapy using a phototablet begin functioning when irradiating both the walls of the GIT organs and its contents. The results of clinical trials of the phototablet testify to a favorable effect of endogenic therapy on the human organism in asthenic syndrome, some types of deficiency in the immunity function, in dysbioses, the syndrome of large intestine irritation, duodenostasis, etc. After endogenic phototherapy the patients had an increased level of lysozyme, leukocytes, a number of lactobacteria. There were no side effects when using a phototablet. Indications and contraindications for endogenic phototherapy were represented. Thus, the method of endogenic phototherapy allows us to have an effective and direct influence on the immunocompetent cells of GIT organs without medicamental agents and antigens that makes it possible to use the phototablet in medicine on a large scale.

  2. Screening for Precancerous Lesions of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: From the Endoscopists' Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2013-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are one of the most important leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Diagnosis at late stages always brings about poor outcome of these malignancies. The early detection of precancerous or early cancerous lesions of gastrointestinal tract is therefore of utmost importance to improve the overall outcome and maintain a good quality of life of patients. The desire of endoscopists to visualize the invisibles under conventional white-light endoscopy has accelerated the advancements in endoscopy technologies. Nowadays, image-enhanced endoscopy which utilizes optical- or dye-based contrasting techniques has been widely applied in endoscopic screening program of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. These contrasting endoscopic technologies not only improve the visualization of early foci missed by conventional endoscopy, but also gain the insight of histopathology and tumor invasiveness, that is so-called optical biopsy. Here, we will review the application of advanced endoscopy technique in screening program of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. PMID:23573079

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus orisasini SH06, Isolated from a Healthy Thoroughbred Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Misako; Nakano, Akiyo; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Tekefumi; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus orisasini SH06 was isolated from a healthy thoroughbred gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of S. orisasini. PMID:26769944

  4. Gut clock: implication of circadian rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2011-04-01

    Circadian and seasonal rhythms are a fundamental feature of all living organisms and their organelles. Biological rhythms are responsible for daily food intake; the period of hunger and satiety is controlled by the central pacemaker, which resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and communicates with tissues via bidirectional neuronal and humoral pathways. The molecular basis for circadian timing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involves interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops which culminate in the rhythmic expression and activity of a set of clock genes and related hormones. Interestingly, it has been found that clocks in the GIT are responsible for the periodic activity (PA) of its various segments and transit along the GIT; they are localized in special interstitial cells, with unstable membrane potentials located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. The rhythm of slow waves is controlled in various segments of the GIT: in the stomach (about 3 cycles per min), in the duodenum (12 cycle per min), in the jejunum and ileum (from 7 to 10 cycles per min), and in the colon (12 cycles per min). The migrating motor complex (MMC) starts in the stomach and moves along the gut causing peristaltic contractions when the electrical activity spikes are superimposed on the slow waves. GIT hormones, such as motilin and ghrelin, are involved in the generation of MMCs, while others (gastrin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, serotonin) are involved in the generation of spikes upon the slow waves, resulting in peristaltic or segmental contractions in the small (duodenum, jejunum ileum) and large bowel (colon). Additionally, melatonin, produced by neuro-endocrine cells of the GIT mucosa, plays an important role in the internal biological clock, related to food intake (hunger and satiety) and the myoelectric rhythm (produced primarily by the pineal gland during the dark period of the light-dark cycle). This appears to be an

  5. [Biocenosis sparing treatment in the surgery of gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, S M; Voronina, O V

    2009-01-01

    The authors present results of investigation of the state of microbiocenosis of the intestine and immune status of organism of 139 patients after emergency operations on the gastro-intestinal tract organs. Disbiosis and reduced indices of the immune system in the postoperative period was a cause of using biocenosis sparing treatment resulting in stabilization of microecology of the gastro-intestinal tract, higher colonization resistance and general reactivity of organism. PMID:19432155

  6. Post-corrosive injuries of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chibishev, A; Simonovska, N; Shikole, A

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisonings with corrosive substances may cause serious chemical injuries to upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common location being the esophagus and the stomach. If the patient survives the acute phase of the poisoning, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis and increased risk for esophageal cancer. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. In establishing the diagnosis of acute corrosive poisonings, the severity of the post-corrosive endoscopic changes of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is of major importance. According to Holinder and Fridman classification, post-corrosive endoscopic changes are classified in three degrees: First degree--superficial damage associated with hyperthermia, epithelial desquamation and mucous edema. Second degree--transmucous damage affecting all of the mucosal layers, followed by exudation, erosions and ulcerations. Third degree--transmural damage associated with ulcer's penetration in the deep layers of the tissue and neighboring organs. Severity of the lesions depends on the nature, quantity and concentration of the corrosive substance, the duration of exposure and current state of the exposed organs. Most often caustic injuries occur to the esophagus and stomach since the corrosive substance remains there for a longer period of time. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. The most common complications that may appear are: perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, sepsis, esophageal strictures and stenosis, stenosis of gastric antrum and pylorus, cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. Today, owing to the substantially enhanced

  7. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ZNT1, 4, 5, 6, AND 7 IN THE MOUSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of five zinc transporters (ZnT1, 4, 5, 6, and 7) of the Slc30 family in the mouse gastrointestinal tract was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. The results demonstrated unique expression patterns, levels, and cellular localization among ZnT proteins in the mouse gastrointestinal tra...

  8. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p < 0.0001 that is an average reduction in risk of 35 % in favour of probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling. PMID:24633989

  9. Screening for Bacillus Isolates in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Teresa M.; Serra, Cláudia R.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2005-01-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  10. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of gastrointestinal tract: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Kadar, Zoltan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Tamasi, Adrian; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-28

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that consists of a dual adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation, each component representing at least 30% of the tumor. To date, only seven cases have been reported in the cecum, and less than 40 in the stomach. Our first case was diagnosed in a 74-years-old female as a polypoid lesion of the cecum with direct invasion in the transverse colon, without lymph node metastases. The second case was diagnosed in the stomach of a 46-years-old male as a polypoid tumor of the antral region that invaded the pancreas and presented metastases in 22 regional lymph nodes. The metastatic tissue was represented by the glandular component. In both cases, the tumor consisted of a moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (with mucinous component in Case 1) intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ki67 index was lower than 20% in Case 1, respectively higher than 20% in Case 2. The neuroendocrine component was marked by synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase, being negative for Keratins 7/20. The neuroendocrine component represented 60% in Case 1, and 40% in Case 2, respectively. The glandular components were marked by carcinoembryonic antigen, maspin and keratin 20/7 (Case 1/2). Both cases were proved to be microsatellite stable. Independently by the localization and tumor stage, MANECs appear to be highly malignant tumors, with high risk for distant metastases. The aggressiveness seems to depend on the endocrine component, independent of its proportion. The neuroendocrine component could be a dedifferentiated adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine phenotype. PMID:25632209

  11. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of gastrointestinal tract: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Kadar, Zoltan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar Jr.; Tamasi, Adrian; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract that consists of a dual adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation, each component representing at least 30% of the tumor. To date, only seven cases have been reported in the cecum, and less than 40 in the stomach. Our first case was diagnosed in a 74-years-old female as a polypoid lesion of the cecum with direct invasion in the transverse colon, without lymph node metastases. The second case was diagnosed in the stomach of a 46-years-old male as a polypoid tumor of the antral region that invaded the pancreas and presented metastases in 22 regional lymph nodes. The metastatic tissue was represented by the glandular component. In both cases, the tumor consisted of a moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (with mucinous component in Case 1) intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ki67 index was lower than 20% in Case 1, respectively higher than 20% in Case 2. The neuroendocrine component was marked by synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase, being negative for Keratins 7/20. The neuroendocrine component represented 60% in Case 1, and 40% in Case 2, respectively. The glandular components were marked by carcinoembryonic antigen, maspin and keratin 20/7 (Case 1/2). Both cases were proved to be microsatellite stable. Independently by the localization and tumor stage, MANECs appear to be highly malignant tumors, with high risk for distant metastases. The aggressiveness seems to depend on the endocrine component, independent of its proportion. The neuroendocrine component could be a dedifferentiated adenocarcinoma with a neuroendocrine phenotype. PMID:25632209

  12. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

  13. Proinflammatory effects of local abdominal irradiation on rat gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, M.G.; Harding, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    Although the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of late changes in the gastrointestinal tract following exposure to ionizing irradiation has been extensively studied, few studies have concentrated on the presence of an acute inflammatory response in the period immediately following radiation. We therefore examined, in rats, whether the local application of 10 Gy cobalt-60 irradiation to the abdomen led to changes in the gut within the first 24 hr that were consistent with an acute inflammatory response. In stomach, small intestine, and colon, local irradiation led to a significant increase in the accumulation of plasma within the tissue by 4-8 hr following irradiation. This increase in tissue plasma volume, indicative of an increased microvascular permeability, was then sustained until the end of the 24-hr assessment period in all tissues examined. Concurrent with this was a consistent transient increase in tissue red blood cell volume, suggestive of vasodilation. Of particular note, a significant increase in the number of mucosal neutrophils was also observed between 2 and 12 hr following irradiation. This elevation in mucosal neutrophils was particularly marked in the pericryptal or deep mucosal regions of small intestine and colon and consistently preceded the vasodilation and enhanced permeability. Furthermore these pathophysiological alterations occurred at a time when histological changes in the mucosa consistent with an impaired mucosal microcirculation (ie, edema of the lamina propria and subepithelial bleb formation) were present. These results support the hypothesis that an inflammatory response occurs in the gut during the first 24 hr following abdominal irradiation. Such changes may then further exacerbate the damage initiated by the ionizing radiation.

  14. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  15. Structural, biological, and evolutionary relationships of plant food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Shewry, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The recently completed genome sequence of the model plant species Arabidopsis has been estimated to encode over 25,000 proteins, which, on the basis of their function, can be classified into structural and metabolic (the vast majority of plant proteins), protective proteins, which defend a plant against invasion by pathogens or feeding by pests, and storage proteins, which proved a nutrient store to support germination in seeds. It is now clear that almost all plant food allergens are either protective or storage proteins. It is also becoming evident that those proteins that trigger the development of an allergic response through the gastrointestinal tract belong primarily to two large protein superfamilies: (1) The cereal prolamin superfamily, comprising three major groups of plant food allergens, the 2S albumins, lipid transfer proteins, and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have related structures, and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. They include major allergens from Brazil nut, peanuts, fruits, such as peaches, and cereals, such as rice and wheat; (2) The cupin superfamily, comprising the major globulin storage proteins from a number of plant species. The globulins have been found to be allergens in plant foods, such as peanuts, soya bean, and walnut; (3) The cyteine protease C1 family, comprising the papain-like proteases from microbes, plants, and animals. This family contains two notable allergens that sensitize via the GI tract, namely actinidin from kiwi fruit and the soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30k/P34. This study describes the properties, structures, and evolutionary relationships of these protein families, the allergens that belong to them, and discusses them in relation to the role protein structure may play in determining protein allergenicity. PMID:15540651

  16. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  17. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  18. Intravenous Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum Leads to a Long-Lasting Infection Restricted to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Luying; Shao, Lili; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Yuyang; Failor, Courtney; Schenken, Robert; Baseman, Joel; He, Cheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, it remains unclear whether the chlamydial organisms can be introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via pathways independent of the oral and anal routes. We have recently shown that Chlamydia muridarum spreads from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract potentially via the circulatory system. To test whether hematogenous C. muridarum can spread to and establish a long-lasting colonization in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we inoculated mice intravenously with a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum strain and monitored its distribution. After tail vein inoculation, most luciferase-generated bioluminescence signals were detected in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiment. The ex vivo imaging revealed that the abdominal signals came from the gastrointestinal tract tissues. Simultaneous monitoring of chlamydial organisms in individual organs or tissues revealed an initial stage of systemic spreading followed by a long-lasting infection in the gastrointestinal tract. A retro-orbital vein inoculation of the C. muridarum organisms at a lower dose in a different mouse strain also led to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated that intravenous C. muridarum inoculation can result in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the chlamydial organisms may use the sexual behavior-independent circulation pathway to infect the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27271744

  19. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell tumors with interstitial cells of Cajal: Prevalence excluding gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Jung; Hwang, Chung Su; Kim, Ahrong; Kim, Kyungbin; Choi, Kyung Un

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas and schwannomas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are mainly comprised of spindle-shaped tumor cells and should always be differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) are well-known diagnostic markers for the detection of a GIST by immunohistochemical staining. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and significance of spindle cell tumors of the GIT with KIT- or DOG1-positive spindle-shaped cells, presumed to be interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), other than GISTs. A total of 71 leiomyomas and 35 schwannomas were examined and clinicopathological information was obtained. KIT and DOG1 immunostaining was performed to determine the proportions of positive cells. Mutation screening of KIT exons 9, 11, 13 and 17, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) exons 12 and 18 was performed in cases with a relatively high proportion of either KIT- or DOG1-positive cells. The frequency of leiomyomas and schwannomas with KIT- and DOG1-positive ICCs was 35.2% (25/71 cases) and 5.7% (2/35 cases), respectively. Among the esophageal leiomyomas with KIT- and DOG-positive ICCs (14/25; 56.0%), 5 leiomyomas involved the muscularis mucosa and 9 leiomyomas involved the muscularis propria. All gastric leiomyomas with KIT- and DOG1-positive ICCs (11/25; 44%) involved the muscularis propria. All schwannomas with an increased proportion of KIT- or DOG1-positive ICCs were of gastric origin. No KIT or PDGFRA mutations were detected in 7 leiomyomas and 2 schwannomas. In conclusion, the majority of leiomyomas and the minority of schwannomas in the GIT had a significant portion of KIT- and DOG1-positive cells. All of the tumors were located in the upper GIT, and could be present in the muscularis propria or muscularis mucosa. The tumors represented a non-neoplastic proliferation of KIT- and DOG1-positive cells in the GIT. Careful evaluation of KIT- or DOG1

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of relative gastrointestinal layer thickness in cats without clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Londono, Leonel; Berry, Clifford R; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to measure normal thickness values of the muscularis, submucosal, mucosal and serosal layers in each gastrointestinal (GI) segment (gastric fundus, body and pyloric antrum; duodenum; jejunum; ileum; colon), and (2) to calculate a ratio of muscularis and mucosal layer thickness to aortic diameter measured at the level of the celiac artery (Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao) in each GI segment in a sample of healthy cats. Ultrasonographic examination of the GI tract was performed, and measurements of the individual layers in each GI segment were obtained in 38 healthy cats without clinical evidence of disease. The muscularis layer was significantly thickest in the ileum, compared with other segments, and it was thicker than the submucosa in all segments except the colon. The mucosa was the thickest layer in all segments, and was thickest in the duodenum and ileum. Measurements of the submucosal and serosal layers were not significantly different between all segments. Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao in each segment were 0.12 and 0.25 (gastric fundus), 0.12 and 0.18 (gastric body), 0.11 and 0.16 (pyloric antrum), 0.08 and 0.27 (duodenum), 0.08 and 0.22 (jejunum), 0.14 and 0.25 (ileum), and 0.05 and 0.08 (colon), respectively. Musc:Ao and Muc:Ao are clinically relevant values that can be used to objectively identify thickening of the muscularis and mucosal layers in response to GI diseases. PMID:23906704

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the digestive tract identified on an upper gastrointestinal examination.

    PubMed

    Zei, Markus; Meyers, Arthur B; Boyd, Kevin P; Larson-Nath, Catherine; Suchi, Mariko

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare and typically identified in patients with systemic disease. We describe a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with bilious vomiting, failure to thrive and a rash. An upper gastrointestinal (GI) examination revealed loss of normal mucosal fold pattern and luminal narrowing within the duodenum, prompting endoscopic biopsy. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the digestive tract was confirmed by histopathology. A skeletal survey and skin biopsy identified other systemic lesions. Although uncommon, it is important to consider LCH in the differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin, especially when seen with concurrent rash. Findings of gastrointestinal involvement on upper GI examination include loss of normal mucosal fold pattern and luminal narrowing in the few published case reports. PMID:26886914

  2. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  3. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  4. Heat Shock Protein Alteration in the Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues of Chickens Exposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhang, Kexin; Guo, Guangyang; Sun, Xiao; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in our living environment and is useful for industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and other fields. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an existing form of As. Exposure to As2O3 has a toxic effect on humans and animals. It not only leads to skin cancer, peripheral vascular disease, hyperkeratosis, etc. but also interferes with the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is an important organ for animals to transform the food they eat into the nutrients their body needs for maintenance and growth. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) exist in the non-stress normal cells and their expression increases under stimuli. Therefore, we wonder whether the "stimulus" of As2O3 could change the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance and expression level of Hsps in the gastrointestinal tract of birds. To investigate the relation between arseniasis and Hsp alterations in the chicken's gastrointestinal tract induced by an As2O3-supplemented diet, we selected 72 one-day-old male Hy-line chickens and randomly divided them into four groups. They were fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. The mRNA contents of Hsps (including Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The correlation between As2O3 and Hsp genes was assessed. In addition, the protein expression levels of Hsp60 and Hsp70 in the gastrointestinal tract tissue samples were measured by western blot. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels and the Hsp expression levels in the gastrointestinal tract tissues of chickens with As2O3 supplementation increased at different time points in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). These data suggested that arseniasis influenced the

  5. [Drug-induced anomalous contraction of gastrointestinal tract of mice with impaired c-kit function].

    PubMed

    Tokutomi, Naofumi; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Nishi, Katsuhide

    2004-03-01

    Drug-induced contraction of gastrointestinal tracts seems to depend upon the extent of their rhythmic contraction that is driven by the activity of gastrointestinal pacemaker cells. In BALB/c mice chronically administrated with a neutralizing anti-c-Kit monoclonal antibody (ACK2), rhythmic contraction of the gastrointestinal tract was impaired and contractile responses to drugs, including acetylcholine, prostaglandin F(2alpha), and bradykinin, were anomalously augmented. Histochemical analysis of the c-kit-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract revealed the decreased number of c-kit-positive cells in the ACK2-treated animals, which lead to the impaired rhythmic contraction. Since the intestinal c-kit-positive cells in primary culture developed Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic Cl(-) current, the rhythmic current is supposed to be an origin of gastrointestinal pacemakers. The extent of anomaly in drug-induced contraction correlated with the extent of impairment in rhythmic contraction. The drug-induced anomalous contraction in the preparation from ACK2-treated animals, which is accompanied by the impaired rhythmic contraction, was mimicked when the gastrointestinal segments from control animals were superfused with a low temperature organ bath solution at 25 degrees C. These results suggest that rhythmic discharge of excitation of smooth muscle cells, which is triggered by rhythmic excitatory input from c-kit cells, regulates the extent of drug-induced contraction. PMID:14993728

  6. Planar scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael L; Strober, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, nuclear medicine has paralleled other imaging fields with the development of 3-dimensional techniques, including single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. However, conventional nuclear medicine planar scintigraphy remains a common procedure at most imaging centers. Gastrointestinal studies constitute a significant portion of these planar procedures. The most common gastrointestinal studies, including hepatobiliary, gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal bleeding evaluations, resemble their original protocol. However, serial improvements have optimized the diagnostic efficacy of these procedures. Conventional Technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen imaging and hepatic blood pool imaging with labeled red blood cells now mainly serve an adjunctive role in the evaluation of equivocal findings on computed tomography. Salivary gland imaging is a less commonly requested evaluation, but can be used to evaluate functional capacity in some disease entities. PMID:22117811

  7. Over-the-scope clips in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract iatrogenic perforation: A multicenter retrospective study and a classification of gastrointestinal tract perforations

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Caruso, Angelo; Manta, Raffaele; Di Mitri, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Pagano, Nico; Galloro, Giuseppe; Mocciaro, Filippo; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Luigiano, Carmelo; Antonucci, Enrico; Conigliaro, Rita; Masci, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforations treated by over-the-scope clip (OTSC) placement. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 20 patients (13 female and 7 male; mean age: 70.6 ± 9.8 years) in eight high-volume tertiary referral centers with upper or lower iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforation treated by OTSC placement. Gastrointestinal tract perforation could be with oval-shape or with round-shape. Oval-shape perforations were closed by OTSC only by suction and the round-shape by the “twin-grasper” plus suction. RESULTS: Main perforation diameter was 10.1 ± 4.3 mm (range 3-18 mm). The technical success rate was 100% (20/20 patients) and the clinical success rate was 90% (18/20 patients). Two patients (10%) who did not have complete sealing of the defect underwent surgery. Based upon our observations we propose two types of perforation: Round-shape “type-1 perforation” and oval-shape “type-2 perforation”. Eight (40%) out of the 20 patients had a type-1 perforation and 12 patients a type-2 (60%). CONCLUSION: OTSC placement should be attempted after perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopy. A failed closure attempt does not impair subsequent surgical treatment. PMID:27152138

  8. ERBBs in the gastrointestinal tract: Recent progress and new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, William H.; Threadgill, David; Coffey, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium does much more than provide a physical barrier between the intestinal lumen and our internal milieu. It is actively engaged in absorption and secretion of salt and water via ion transporters, exchangers and selective ion channels. It is also a continuously self-renewing epithelium that undergoes ordered growth and differentiation along its vertical axis. From this dual perspective, we will consider the actions of the ERBB family of ligands and receptors in the maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis and discuss instances when the actions of this family go awry such as in cancer and Ménétrier's disease. PMID:19041864

  9. Some aspects of the effects of PL-10.1.AK-15 on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Erceg, D; Simicevic, V N; Kolega, M; Dohoczky, C

    1997-01-01

    PL-10.1.AK-15 is an active fragment of a naturally occurring protein first isolated from human gastric juice. Among its other protective effects, PL-10.1.AK-15 has demonstrated a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PL-10.1.AK-15 on two functional parameters of gastrointestinal function: gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Gastric acid secretion was assessed in male Wistar rats using a modified method of Shay, while gastrointestinal motility was assessed in male NMRI mice by charcoal propulsion. PL-10.1.AK-15 was given in three different doses (3, 10 and 100 micrograms/kg body weight) in accordance with the experimental protocol. The results of these experiments indicate that PL-10.1.AK-15 in the investigated doses had no influence on gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility. PMID:9403791

  10. Trophic Factors and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the role of trophic factors in fetal and neonatal gastrointestinal and liver growth it is important to first consider the nature of growth. The fetal and neonatal period is the most dynamic period of post conceptual growth and includes critical developmental milestones, such ...

  11. Trophic factors and regulation of gastrointestinal tract and liver development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role of trophic factors in fetal and neonatal gastrointestinal (GI) and liver growth it is important to first consider the nature of growth. The fetal and neonatal period is the most dynamic period of postconceptual growth and includes critical developmental milestones, such as gas...

  12. Sonography of Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases: Correlation With Computed Tomographic Findings and Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Han Na

    2016-07-01

    Sonographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be difficult because of overlying intraluminal bowel gas and gas-related artifacts. However, in the absence of these factors and with the development of high-resolution scanners and the technical experience of radiologists, sonography can become a powerful tool for GI tract assessment. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of GI tract lesions compared with endoscopic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and postoperative complications are illustrated, and the distinctive sonographic characteristics of these entities are highlighted. PMID:27268998

  13. Nitrogen transactions along the gastrointestinal tract in cattle: a meta-analytical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous nitrogen (EN) secretions occur along the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract of animals constituting a loss of amino acids for the animal, but a supply of nitrogen (N) for the microbial population of the foregut and hindgut of ruminants. The quantification of these transactions is not only ...

  14. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract; (2) the second one considering the literature regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate at gastric level; (3) the third part considers the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate in the gut. In vivo studies performed on the whole fruit or juice, peel, and flowers demonstrate antiulcer effect in a variety of animal models. Ellagic acid was the main responsible for this effect, although other individual ellagitannins could contribute to the biological activity of the mixture. Different preparations of pomegranate, including extracts from peels, flowers, seeds, and juice, show a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the gut. No clinical studies have been found, thus suggesting that future clinical studies are necessary to clarify the beneficial effects of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23573120

  15. Characterizing the microbiome across the gastrointestinal tract from steers differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bovine rumen and lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) contain diverse microbial ecosystems that are essential for the host to digest plant material and regulate nutrient uptake and utilization. In cattle, optimization of feed efficiency has primarily focused host genetics, management, and diet. ...

  16. Characterization of a gastrointestinal tract microscale cell culture analog used to predict drug toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest surface exposed to the external environment in the human body. One of the main functions of the small intestine is absorption, and intestinal absorption is a route used by essential nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals to enter the sy...

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 2 may mediate growth and development of the bovine gastrointestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), secreted by enteroendocrine cells, promotes growth, reduces apoptosis, and enhances blood flow, nutrient absorption, and barrier function in intestinal epithelium of monogastric species. Regulatory functions of GLP-2 in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are u...

  18. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26403526

  19. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  20. Navigating the human gastrointestinal tract for oral drug delivery: Uncharted waters and new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Koziolek, Mirko; Grimm, Michael; Schneider, Felix; Jedamzik, Philipp; Sager, Maximilian; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Many concepts of oral drug delivery are based on our comprehension of human gastrointestinal physiology. Unfortunately, we tend to oversimplify the complex interplay between the various physiological factors in the human gut and, in particular, the dynamics of these transit conditions to which oral dosage forms are exposed. Recent advances in spatial and temporal resolution of medical instrumentation as well as improved access to these technologies have facilitated clinical trials to characterize the dynamic processes within the human gastrointestinal tract. These studies have shown that highly relevant parameters such as fluid volumes, dosage form movement, and pH values in the lumen of the upper GI tract are very dynamic. As a result of these new insights into the human gastrointestinal environment, some common concepts and ideas of oral drug delivery are no longer valid and have to be reviewed in order to ensure efficacy and safety of oral drug therapy. PMID:27037063

  1. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably. PMID:25794697

  2. The role of the gastrointestinal tract in calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Schinke, T

    2013-11-01

    While skeletal biology was approached in a rather isolated fashion in the past, an increasing understanding of the interplay between extraskeletal organs and bone remodeling has been obtained in recent years. This review will discuss recent advances in the field that have shed light on how the gastrointestinal tract and bone relate to each other. In particular, the importance of the GI tract in maintaining calcium homeostasis and skeletal integrity will be reviewed as impaired gastric acid production represents a major public health problem with possible implications for sufficient calcium absorption. Osteoporosis, the most prevalent bone disease worldwide, is caused not only by intrinsic defects affecting bone cell differentiation and function but also by a large set of extrinsic factors including hormonal disturbances, malnutrition, and iatrogenic drug application. Given the skeletal requirements of calcium, amino acids, and energy for bone turnover and renewal, it is not surprising that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of major importance for skeletal integrity. PMID:23536255

  3. Immunohistochemical study on distribution of endocrine cells in gastrointestinal tract of flower fish (Pseudophoxinus antalyae)

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Kenan; Şenol, Nurgül; Özen, M Rüştü

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in gastrointestinal tract of flower fish (Pseudophoxinus antalyae). METHODS: The intestinal tract of flower fish was divided into four portions from proximal to distal; the enlarged area after oesophagus and anterior, middle and posterior intestine. Immunohistochemical method using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase complex was employed. All antisera between four portions of flower fish were compared using ANOVA. RESULTS: Eleven types of gut endocrine cells were determined; they were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene related peptide, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, bombesin, somatostatin-14, secretin, TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y, which were found in almost all portions of the gastrointestinal tract. CONCLUSION: The regional distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells in the flower fish, Pseudophoxinus antalyae, are essentially similar to those of other fish. PMID:17106940

  4. Gastro-intestinal tract: The leading role of mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Anna; Radulovic, Katarina; Niess, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of mucosal immunity is essential for the comprehension of intestinal diseases that are often caused by a complex interplay between host factors, environmental influences and the intestinal microbiota. Not only improvements in endoscopic techniques, but also advances in high throughput sequencing technologies, have expanded knowledge of how intestinal diseases develop. This review discusses how the host interacts with intestinal microbiota by the direct contact of host receptors with highly conserved structural motifs or molecules of microbes and also by microbe-derived metabolites (produced by the microbe during adaptation to the gut environment), such as short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, bile acids and amino acids. These metabolites are recognised by metabolite-sensing receptors expressed by immune cells to influence functions of macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells, such as migration, conversion and maintenance of regulatory T cells and regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, which is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and the development of intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. First interventions in these complex interactions between microbe-derived metabolites and the host immune system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, such as modification of the diet, treatment with antibiotics, application of probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, have been introduced into the clinic. Specific targeting of metabolite sensing receptors for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases is in development. In future, precision medicine approaches that consider individual variability in genes, the microbiota, the environment and lifestyle will become increasingly important for the care of patients with gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27045424

  5. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract bleeding in methanol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Talaie, Haleh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mesri, Mehdi; Emanhadi, Mohammadali

    2008-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless liquid with a smell and taste similar to ethanol. Intoxications with methanol are still frequent in large parts of the developing world. Haemodialysis should be done in cases of severe toxicity to eliminate toxic metabolites. In this case report, we describe a 37-year-old chronic alcohol abuser with methanol poisoning, who developed haematuria and upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after haemodialysis. The upper GI endoscopic findings showed only low grade oesophageal ulceration. Haematuria and upper GI bleeding in our patient might also have cause by the effect of heparinisation during haemodialysis. PMID:21716826

  6. Neuroanatomy of extrinsic afferents supplying the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, H R; Blackshaw, L A; Brookes, S J H; Grundy, D

    2004-04-01

    Here we discuss the neuroanatomy of extrinsic gastrointestinal (GI) afferent neurones, the relationship between structure and function and the role of afferents in disease. Three pathways connect the gut to the central nervous system: vagal afferents signal mainly from upper GI regions, pelvic afferents mainly from the colorectal region and splanchnic afferents from throughout. Vagal afferents mediate reflex regulation of gut function and behaviour, operating mainly at physiological levels. There are two major functional classes - tension receptors, responding to muscular contraction and distension, and mucosal receptors. The function of vagal endings correlates well with their anatomy: tracing studies show intramuscular arrays (IMAs) and intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs); IGLEs are now known to respond to tension. Functional mucosal receptors correlate with endings traced to the lamina propria. Pelvic afferents serve similar functions to vagal afferents, and additionally mediate both innocuous and noxious sensations. Splanchnic afferents comprise mucosal and stretch-sensitive afferents with low thresholds in addition to high-threshold serosal/mesenteric afferents suggesting diverse roles. IGLEs, probably of pelvic origin, have been identified recently in the rectum and respond similarly to gastric vagal IGLEs. Gastrointestinal afferents may be sensitized or inhibited by chemical mediators released from several cell types. Whether functional changes have anatomical correlates is not known, but it is likely that they underlie diseases involving visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:15066001

  7. An Elusive Bullet in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Rare Case of Bullet Embolism in the Gastrointestinal Tract and a Review of Relevant Literature

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism within the gastrointestinal system is extremely rare. Such bullet injuries are infrequently covered in the general literature, but the surgeon should be aware of the phenomenon. Smaller caliber bullets are more common in civilian gunshot wound (GSW) events. These bullets are able to tumble through the gastrointestinal tract and cause perforation of the intestinal lumen which is small enough to be easily missed. Bullets retained in the abdominal cavity should not be dismissed as fixed and should be carefully monitored to ensure that they do not embolize within the bowel and cause occult lesions during their migration. We present a unique case wherein a bullet caused a minute perforation in the small bowel, before migrating to the distal colon, which resulted in late presentation of sepsis secondary to peritonitis. PMID:24829839

  8. Tissue engineering for neuromuscular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Kenneth L; Bitar, Khalil N; Fortunato, John E

    2012-01-01

    The digestive tract is designed for the optimal processing of food that nourishes all organ systems. The esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon are sophisticated neuromuscular tubes with specialized sphincters that transport ingested food-stuffs from one region to another. Peristaltic contractions move ingested solids and liquids from the esophagus into the stomach; the stomach mixes the ingested nutrients into chyme and empties chyme from the stomach into the duodenum. The to-and-fro movement of the small bowel maximizes absorption of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Peristaltic contractions are necessary for colon function and defecation. PMID:23322989

  9. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Inflammation and Increased Expression of Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xing, Houjuan; Yu, Jiao; Zhang, Naisheng; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, plays an important role in various aspects of health for a wide range of species, including birds. Se deficiency inhibits the growth of immune organs and decreases immune function, leading to many inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the effects and mechanism of dietary Se deficiency on gastrointestinal tract tissue inflammation. The histopathological changes showed that Se deficiency induced inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum). The expression levels of PTGE (prostagland E synthase), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and NF-κB (nuclear transfer factor κB) in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum) were determined by qPCR on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency induced high expression levels of PTGE, COX-2, TNF-α, and NF-κB in the gastrointestinal tract tissues. The effects were more obvious in the duodenum and small intestine than those in the glandular stomach, gizzard, and rectum. In addition, the expression levels of these proteins in the gastrointestinal tract tissue increased in a time-dependent manner with Se deficiency feeding time. Furthermore, Se deficiency induced the production of pro-inflammatory factors, thus aggravating inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of Se deficiency on inflammation and other gastrointestinal tract diseases should be further studied. PMID:26899319

  10. New therapeutic approach to corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, J; Noirclerc, M; Jouglard, J; Escoffier, J M; Cano, N; Martin, J; Gauthier, A

    1980-01-01

    The therapeutic approach to the management of corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract leaves a considerable morbidity and a heavy mortality rate. This work evaluates the effectiveness of a new therapeutic approach given to 94 consecutive patients. The management has been based on three major points: (1) the definition of extent of upper gastrointestinal lesions by immediate fibroendoscopy; (2) immediate protection of the upper gastrointestinal tract by total parenteral nutrition in cases with serious burns (41 cases), normal oral nutrition being allowed for minor burns (35 cases); (3) reparative surgical procedures for any of the sequelae of such burns during the fibrosing phase. The results were as follows: (a) healing, depending upon the degree of burn, occurred between eight to 90 days; (b) the frequency of subsequent local complications was small with total parenteral nutrition started a few hours after ingestion of the corrosive product; (c) after reconstructive surgery no serious complications occurred; (d) the overall morbidity stayed at a very low level (four patients). We conclude that the general prognosis of a severe burn of the upper gastrointestinal tract, without other trauma, is appreciably improved by the very early institution of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:6776011

  11. Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract of athymic (nu/nu) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Owens, W E; Berg, R D

    1980-01-01

    The immune system may be one host defense mechanism preventing viable indigenous bacteria from translocating from the mouse gastrointestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or kidney. The role of T-cell-dependent immunity in preventing bacteria from translocating from the gastrointestinal tract was tested with congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, heterozygous (nu/+) mice, and thymus-grafted nude (nu/nu) mice. Viable bacteria were cultured from 50% of the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, livers, and kidneys of athymic (nu/nu) mice, whereas heterozygous (nu/+) mice exhibited viable bacteria in only 5.2% of these organs. Both aerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured from these organs with Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus predominanting. Grafting thymuses to the athymic (nu/nu) mice restored their immunological responses to sheep erythrocyte antigens. The incidence of bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract was reduced from 50% in the athymic (nu/nu) mice to 7.8% in the thymus-grafted (nu/nu) mice. Thus, T-cell-dependent immunity restored by thymic grafts inhibited the translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the spleen, liver, and kidney in nu/nu mice. PMID:6966611

  12. Use of Diagnostic Imaging in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Tract Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. Material/Methods The analysis included own material from the years 2002–2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. Results The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel’s diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Conclusions Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy. PMID:25114725

  13. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from different tissues of

  14. The Importance of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shboul, Othman A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI tract, and studies based on different types of techniques have shown that ICC, as an integral part of the GI neuromuscular apparatus, transduce inputs from enteric motor neurons, generate intrinsic electrical rhythmicity in phasic smooth muscles, and have a mechanical sensation ability. Absence or improper function of these cells has been linked to some GI tract disorders. This paper provides a general overview of ICC; their discovery, subtypes, function, locations in the GI tract, and some disorders associated with their loss or disease, and highlights some controversial issues with regard to the importance of ICC in the GI tract. PMID:23319032

  15. Structural transformation of lignan compounds in rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nose, M; Fujimoto, T; Takeda, T; Nishibe, S; Ogihara, Y

    1992-12-01

    Structural transformation of arctiin and tracheloside, major components of seeds of Arctium lappa and Carthamus tinctorius, were investigated using rat gastric juice (pH 1.2-1.5) and rat large intestinal flora in vitro. Quantitative analysis of lignans and their metabolites was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Both lignans were stable in rat gastric juice and arctiin was rapidly transformed to arctigenin in rat large intestinal flora, followed by conversion to the major metabolite, 2-(3",4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-butyrolactone. On the other hand, tracheloside also decreased dependently with time and was converted to trachelogenin and its major metabolite, 2-(3",4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-hydroxybutyrola ctone. These experiments suggest that in the course of metabolism of lignans, firstly a cleavage of the glycosidic bond occurred and then demethylation of the phenolic methoxy group in the alimentary tract followed. PMID:1336605

  16. Passage of particles through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Volkheimer, Gerhard

    1974-01-01

    In the normal process of digestion, not only substances in solution are absorbed. Solid, undissolved particles in macrocorpuscular form, are “kneaded” into the mucosa during their passage through the digestive tract. These particles in the micrometer size range pass between the epithelial cells into the subepithelial layer. From here they are transmitted both by the lymph vessels and by the mesenteric veins into the circulation, where they remain for a considerable time. This phenomenon, termed persorption, was investigated in detail. Imagesfig. 6 6Afig. 6 6Bfig. 6 6CFIGURE 8. 8AFIGURE 8. 8BFIGURE 8. 8CFIGURE 8. 8DFIGURE 8. 8EFIGURE 4. 4AFIGURE 4. 4BFIGURE 4. 4CFIGURE 4. 4DFIGURE 4. 4EFIGURE 4. 4FFIGURE 4. 4GFIGURE 4. 4H PMID:4470938

  17. Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

  18. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  19. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  20. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Marando, Alessandro; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The systematic application of immunohistochemical techniques to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that neuroendocrine cells occur rather frequently in exocrine neoplasms of the gut. It is now well known that there is a wide spectrum of combinations of exocrine and neuroendocrine components, ranging from adenomas or carcinomas with interspersed neuroendocrine cells at one extreme to classical neuroendocrine tumors with a focal exocrine component at the other. In addition, both exocrine and neuroendocrine components can have different morphological features ranging, for the former, from adenomas to adenocarcinomas with different degrees of differentiation and, for the latter, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. However, although this range of combinations of neuroendocrine and exocrine components is frequently observed in routine practice, mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, now renamed as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs), are rare; these are, by definition, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30% of the lesion. Gastrointestinal MANECs can be stratified in different prognostic categories according to the grade of malignancy of each component. The present paper is an overview of the main clinicopathological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of this specific rare tumor type. PMID:24213223

  1. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition. PMID:26852608

  2. [Neoadjuvant therapy for tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract : Complication management].

    PubMed

    Gockel, I; Hoffmeister, A; Lordick, F

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies could demonstrate that neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for esophageal and gastric cancer do not significantly increase the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality as compared to surgery alone. With respect to patient safety and effectiveness of neoadjuvant concepts, quality assured performance of each treatment modality and close interdisciplinary cooperation play an important role. The majority of potential side effects and complications, which might occur during neoadjuvant therapy can be adequately controlled by correct prophylaxis and professional medical complication management. Complications before, during and after neoadjuvant therapy of upper gastrointestinal tract tumors can also be caused by the tumor itself or by medicinal therapy. These comprise bleeding, fistulas, perforations and stenoses. Modern endoscopic techniques are the therapy of choice in these situations. Preoperative conditioning during the period of neoadjuvant therapy opens the possibility of reduced postoperative complications to patients with tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26374651

  3. Distribution and density of substance P receptors in the feline gastrointestinal tract using autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, R.D.; Johnson, E.; Ouyang, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Autoradiography was used to localize and quantify substance P receptors in the feline gastrointestinal tract. The specific binding of {sup 125}I-Bolton Hunter substance P was determined in the esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, antrum, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal sphincter, and colon. Competitive binding studies indicated that substance P binding sites or NK-1 receptor sites were demonstrated. The concentration of NK-1 receptors was greatest in the distal half of the gastrointestinal tract, with the highest concentrations in the proximal colon. The circular muscle layer contained the greatest amount of substance P binding. The location and density of binding sites for substance P may be important in understanding the relative importance of both the pharmacological responses to this neuropeptide and the immunohistochemical evidence of the peptide at different sites in the intestine.

  4. Histochemical localization of copper in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi

    1965-01-01

    Three histochemical reactions for the localization of copper were applied to liver and different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of normal as well as of rats poisoned with a solution of copper. Variable quantities of copper were demonstrated in the livers of all the poisoned rats and in 21 out of 24 sections of jejunum. Rubeanic acid counterstained with 0·5% Cresyl violet gave the best results. Copper was not demonstrable in the livers or the gastrointestinal tract of normal rats. As the metal was concentrated in the upper jejunum, it is likely that this is the site of absorption. Detection of this metal may assist in the diagnosis of hepatolenticular degeneration. Images PMID:5844213

  5. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract: an evolving entity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jayson; Thway, Khin

    2015-03-01

    Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the wall of the small bowel, stomach, or large bowel, predominantly in young adults. It is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently presents with metastatic disease and has a high mortality rate. Histologically, it is usually composed of medium-sized primitive ovoid or epithelioid cells with pale or clear cytoplasm that are arranged in sheets or in papillary or alveolar architectures. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract is positive for S100 protein, invariably negative for melanocyte-specific markers and is often also positive for neuroendocrine markers. The etiology of CCSLGT is unknown, but many studies have shown associations with EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusions and, less frequently, with EWSR1-ATF1 fusions. Here, we discuss the current status of CCSLGT, including histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular findings. PMID:25724038

  6. Antimicrobial peptide expression is developmentally regulated in the ovine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huttner, K M; Brezinski-Caliguri, D J; Mahoney, M M; Diamond, G

    1998-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are abundant components of the innate immune system present in species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In mammals, these immune peptides have been localized to epithelial tissues of the pig, mouse, rat, cow and human gastrointestinal tracts. We have identified in sheep two members of the beta-defensin antimicrobial peptide gene family that are expressed in a unique pattern throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Sheep beta-defensin 1 mRNA is the most prevalent from tongue to colon with the exception of the distal ileum, where beta-defensin 2 mRNA predominates. Sheep beta-defensin expression varies significantly between animals and is developmentally regulated both pre- and postnatally. These changes in antimicrobial peptide expression may correlate with anatomical differentiation as well as physiologic adaptations to extra-uterine life. PMID:9478010

  7. Dpp signaling determines regional stem cell identity in the regenerating adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements, but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role for the BMP-like Dpp signaling pathway in diversifying regenerative processes in the adult gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila. Dpp secreted from enterocytes at the boundary between the posterior midgut (PM) and the middle midgut (MM) sets up a morphogen gradient that selectively directs copper cell (CC) regeneration from gastric SCs in the MM and thus determines the size of the CC region. In vertebrates, deregulation of BMP signaling has been associated with Barrett’s metaplasia, where the squamous esophageal epithelium is replaced by a columnar epithelium, suggesting that the maintenance of regional SC identities by BMP is conserved. PMID:23810561

  8. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: pathological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Feakins, Roger M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an increasingly common problem worldwide and a risk factor for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, both non-neoplastic (e.g. gastro-oesophageal reflux and Barrett's oesophagus) and neoplastic (e.g. oesophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and gallbladder cancer). Furthermore, obesity is associated with worse GI cancer outcomes. Body mass index is a commonly used measure of fat accumulation, although specific patterns such as abdominal/central obesity and visceral fat quantity sometimes predict disease risk more accurately. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a related condition characterized by central adiposity and insulin resistance. The reasons for the associations with neoplasia are diverse. Established cancer-related conditions that have a higher prevalence in overweight subjects include Barrett's oesophagus and gallstones. Preneoplastic lesions such as colorectal adenoma, colorectal serrated lesions and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia are also associated with obesity/MS. At the cellular level, adipocytes can release carcinogens such as adipokines, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Inflammatory cells constitute a further potential source of carcinogens; in obese subjects, their numbers are increased systemically and in adipose tissue. Animal studies have contributed additional information. For example, mice with a genetic predisposition to develop colorectal carcinoma given a high-fat diet have larger and more numerous intestinal adenomas than controls, and there may be demonstrably higher levels of mucosal oncogenic factors. The associations between obesity and GI disease are of variable strength, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but it is clear that obesity and MS have a significant, potentially avoidable and often under-recognized impact on the population burden of GI disease. PMID:26599607

  9. Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20392477

  10. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of the tissue and organ injury-related gene iNOS was upregulated (p < 0.05). These data suggest that As induces the inflammatory response and may trigger digestive function regression of the gastrointestinal tract by affecting inflammation-related genes and iNOS in cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis. PMID:25784090

  11. Expectoration in the gastrointestinal tract. A diagnostic problem in In-111 granulocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Schifter, S.; Madsen, J.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Scintigraphic detection of infectious foci with In-111 labeled granulocytes or leukocytes is a well-established technique in nuclear medicine. The technique is commonly used to demonstrate inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Its application, however, may be influenced by infectious expectoration located within the gastrointestinal tract. In performing this technique, it is important to have this differential diagnostic possibility in mind; it can be clarified by repeated imaging.

  12. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients’ physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26957730

  13. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Nitric Oxide as Signaling Molecules in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianrico; Szurszewski, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) used to be thought of simply as lethal and (for H2S) smelly gaseous molecules; now they are known to have important signaling functions in the gastrointestinal tract. CO and H2S, which are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by different enzymes, regulate smooth muscle membrane potential and tone, transmit signals from enteric nerves and can regulate the immune system. The pathways that produce nitric oxide (NO) H2S and CO interact—each can inhibit and potentiate the level and activity of the other. However, there are significant differences between these molecules, such as in half-lives; CO is more stable and therefore able to have effects distal to the site of production, whereas NO and H2S are short lived and act only close to sites of production. We review their signaling functions in the luminal gastrointestinal tract and discuss how their pathways interact. We also describe other physiologic functions of CO and H2S and how they might be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:24798417

  14. Substance P and bradykinin stimulate plasma extravasation in the mouse gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Figini, M; Emanueli, C; Grady, E F; Kirkwood, K; Payan, D G; Ansel, J; Gerard, C; Geppetti, P; Bunnett, N

    1997-04-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by release of tachykinins from sensory nerves, which stimulate plasma extravasation from postcapillary venules. Because there are conflicting results regarding the importance of neurogenic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, we quantified plasma extravasation using Evans blue and identified sites of the leak using Monastral blue in the mouse. Substance P and bradykinin stimulated extravasation from postcapillary venules in the stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, urinary bladder, trachea, and skin by two- to sevenfold by interacting with NK1 and B2 receptors, respectively. Stimulation of sensory nerves with capsaicin also induced extravasation. Capsaicin- and bradykinin-stimulated extravasation was attenuated by an NK1-receptor antagonist and is thus mediated by release of tachykinins and activation of the NK1 receptor. We conclude that 1) substance P stimulates extravasation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of mice by interacting with the NK1 receptors, and 2) capsaicin and bradykinin induce plasma extravasation by stimulating tachykinin release from sensory nerves. Thus neurogenic mechanisms mediate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of the mouse. PMID:9142909

  15. A metronomic schedule as salvage chemotherapy for upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michela; Romiti, Adriana; Onesti, Concetta E; D'Antonio, Chiara; Milano, Annalisa; Falcone, Rosa; Barucca, Viola; Palombi, Lucia; Righini, Riccardo; Marchetti, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, metronomic chemotherapy, consisting of continuous administration of low doses of cytotoxic agents, has being used as rescue therapy for different tumours. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose metronomic, oral capecitabine in pretreated or frail patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. Patients with pretreated upper gastrointestinal tract cancer or who were not candidates for standard chemotherapy because of toxicity concerns received capecitabine at 1500 mg per day continuously until disease progression or occurrence of toxicity. Forty-seven patients (25 oesophagogastric cancer, 22 pancreatobiliary cancer; 25 men, 22 women; median age 69 years, range 42-90) were included in the study. Forty-five percent of the patients had received at least two previous lines of treatment and the median number of previous treatments was 1 (range 0-5). Twelve (31.6%) patients achieved clinical benefit (one partial response, 11 stable disease), whereas nine (23.7%) patients were progression free for at least 6 months. In an exploratory analysis, there was a significant relationship between performance status and clinical benefit (hazard ratio=8.25; P=0.01). The median overall survival was 5 months. A good performance status was associated with a longer survival (hazard ratio=0.26; P<0.01). No severe toxicity or treatment-related death was reported. Metronomic capecitabine showed good safety and moderate activity in frail or pretreated patients with advanced, upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26473528

  16. A wireless platform for in vivo measurement of resistance properties of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Natali, C Di; Beccani, M; Obstein, K L; Valdastri, P

    2014-07-01

    Active locomotion of wireless capsule endoscopes has the potential to improve the diagnostic yield of this painless technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract disease. In order to design effective locomotion mechanisms, a quantitative measure of the propelling force required to effectively move a capsule inside the gastrointestinal tract is necessary. In this study, we introduce a novel wireless platform that is able to measure the force opposing capsule motion, without perturbing the physiologic conditions with physical connections to the outside of the gastrointestinal tract. The platform takes advantage of a wireless capsule that is magnetically coupled with an external permanent magnet. A secondary contribution of this manuscript is to present a real-time method to estimate the axial magnetic force acting on a wireless capsule manipulated by an external magnetic field. In addition to the intermagnetic force, the platform provides real-time measurements of the capsule position, velocity, and acceleration. The platform was assessed with benchtop trials within a workspace that extends 15 cm from each side of the external permanent magnet, showing average error in estimating the force and the position of less than 0.1 N and 10 mm, respectively. The platform was also able to estimate the dynamic behavior of a known resistant force with an error of 5.45%. Finally, an in vivo experiment on a porcine colon model validated the feasibility of measuring the resistant force in opposition to magnetic propulsion of a wireless capsule. PMID:24852810

  17. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K L; Duncan, M; Sharkey, K A

    2007-01-01

    The emerging potential for the cannabinoid (CB) system in modulating gastrointestinal inflammation has gained momentum over the last few years. Traditional and anecdotal use of marijuana for gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea and abdominal cramps is recognized, but the therapeutic benefit of cannabinoids in the 21st century is overshadowed by the psychoactive problems associated with CB1 receptor activation. However, the presence and function of the CB2 receptor in the GI tract, whilst not yet well characterized, holds great promise due to its immunomodulatory roles in inflammatory systems and its lack of psychotropic effects. This review of our current knowledge of CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract highlights its role in regulating abnormal motility, modulating intestinal inflammation and limiting visceral sensitivity and pain. CB2 receptors represent a braking system and a pathophysiological mechanism for the resolution of inflammation and many of its symptoms. CB2 receptor activation therefore represents a very promising therapeutic target in gastrointestinal inflammatory states where there is immune activation and motility dysfunction. PMID:17906675

  18. Probiotics Shown To Change Bacterial Community Structure in the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, H. J.; Parker, D. S.; O’Donnell, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Culturing and molecular techniques were used to monitor changes in the bacterial flora of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract following introduction of genetically modified (GM) and unmodified probiotics. Community hybridization of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that the bacterial flora of the GI tract changed significantly in response to the probiotic treatments. The changes were not detected by culturing. Although both GM and non-GM strains of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 11508 changed the bacterial flora of the chicken GI tract, they did so differently. Probing the community DNA with an Enterococcus faecalis-specific probe showed that the relative amount of E. faecalis in the total eubacterial population increased in the presence of the non-GM strain and decreased in the presence of the GM probiotic compared with the results obtained with an untreated control group. PMID:10543832

  19. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  20. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  1. The importance of radiological controls of anastomoses after upper gastrointestinal tract surgery - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study was designed to analyze whether routine radiological controls of anastomoses in the upper gastrointestinal tract an early detection of anastomotic leaks. Patients and Methods 135 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal tract surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Patients in the first group (n = 55) underwent routine radiological control of the anastomoses. In the second group (n = 80) the radiological control was only performed in case of clinical symptoms or signs of anastomotic leaks. Results The incidence of anastomotic leaks in the patients seen by us was 5.2%, equivalent to 7 of 135 patients In Group 1 leaks were seen in 4 of 55 patients (7,2%) in group 2 leaks were seen in 3 of 80 (3,8%). The radiological control of the anastomoses with contrast swallow showed the leakage in two cases. Twice the results were false negative. The sensitivity of computed tomography was 100%. Discussion Routine radiological control of anastomoses with contrast swallow only has low sensitivity. This procedure should not be performed routinely any more. The radiological control should be used in cases with signs of anastomotic leakage or with postoperatively impaired gastrointestinal passage. PMID:21070633

  2. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function. PMID:26762039

  3. Quantitative Detection of Clostridium perfringens in the Broiler Fowl Gastrointestinal Tract by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Mark G.; Siragusa, Gregory R.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Clostridium perfringens are a frequent cause of food-borne disease and gas gangrene and are also associated with necrotic enteritis in chickens. To detect and quantify the levels of C. perfringens in the chicken gastrointestinal tract, a quantitative real-time PCR assay utilizing a fluorogenic, hydrolysis-type probe was developed and utilized to assay material retrieved from the broiler chicken cecum and ileum. Primers and probe were selected following an alignment of 16S rDNA sequences from members of cluster I of the genus Clostridium, and proved to be specific for C. perfringens. The assay could detect approximately 50 fg of C. perfringens genomic DNA and approximately 20 cells in pure culture. Measurements of the analytical sensitivity determined with spiked intestinal contents indicated that the consistent limit of detection with ileal samples was approximately 102 CFU/g of ileal material, but only about 104 CFU/g of cecal samples. The decreased sensitivity with the cecal samples was due to the presence of an unidentified chemical PCR inhibitor(s) in the cecal DNA purifications. The assay was utilized to rapidly detect and quantify C. perfringens levels in the gut tract of broiler chickens reared without supplementary growth-promoting antibiotics that manifested symptoms of necrotic enteritis. The results illustrated that quantitative real-time PCR correlates well with quantification via standard plate counts in samples taken from the ileal region of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:16000804

  4. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  5. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-12-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  6. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  7. Survival and Germination of Bacillus cereus Spores without Outgrowth or Enterotoxin Production during In Vitro Simulation of Gastrointestinal Transit

    PubMed Central

    Ceuppens, Siele; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Drieskens, Katrien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rajkovic, Andreja; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    To study the gastrointestinal survival and enterotoxin production of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, an in vitro simulation experiment was developed to mimic gastrointestinal passage in 5 phases: (i) the mouth, (ii) the stomach, with gradual pH decrease and fractional emptying, (iii) the duodenum, with high concentrations of bile and digestive enzymes, (iv) dialysis to ensure bile reabsorption, and (v) the ileum, with competing human intestinal bacteria. Four different B. cereus strains were cultivated and sporulated in mashed potato medium to obtain an inoculum of 7.0 log spores/ml. The spores showed survival and germination during the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal passage, but vegetative outgrowth of the spores was suppressed by the intestinal bacteria during the final ileum phase. No bacterial proliferation or enterotoxin production was observed, despite the high inoculum levels. Little strain variability was observed: except for the psychrotrophic food isolate, the spores of all strains survived well throughout the gastrointestinal passage. The in vitro simulation experiments investigated the survival and enterotoxin production of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal lumen. The results obtained support the hypothesis that localized interaction of B. cereus with the host's epithelium is required for diarrheal food poisoning. PMID:22923409

  8. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  9. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling. PMID:25560599

  10. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Soluble SULTs (sulfotransferases) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. The aim of the present study was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon and rectum (common sites for cancer), and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic or rectal tissue, resected with tumours, was obtained from 39 subjects. For comparison, we additionally studied one to four samples from stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and liver. SULTs were detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and measurement of enzyme activities. SULT1A1, 1A3 and 1B1 were found in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, often exceeding levels in liver (where these forms were present at high, undetectable and low levels respectively). They were predominantly localized in differentiated enterocytes. SULT1E1 and 2A1 were only detected in liver, jejunum, ileum and cecum. SULT1C1 was readily found in stomach, but was negligible elsewhere. SULT1A2 was present at low levels in individual samples. The remaining forms were not detected with the limitation that only high levels could be recognized with the antisera used. In conclusion, SULTs are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of man. We suspect that they are involved in the presystemic elimination of bioactive food-borne components, including aglycones released by gut microbiota, as well as the bioactivation of some procarcinogens. PMID:17335415

  11. Microbiota Associated with the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common House Cricket, Acheta domestica.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, R G; Buthala, D A; Klug, M J

    1981-01-01

    The location and morphology of the bacteria associated with the gastrointestinal tract of Acheta domestica were studied, and these bacteria were partially characterized. Bacteria were associated with the peritrophic membrane in the midgut and with the gut wall and cuticular structures of the hindgut. No bacteria were associated with the fat bodies. Colony-forming unit determinations indicated that there were three times more cultivatable bacteria in the hindgut than in the midgut. Of these bacteria, 40 to 85% cleared uric acid anaerobically, and 90 to 100% cleared uric acid aerobically. Of the 25 isolates obtained, 21 belonged to the genera Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Bacteroides, and Fusobacterium. PMID:16345692

  12. Effects of Zuccagnia punctata on the gastrointestinal tract in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ortega, C A; María, A O M; Giordano, O S; Gianello, J C

    2003-04-01

    A pharmacological evaluation of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) on the gastrointestinal tract was made in rats and mice. 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone were isolated from Zuccagnia punctata. The data reported in the present work indicate that the acetone extract and infusion of Zuccagnia punctata reduced intestinal transit in rats and mice and offered protection against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. The Z. punctata effect could be due, in part, to the presence of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone in this plant. PMID:12722150

  13. Malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract in an area with an asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Curin, K

    1996-06-01

    Data on persons who died of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos-cement plant were analysed for the period 1970-1990. By poll method applied to the families of deceased subjects, additional data on occupation, lifestyle, educational level, length of resistance and cancer mortality among relatives were collected. The investigation showed that in the study area, but also in certain narrower locations within it (subarea settlements), some of the tumours studied occurred at higher rates than expected. Although not conclusive, these findings may indicate a role of environmental exposure to asbestos, particularly in the occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:8635157

  14. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed. PMID:25018641

  15. Message in a bottle: decoding medication injury patterns in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

    2014-10-01

    Medication injury in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rapidly evolving topic. Increasing endoscopy together with an ageing population, polypharmacy, and a burgeoning drug industry offer heightened opportunities to observe the unintended side effects of therapeutic ingestants. In this review, we emphasise the most commonly encountered medication injuries involving the GIT, as well as emerging agents and mimics. While topics are organised by organ system, the reader should keep in mind that injury patterns are generally not site-specific. As such, awareness of these major morphologic patterns can be translated to multiple tissue sites to more broadly facilitate the diagnostic process. PMID:25028528

  16. Current status of endoscopic ultrasound for the upper gastrointestinal tract in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Hilmi, Ida Normiha; Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Hara, Kazuo; Goda, Kenichi

    2015-04-01

    We summarize the current status of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract solely in Asia, focusing on the staging of superficial cancers and the diagnosis of submucosal tumors (SMT), by analysis of questionnaire responses and a literature review. EUS for assessing the depth of superficial cancers of the upper GI tract is useful; however, evidence is lacking to support that EUS is superior to other modalities. The current status of EUS varies across different Asian countries, and standardization of the methods used both during the procedure and for depth subclassification is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Although EUS alone is limited in the diagnosis of SMT, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is an effective and safe diagnostic tool. Although there is a role for EUS, there are still many limitations both technically and in terms of accessibility. PMID:25537645

  17. Induction of nuclear anomalies in the gastrointestinal tract by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Stober, J.A.; Olson, G.R.; Daniel, F.B.

    1991-01-01

    A selective list of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with varied carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, which are identified as common contaminants at industrial sites and which often contaminate the neighboring ground water, are investigated for their ability to induce nuclear anomalies (NA) in the mouse gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract. These studies examined the hypothesis that a relationship between NA induction and carcinogenic potency of these PAH exists. Among the PAH tested, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthrene (DMBA) was most effective inducer of NA in all G.I. tract tissues examined, with the relative potency in duodenum of DMBA > > > benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) > > benzo(b)fluoranthene (B(b)F). The induction of NA by benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A), pyrene (PY) and benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P) was not different from that elicited by vehicle controls. MNU, a known potent inducer of NA in the mouse G.I. tract, yielded a high level of NA in duodenum and proximal colon but was less effective than DMBA in the forestomach. The data suggest that induction of NA by DMBA and B(a)P PAH are in approximate accordance with their relative carcinogenic potency in the gastrointestinal tract. When binary mixtures of some PAH were administered the yield of NA was less than that expected by simple additivity and closer to that expected by averaging the activities of the two PAH comprising the mixture. Thus, this short-term in vivo assay may be useful as a predictor of the genotoxic or carcinogenic strength of individual PAH and/or mixtures of these compounds. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)

  18. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Viraj; Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC) and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric) retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal) accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ∼60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated) degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum). Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal) passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum) retention when compared to control IgG counterparts, suggesting GI targeting. This was validated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which

  19. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. PMID:27240159

  20. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Luhovyy, Bohdan L.; Khoury, Dalia El; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake. PMID:22254112

  1. Effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shinji; Haruma, Ken; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    Prokinetic agents are effective not only for disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but also for those external to the GI tract such as the central nervous system, and the respiratory, urologic, and metabolic organs. This article reviews the effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the GI tract. Studies were identified by computerized and manual searches of the available literature. A Medline search was performed (1975-July, 2008) using the following medical subject headings: prokinetic agent, metoclopramide, domperidone, trimebutine, cisapride, itopride, mosapride, tegaserod, and human. The identified diseases for which prokinetic agents may be effective are various: bronchial asthma, chronic cough, hiccup, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, acute migraine, Parkinson's disease, anorexia nervosa, Tourette's disorder, urologic sequelae of spinal cord injury and of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, laryngeal dysfunction and so on. These agents are also useful for prevention of aspiration pneumonia during anesthesia, and in tube-fed patients. Prokinetic agents should be a valuable addition to our currently limited pharmacological armamentarium not only for functional bowel disease, but also for diseases external to the GI tract. PMID:19220673

  2. Geographical spread of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence in the Caspian Sea region of Iran: Spatial analysis of cancer registry data

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Wolfe, Rory; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    Background High incidence rates of gastrointestinal tract cancers have been reported in the Caspian region of Iran. This study aimed to: 1) describe the geographical spatial patterns of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence based on cancer registry data and, 2) determine whether geographical clusters of statistical significance exist. Methods The Babol Cancer Registry, which covers the two major northern Iranian provinces of Mazandaran and Golestan (total population = 4,484,622) was used to identify new gastrointestinal tract cancer cases during 2001 to 2005. Age-specific cancer incidence rates were calculated for 7 gastrointestinal tract cancer sites in 26 wards of the Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Spatial autocorrelation indices, hierarchical Bayesian Poisson models, and spatial scan statistics were used in measuring the geographic pattern and clusters. Results There were non-random spatial patterns in esophageal and stomach cancers that were similar for both sexes. Clusters of high incidence were identified in esophageal, stomach, colorectal and liver cancer for both sexes, as well as a possible cluster of pancreas cancer in males. Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract cancers exhibit significant spatial clustering of risk in northern Iran. Further work is needed to relate these geographical patterns to information on potential life-style and environmental factors. PMID:18479519

  3. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  4. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  5. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Encarnação, J A; Becker, N I; Trenczek, T E

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling

  6. Histological and Histochemical Analysis of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus)

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, S.; Encarnação, J.A.; Becker, N.I.; Trenczek, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (acid alizarin blue, haematoxylin-eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus is organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus is simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach is globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum-ileum and ileum-colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine is short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling the

  7. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  8. Gastrointestinal tract and digestion in the young ruminant: ontogenesis, adaptations, consequences and manipulations.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; Blum, J W

    2009-10-01

    Young calves have to deal with at least three major situations that require profound physiological and digestive adaptations: adaptation to extra-uterine life (up to the first postnatal week), maintenance at a pre-ruminant stage over a long period (3 to 5 months or more), and weaning. This paper reports results obtained on the development (growth and differentiation) of the gastrointestinal tract, and on digestive enzyme activities as well as some aspects of the regulation by gut regulatory peptides. In the newborn calf, the maturation of the small intestine depends on pregnancy duration (preterm vs. full term) and ingestion of colostrum from first milking. The function of gut enterocytes evolves along with the changes from fetal to adult enterocytes. The origin of dietary protein in pre-ruminant and weaning calves modifies SI morphology. Chymosin, elastase II and lactase are typical postnatal enzymes, whereas pepsin, ribonuclease and amylase become important especially following weaning. Nitrogen digestibility increases during the first month of life and is modified by replacement of skim milk powder with non-milk proteins. Milk formula supplementation with Nabutyrate increases pancreatic secretions and digestibility. The gastrointestinal tract development depends on gut regulatory peptides plasma and luminal concentrations. The response to exogenous peptides is in relation with their number and type of functional receptors and with the animal age. Experimental work with young ruminants is important not only for the species involved, but also for its implications to other mammalians. PMID:19996480

  9. [The role of endoscopy in the therapy for perforations and leakages of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Feisthammel, J; Jonas, S; Mössner, J; Hoffmeister, A

    2013-06-01

    Perforations and leakages of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract can occur spontaneously among other causes. They can also develop as complications of an endoscopic intervention or after surgical construction of an anastomosis. For the patient, these situations usually are serious and life-threatening. Standard therapy has always been - and most of the time still is - major surgery. These procedures usually are technically difficult and their mortality and morbidity are not satisfactory due to, among others, the occurrence of local infections. Thus, various endoscopic techniques as therapy for perforations and leakages have been developed over the last years. These include above all the endoscopic placement of clip systems and stents and the relatively new vacuum drainage systems. In case of perforations and leakages of the bile duct and the rectum especially, these minimal invasive techniques are widely used, also increasingly in lesions of the esophagus. However, these new, endoscopic procedures suffer from a lack of evidence. This paper highlights the possibilities and limitations of endoscopic options in therapy for perforations and leakages of organs of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22562158

  10. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-12-10

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  11. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  12. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-09-23

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multi-purpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  13. Opinion: How to manage subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract?

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Schulz, Ricardo Teles; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are relatively frequent findings in patients undergoing an upper GI endoscopy. These tumors, which are located below the epithelium and out of reach of conventional biopsy forceps, may pose a diagnostic challenge for the gastroenterologist, especially when SELs are indeterminate after endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The decision to proceed with further investigation should take into consideration the size, location in the GI tract, and EUS features of SELs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an example of an SEL that has a well-recognized malignant potential. Unfortunately, EUS is not able to absolutely differentiate GISTs from other benign hypoechoic lesions from the fourth layer, such as leiomyomas. Therefore, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an important tool for correct diagnosis of SELs. However, small lesions (size < 2 cm) have a poor diagnostic yield with EUS-FNA. Moreover, studies with EUS-core biopsy needles did not report higher rates of histologic and diagnostic yields when compared with EUS-FNA. The limited diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA and EUS-core biopsies of SELs has led to the development of more invasive endoscopic techniques for tissue acquisition. There are initial studies showing good results for tissue biopsy or resection of SELs with endoscopic submucosal dissection, suck-ligate-unroof-biopsy, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. PMID:26675266

  14. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  15. Role of Toll-like receptors in health and diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Chen, Wangxue

    2006-04-14

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by non-pathogenic commensal microflora and frequently exposed to many pathogenic organisms. For the maintenance of GI homeostasis, the host must discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and initiate effective and appropriate immune and inflammatory responses. Mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family that plays a central role in the initiation of innate cellular immune responses and the subsequent adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Recent studies have shown that gastrointestinal epithelial cells express almost all TLR subtypes characterized to date and that the expression and activation of TLRs in the GI tract are tightly and coordinately regulated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the crucial dual roles of TLRs in the development of host innate and adaptive immune responses to GI infections and the maintenance of the immune tolerance to commensal bacteria through down-regulation of surface expression of TLRs in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:16610014

  16. Role of enteric neurotransmission in host defense and protection of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.; Savidge, Tor C.

    2014-01-01

    Host defense is a vital role played by the gastrointestinal tract. As host to an enormous and diverse microbiome, the gut has evolved an elaborate array of chemical and physicals barriers that allow the digestion and absorption of nutrients without compromising the mammalian host. The control of such barrier functions requires the integration of neural, humoral, paracrine and immune signaling, involving redundant and overlapping mechanisms to ensure, under most circumstances, the integrity of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. Here we focus on selected recent developments in the autonomic neural control of host defense functions used in the protection of the gut from luminal agents, and discuss how the microbiota may potentially play a role in enteric neurotransmission. Key recent findings include: the important role played by subepithelial enteric glia in modulating intestinal barrier function, identification of stress-induced mechanisms evoking barrier breakdown, neural regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, the role of afferent and efferent vagal pathways in regulating barrier function, direct evidence for bacterial communication to the enteric nervous system, and microbial sources of enteric neurotransmitters. We discuss these new and interesting developments in our understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in gastrointestinal host defense. PMID:24412639

  17. The Dynamic Interactions between Salmonella and the Microbiota, within the Challenging Niche of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Khan, C. M. Anjam

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how Salmonella species establish successful infections remains a foremost research priority. This gastrointestinal pathogen not only faces the hostile defenses of the host's immune system, but also faces fierce competition from the large and diverse community of microbiota for space and nutrients. Salmonella have solved these challenges ingeniously. To jump-start growth, Salmonella steal hydrogen produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Type 3 effector proteins are subsequently secreted by Salmonella to trigger potent inflammatory responses, which generate the alternative terminal electron acceptors tetrathionate and nitrate. Salmonella exclusively utilize these electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, permitting metabolic access to abundant substrates such as ethanolamine to power growth blooms. Chemotaxis and flagella-mediated motility enable the identification of nutritionally beneficial niches. The resulting growth blooms also promote horizontal gene transfer amongst the resident microbes. Within the gastrointestinal tract there are opportunities for chemical signaling between host cells, the microbiota, and Salmonella. Host produced catecholamines and bacterial autoinducers form components of this chemical dialogue leading to dynamic interactions. Thus, Salmonella have developed remarkable strategies to initially shield against host defenses and to transiently compete against the intestinal microbiota leading to successful infections. However, the immunocompetent host is subsequently able to reestablish control and clear the infection. PMID:27437481

  18. Comparative ultrasonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver in healthy and diseased pigeons.

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Filippich, Lucio; Kiefer, Juergen; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    The use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in birds has been documented for cardiac, urogenital, and liver disease. However, its use in gastrointestinal tract disease is not defined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the ultrasonographic findings of the intestine and liver of six healthy racing pigeons with those of six racing pigeons with gastrointestinal disease. The echogenicity of the liver was significantly different between the two groups. Pigeons with gastrointestinal disease had less homogeneous liver echogenicity with focal heterogeneous areas and the hepatic blood vessels were visible and dilated. The duodenum was visualized and its mean diameter of 7.2 +/- 0.3 mm in the diseased pigeons was significantly wider (P < or = 0.001) than the 5.7 +/- 0.2 mm in healthy birds. The thickness of the duodenal wall in healthy and diseased pigeons was 1.6 +/- 0.1 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 mm, respectively, and they were significantly different (P < or = 0.001). We defined baseline measurements for the duodenal loop in pigeons and provided evidence that ultrasound can be a useful diagnostic tool for investigating intestinal disease in pigeons. PMID:16863056

  19. Control of Strongyloides westeri by nematophagous fungi after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana Milani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides westeri is the most prevalent nematode among equines aged up to four months and causes gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to observe the control of infective S. westeri larvae (L3) by the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of female donkeys. Twelve dewormed female donkeys that were kept in stables were used. Two treatment groups each comprising four animals received orally 100 g of pellets made of sodium alginate matrix containing a mycelial mass of either D. flagrans (AC001) or M. thaumasium (NF34). The control group consisted of four animals that received pellets without fungus. Feces samples were then collected from the animal groups at different times (after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours). These feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar medium and 1000 L3 of S. westeri. AC001 and NF34 isolates showed the ability to destroy the L3, after gastrointestinal transit, thus demonstrating their viability and predatory activity. PMID:22832758

  20. Histologic analysis of eosinophils and mast cells of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elizaveta; Sullivan, Katrina; de Nanassy, Joseph; Barkey, Janice; Mack, David; Nasr, Ahmed; El Demellawy, Dina

    2016-08-01

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including GI eosinophilia and inflammatory bowel disease, can be characterized by increased mucosal eosinophils (EOs) or mast cells (MCs). Normal mucosal cellular counts along the GI tract in healthy children have not been established for a Canadian pediatric population. To establish a benchmark reference, we quantified EO and MC from 356 mucosal biopsies of the GI tract obtained during upper and lower endoscopic biopsies of 38 pediatric patients in eastern Ontario. Mean total counts of EO varied for the 11 tissues we examined, from a low of 7.6±6.5/high-power field (HPF) (×40 [×400, 0.55mm(2)]) in the body of the stomach to a high of 50.3±17.4/HPF in the cecum. The lower GI tract (ileum, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum) generally had higher total EO counts than the upper GI tract (antrum and body of stomach, duodenum, and duodenal cap) (combined average of 32.1±20.6 versus 19.3±15.8, respectively). Similarly, the number of mucosal MC was different in the various regions of the GI tract ranging from 0.04±0.2/HPF in the duodenal cap to 0.9±2.6/HPF in the ileum. Total counts for EO and MC in the lamina propria were not significantly different between sexes when adjusted for multiple testing. EO polarity was absent in many cases, irrespective of the GI region. These numeration and localization of EO and MC will provide normative data for upper and lower endoscopic GI biopsies in the pediatric population of Eastern Ontario. PMID:27045513

  1. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  2. Stimulation of sympathetic innervation in the upper gastrointestinal tract as a treatment for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jolene; DiLorenzo, Daniel J.; McLaughlin, Leslie; Roberts, Andrew T.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Sympathetic activity and obesity have a reciprocal relationship. Firstly, hypothalamic obesity is associated with decreased sympathetic activity. Caffeine and ephedrine increase sympathetic activity and induce weight loss, of which 25% is due to increased metabolic rate and 75% is due to a reciprocally decreased food intake. Secondly, hormones and drugs that affect body weight have an inverse relationship between food intake and metabolic rate. Neuropeptide Y decreases sympathetic activity and increases food intake and body weight. Thirdly, a gastric pacemaker Transcend® and vagotomy increase the ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic activation, decrease food intake, and block gut satiety hormones. Weight loss with the pacemaker or vagotomy is variable. Significant weight reduction is seen only in a small group of those treated. This suggests that activation of the sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system may be most important for weight loss. Systemic sympathetic activation causes weight loss in obese patients, but side effects limited its use. We hypothesize that selective local electrical sympathetic stimulation of the upper gastrointestinal tract may induce weight loss and offer a safer, yet effective, obesity treatment. Celiac ganglia delivers sympathetic innervation to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Voltage regulated electrical simulation of the rat celiac ganglia increased metabolic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of 6, 3, or 1.5 V increased metabolic rate 15.6%, 6.2%, and 5%, respectively in a single rat. These responses support our hypothesis that selective sympathetic stimulation of the upper GI tract may treat obesity while avoiding side effects of systemic sympathetic activation. PMID:19246162

  3. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    PubMed

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  4. Microbial interference and colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Zachar, Z; Savage, D C

    1979-01-01

    Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes, one that formed smooth colonies on agar surfaces and a varient of it that formed rough colonies, colonized the gastrointestinal tracts of germfree mice. Within 24 h after mice were inoculated orally with about 100 bacteria, the population levels per gram (wet weight) of tissue of both strains were 10(5) to 10(7) in the stomach and ileum and 10(8) to 10(9) in the cecum and colon, respectively. As detected in Gram-stained histological sections, in such gnotobiotes, the bacteria colonized the lumen in all areas of the tract and much of the mucus layer on the epithelial surface in the proximal colon. The strain that formed smooth colonies did not colonize the tracts of specific-pathogen-free mice, but did colonize, to the same levels as in germfree mice, the stomachs and bowels of ex-germfree mice previously associated with two members of the indigenous flora (Bacteroides and Clostridium). In the latter animals, however, the listeria did not form layers on the colonic epithelium as efficiently as they did in monoassociated gnotobiotes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:106003

  5. Submucosal mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a target of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hisaya K; Nishizawa, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hu, Dong-Liang; Nakane, Akio; Shinagawa, Kunihiro; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a leading causative toxin of staphylococcal food poisoning. However, it remains unclear how this toxin induces emesis in humans, primates, and certain experimental animals. To understand the mechanism of SEA-induced emesis, we investigated the behavior of SEA in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in vivo using the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Immunofluorescence of GI sections showed that perorally administered SEA translocated from the lumen to the interior tissues of the GI tract and rapidly accumulated in certain submucosa cells. These SEA-binding cells in the submucosa were both tryptase- and FcεRIα-positive, suggesting these SEA-binding cells were mast cells. These SEA-binding mast cells were 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-positive, but the intensity of the 5-HT signal decreased over time compared to that of mast cells in the negative control. Furthermore, toluidine blue staining showed the number of metachromatic mast cells was decreased in the duodenal submucosa, suggesting that SEA binding induced degranulation and release of 5-HT from submucosal mast cells. These observations suggest that the target cells of SEA are submucosal mast cells in the GI tract and that 5-HT released from submucosal mast cells plays an important role in SEA-induced emesis. PMID:22211567

  6. Effect of dihydrotestosterone on gastrointestinal tract of male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Karri, Sritulasi; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica; Coimbatore, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-05-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. While research contributions identifying brain as locus of the disease is growing, evidence of severely impaired gastrointestinal (GI) functions with ageing too is accumulating, there is an equal dearth of information on GI tract in AD condition. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular, histological, morphological and microflora alterations of GI tract in male Alzheimer's transgenic mice. The present study also investigates the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment (1 mg/kg) on AD mice. Histoarchitecture data revealed a significant decrease in the villi number, muscular layer thickness, villi length, width, crypt length, enterocyte length and nuclei length. A shift in colon feces microbial community composition was observed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression levels in intestine significantly increased in AD mice revealing its toxicity. DHT treatment attenuated the effect caused by AD on GI morphometrics, APP expression and colon micro flora population. These results for the first time reveal the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of GI tract in male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. PMID:20795362

  7. Ontogeny of apelin and its receptor in the rodent gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyun; Kundu, Ramendra; Han, Song; Qi, Xiang; Englander, Ella W; Quertermous, Thomas; Greeley, George H

    2009-11-27

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor and both apelin and APJ are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to define ontogeny of apelin and APJ in the developing rodent GI tract by measuring expression levels and characterizing abundance and cellular localization at an embryonic stage (E18.5 or E21), two postnatal stages (P4, P16) and in the adult. Apelin and APJ mRNA levels were measured by real time RT-PCR, apelin and APJ-containing cells were identified by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Gastric, duodenal and colonic apelin and APJ mRNA levels were highest at birth and declined postnatally. In the postnatal rat stomach, few apelin peptide-containing cells were identified, the density of gastric apelin-containing cells increased progressively after weaning and into adulthood. A robust APJ immunostaining was observed postnatally in the epithelium, intestinal goblet cells and in smooth muscle cells. In the adult rat, APJ immunostaining in the surface epithelium and goblet cells decreased markedly. During the early postnatal period, in an apelin-deficient mouse, APJ expression and immunostaining in the gut were reduced suggesting that apelin regulates APJ. Together, our data support a role for the apelin-APJ system in the regulation of smooth muscle, epithelial and goblet cell function in the GI tract. PMID:19660504

  8. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  9. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Trusov, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  10. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Results Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p < 0.05) with the emergence of gastric proteolytic activity, suggesting that the stomach’s role in appetite regulation occurs simultaneously with the establishment of proteolytic function. A 3D models series of the GI-tract development indicated a functional pyloric sphincter prior to first feeding. Observations of fed larvae in vivo confirmed that stomach reservoir function was established before metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach’s proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor induces proliferation of hepatocytes and epithelial cells throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Housley, R M; Morris, C F; Boyle, W; Ring, B; Biltz, R; Tarpley, J E; Aukerman, S L; Devine, P L; Whitehead, R H; Pierce, G F

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, was identified as a specific keratinocyte mitogen after isolation from a lung fibroblast line. Recently, recombinant (r)KGF was found to influence proliferation and differentiation patterns of multiple epithelial cell lineages within skin, lung, and the reproductive tract. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify additional target tissues, and focused on the rat gastrointestinal (GI) system, since a putative receptor, K-sam, was originally identified in a gastric carcinoma. Expression of KGF receptor and KGF mRNA was detected within the entire GI tract, suggesting the gut both synthesized and responded to KGF. Therefore, rKGF was administered to adult rats and was found to induce markedly increased proliferation of epithelial cells from the foregut to the colon, and of hepatocytes, one day after systemic treatment. Daily treatment resulted in the marked selective induction of mucin-producing cell lineages throughout the GI tract in a dose-dependent fashion. Other cell lineages were either unaffected (e.g., Paneth cells), or relatively decreased (e.g., parietal cells, enterocytes) in rKGF-treated rats. The direct effect of rKGF was confirmed by demonstrating markedly increased carcinoembryonic antigen production in a human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM1899. Serum levels of albumin were specifically and significantly elevated after daily treatment. These results demonstrate rKGF can induce epithelial cell activation throughout the GI tract and liver. Further, endogenous KGF may be a normal paracrine mediator of growth within the gut. Images PMID:7962522

  12. Enteric reovirus infection as a probe to study immunotoxicity of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cuff, C F; Fulton, J R; Barnett, J B; Boyce, C S

    1998-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex immune system that defends the host against a wide range of pathogens and toxins. The GI tract is also exposed to many environmental toxins that could adversely affect intestinal immunity, and few systems to study immunotoxicity of the GI tract have been described. We demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection can be used as a system to assess the effects of toxins on intestinal and systemic immunity. Mice were given various doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 5 days at doses ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg by the oral route or 200 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route. On day 3 of dosing, mice were orally infected with reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang. The effects of CY on viral clearance, intestinal and systemic immune responses, and distribution of intestinal lymphocytes were assessed. Mice treated with CY failed to clear the virus in a dose-dependent manner, and serum anti-reovirus antibody titers were suppressed. Virus-specific IgA in cultures of intestinal tissue from CY-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to controls, although total IgA production was not affected. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in spleen was also suppressed in CY-treated animals. Cyclophosphamide treatment reduced the number and percentage of B-cells in Peyer's patches. Reovirus infection did not increase cellularity of Peyer's patches in CY-treated mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment also had little effect on the phenotype of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection is useful in studying exposure of the GI tract to immunotoxic agents. PMID:9579022

  13. Concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor and digestive tract carcinoma: a single institution experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Rui; Xia, Zefeng; Shuai, Xiaoming; Chang, Weilong; Gao, Jinbo; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and digestive tract carcinoma. Among 585 patients diagnosed with GIST from January 2005 to July 2014, 32 (5.5%) had synchronous digestive tract carcinoma, including 19 (59.4%) men and 13 (40.6%) women. The median age was 64 years (range, 43-84). GIST was located in the stomach (n=24), small intestine (n=6), duodenum (n=1) and retroperitoneum (n=1). GISTs were intra- or postoperatively discovered (n=28) or preoperatively identified (n=4). The tumor size was less than 10 mm (microGIST) in 23 (71.9%) GIST patients. The preoperatively identified GIST subgroup showed a significantly larger tumor size, more mitotic figures and a higher risk grade than the intra- or postoperatively identified GIST subgroup. Concurrent digestive tract carcinomas were most frequently located in the stomach (24 cases, 75%). The other involved sites were the esophagus (n=5), duodenum (n=2) and colon (n=1). With a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 9-80), 24 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 6 patients had died of carcinoma progression, 1 patient had died from an accident, and 1 patient experienced GIST metastasis to the liver. In summary, we discovered that 5.5% of GIST patients also developed a concurrent digestive tract carcinoma in a series of 585 GIST cases. The majority of GISTs are incidentally identified microGISTs. The concurrent carcinoma seems to have a greater unfavorable effect on prognosis than the GIST. However, for a GIST that is identified preoperatively with a high risk of progression, adjuvant therapy is warranted. PMID:26885079

  14. Long-term exposure to zero-g and the gastro-intestinal tract function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percial D.

    1989-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) function is described with emphasis placed on its important role to smooth, delay, and modify sudden fluid load stress applied to the fluid distribution control system in the body. Two basic components of the GIT are considered: stomach dynamics, which involves storage, mixing, and discharge of food into the intestine after addition of gastric juices; and absorption of water and electrolytes from the small intestine. A dynamic model of these components is described, along with performance characteristics computed consecutively for one g and zero g conditions. The main impact of the zero g condition appears to be through a change in osmotic driven transport across the gut wall. A dramatic change in transport characteristics is predicted with implication for many body systems (the immune system in particular) during long-term exposure to zero g. Experimental measurements in zero g are needed to evaluate these predictions.

  15. Host-microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract and the Lactobacillus reuteri paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jens; Britton, Robert A.; Roos, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates engage in symbiotic associations with vast and complex microbial communities that colonize their gastrointestinal tracts. Recent advances have provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiome to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped symbiotic interactions in the gut and the consequences that arise for both the microbes and the host. Here we discuss the biological principles that underlie microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and the potential of the development of mutualism. We then review phylogenetic and experimental studies on the vertebrate symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri that have provided novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary strategy of a gut microbe and its relationship with the host. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of the microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and its evolution will be important to determine how this relationship can go awry, and it may reveal possibilities by which the gut microbiome can be manipulated to support health. PMID:20615995

  16. Studies on the role of gastrointestinal tract contents in the methylation of inorganic mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.

    1989-02-01

    The toxic action of the mercury compounds and their bioavailability depends on the chemical structure of the compound. It is well known that mercury compounds can be transformed into metallic mercury or to alkyl mercury compounds in the environment. This transformation caused by microorganisms was observed in the soil and human feces. Therefore, the idea that inorganic mercury ingested in small quantities with daily meals can be partly transformed into alkyl mercury compounds can not be rejected without prior experiments. Result of such studies should be of special importance, because of the exceptionally high toxicity of methylmercury ion (MeHg) and its delayed neurotoxic action especially when in utero exposure is concerned. This study aimed at the investigation of the fate of inorganic mercury compounds influenced by the contents of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract of East African wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Maloiy, G M; Sutton, J D

    1983-01-01

    The molar proportions of seven individual VFA's were determined at select sites along the gastrointestinal tract of sixteen species of East African wild ruminants. The resulting data were statistically analyzed for species effect, and for effects due to major feeding groups (browsers, grazers, fresh grass grazers, etc.) and for body weight groups (5-750 kg animals). Present data suggest that body weight, rather than diet, is the more influential factor in reticulo-rumen fermentation rate, and in the molar proportion of fatty acids present. The molar proportions of VFA's observed in the mid and hindgut of these wild ruminants appeared more responsive to diet and body weight of the animal than did foregut VFA values. PMID:6139202

  18. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  19. Effects of berberine in the gastrointestinal tract - a review of actions and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqiu; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present in several plant species, including Coptis sp. and Berberis sp. In traditional medicine, extracts of berberine are used in the treatment of diarrhea of different origins. Recent studies have shown that berberine and its derivatives have significant biological effects on gastrointestinal (GI) and other functions and may become therapeutics for the treatment of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the actions of berberine in the GI tract. Binding and target sites, activated intracellular pathways, as well as the absorption and metabolism of berberine are discussed. Effects that may be useful in future clinical treatment, like antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects are critically reviewed and potential clinical applications are presented in detail. PMID:25183302

  20. Pharmacological effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) with focus on the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Vinter-Jensen, L

    1999-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) belongs to a family of growth factor ligands and receptors. At present, five ligands have been recognized which as EGF exert their effects via binding to the same EGF receptor. The family has three other receptors erbB2, erbB3, and erbB4, which have their own ligands (the heregulins). The system is ubiquitously distributed in mammals, and has important roles in normal development, and in regenerative and neoplastic growth. Mouse and human EGF were discovered in 1962 and 1975 by Stanley Cohen and Harry Gregory, respectively, due to EGFs potent systemic effects. EGF accelerated eyelid opening in newborn mice and inhibited gastric acid secretion in humans. Already in the late thirties, a factor in human urine was recognized which prevented or accelerated healing of experimental damage in the gastrointestinal tract. This factor appeared to be EGF. Around 1980, an effect of commercial interest was described-EGF caused shedding of the fleece in sheep. In line with the original observations, several studies have examined effects of EGF on developmental processes. Amongst other effects, EGF accelerates lung and intestinal maturation before birth and in newborn mammals. Due to the possible use of EGF in the wool industry, it was mandatory to know more about EGF. Amongst other effects in mature sheep and other animals are haemodynamic changes, changes in electrolyte homeostasis, and endocrinological changes. In relation to experimental damage, the therapeutic potential of systemic EGF has been demonstrated in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, in the kidneys, in the liver and in the trachea. EGF has even been tried in humans in gastric ulcer healing and in necrotising enterocolitis. Studies on prolonged treatment with EGF have first recently appeared. We described effects of 4-5 weeks of treatment in Goettingen minipigs and in rats, and two other groups described effects in monkeys and in rats. In summary, species differences were observed

  1. Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Uniform-Sized Bismuth Nanoparticles for CT Visualization of Gastrointestinal Tract in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Boxiong; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Cai; Jiang, Ying; Fu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Chunshui; Sun, Shao-Kai; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-05-25

    High-performance and biocompatible contrast agents are the key to accurate diagnosis of various diseases in vivo via CT imaging. Fabrication of pure Bi nanoparticles is the best way to maximize X-ray absorption efficiency due to the ultrahigh X-ray attenuation ability of Bi and 100% content of Bi element. However, high-quality Bi nanoparticles prepared through a facile strategy are still lacking. Herein, we report a simple noninjection method to fabricate uniformly sized pure Bi nanoparticles using only two commercial reagents by simply heating the mixture of raw materials in a short time. The obtained Bi nanoparticles owned highly uniform size, excellent monodispersity, and impressive antioxidant capacity. After being modified with oligosaccharide, the "sweet" Bi nanoprobe with comfortable patient experience and favorable biocompatibility was successfully used in CT visualization of gastrointestinal tract in detail. PMID:27144639

  3. Effects of cereal β-glucans and enzyme inclusion on the porcine gastrointestinal tract microbiota.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Padraigin; Bello, Fabio Dal; O'Doherty, John V; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect barley-based diets vs. oats based diets on levels of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacterium in the porcine gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In addition the effect of enzyme supplementation in both diets was explored. Twenty-eight boars were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: barley-based (B) diet; barley-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (B + ES); oat-based (O) diet or oat-based diet plus an enzyme supplement (O + ES). The enzyme supplement contained endo-1,3-β-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Faecal samples were collected from the pigs prior to initiations of the experiment and at slaughter. At slaughter digesta samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus species composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed by genus-specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE profiles indicated that cereal source provoked shifts in Lactobacillus population. The most diverse populations of lactobacilli emerged after feeding the O diets. Enzymes inclusion altered the composition of Lactobacillus species prevalent throughout the GIT in animals fed the B diet, causing a shift in the dominant lactobacilli present in the caecum and proximal colon. No such effect was evident in animals fed the enzyme supplemented O + ES diet. Microbial plate counts revealed that the O diets gave rise to higher counts of Lactobacillus in the caecum and colon and Bifidobacterium counts in the ileum, caecum and colon than the B diets. The O diet caused a 2 log increase in Enterobacterium counts in the proximal colon, no such effects were observed in animals fed the B, the B + ES or the O + ES diets. Overall both O diets had a more positive influence on the counts of the beneficial microorganisms and richness of the Lactobacillus population in the porcine GIT. PMID:23022204

  4. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine. PMID:18191353

  5. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  6. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  7. Viability of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2010-03-25

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) embedded in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses was assessed in vitro against Oxyuris equi eggs. Twelve previously dewormed crossbred mares, average weight of 362.5kg (+/-21) were used in the experiment. Each animal of the treated group received an oral dose (100g) of sodium alginate pellets containing P. chlamydosporia mycelial mass. The control group received pellets without fungus. Faecal samples from fungus-treated and control groups were collected at intervals of 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h after pellet administration and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar. One thousand eggs of O. equi were plated in Petri dishes of both treated and control groups, with six replicates, and incubated in oven, 25 degrees C, in the dark, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with hyphae adhered to the shell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo without hyphal penetration, and type 3, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Chlamydospore production was observed in Petri dishes of the treated group. The isolate VC4 remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and maintained the ovicidal activity against O. equi eggs when compared with the control group (p<0.01) after each collection interval: 29.1% (8h), 28.2% (12h), 31.1% (24h), 27.4% (36h), 30.9% (48h) and 28.4% (72h). The results suggest that P. chlamydosporia could be used as an effective biological control agent of O. equi eggs in natural conditions. PMID:20036059

  8. Evaluation of Photonic Imaging in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Swine Following Oral Inoculation With Lux-Modified Salmonella typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate photonic emitting bacteria through different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of swine. Pigs (~ 80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1×10^10 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lux (S. typh-lux) for a 6 (n=6) or 12 (n=6) h incubatio...

  9. Postmortem Photonic Imaging of Lux-Modified Salmonella Typhimuium Within the Gastrointestinal Tract of Swine Following Oral Inoculation In Vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract after oral inoculation. Pigs (~80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1 x 1010 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lux for a 6-h (n = 6) or 12-h...

  10. The QseBC Quorum Sensing System is Involved in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colonization of the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of bacteria to hormone-like, chemical molecules is termed quorum sensing, a mechanism for cell-to-cell communication that includes sensing the host environment. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least two quorum sensing molecules are present that activate the bacterial QseBC quorum sen...

  11. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT DISTRIBUTION AT NECROPSY OF SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN NATURALLY-INFECTED CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy adult cattle with gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) transient luminal presence or mucosal colonization by Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 are a primary zoonotic reservoir of this human pathogen, especially for meat-borne transmission. The GIT distribution of STEC O157 in various experimen...

  12. Postmortem photonic imaging of lux-modified Salmonella typhimurium within the gastrointestinal tract of swine following oral inoculation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract following oral inoculation. Pigs (~ 80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1×10*10 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lu...

  13. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shoji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2015-03-01

    The in vivo genotoxicity of CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) was examined using repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats. Sudan I is a mono-azo dye based on aniline and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene. This dye was demonstrated as a rat liver carcinogen in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay, and genotoxicity was noted in a rat bone marrow micronucleus (BMMN) assay. In the present study, Sudan I was administered orally to rats for 14-days, and the MN frequency in the liver, stomach, colon, and bone marrow were analyzed. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was not significantly increased by the administration of the Sudan I. Gastrointestinal tract MNs were also not induced. However, in the BMMN assay, a significant increase in micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. While Sudan I has been reported to lack hepatic genotoxicity, it has also exhibited tumor-promoting activities. These results are consistent with the lack of induction of MN in the hepatocytes. The lack of MN induction in cells of the gastrointestinal tract was also logical because azo-compounds are reported to be unlikely to induce DNA damage in the rat gut. The repeated-dose rat liver and gastrointestinal tract MN assays have the potential to be used in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a chemical in each organ in accordance with its mode of action. PMID:25892626

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Coccoid Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697T Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Healthy Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Toh, Hidehiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Takefumi; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697(T) was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy thoroughbreds. This strain produced unique spherical or oval cells, which is rare in the genus Lactobacillus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. PMID:26847890

  15. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  16. Oxidative stress in inflammation-based gastrointestinal tract diseases: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2012-06-01

    Oxygen free radicals in excessively high amounts are all very reactive chemically and can impose a detrimental influence on living organisms by provoking "oxidative stress" that can damage major cellular constituents. The latter includes the cell membrane, cytoplasmic proteins, and nuclear DNA. Conversely, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS) when present in low amounts play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes, through which, paradoxically, many ROS-mediated responses can protect the cells against oxidative stress by induction of "redox homeostasis." Therefore, diseases associated with free radical overproduction are provoked by "blazed ROS productions" far beyond the host's capacity to quench. Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, enteritis, colitis and associated cancers as well as pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis. This article provides an overview of the role of oxidative stress in inflammation-based GI tract diseases, including reflux esophagitis, Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteritis, ulcerative colitis, and associated colorectal cancer. The challenging issue that ROS can contribute to diverse gastrointestinal dysfunction, or manifest dual roles in cancer promotion or cancer suppression will also be discussed for the opportunity to enhance understanding of inflammation-based GI diseases. PMID:22413852

  17. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Debbie; Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac GM

    2008-01-01

    Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI) delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P < 0.001), following heterologous expression of the Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P < 0.001), than control strains from the faeces and intestines of mice (n = 5), following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract. PMID:18844989

  18. Altered Innate Defenses in the Neonatal Gastrointestinal Tract in Response to Colonization by Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birchenough, George M. H.; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Stabler, Richard A.; Dalgakiran, Fatma; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Wren, Brendan W.; Luzio, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Two-day-old (P2), but not 9-day-old (P9), rat pups are susceptible to systemic infection following gastrointestinal colonization by Escherichia coli K1. Age dependency reflects the capacity of colonizing K1 to translocate from gastrointestinal (GI) tract to blood. A complex GI microbiota developed by P2, showed little variation over P2 to P9, and did not prevent stable K1 colonization. Substantial developmental expression was observed over P2 to P9, including upregulation of genes encoding components of the small intestinal (α-defensins Defa24 and Defa-rs1) and colonic (trefoil factor Tff2) mucus barrier. K1 colonization modulated expression of these peptides: developmental expression of Tff2 was dysregulated in P2 tissues and was accompanied by a decrease in mucin Muc2. Conversely, α-defensin genes were upregulated in P9 tissues. We propose that incomplete development of the mucus barrier during early neonatal life and the capacity of colonizing K1 to interfere with mucus barrier maturation provide opportunities for neuropathogen translocation into the bloodstream. PMID:23798529

  19. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications. PMID:26931430

  20. The emergency room diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract perforation: the role of CT.

    PubMed

    Borofsky, Samuel; Taffel, Myles; Khati, Nadia; Zeman, Robert; Hill, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with a suspected spontaneous gastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation. Prospective identification of the site of perforation helps the emergency department physician plan the appropriate treatment in a potentially unstable patient. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT approach a radiologist should take when evaluating the patient with suspected perforation in the emergent setting. A series of patients presenting to the emergency department with surgically proven GIT perforations were retrospectively reviewed, and key images were obtained. For the purposes of this review, the anatomy of the abdominal cavity in relation to sites of GIT perforation will be discussed. CT findings of perforation will be described, including free intraperitoneal/extraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and localized inflammatory changes. The use of a bone window setting to increase the free air conspicuity will be emphasized. The mimics of pneumoperitoneum will be demonstrated, including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and venous air. Using a systematic approach, CT can precisely determine the presence and site of a gastrointestinal perforation in a majority of patients. This greatly assists the surgeon in planning the correct surgical approach. PMID:25417073

  1. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  2. Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Cummins, Thomas; Shung, K. Kirk; Van Dam, Jacques; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer, the most common type of cancer, has a very low survival rate, especially for pancreatic cancer (five year survival rate of 5%) and bile duct cancer (five year survival rate of 12%). Here, we propose to use an integrated OCT-US catheter for cancer detection. OCT is targeted to acquire detailed information, such as dysplasia and neoplasia, for early detection of tumors. US is used for staging cancers according to the size of the primary tumor and whether or not it has invaded lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Considering the lumen size of the GI tract, an OCT system with a long image range (>10mm) and a US imaging system with a center frequency at 40MHz (penetration depth > 5mm) were used. The OCT probe was also designed for long-range imaging. The side-view OCT and US probes were sealed inside one probe cap piece and one torque coil and became an integrated probe. This probe was then inserted into a catheter sheath which fits in the channel of a duodenoscope and is able to be navigated smoothly into the bile duct by the elevator of the duodenoscope. We have imaged 5 healthy and 2 diseased bile ducts. In the OCT images, disorganized layer structures and heterogeneous regions demonstrated the existence of tumors. Micro-calcification can be observed in the corresponding US images.

  3. The effects of cannabidiolic acid and cannabidiol on contractility of the gastrointestinal tract of Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Cluny, Nina L; Naylor, Robert J; Whittle, Brian A; Javid, Farideh A

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI) transit in pathophysiologic in vivo models, while having no effect in physiologic controls. The actions of the precursor of CBD, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have not been investigated in the GI tract. The actions of these phytocannabinoids on the contractility of the GI tract of Suncus murinus were investigated in the current study. The effects of CBDA and CBD in resting state and pre-contracted isolated intestinal segments, and on the contractile effects of carbachol and electrical field stimulation (EFS) on the intestines of S. murinus were examined. CBDA and CBD induced a reduction in resting tissue tension of isolated intestinal segments which was not blocked by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, the CB(2) receptor antagonist AM630, or tetrodotoxin. CBDA and CBD reduced the magnitude of contractions induced by carbachol and the tension of intestinal segments that were pre-contracted with potassium chloride. In tissues stimulated by EFS, CBDA inhibited contractions induced by lower frequencies (0.1-4.0 Hz) of EFS, while CBD inhibited contractions induced by higher frequencies (4.0-20.0 Hz) of EFS. The data suggest that CBDA and CBD have inhibitory actions on the intestines of S. murinus that are not neuronallymediated or mediated via CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. PMID:21975813

  4. Purinergic neuromuscular transmission in the gastrointestinal tract; functional basis for future clinical and pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere; Accarino, Anna; Gallego, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Nerve-mediated relaxation is necessary for the correct accomplishment of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the GI tract, NO and a purine are probably released by the same inhibitory motor neuron as inhibitory co-transmitters. The P2Y1 receptor has been recently identified as the receptor responsible for purinergic smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation in the human gut. This finding has been confirmed in P2Y1-deficient mice where purinergic neurotransmission is absent and transit time impaired. However, the mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated relaxation, including the identification of the purinergic neurotransmitter(s) itself, are still debatable. Possibly different mechanisms of nerve-mediated relaxation are present in the GI tract. Functional demonstration of purinergic neuromuscular transmission has not been correlated with structural studies. Labelling of purinergic neurons is still experimental and is not performed in routine pathology studies from human samples, even when possible neuromuscular impairment is suspected. Accordingly, the contribution of purinergic neurotransmission in neuromuscular diseases affecting GI motility is not known. In this review, we have focused on the physiological mechanisms responsible for nerve-mediated purinergic relaxation providing the functional basis for possible future clinical and pharmacological studies on GI motility targeting purine receptors. PMID:24910216

  5. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasound of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract and Mediastinum: Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Priyajit; Wittmann, Johannes; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2006-12-15

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has developed significantly over the last two decades and has had a considerable impact on the imaging and staging of mass lesions within or in close proximity to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In conjunction with conventional imaging such as helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the indications for EUS include (1) differentiating between benign and malignant lesions of the mediastinum and upper GI tract, (2) staging malignant tumors of the lung, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas prior to surgery or oncological treatment, (3) excluding common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thereby avoiding the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in some patients, and (4) assessing suspected lesions that are either equivocal or not seen on conventional imaging. In recent years, EUS has charted a course similar to that taken by ERCP, evolving from a purely diagnostic modality to one that is interventional and therapeutic. These indications include (5) obtaining a tissue diagnosis by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration or trucut-type needle biopsy and (6) providing therapy such as coeliac plexus neurolysis and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage-in many cases, more accurately and safely than conventional techniques. Emerging investigational techniques include EUS-guided enteric anastomosis formation and fine-needle injection therapy for malignant disease.

  7. Transport of d-galactose by the gastrointestinal tract of the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Pascual, I; Berjón, A; Lostao, M P; Barber, A

    2006-01-01

    Due to exoskeleton, the absorption of nutrients in adult insects takes place across the gastrointestinal tract epithelium. In most physiological studies, sugar intestinal absorption has been described as a diffusional process and to date no sugar transporter has been cloned from the digestive tract of insects. In the present work, the existence of a saturable transport system for galactose in the gastric caeca of Locusta migratoria is clearly demonstrated. This transport shows a relatively high affinity for galactose (apparent K0.5=2-3 mM) and is inhibited by glucose, 2-deoxyglucose and with less potency by fructose and alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. The absence of sodium or the presence of phloridzin hardly affects galactose absorption, indicating that it is not mediated by a SGLT1-like transporter. The absence of K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ or changes in the pH do not modify galactose absorption either. Nevertheless, phloretin, cytochalasin B and theophylline (inhibitors of facilitative transporters) decrease sugar uptake around 50%. Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with poly A+ RNA isolated from gastric caeca show sodium-independent galactose uptake that is three times higher than in non-injected oocytes, further supporting the existence of a mRNA coding for at least one equilibrative sugar transporter in L. migratoria gastric caeca. PMID:16314134

  8. The Effects of Pharmaceutical Excipients on Gastrointestinal Tract Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters-an Update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenpeng; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Wu, Man; Zhang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence from the last decade has shown that many pharmaceutical excipients are not pharmacologically inert but instead have effects on metabolic enzymes and/or drug transporters. Hence, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) may be altered due to the modulation of their metabolism and transport by excipients. The impact of excipients is a potential concern for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)-based biowaivers, particularly as the BCS-based biowaivers have been extended to class 3 drugs in certain dosage forms. The presence of different excipients or varying amounts of excipients between formulations may result in bio-inequivalence. The excipient impact may lead to significant variations in clinical outcomes as well. The aim of this paper is to review the recent findings of excipient effects on gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, focusing on their interactions with the metabolic enzymes and transporters in the GI tract. A wide range of commonly used excipients such as binders, diluents, fillers, solvents, and surfactants are discussed here. We summarized the reported effects of those excipients on GI tract phase I and phase II enzymes, uptake and efflux transporters, and relevant clinical significance. This information can enhance our understanding of excipient influence on drug absorption and is useful in designing pharmacokinetic studies and evaluating the resultant data. PMID:27184579

  9. Absorption of rivastigmine from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy; Hossain, Mohammad; Wang, Yanfeng; Sedek, Greg

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate and extent of absorption and metabolism of rivastigmine (Exelon), ENA 713) after site-specific delivery of the drug in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a naso-intestinal intubation technique. Healthy adult subjects (n = 7) received, on four separate occasions, a 3-mg dose of a rivastigmine solution (2 mg/mL) orally and via a naso-intestinal tube to three GI sites (jejunum, ileum, and ascending colon). On each of the 3 treatment days for regional GI dosing, the tube was progressed to each of the three GI sites, which was determined by a radiographical technique prior to dosing. On the fourth day, following tube withdrawal, the subject received a 3-mg oral dose of a rivastigmine solution. Plasma samples were obtained at different multiple time points, and the plasma concentrations of rivastigmine and its metabolite, NAP 226-90, were determined using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Rivastigmine was rapidly absorbed following both oral administration and site-specific delivery to different regions of the GI tract (jejunum, ileum, and ascending colon). Compared with oral administration (AUV(0- infinity ) = 21 ng*h/mL, C(max) = 12.8 ng/mL, and t(max) = 0.87 h), delivery of the drug directly into the ileum, jejunum, and ascending colon did not change the extent of absorption, but the time to peak concentration appeared to be smaller (mean t(max) ranged from 0.4-0.6 h, with no change in C(max)). The relative bioavailability of rivastigmine from all three regions of the GI tract was comparable to that following oral administration. The metabolite levels (AUC, C(max)) were also similar among the three different regions of the GI tract when compared to the oral dose. It was concluded that rivastigmine is rapidly and equally well absorbed following an oral dose and after specific delivery to different regions of the small intestine and ascending colon. GI metabolism of rivastigmine to its major

  10. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores. PMID:27116964