Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, F.; Santarsiero, M.; Piquero, G.; Borghi, R.; Mondello, A.; Simon, R.
2001-01-01
We consider a class of beams that are both partially polarized and partially coherent from the spatial standpoint. They are characterized by a correlation matrix whose elements have the same form as the mutual intensity of a Gaussian Schell-model beam. We focus our attention on those beams that would appear identical to ordinary Gaussian Schell-model beams in a scalar treatment. After establishing some inequalities that limit the choice of the matrix parameters, we study the main effects of propagation. Starting from the source plane, in which the beam is assumed to be uniformly polarized, we find that in the course of propagation the degree of polarization generally becomes non-uniform across a typical section of the beam. Furthermore, we find that the intensity distribution at the output of an arbitrarily oriented linear polarizer is Gaussian shaped at the source plane whereas it can be quite different at other planes.
Gaussian beam ray-equivalent modeling and optical design.
Herloski, R; Marshall, S; Antos, R
1983-04-15
It is shown that the propagation and transformation of a simply astigmatic Gaussian beam by an optical system with a characteristic ABCD matrix can be modeled by relatively simple equations whose terms consist solely of the heights and slopes of two paraxial rays. These equations are derived from the ABCD law of Gaussian beam transformation. They can be used in conjunction with a conventional automatic optical design program to design and optimize Gaussian beam optical systems. Several design examples are given using the CODE-V optical design package. PMID:18195936
Ultrasonic field modeling for immersed components using Gaussian beam superposition.
Spies, Martin
2007-05-01
The Gaussian beam (GB) superposition approach can be applied to model ultrasound propagation in complex-structured materials and components. In this article, progress made in extending and applying the Gaussian beam superposition technique to model the beam fields generated by transducers with flat and focused rectangular apertures as well as with circular focused apertures is addressed. The refraction of transducer beam fields through curved surfaces is illustrated by calculation results for beam fields generated in curved components during immersion testing. In particular, the following developments are put forward: (i) the use of individually determined sets of GBs to model transducer beam fields with a number of less than ten beams; (ii) the application of the GB representation of rectangular transducers to focusing probes, as well as to the problem of transmission through interfaces; and (iii) computationally efficient transient modeling by superposition of 'temporally limited' GBs. PMID:17335863
a New Mathematical Model for a Propagating Gaussian Beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landesman, Barbara Tehan
A new mathematical model for the fundamental mode of a propagating Gaussian beam is presented. The model is two-fold, consisting of a mathematical expression and a corresponding geometrical representation which interprets the expression in the light of geometrical optics. The mathematical description arises from the (0,0) order of a new family of exact, closed-form solutions to the scalar Helmholtz equation. The family consists of nonseparable functions in the oblate spheroidal coordinate system and can easily be transformed to a different set of solutions in the prolate spheroidal coordinate system, where the (0,0) order is a spherical wave. This transformation consists of two substitutions in the coordinate system parameters and represents a more general method of obtaining a Gaussian beam from a spherical wave than assuming a complex point source on axis. Further, each higher-order member of the family of solutions possesses an amplitude consisting of a finite number of higher-order terms with a zero-order term that is Gaussian. The geometrical interpretation employs the skew -line generator of a hyperboloid of one sheet as a ray-like element on a contour of constant amplitude in the Gaussian beam. The geometrical characteristics of the skew line and the consequences of treating it as a ray are explored in depth. The skew line is ultimately used to build a nonorthogonal coordinate system which allows straight-line propagation of a Gaussian beam in three-dimensional space. Highlights of the research into other methods used to model a propagating Gaussian beam--such as complex rays, complex point sources and complex argument functions --are reviewed and compared with this work.
Gaussian Schell-model beams propagating through polarization gratings.
Piquero, G; Borghi, R; Santarsiero, M
2001-06-01
The effects of polarization gratings on partially coherent beams are investigated by studying a Gaussian Schell-model beam impinging on a linear polarizer whose transmission axis varies periodically along one transverse direction. Analytical expressions for the beam polarization-coherence matrix after the grating are obtained. In particular, the evolution of the degree of polarization upon propagation is analyzed. Different behaviors of the output beam, depending on the beam parameters and on the period of the grating, are exhibited. In particular, it is shown that, by suitably choosing the latter quantities, it is possible to obtain not only any desirable value of the degree of polarization of the output beam but also particular distributions of such parameters across the transverse sections of the beam. PMID:11393633
Vector Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam.
Chen, Yahong; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jiayi; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian
2016-07-11
A new kind of partially coherent vector beam named vector Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (HGCSM) beam is introduced as a natural extension of recently introduced scalar HGCSM beam. The realizability and beam conditions for a vector HGCSM beam with uniform state of polarization (SOP) or non-uniform SOP are derived, respectively. Furthermore, analytical formulae for a vector HGCSM beam propagating in free space are derived, and the propagation properties of a vector HGCSM beam with uniform SOP or non-uniform SOP in free space are studied and analyzed in detail. We find that the behaviors of a vector HGCSM beam on propagation are quite different from those of a conventional vector partially coherent beam with uniform SOP or non-uniform SOP, and modulating the structures of the correlation functions cannot only modulate the intensity distribution, but also the state of polarization, the degree of polarization and the polarization singularities of a partially coherent vector beam on propagation. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a radially polarized HGCSM beam for the first time. Our results provide a novel way for polarization modulation. PMID:27410801
Nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam models and measurement models for phased array transducers.
Zhao, Xinyu; Gang, Tie
2009-01-01
A nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam model is proposed in order to overcome the limitation that paraxial Gaussian beam models lose accuracy in simulating the beam steering behavior of phased array transducers. Using this nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam model, the focusing and steering sound fields generated by an ultrasonic linear phased array transducer are calculated and compared with the corresponding results obtained by paraxial multi-Gaussian beam model and more exact Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral model. In addition, with help of this novel nonparaxial method, an ultrasonic measurement model is provided to investigate the sensitivity of linear phased array transducers versus steering angles. Also the comparisons of model predictions with experimental results are presented to certify the accuracy of this provided measurement model. PMID:18774152
Simulation of ultrasonic surface waves with multi-Gaussian and point source beam models
Zhao, Xinyu; Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Li, Xiongbing; Sedov, Alexander
2014-02-18
In the past decade, multi-Gaussian beam models have been developed to solve many complicated bulk wave propagation problems. However, to date those models have not been extended to simulate the generation of Rayleigh waves. Here we will combine Gaussian beams with an explicit high frequency expression for the Rayleigh wave Green function to produce a three-dimensional multi-Gaussian beam model for the fields radiated from an angle beam transducer mounted on a solid wedge. Simulation results obtained with this model are compared to those of a point source model. It is shown that the multi-Gaussian surface wave beam model agrees well with the point source model while being computationally much more efficient.
The subtraction of mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Sande, J. Carlos G.; Santarsiero, Massimo; Piquero, Gemma; Gori, Franco
2015-12-01
Using recently derived results about the difference of two cross-spectral densities, we consider a source whose correlation function is the difference of two mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model cross-spectral densities. We examine the main features of this new cross-spectral density in terms of coherence and intensity distribution, both across the source plane and after free propagation.
Beam wander of Gaussian-Schell model beams propagating through oceanic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Li, Ye; Hu, Zhengda
2016-07-01
For Gaussian-Schell model beams propagating in the isotropic turbulent ocean, theoretical expression of beam wander is derived based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The spatial coherence radius of spherical waves propagating in the paraxial channel of turbulent ocean including inner scale is also developed. Our results show that the beam wander decreases with the increasing rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid ɛ, but it increases as the increasing of the dissipation rate of temperature variance χt and the relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations ϖ. The salinity fluctuation has greater influence on the beam wander than that of temperature fluctuations. The model can be evaluated submarine-to-submarine/ship optical wireless communication performance.
Born modeling for heterogeneous media using the Gaussian beam summation based Green's function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xingguo; Sun, Hui; Sun, Jianguo
2016-08-01
Born approximation is a commonly used approximation in the simulation of seismic wave propagation. Calculation of the Green's function in Born approximation integral is essential for Born modeling. We derive a new Born formula based on the Gaussian beam representations of Green's functions. This procedure can be used to mitigate the problems like the caustic, shadow region, and multivalued traveltime caused by multipathing that traditional geometric ray theory cannot deal with. However, due to the characteristic of complex traveltime in the Gaussian beam, we present a new isochronous stack method for Gaussian beam based Born modeling. Additionally, two basic issues, background velocity and integral region selection, are discussed. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the Gaussian beam based Born theory and implementation.
On stochastic complex beam beam interaction models with Gaussian colored noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Huiqing; Xu, Wei
2007-10-01
This paper is to continue our study on complex beam-beam interaction models in particle accelerators with random excitations Y. Xu, W. Xu, G.M. Mahmoud, On a complex beam-beam interaction model with random forcing [Physica A 336 (2004) 347-360]. The random noise is taken as the form of exponentially correlated Gaussian colored noise, and the transition probability density function is obtained in terms of a perturbation expansion of the parameter. Then the method of stochastic averaging based on perturbation technique is used to derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the transition probability density function. The solvability condition and the general transforms using the method of characteristics are proposed to obtain the approximate expressions of probability density function to order ε. Also the exact stationary probability density and the first and second moments of the amplitude are obtained, and one can find when the correlation time equals to zero, the result is identical to that derived from the Stratonovich-Khasminskii theorem for the same model under a broad-band excitation in our previous work.
GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, P. L.
1994-01-01
In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.
Propagation properties of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams through an astigmatic lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Liuzhan; Wang, Beizhan; Lu, Baida
2005-09-01
Based on the beam coherent-polarization (BCP) matrix approach and propagation law of partially coherent beams, analytical propagation equations of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model (PGSM) beams through an astigmatic lens are derived, which enables us to study the propagation-induced polarization changes and irradiance distributions at any propagation distance of PGSM beams through an astigmatic lens within the framework of the paraxial approximation. Detailed numerical results for a PGSM beam passing through an astigmatic lens are presented. A comparison with the aberration-free case is made, and shows that the astigmatism affects the propagation properties of PGSM beams.
Fast Pencil Beam Dose Calculation for Proton Therapy Using a Double-Gaussian Beam Model
da Silva, Joakim; Ansorge, Richard; Jena, Rajesh
2015-01-01
The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams (PBs) are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real-time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a PB algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs) intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here, we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such PB algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parameterizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of PBs in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included while prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Furthermore, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parameterization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26734567
Fast Pencil Beam Dose Calculation for Proton Therapy Using a Double-Gaussian Beam Model.
da Silva, Joakim; Ansorge, Richard; Jena, Rajesh
2015-01-01
The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams (PBs) are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real-time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a PB algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs) intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here, we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such PB algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parameterizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of PBs in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included while prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Furthermore, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parameterization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26734567
A reciprocity inequality for Gaussian Schell-model beams and some of its consequences
Friberg, Ari T.; Visser, Taco D.; Wolf, Emil
2000-03-15
A reciprocity inequality is derived, involving the effective size of a planar, secondary, Gaussian Schell-model source and the effective angular spread of the beam that the source generates. The analysis is shown to imply that a fully spatially coherent source of that class (which generates the lowest-order Hermite-Gaussian laser mode) has certain minimal properties. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xudong; Zhao, Daomu
2016-08-01
A model of electromagnetic rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (ERMGSM) beams is introduced. Its analytic expression for the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix of such beams passing through oceanic turbulence is derived. It is shown that the rectangular shape of the ERMGSM beams holds a small distance on propagation in oceanic turbulence. The spectral density, the degree of coherence and the degree of polarization of ERMGSM beams are also studied in detail. The results will be helpful for underwater communication by using ERMGSM beams.
Modeling of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam and its propagation through 3D optical systems.
Kochkina, Evgenia; Wanner, Gudrun; Schmelzer, Dennis; Tröbs, Michael; Heinzel, Gerhard
2013-08-20
The paper introduces the complete model of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam as the most general case of the Gaussian beam in the fundamental mode. This includes the laws of propagation, reflection, and refraction as well as the equations for extracting from the complex-valued beam description its real-valued parameters, such as the beam spot radii and the radii of curvature of the wavefront. The suggested model is applicable to the case of an oblique incidence of the beam at any 3D surface that can be approximated by the second-order equation at the point of incidence. Thus it can be used in simulations of a large variety of 3D optical systems. The provided experimental validation of the model shows good agreement with simulations. PMID:24085008
Scintillation reduction in pseudo Multi-Gaussian Schell Model beams in the maritime environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, C.; Avramov-Zamurovic, S.; Korotkova, O.; Guth, S.; Malek-Madani, R.
2016-04-01
Irradiance fluctuations of a pseudo Multi-Gaussian Schell Model beam propagating in the maritime environment is explored as a function of spatial light modulator cycling rate and estimated atmospheric turnover rate. Analysis of the data demonstrates a strong negative correlation between the scintillation index of received optical intensity and cycling speed for the estimated atmospheric turnover rate.
Scattering of a Gaussian beam by an elliptical cylinder using the vectorial complex ray model.
Jiang, Keli; Han, Xiang'e; Ren, Kuan Fang
2013-08-01
The scattered waves of a shaped beam by an infinite cylinder in the far field are, stricto sensu, neither cylindrical nor spherical, so the asymptotic form of special functions involved in the theories based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell equations cannot be used to evaluate scattered intensities, even in the most simple case of Gaussian beam scattering by an infinite circular cylinder. Thus, although theories exist for the scattering of a shaped beam by infinite cylinders with circular and elliptical sections, the numerical calculations are limited to the near field. The vectorial complex ray model (VCRM) developed by Ren et al. describes waves by rays with a new property: the curvature of the wavefront. It is suitable to deal with the scattering of an arbitrarily shaped beam by a particle with a smooth surface of any form. In this paper, we apply this method to the scattering of an infinite elliptical cylinder illuminated by a Gaussian beam at normal incidence with an arbitrary position and orientation relative to the symmetric axis of the elliptical section of the cylinder. The method for calculating the curvature of an arbitrary surface is given and applied in the determination of the two curvature radii of the Gaussian beam wavefront at any point. Scattered intensities for different parameters of the beam and the particle as well as observation distance are presented to reveal the scattering properties and new phenomena observed in the beam scattering by an infinite elliptical cylinder. PMID:24323213
Twist phase-induced polarization changes in electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Y.; Korotkova, O.
2009-08-01
Electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam with twist phase (i.e., twisted EGSM beam) is introduced as an extension of its scalar version based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization. We show how analytical paraxial propagation formulae of isotropic and anisotropic EGSM beams passing through a general astigmatic ABCD optical system can be modified in the presence of the twist phase. Numerical examples demonstrate that the twist phase affects the spectral density, the state of coherence, and the degree of polarization of EGSM beams on propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramov-Zamurovic, S.; Nelson, C.; Guth, S.; Korotkova, O.; Malek-Madani, R.
2016-01-01
We report on experimental generation of Electromagnetic Bessel-Gaussian Schell-Model [EBGSM] beams via incoherent superposition of two mutually orthogonal electric field components, both originated from a laser source, whose phases are spatially modified by two nematic liquid crystal Spatial Light Modulators. The EBGSM beam is then passed through a weakly fluctuating turbulent channel and examined for contrast in its fluctuating intensity. It is demonstrated that after passing through turbulence the electromagnetic beam exhibits reduction in the scintillation index on the order of 50%, as compared with that for an equivalent scalar beam, in strong agreement with recent theoretical predictions.
Waveform model of a laser altimeter for an elliptical Gaussian beam.
Yue, Ma; Mingwei, Wang; Guoyuan, Li; Xiushan, Lu; Fanlin, Yang
2016-03-10
The current waveform model of a laser altimeter is based on the Gaussian laser beam of the fundamental mode, whose cross section is a circular spot, whereas some of the cross sections of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System lasers are closer to elliptical spots. Based on the expression of the elliptical Gaussian beam and the waveform theory of laser altimeters, the primary parameters of an echo waveform were derived. In order to examine the deduced expressions, a laser altimetry waveform simulator and waveform processing software were programmed and improved under the circumstance of an elliptical Gaussian beam. The result shows that all the biases between the theoretical and simulated waveforms were less than 0.5%, and the derived model of an elliptical spot is universal and can also be used for the conventional circular spot. The shape of the waveforms is influenced by the ellipticity of the laser spot, the target slope, and the "azimuth angle" between the major axis and the slope direction. This article provides the waveform theoretical basis of a laser altimeter under an elliptical Gaussian beam. PMID:26974789
Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman
1989-01-01
Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).
Improved Gaussian beam-scattering algorithm.
Lock, J A
1995-01-20
The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam. PMID:20963151
Improved Gaussian Beam-Scattering Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, James A.
1995-01-01
The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam.
Hirayama, S; Takayanagi, T; Fujii, Y; Fujimoto, R; Fujitaka, S; Umezawa, M; Nagamine, Y; Hosaka, M; Yasui, K; Toshito, T
2014-06-15
Purpose: To present the validity of our beam modeling with double and triple Gaussian dose kernels for spot scanning proton beams in Nagoya Proton Therapy Center. This study investigates the conformance between the measurements and calculation results in absolute dose with two types of beam kernel. Methods: A dose kernel is one of the important input data required for the treatment planning software. The dose kernel is the 3D dose distribution of an infinitesimal pencil beam of protons in water and consists of integral depth doses and lateral distributions. We have adopted double and triple Gaussian model as lateral distribution in order to take account of the large angle scattering due to nuclear reaction by fitting simulated inwater lateral dose profile for needle proton beam at various depths. The fitted parameters were interpolated as a function of depth in water and were stored as a separate look-up table for the each beam energy. The process of beam modeling is based on the method of MDACC [X.R.Zhu 2013]. Results: From the comparison results between the absolute doses calculated by double Gaussian model and those measured at the center of SOBP, the difference is increased up to 3.5% in the high-energy region because the large angle scattering due to nuclear reaction is not sufficiently considered at intermediate depths in the double Gaussian model. In case of employing triple Gaussian dose kernels, the measured absolute dose at the center of SOBP agrees with calculation within ±1% regardless of the SOBP width and maximum range. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the beam modeling results of dose distribution employing double and triple Gaussian dose kernel. Treatment planning system with the triple Gaussian dose kernel has been successfully verified and applied to the patient treatment with a spot scanning technique in Nagoya Proton Therapy Center.
Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.
Modelling Gaussian beam propagation through thick nonlinear refractive and absorptive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namarathne, D.; Walden, S.; Shortell, M.; Jaatinen, E.
2016-04-01
A novel numerical finite difference beam propagation method developed for quadratic refractive index media is presented and applied to TEM00 Gaussian beams propagating through nonlinear optical media. The beam's diffraction through the medium was calculated by using the nonlinear Schrodinger equation on small slices which proved to be effective for thick samples. The performance of the model was compared to experimental z-scan observations of colloidal ZnO particles at low cw and high pulsed peak powers at a wavelength of 532 nm. Different optical behaviours were observed in these two power regimes. Negligible nonlinear absorption and refraction were observed at low cw powers, with strong defocusing arising through thermal lensing in the colloidal solution. For the pulsed experiments with peak powers up to 43-kW and 7-ns pulses, values for the intensity-dependent absorption were determined to be β = 1.0 × 10^{ - 10} {text{m/W}} and n_{{2{text{R}}}} = 2.0 × 10^{ - 18} {text{m}}2 /{text{W}}. Despite the very different nonlinear and thermal-optical behaviours in two power regimes, there was good agreement between the model and observations. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in extracting the nonlinear properties of a medium even if it is not optically thin and in the case when a sample displays both strong nonlinear refraction and absorption.
Focusing of truncated Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horváth, Zoltán L.; Bor, Zsolt
2003-07-01
It is shown that the focusing of truncated Gaussian beams can be treated by the same manner as uniform spherical waves, i.e., the diffraction integral can be expressed by the Lommel functions, which offers a very efficient way for the calculation of the three-dimensional light distribution near focus. All the expressions for the uniform spherical waves hold good for Gaussian beams if the first variable in the Lommel functions is extended to the complex domain. The intensity distribution depending on the Fresnel number and the truncation coefficient is calculated. The location of the first few minima and maxima of the intensity in focal plane is given for different values of the truncation coefficient. The phase behavior depending on the truncation coefficient is studied.
Reflection and transmission of Gaussian beam by a chiral slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bing; Zhang, Huayong; Zhang, Jianyong
2016-06-01
Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework, the reflection and transmission of an incident Gaussian beam by a chiral slab were investigated, by expanding the incident Gaussian beam, reflected beam, internal beam as well as transmitted beam in terms of cylindrical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients were determined by virtue of the boundary conditions. For a localized beam model, numerical results of the normalized field intensity distributions are presented, and the propagation characteristics are discussed concisely in this paper.
A 2D Gaussian-Beam-Based Method for Modeling the Dichroic Surfaces of Quasi-Optical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elis, Kevin; Chabory, Alexandre; Sokoloff, Jérôme; Bolioli, Sylvain
2016-08-01
In this article, we propose an approach in the spectral domain to treat the interaction of a field with a dichroic surface in two dimensions. For a Gaussian beam illumination of the surface, the reflected and transmitted fields are approximated by one reflected and one transmitted Gaussian beams. Their characteristics are determined by means of a matching in the spectral domain, which requires a second-order approximation of the dichroic surface response when excited by plane waves. This approximation is of the same order as the one used in Gaussian beam shooting algorithm to model curved interfaces associated with lenses, reflector, etc. The method uses general analytical formulations for the GBs that depend either on a paraxial or far-field approximation. Numerical experiments are led to test the efficiency of the method in terms of accuracy and computation time. They include a parametric study and a case for which the illumination is provided by a horn antenna. For the latter, the incident field is firstly expressed as a sum of Gaussian beams by means of Gabor frames.
A 2D Gaussian-Beam-Based Method for Modeling the Dichroic Surfaces of Quasi-Optical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elis, Kevin; Chabory, Alexandre; Sokoloff, Jérôme; Bolioli, Sylvain
2016-03-01
In this article, we propose an approach in the spectral domain to treat the interaction of a field with a dichroic surface in two dimensions. For a Gaussian beam illumination of the surface, the reflected and transmitted fields are approximated by one reflected and one transmitted Gaussian beams. Their characteristics are determined by means of a matching in the spectral domain, which requires a second-order approximation of the dichroic surface response when excited by plane waves. This approximation is of the same order as the one used in Gaussian beam shooting algorithm to model curved interfaces associated with lenses, reflector, etc. The method uses general analytical formulations for the GBs that depend either on a paraxial or far-field approximation. Numerical experiments are led to test the efficiency of the method in terms of accuracy and computation time. They include a parametric study and a case for which the illumination is provided by a horn antenna. For the latter, the incident field is firstly expressed as a sum of Gaussian beams by means of Gabor frames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiao; Pan, Liuzhan; Ding, Chaoliang; Lü, Baida
2008-10-01
Starting from the propagation law of partially coherent light, the on-axis spectral shifts and spectral switches of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams focused by an astigmatic aperture lens are studied. It is shown that, as compared with an aberration-free case whose spectral shifts and spectral switches are induced by spatial correlation and aperture diffraction, the spectral shifts and spectral switches of GSM beams also depend upon the astigmatism of the lens for an astigmatism case. Detailed numerical calculations are made to illustrate the behavior of spectral shifts and spectral switches of GSM beams focused by an astigmatic aperture lens.
Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.
2016-06-01
We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.
Elegant Gaussian beams for enhanced optical manipulation
Alpmann, Christina Schöler, Christoph; Denz, Cornelia
2015-06-15
Generation of micro- and nanostructured complex light beams attains increasing impact in photonics and laser applications. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implementation and experimental realization of the relatively unknown, but highly versatile class of complex-valued Elegant Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams. These beams create higher trapping forces compared to standard Gaussian light fields due to their propagation changing properties. We demonstrate optical trapping and alignment of complex functional particles as nanocontainers with standard and Elegant Gaussian light beams. Elegant Gaussian beams will inspire manifold applications in optical manipulation, direct laser writing, or microscopy, where the design of the point-spread function is relevant.
Growth of Gaussian instabilities in Gaussian laser beams
Abbi, S.C.; Kothari, N.C.
1980-03-01
We present a theory for the growth of a Gaussian perturbation superimposed on a Gaussian profile laser beam. This theory gives an exponential growth of the perturbation for small distances z traveled inside the nonlinear medium. For larger values of z, the growth is not exponential. The growth parameter ..cap alpha.. is defined and an analytical expression for this parameter is obtained. Our theory gives a smooth matching between the exponential growth of perturbations in a linearized instability theory and the sharp self-focusing thresholds expected for smooth Gaussian profile laser beams propagating in nonlinear media.
Zhao, Xinhui; Yao, Yong; Sun, Yunxu; Liu, Chao
2009-09-28
In the free space optical communication system with circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK) modulation, the changes of polarization state of light beam have significant influence on the system performance. Keeping the state of polarization (SOP) unchanged on propagation can reduce the bit error rate. Based on the unified theory of coherence and polarization, we derive the sufficient condition for Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam to keep the SOP unchanged. We found that when the three spectral correlation widths (delta(xx), delta(yy) and delta(xy)) equal to each other and sigma(x) = sigma(y), the GSM beam maintains the SOP on propagation. This conclusion can be helpful for the design of the transmitter in the CPolSK system. PMID:19907577
Gaussian Multipole Model (GMM)
Elking, Dennis M.; Cisneros, G. Andrés; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Darden, Thomas A.; Pedersen, Lee G.
2009-01-01
An electrostatic model based on charge density is proposed as a model for future force fields. The model is composed of a nucleus and a single Slater-type contracted Gaussian multipole charge density on each atom. The Gaussian multipoles are fit to the electrostatic potential (ESP) calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* and HF/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory and tested by comparing electrostatic dimer energies, inter-molecular density overlap integrals, and permanent molecular multipole moments with their respective ab initio values. For the case of water, the atomic Gaussian multipole moments Qlm are shown to be a smooth function of internal geometry (bond length and bond angle), which can be approximated by a truncated linear Taylor series. In addition, results are given when the Gaussian multipole charge density is applied to a model for exchange-repulsion energy based on the inter-molecular density overlap. PMID:20209077
Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Minyu
2016-07-01
Based on the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of anisotropic turbulence, the average polarizability of the Gaussian Schell-model quantized beams and lateral coherence length of the spherical wave propagating through the ocean water channel are derived. Numerical results show that, in strong temperature fluctuation, the depolarization effects of anisotropic turbulence are inferior to isotropic turbulence, as the other parameters of two links are the same. The depolarization effects of salinity fluctuation are less than the effects of the temperature fluctuation; the average polarizability of beams increases when increasing the inner scale of turbulence and the source's transverse size; and the larger rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid enhances the average polarizability of beams. The region of the receiving radius is smaller than the characteristic radius and the average polarizability of beams in isotropy turbulence is smaller than that of beams in anisotropy turbulence. However, the receiving radius region is larger than a characteristic radius and the average polarizability of beams in isotropy turbulence is larger than that of beams in anisotropy turbulence. PMID:27409215
Gaussian-Beam/Physical-Optics Design Of Beam Waveguide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veruttipong, Watt; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Bathker, Dan A.
1993-01-01
In iterative method of designing wideband beam-waveguide feed for paraboloidal-reflector antenna, Gaussian-beam approximation alternated with more nearly exact physical-optics analysis of diffraction. Includes curved and straight reflectors guiding radiation from feed horn to subreflector. For iterative design calculations, curved mirrors mathematically modeled as thin lenses. Each distance Li is combined length of two straight-line segments intersecting at one of flat mirrors. Method useful for designing beam-waveguide reflectors or mirrors required to have diameters approximately less than 30 wavelengths at one or more intended operating frequencies.
Tilted Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous media.
Hadad, Yakir; Melamed, Timor
2010-08-01
The present work is concerned with applying a ray-centered non-orthogonal coordinate system which is a priori matched to linearly-phased localized aperture field distributions. The resulting beam-waveobjects serve as the building blocks for beam-type spectral expansions of aperture fields in 2D inhomogeneous media that are characterized by a generic wave-velocity profile. By applying a rigorous paraxial-asymptotic analysis, a novel parabolic wave equation is obtained and termed "Non-orthogonal domain parabolic equation"--NoDope. Tilted Gaussian beams, which are exact solutions to this equation, match Gaussian aperture distributions over a plane that is tilted with respect to the beam-axes initial directions. A numerical example, which demonstrates the enhanced accuracy of the tilted Gaussian beams over the conventional ones, is presented as well. PMID:20686589
Area scintillations of Bessel Gaussian and modified Bessel Gaussian beams of zeroth order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyyuboğlu, H. T.
2010-01-01
As an extension of our previous study, the area scintillation aspects of Bessel Gaussian and modified Bessel Gaussian beams of zeroth order are investigated. The analysis is carried out on the basis of equal source sizes and equal source powers. It is found that, when compared on equal source size basis, modified Bessel Gaussian beams always have less area scintillations than a Gaussian beam, while Bessel Gaussian beams exhibit more area scintillations. Comparison on equal source power basis, however, removes the advantage of modified Bessel Gaussian beams, that is, their area scintillations become nearly the same as those of the Gaussian beam. On the other hand, for the case of equal source powers, Bessel Gaussian beams with larger width parameters continue to have higher area scintillations than the Gaussian beam. We provide graphical illustrations for profiles of equal source size beams, equal source power beams and the curves to aid the selection of equal source power beams.
Scintillation characterization for multiple incoherent uplink Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wu-Ming; Ning, Yu; Ma, Yan-Xing; Xi, Fen-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Jun
2014-09-01
By means of numerical simulations, we analyze the scintillation characterization for multiple incoherent uplink Gaussian beams under weak fluctuations cases. Because truly independent beams are difficult to create, we present a more general but approximate model for the multiple of beams traveling through partially correlated paths. This model compares with wave-optics simulations and highlights the reduced correlation coefficient as the beam separation is increased. The scintillation index of three and six incoherent uplink Gaussian beams is also induced. The result shows that the scintillation index decreases with the increase of beams amount and beam separation. When the beams amount and strength of atmospheric turbulence are fixed, the reduction of scintillation index is affected by the ratio of beams separation and the Fried length. The corresponding physical mechanisms for the results are discussed.
Wang, Jing; Zhu, Shijun; Wang, Haiyan; Cai, Yangjian; Li, Zhenhua
2016-05-30
Recently, we introduced a new class of radially polarized cosine-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (CGCSM) beams of rectangular symmetry based on the partially coherent electromagnetic theory [Opt. Express23, 33099 (2015)]. In this paper, we extend the work to study the second-order statistics such as the average intensity, the spectral degree of coherence, the spectral degree of polarization and the state of polarization in anisotropic turbulence based on an extended von Karman power spectrum with a non-Kolmogorov power law α and an effective anisotropic parameter. Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix elements of a radially polarized CGCSM beam in anisotropic turbulence are derived. It is found that the second-order statistics are greatly affected by the source correlation function, and the change in the turbulent statistics induces relatively small effect. The significant effect of anisotropic turbulence on the beam parameters mainly appears nearα=3.1, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropic parameter. Furthermore, the polarization state exhibits self-splitting property and each beamlet evolves into a radially polarized structure in the far field. Our work enriches the classical coherence theory and may be important for free-space optical communications. PMID:27410089
Gaussian beam photothermal single particle microscopy.
Selmke, Markus; Braun, Marco; Cichos, Frank
2012-10-01
We explore the intuitive lensing picture of laser-heated nanoparticles occurring in single particle photothermal (PT) microscopy. The effective focal length of the thermal lens (TL) is derived from a ray-optics treatment and used to transform the probing focused Gaussian beam with ABCD Gaussian matrix optics. The relative PT signal is obtained from the relative beam-waist change far from the TL. The analytical expression is semiquantitative, capable of describing the entire phenomenology of single particle PT microscopy, and shows that the signal is the product of the point-spread functions of the involved lasers times a linear function of the axial coordinate. The presented particularly simple and intuitive Gaussian beam lensing picture compares favorably to the experimental results for 60 nm gold nanoparticles and provides the prescription for optimum setup calibration. PMID:23201674
Fresnel filtering of Gaussian beams in microcavities.
Shinohara, Susumu; Harayama, Takahisa; Fukushima, Takehiro
2011-03-15
We study the output from the modes described by the superposition of Gaussian beams confined in the quasi-stadium microcavities. We experimentally observe the deviation from Snell's law in the output when the incident angle of the Gaussian beam at the cavity interface is near the critical angle for total internal reflection, providing direct experimental evidence on the Fresnel filtering. The theory of the Fresnel filtering for a planar interface qualitatively reproduces experimental data, and a discussion is given on small deviation between the measured data and the theory. PMID:21403763
Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk
2014-04-01
The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.
Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration
Hale, D.
1992-08-01
The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.
Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration
Hale, D.
1992-01-01
The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.
One method to uniformize LD Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xu
2001-10-01
The uniformization of Gaussian beam intensity is necessary in many applications. In active night-vision, monitoring targets especially requires this. IR semiconductor laser is widely used in the area because of its low power-consumption and small size. But the effects of the product are restrained due to system output Gaussian beam of ununiform intensity. The essay discusses a former system design and then gives an improved experimental scheme with some exciting results. The previous structure was as follows. High power SQW-LD beam was coupled to a plastic optical fiber (POF) directly, and then output through a lens. With its angle varied, targets ranged from 60 to 100 meters can be monitored. But unfortunately there were interference speckles folded on the target. An experimental system based on the thoughts of fiber transmission and complex filter was designed to improve the distribution of Gaussian beam intensity, with the result that the relatively well-distributed beam was got. Laser wavefront propagated through a very small pinhole whose diameter was 20 micrometers or so. The pinhole acted as an amplitude filter. Then the beam was coupled directly into a multi-mode quartz fiber whose core/cladding layer diameter parameter was 50/125micrometers . It conveyed laser beam about 200 mm. At the end of the fiber, several phase plates stood. Laser beam transmitted through the fiber was then phase-filtered and at last beam-expanded by a lens to illuminate the target. The more plates you used, the more uniform the illuminated picture was on condition the beam intensity was so strong that the CCD device could respond to.
Migration by the Kirchhoff, slant stack, and Gaussian beam methods
Hale, D.
1992-08-01
Gaussian beam migration offers features that are unmatched by any other single depth migration method. Unfortunately, computer algorithms for Gaussian beam migration are more complicated and difficult to understand that those for most other methods. One way to simplify Gaussian beam migration is to understand how it is related to other methods that may be more familiar. In particular, Gaussian beam migration is similar to Kirchhoff integral migration. It is also similar to the phase-shift (or slant stack) migration method. In a sense, the Gaussian beam approach to depth migration is to combine the best of these more familiar methods to obtain an efficient, robust, and flexible method for seismic imaging.
Migration by the Kirchhoff, slant stack, and Gaussian beam methods
Hale, D.
1992-01-01
Gaussian beam migration offers features that are unmatched by any other single depth migration method. Unfortunately, computer algorithms for Gaussian beam migration are more complicated and difficult to understand that those for most other methods. One way to simplify Gaussian beam migration is to understand how it is related to other methods that may be more familiar. In particular, Gaussian beam migration is similar to Kirchhoff integral migration. It is also similar to the phase-shift (or slant stack) migration method. In a sense, the Gaussian beam approach to depth migration is to combine the best of these more familiar methods to obtain an efficient, robust, and flexible method for seismic imaging.
Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.
Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W
1998-09-01
Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable. PMID:9729853
Gaussian beam decomposition of high frequency wave fields
Tanushev, Nicolay M. Engquist, Bjoern; Tsai, Richard
2009-12-10
In this paper, we present a method of decomposing a highly oscillatory wave field into a sparse superposition of Gaussian beams. The goal is to extract the necessary parameters for a Gaussian beam superposition from this wave field, so that further evolution of the high frequency waves can be computed by the method of Gaussian beams. The methodology is described for R{sup d} with numerical examples for d=2. In the first example, a field generated by an interface reflection of Gaussian beams is decomposed into a superposition of Gaussian beams. The beam parameters are reconstructed to a very high accuracy. The data in the second example is not a superposition of a finite number of Gaussian beams. The wave field to be approximated is generated by a finite difference method for a geometry with two slits. The accuracy in the decomposition increases monotonically with the number of beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Hara, Y.; Furukawa, T.; Fukahori, M.; Nakao, M.; Shirai, T.
2014-09-01
Challenging issues in treatment planning for scanned carbon-ion (C-ion) therapy are (i) accurate calculation of dose distribution, including the contribution of large angle-scattered fragments, (ii) reduction in the memory space required to store the dose kernel of individual pencil beams and (iii) shortening of computation time for dose optimization and calculation. To calculate the dose contribution from fragments, we modeled the transverse dose profile of the scanned C-ion beam with the superposition of three Gaussian distributions. The development of pencil beams belonging to the first Gaussian component was calculated analytically based on the Fermi-Eyges theory, while those belonging to the second and third components were transported empirically using the measured beam widths in a water phantom. To reduce the memory space for the kernels, we stored doses only in the regions of interest considered in the dose optimization. For the final dose calculation within the patient’s whole body, we applied a pencil beam redefinition algorithm. With these techniques, the triple Gaussian beam model can be applied not only to final dose calculation but also to dose optimization in treatment planning for scanned C-ion therapy. To verify the model, we made treatment plans for a homogeneous water phantom and a heterogeneous head phantom. The planned doses agreed with the measurements within ±2% of the target dose in both phantoms, except for the doses at the periphery of the target with a high dose gradient. To estimate the memory space and computation time reduction with these techniques, we made a treatment plan for a bone sarcoma case with a target volume of 1.94 l. The memory space for the kernel and the computation time for final dose calculation were reduced to 1/22 and 1/100 of those without the techniques, respectively. Computation with the triple Gaussian beam model using the proposed techniques is rapid, accurate and applicable to dose optimization and
Beam-Beam Simulations with the Gaussian Code TRS
Matter, Regina S.
2000-06-26
The authors have summarized the main features of the beam-beam simulation code TRS and presented two sample applications to the PEP-II collider. The code has been successfully tested against analytic results and against other simulation codes whenever such comparisons are meaningful. The soft-gaussian approximation is believed to represent reliably incoherent beam-beam effects. The code has been used to perform studies for the PEP-II collider. For example, simulated tune scans reveal undesirable operating points due to beam blowup from synchrotron sidebands. The dynamical beta effect, clearly seen in these simulations, also influences the choice of a working point. The code has been used to establish the adequate beam separation at the parasitic collision points [24], and has been applied to the proposed muon collider [25], including the effects from the instability of the muon.
Propagation of Gaussian beams through a modified von Karman phase screen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, Erica M.; Banerjee, Partha P.; Haus, Joseph W.
2012-10-01
Gaussian beam propagation through a thin screen and an extended random media has been studied using a beam propagation method. We use the modified von Karman spectrum model to describe the phase screen statistics. The scintillation index is analyzed as a function of the structure constant, phase screen location, the initial width and curvature of the Gaussian beam, etc. The numerical simulations are extended using a pair of Gaussian beams. We examine the interference of the beams and measure the fringe visibility at the target. The results are correlated with the scintillation index.
Optimizing Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Signals with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holtfrerich, Matthew; Akin, Tom; Krzyzewski, Sean; Marino, Alberto; Abraham, Eric
2016-05-01
We have performed electromagnetically induced transparency in ultracold Rubidium atoms using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode as the control beam. Laguerre-Gaussian modes are characterized by a ring type transverse intensity profile and carry intrinsic orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum carried by the control beam can be utilized in optical computing applications which is unavailable to the more common Gaussian laser field. Specifically, we use a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam with a Gaussian probe to show that the linewidth of the transmission spectrum can be narrowed when compared to a Gaussian control beam that has the same peak intensity. We present data extending this work to compare control fields in both the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modes with constant total power. We have made efforts to find the optical overlap that best minimizes the transmission linewidth while also maintaining signal contrast. This was done by changing the waist size of the control beam with respect to the probe. The best results were obtained when the waist of a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam is equal to the waist of the Gaussian probe resulting in narrow linewidth features.
Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Berczynski, P.; Bieg, B.
2009-08-01
Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.
Comparison of Gaussian and super Gaussian laser beams for addressing atomic qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Gillen, Glen D.; Piotrowicz, M. J.; Saffman, M.
2016-05-01
We study the fidelity of single-qubit quantum gates performed with two-frequency laser fields that have a Gaussian or super Gaussian spatial mode. Numerical simulations are used to account for imperfections arising from atomic motion in an optical trap, spatially varying Stark shifts of the trapping and control beams, and transverse and axial misalignment of the control beams. Numerical results that account for the three-dimensional distribution of control light show that a super Gaussian mode with intensity I˜ e^{-2(r/w_0)^n} provides reduced sensitivity to atomic motion and beam misalignment. Choosing a super Gaussian with n=6 the decay time of finite temperature Rabi oscillations can be increased by a factor of 60 compared to an n=2 Gaussian beam, while reducing crosstalk to neighboring qubit sites.
Beam wander of J 0- and I 0-Bessel Gaussian beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çil, C. Z.; Eyyuboğlu, H. T.; Baykal, Y.; Korotkova, O.; Cai, Y.
2010-01-01
Root mean square (rms) beam wander of J 0-Bessel Gaussian and I 0-Bessel Gaussian beams, normalized by the rms beam wander of the fundamental Gaussian beam, is evaluated in atmospheric turbulence. Our formulation is based on the first and the second statistical moments obtained from the Rytov series. It is found that after propagating in atmospheric turbulence, the collimated J 0-Bessel Gaussian and the I 0-Bessel Gaussian beams have smaller rms beam wander than that of the Gaussian beam, regardless of the choice of Bessel width parameter. However, the extent of such an advantage depends on the chosen width parameter, Gaussian source size, propagation distance and the wavelength. Focusing at finite distances of the considered beams causes the rms beam wander to decrease sharply at the propagation distances equal to the focusing parameter.
Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido
2016-08-10
The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported. PMID:27534506
Sharpness changes of gaussian beams induced by spherically aberrated lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.
1994-04-01
Sharpness changes of the spatial profile of a gaussian beam induced by spherically aberrated lenses are investigated in terms of the so-called kurtosis parameter. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that, after a single aberrated lens, it is possible to get flatter and sharper beam intensity distributions than the input gaussian beam depending on the plane where the field is observed. Agreement between analytical and experimental results is discussed.
Scintillation advantages of lowest order Bessel-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyyuboğlu, H. T.; Baykal, Y.; Sermutlu, E.; Cai, Y.
2008-08-01
For a weak turbulence propagation environment, the scintillation index of the lowest order Bessel-Gaussian beams is formulated. Its triple and single integral versions are presented. Numerical evaluations show that at large source sizes and large width parameters, when compared at the same source size, Bessel-Gaussian beams tend to exhibit lower scintillations than the Gaussian beam scintillations. This advantage is lost however for excessively large width parameters and beyond certain propagation lengths. Large width parameters also cause rises and falls in the scintillation index of off-axis positions toward the edges of the received beam. Comparisons against the fundamental Gaussian beam are made on equal source size and equal power basis.
Li, Derong; Lv, Xiaohua; Bowlan, Pamela; Du, Rui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming
2009-09-14
The evolution of the frequency chirp of a laser pulse inside a classical pulse compressor is very different for plane waves and Gaussian beams, although after propagating through the last (4th) dispersive element, the two models give the same results. In this paper, we have analyzed the evolution of the frequency chirp of Gaussian pulses and beams using a method which directly obtains the spectral phase acquired by the compressor. We found the spatiotemporal couplings in the phase to be the fundamental reason for the difference in the frequency chirp acquired by a Gaussian beam and a plane wave. When the Gaussian beam propagates, an additional frequency chirp will be introduced if any spatiotemporal couplings (i.e. angular dispersion, spatial chirp or pulse front tilt) are present. However, if there are no couplings present, the chirp of the Gaussian beam is the same as that of a plane wave. When the Gaussian beam is well collimated, the introduced frequency chirp predicted by the plane wave and Gaussian beam models are in closer agreement. This work improves our understanding of pulse compressors and should be helpful for optimizing dispersion compensation schemes in many applications of femtosecond laser pulses. PMID:19770925
Fractionalization of optical beams: II. Elegant Laguerre Gaussian modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.
2007-05-01
We apply the tools of fractional calculus to introduce new fractional-order solutions of the paraxial wave equation that smoothly connect the elegant Laguerre-Gaussian beams of integral-order. The solutions are characterized in general by two fractional indices and are obtained by fractionalizing the creation operators used to create elegant Laguerre-Gauss beams from the fundamental Gaussian beam. The physical and mathematical properties of the circular fractional beams are discussed in detail. The orbital angular momentum carried by the fractional beam is a continuous function of the angular mode index and it is not restricted to take only discrete values.
An optical tweezer in asymmetrical vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A.; Porfirev, A. P.
2016-07-01
We study an optical micromanipulation that comprises trapping, rotating, and transporting 5-μm polystyrene microbeads in asymmetric Bessel-Gaussian (BG) laser beams. The beams that carry orbital angular momentum are generated by means of a liquid crystal microdisplay and focused by a microobjective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.85. We experimentally show that given a constant topological charge, the rate of microparticle motion increases near linearly with increasing asymmetry of the BG beam. Asymmetric BG beams can be used instead of conventional Gaussian beam for trapping and transferring live cells without thermal damage.
Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and logarithmically saturable nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2012-08-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media of cylindrical symmetry. PCGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, PCGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media as compared to the numerical and analytical methods of nonlinear optics. The power of PCGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam evolution in logarithmically saturable medium with either focusing and defocusing refractive profile. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front on GB evolution in nonlinear saturable medium is discussed in this paper.
Diffraction of a Gaussian Beam by a Spherical Obstacle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, James A.; Hovenac, Edward A.
1993-01-01
The Kirchhoff integral for diffraction in the near-forward direction is derived from the exact solution of the electromagnetic boundary value problem of a focused Gaussian laser beam incident on a spherical particle. The diffracted intensity in the vicinity of the particle is computed and the way in which the features of the diffraction pattern depend on the width of the Gaussian beam is commented on.
Generation of singular optical beams from fundamental Gaussian beam using Sagnac interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2016-09-01
We propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled generation of optical vortex beams with a vortex dipole or a single charge vortex, using an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer. We investigate the role played by the amplitude and phase differences in generating higher-order Gaussian beams from the fundamental Gaussian mode. Our simulation results reveal how important the control of both the amplitude and the phase difference between superposing beams is to achieving optical vortex beams. The creation of a vortex dipole from null interference is unveiled through the introduction of a lateral shear and a radial phase difference between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams. A stable and high quality optical vortex beam, equivalent to the first-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam, is synthesized by coupling lateral shear with linear phase difference, introduced orthogonal to the shear between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams.
Single-beam interference from plain Gaussian and OAM wavefronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, S.; Favier, M.
2016-03-01
We implement an SLM to generate laser beams of variable orbital angular momentum, also referred as Laguerre- Gaussian beams. Input beam polarization takes into account a local birefringence of each pixel of the SLM. We identify the beam polarization eigenstates allowing generate L-G beams of different order via matching variable birefringence of every separate pixels. Zero-order beam passing through the SLM can interact with a generated OAM beam to create an interference pattern. Experimental results demonstrate good agreement with simulations.
Quality changes of gaussian beams propagating through axicons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.
1994-02-01
The beam quality parameter of gaussian fields propagating through axicons is investigated. A simple analytical formula is derived for the output quality parameter in terms of the input beam width, refractive index of the axicon material and the angle of the axicon wedge.
Quantitative comparison of self-healing ability between Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam
Wen, Wei; Chu, Xiuxiang
2015-09-15
The self-healing ability during propagation process is one of the most important properties of non-diffracting beams. This ability has crucial advantages to light sheet-based microscopy to reduce scattering artefacts, increase the quality of the image and enhance the resolution of microscopy. Based on similarity between two infinite-dimensional complex vectors in Hilbert space, the ability to a Bessel–Gaussian beam and an Airy beam have been studied and compared. Comparing the evolution of the similarity of Bessel–Gaussian beam with Airy beam under the same conditions, we find that Bessel–Gaussian beam has stronger self-healing ability and is more stable than that of Airy beam. To confirm this result, the intensity profiles of Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam with different similarities are numerically calculated and compared.
Aberration analysis and calculation in system of Gaussian beam illuminates lenslet array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhu; Hui, Mei; Zhou, Ping; Su, Tianquan; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin
2014-09-01
Low order aberration was founded when focused Gaussian beam imaging at Kodak KAI -16000 image detector, which is integrated with lenslet array. Effect of focused Gaussian beam and numerical simulation calculation of the aberration were presented in this paper. First, we set up a model of optical imaging system based on previous experiment. Focused Gaussian beam passed through a pinhole and was received by Kodak KAI -16000 image detector whose microlenses of lenslet array were exactly focused on sensor surface. Then, we illustrated the characteristics of focused Gaussian beam and the effect of relative space position relations between waist of Gaussian beam and front spherical surface of microlenses to the aberration. Finally, we analyzed the main element of low order aberration and calculated the spherical aberration caused by lenslet array according to the results of above two steps. Our theoretical calculations shown that , the numerical simulation had a good agreement with the experimental result. Our research results proved that spherical aberration was the main element and made up about 93.44% of the 48 nm error, which was demonstrated in previous experiment. The spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the value of divergence distance between microlens and waist, and directly proportional to the value of the Gaussian beam waist radius.
Vector treatment of second-harmonic generation produced by tightly focused vignetted Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asatryan, Ara A.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.; de Sterke, C. Martijn
2004-12-01
We present a fast and accurate method to calculate the vector-field distribution of a focused Gaussian beam. This method is applied to calculate the second harmonic that is generated by such a beam from a sample in the undepleted pump approximation. These calculations can be used to model second-harmonic imaging in an optical microscope with a wide aperture.
Diffraction of Gaussian beams on intracavity Bragg gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitauld, David; Menez, Ludivine; Zaquine, Isabelle; Maruani, Alain; Frey, Robert
2005-06-01
The diffraction of Gaussian beams on intracavity Bragg gratings is analyzed theoretically. For reasonable waists the associated beam divergence does not significantly influence the diffraction efficiency of such devices. Nevertheless, the tilt angle of the incident beam, imposed by the Bragg resonance condition, strongly reduces the diffraction efficiency at short grating periods. However, the angular selectivity can be maintained if the Fabry-Perot cavity is tuned to the incident beam direction, which allows the use of small-volume holograms together with a dense angular multiplex. This theoretical analysis can be applied to the optimization of the diffraction properties of Gaussian beams on any intracavity Bragg grating, which could then be used for free-space parallel signal processing.
Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, Silvia; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.; Fourkas, John T.
2006-10-01
We consider second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation (THG) in a nonlinear optical crystal illuminated by a vector Gaussian beam, i.e., a Gaussian beam in which the axial component of the excitation field is considered. This component exhibits twice the Gouy phase shift of the transverse component and vanishes at points on the beam axis. Harmonic generation stemming from this component exhibits a unique dependence on geometrical factors associated with the location and focusing of the beam relative to the location of the crystal. Using the first Born approximation (undepleted fundamental beam), we derive analytical formulas for the quantities that characterize these geometrical factors for a nonlinear optical crystal described by an arbitrary nonlinear susceptibility tensor, for both SHG and THG and for all polarization components. We also determine the efficiencies of these processes as functions of the geometry of the experimental arrangement for phase-matched crystals as well as for crystals of infinite length.
Gaussian beam scattering by a gyrotropic anisotropic object
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Wu, Xianliang; Huang, Zhixiang
2016-09-01
An exact semi-analytical solution is presented to the scattering of an on-axis Gaussian beam incident on a gyrotropic anisotropic object. The on-axis incident Gaussian beam, scattered fields as well as internal fields are expanded in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions, and the unknown expansion coefficients of the scattered fields are determined by virtue of Schelkunoff's equivalence theorem and electromagnetic boundary conditions. Numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented, and the scattering characteristics are discussed concisely.
Non-gaussian statistics of pencil beam surveys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amendola, Luca
1994-01-01
We study the effect of the non-Gaussian clustering of galaxies on the statistics of pencil beam surveys. We derive the probability from the power spectrum peaks by means of Edgeworth expansion and find that the higher order moments of the galaxy distribution play a dominant role. The probability of obtaining the 128 Mpc/h periodicity found in pencil beam surveys is raised by more than one order of magnitude, up to 1%. Further data are needed to decide if non-Gaussian distribution alone is sufficient to explain the 128 Mpc/h periodicity, or if extra large-scale power is necessary.
A new method for generating a hollow Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Cun; Lu, Xingyuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian
2014-04-01
Hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) was introduced 10 years ago (Cai et al. in Opt Lett 28:1084, 2003). In this paper, we introduce a new method for generating a HGB through transforming a Laguerre-Gaussian beam with radial index 0 and azimuthal index l into a HGB with mode n = l/2. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a HGB based on the proposed method, and we carry out experimental study of the focusing properties of the generated HGB. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.
Propagation of Airy-Gaussian beams in a chiral medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Huang, Jiayao; Zhao, Ruihuang; Lin, Jiong; Deng, Dongmei
2016-04-01
We have expressed and investigated the propagation of Airy-Gaussian beams (AiGBs) in a chiral medium analytically. It is shown that AiGBs split into two components, i.e., the left circularly polarized (LCP) beams and the right circularly polarized (RCP) beams, which have a different propagation trajectory and are affected by the chiral parameter γ and the distribution factor χ0. It is found that the LCP beams accelerate faster than the RCP beams during propagation, and are influenced by the chiral parameter. With an increase in the chiral parameter, the acceleration of the LCP beams increases, but that of the RCP beams decreases. So, it is significant that we can control the self-acceleration of AiGBs by varying the chiral parameter and the distribution factor.
Schaub, S A; Lock, J A; Naqwi, A A
1998-11-20
We present a generalized theoretical model for the response of the phase/Doppler (P/D) measurement system to light scattered by cylindrical fibers. This theoretical model is valid for arbitrary fiber diameters and refractive indices, for Gaussian incident beams, and it accounts for arbitrary fiber orientations, fiber positions, and effects that are due to the two-dimensional receivers. The generalized P/D computer model (GPDCM) is the extension of an earlier study by the authors, combining past P/D simulation methodology with recent developments in modeling light scattering by tilted cylindrical fibers. A fortran computer program that implements the GPDCM theoretical development was written and tested against known P/D results and physical expectations. To illustrate the capabilities of the GPDCM, we present computation results, comparing the effect of fiber tilt, fiber position, and receiver aperture on the performance of P/D systems configured in backscatter and sidescatter arrangements. Calculations show that the effects of fiber tilt and position are most pronounced in the backscatter P/D arrangement, resulting in broadening of the measured phase distribution. The calculated mean phase shifts, however, were found to be essentially independent of the above factors. Computational results also showed that the effect of fiber tilt and position on phase-distribution measurements can be reduced through proper choice of aperture shape and by imposition of threshold criteria on measurable signal characteristics such as the amplitude ratio and visibilities. The GPDCM provides a computational tool that will be valuable in the design, optimization, and evaluation of P/D fiber measurement systems. PMID:18301627
Beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams in highly nonlocal nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhen-Feng; Jiang, Xue-Song; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jian-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Min
We investigate the beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams propagating in highly nonlocal nonlinear media. The input-power-induced different evolutions of the beam width are illustrated: (i) the beam widths in two transverse directions are compressed or broadened at the same time; (ii) the beam width in one transverse direction keeps invariant, and the other is compressed or broadened; (iii) furthermore, the beam width in one transverse direction is compressed, whereas it in the other transverse direction is broadened.
Propagation of Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weihao, Yu; Ruihuang, Zhao; Fu, Deng; Jiayao, Huang; Chidao, Chen; Xiangbo, Yang; Yanping, Zhao; Dongmei, Deng
2016-04-01
The propagation dynamics of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis has been investigated analytically and numerically. The propagation expression of the beams has been obtained. The propagation features of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams are shown with changes of the distribution factor and the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index. The correlations between the ratio and the maximum intensity value during the propagation, and its appearing distance have been investigated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108, 11374107, 10904041, and 11547212), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars of Guangdong Province, China, the CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, the National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (Grant No. 2015093), and the Science and Technology Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B031800011).
Revisit on dynamic radiation forces induced by pulsed Gaussian beams.
Wang, Li-Gang; Chai, Hai-Shui
2011-07-18
Motivated by the recent optical trapping experiments using ultra-short pulsed lasers [Opt. Express 18, 7554 (2010); Appl. Opt. 48, G33 (2009)], in this paper we have re-investigated the trapping effects of the pulsed radiation force (PRF), which is induced by a pulsed Gaussian beam acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere. Based on our previous model [Opt. Express 15, 10615 (2007)], we have considered the effects arisen from both the transverse and axial PRFs, which lead to the different behaviors of both velocities and displacements of a Rayleigh particle within a pulse duration. Our analysis shows that, for the small-sized Rayleigh particles, when the pulse has the large pulse duration, it might provide the three-dimensional optical trapping; and when the pulse has the short pulse duration, it only provides the two-dimensional optical trapping with the axial movement along the pulse propagation. When the particle is in the vacuum or in the situation with the very weak Brownian motion, the particle can always be trapped stably due to the particle's cumulative momentum transferred from the pulse, and only in this case the trapping effect is independent of pulse duration. Finally, we have predicted that for the large-sized Rayleigh particles, the pulse beam can only provide the two-dimensional optical trap (optical guiding). Our results provide the important information about the trapping mechanism of pulsed tweezers. PMID:21934801
BER of Gaussian beam propagation in non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere on slant path
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Rui-ke; Chen, Yuan; Hou, Jie; Chen, Hui
2013-08-01
The propagation characteristic of a Gaussian beam through turbulent atmosphere have been studied in the past several years. The main advantage of Gaussian beam wave model is that the infinite plant wave and a spherical wave are being included. Non-Kolmogorov spectrum can describe generalized turbulent atmosphere environment. The propagation properties of Gaussian beam propagating through the turbulent atmosphere described by non-Kolmogorov spectrum are studied on slant path. The scintillation index is analyzed with the Gaussian beam of different turbulent strength, zenith angle, φ , and the spectral exponent, α, of non-Kolmogorov, respectively. The effect of the turbulent structure constant on the ground on sicntillation is notable. The scintillation index reduces remarkably with zenith angle and structure parameter decrease. At weak turbulenc, scintillation index increases as spectral exponent decreases. The bit error rate (BER) of a Gaussian beam propagating in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence channel is estimated on Earth-space slant path. By comparing the effect of the spectral power with the structure constant on BER at moderate and strong turbulence, the effect of the spectral power change on BER is small. With turbulence weakening , at the order of 10-15m-2/3 , the relative effect of the spectral power on BER is gradually increase. Hence, at the small structure constant on the ground, or weak turbulence, the effect of the turbulent spectral power on BER is required to take into account.
Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in Kerr media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yulian; Peng, Xi; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Meiling; Chen, Chidao; Deng, Dongmei
2016-01-01
We study the interaction of the Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beams by using the numerical simulations with the split-step Fourier method. The results show that the single breathers and breather pairs can be formed in the condition with interaction. The breathers can be formed with the enough intensity of interactive beams. By adjusting the parameters of amplitude, interval, phase and χ0, we find that the interaction of the two beams is the strongest with in-phase and out-of-phase cases, especially in the shorter distance. Moreover, both the interaction intensity and the location, the interaction happens, can be changed by adjusting the distribution factor χ0 of the beams. It is notable that the various propagation directions of the beams can be obtained by changing the phase, at the same situation, when the interval of the two beams becomes narrower, the phase plays an important role of controlling the direction of the accelerated spot.
Spatial properties of coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams.
Boubaha, Boualem; Naidoo, Darryl; Godin, Thomas; Fromager, Michael; Forbes, Andrew; Aït-Ameur, Kamel
2013-08-10
In this paper, we explore theoretically and experimentally the laser beam shaping ability resulting from the coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams (GBs). This technique is classified under interferometric laser beam shaping techniques contrasting with the usual ones based on diffraction. The experimental setup does not involve the use of some two-wave interferometer but uses a spatial light modulator for the generation of the necessary interference term. This allows one to avoid the thermal drift occurring in interferometers and gives a total flexibility of the key parameter setting the beam transformation. In particular, we demonstrate the reshaping of a GB into a bottle beam or top-hat beam in the focal plane of a focusing lens. PMID:23938430
Use of complex source points to simplify Gaussian beam synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsythe, Stephen
2002-11-01
It is often desirable to generate the acoustic field due to a so-called Gaussian beam. One way to do this is to use the free-space Greens function for the acoustic field and to sum small area sources over a circular plate with the appropriate shading for the desired Gaussian beam. For very high frequencies and narrow beams, the computation time to give an accurate sum can be large when calculating the sum for many points in the acoustic field. An alternate approach comes from the use of a single point source with complex coordinates R=Xr+iXi,Yr+iYi,Zr+iZi. When this complex source point is used in the free-space Greens function, the formal expressions for pressure and particle velocity can be used if careful attention is paid to the interpretation of the complex distance, r, that arises in the exp(ikr)/r. The singularity is no longer a single point in the case of a complex source, but a circular disk. The far field of a complex source point is a good approximation to a Gaussian beam. Several computational uses of the technique will be demonstrated. [Work supported by ONR.
ABCD matrix for weakly apertured Gaussian beams in the far field.
Wang, S; Bernabeu, E; Alda, J
1991-05-01
When a Gaussian beam is weakly diffracted by a circular aperture it can be approximated by another Gaussian beam with slightly different properties in the far field. In this Technical Note, using the relationship between these two Gaussian beams, before and after the aperture, an ABCD matrix is defined for cascaded laser systems. PMID:20700323
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qihui; Hu, Qianhuan; Guo, Jie; Duan, Xi; Tong, Shihong
2015-10-01
Based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral and Fourier transform, the propagation equation and its Fourier spectrum for ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian beams diffracted by Gaussian aperture are derived in dispersive medium, and the frequency-domain analytical electric field are presented. The effects of relative aperture, transmission distance and chirp parameter on the axial spectral properties are illustrated with numerical calculation results, and the variations of off-axis power spectrum with relative aperture, transmission distance and off-axis radius are given. It is found that the axial power spectrum of ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian increases with increasing relative aperture, the axial spectral blue-shift increases and approaches an asymptotic value associated with chirp parameter and propagation distance. The axial spectra of ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian become broadened with increasing the absolute value of the chirp parameter. With increasing off-axis radius, the off-axis power spectrum reduce rapidly, and the distribution of spectra shifts to the left. The off-axis spectral redshift increases with increasing off-axis radius.
Interpretation of Extinction in Gaussian-Beam Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, James A.
1995-01-01
The extinction efficiency for the interaction of a plane wave with a large nonabsorbing spherical particle is approximately 2.0. When a Gaussian beam of half-width w(sub 0) is incident upon a spherical particle of radius a with w(sub 0)/a less than 1, the extinction efficiency attains unexpectedly high or low values, contrary to intuitive expectations. The reason for this is associated with the so-called compensating term in the scattered field, which cancels the field of the Gaussian beam behind the particle, thereby producing the particle's shadow. I introduce a decomposition of the total exterior field into incoming and outgoing portions that are free of compensating terms. It is then shown that a suitably defined interaction efficiency has the intuitively expected asymptotic values of 2.0 for w(sub 0)/a much greater than 1 and 1.0 for w(sub 0)/a much less than 1.
Gras, S.; Blair, D. G.; Ju, L.
2010-02-15
To reduce the thermal noise in the future generation of gravitational wave detectors, flat-top beams have been proposed to replace conventional Gaussian beams, so as to obtain better averaging over the Brownian motion of the test masses. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the unwanted opto-acoustic interactions in such interferometers, which can lead to the phenomenon of parametric instability. Our results show that the increased overlap of the Mesa beams with the test masses leads to approximately 3 times as many unstable modes in comparison to a similar interferometer with Gaussian beams.
Chopper z-scan technique for elliptic Gaussian beams.
Dávila-Pintle, J A; Reynoso-Lara, E; Bravo-García, Y E
2016-09-01
This paper reports an improvement to the chopper z-scan technique for elliptic Gaussian beams. This improvement results in a higher sensitivity by measuring the ratio of eclipsing time to rotating period (duty cycle) of a chopper that eclipses the beam along the main axis. It is shown that the z-scan curve of the major axis is compressed along the z-axis. This compression factor is equal to the ratio between the minor and major axes. It was found that the normalized peak-valley difference with respect to the linear value does not depend on the axis along which eclipsing occurs. PMID:27607713
Mutual interaction between parallel Gaussian electromagnetic beams in plasmas
Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Agarwal, Sujeet Kumar; Sharma, Ashutosh
2006-10-15
In this paper, the interaction between two Gaussian electromagnetic beams in a plasma has been investigated, when the axes of the two beams are initially (z=0) parallel along the z axis in the x-z plane; the beams are initially propagating in the z direction. For the three types of nonlinearities (viz., collisional, ponderomotive, and relativistic) the dielectric function has been expressed as a function of the irradiances of the two beams; this expression for the dielectric function has been substituted in the wave equation and a solution of the resulting nonlinear equation obtained in the paraxial approximation. The paraxial approximation is justified since the phenomena of interest occur when the beams are initially close ({radical}(2)x{sub 0}{<=}r{sub 0}). Further, the absorption of the beam in the plasma has been neglected, which is justified when the electron collision frequency is much less than the frequencies of the beams. Second-order coupled ordinary differential equations have been obtained for the distance between the centers of the beams and the beam widths in the x and y directions as a function of the distance of propagation along the z axis. The equations have been solved numerically for a range of parameters and a discussion of the results is presented.
Gaussian Mixture Model of Heart Rate Variability
Costa, Tommaso; Boccignone, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Mario
2012-01-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters. PMID:22666386
Transmission of a Gaussian beam by a Fizeau interferential wedge.
Stoykova, Elena
2005-12-01
Analysis of transmission of a finite-diameter Gaussian beam by a Fizeau interferential wedge is presented. The fringe calculation is based on angular spectrum expansion of the complex amplitude of the incident wave field. The developed approach is applicable to any beam diameter and wedge thickness at any distance from the wedge and yields as a boundary case the fringes at plane-wave illumination. The spatial region of resonant transmission on the wedge surface is given by the width of the transmitted peak for plane-wave illumination. At higher coating reflectivity, the direction of the transmitted beam is deviated with respect to that of the incident beam. Evaluation of the spectral response based on the spectral width of the transmitted power curve is introduced as more realistic for a correct description of the application of a Fizeau wedge as an interferential selector in laser resonators. PMID:16396037
Light steering of Air-Gaussian beam in Nonlocal Nonlinear Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ran; Zhang, Xiaping
2016-07-01
With a nonlocal model, we investigate the propagation dynamics of a single Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam and their interaction in one-dimensional condition by means of direct numerical simulations. With the split-step Fourier method, numerical results show that nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of AiG beams leading to the formation of stable bound states. Espesically, by tuning the phase difference between the two beams, we can steer the centre of the bound AiG beams in nonlocal nonlinear media.
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing
2016-08-01
Rytov theory was employed to establish the transmission model for the optical vortices carried by Bessel-Gaussian (BG) beams in weak anisotropic turbulence based on the generalized anisotropic von Karman spectrum. The influences of asymmetry anisotropic turbulence eddies and source parameters on the signal orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode detection probability of partially coherent BG beams in anisotropic turbulence were discussed. Anisotropic characteristics of the turbulence could enhance the OAM mode transmission performance. The spatial partially coherence of the beam source would increase turbulent aberration's effect on the optical vortices. BG beams could dampen the influences of the turbulence because of their nondiffraction and self-healing characteristics. PMID:27505641
Bound states of breathing Airy-Gaussian beams in nonlocal nonlinear medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaping
2016-05-01
With a nonlocal model, we investigate the propagation dynamics of a single Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam and their interaction in one-dimensional condition by means of direct numerical simulations. With the split-step Fourier method, numerical results shows that nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of AiG beams leading to the formation of stable bound states. Especially, by tuning the phase difference between the two beams, we can steer the center of the bound AiG beams in nonlocal nonlinear media.
Schimpf, Damian N; Putnam, William P; Grogan, Michael D W; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X
2013-07-29
We derive solutions for radially polarized Bessel-Gauss beams in free-space by superimposing decentered Gaussian beams with differing polarization states. We numerically show that the analytical result is applicable even for large semi-aperture angles, and we experimentally confirm the analytical expression by employing a fiber-based mode-converter. PMID:23938719
Optimal focusing conditions of lenses using Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Juan Manuel; Cywiak, Moisés; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir
2016-07-01
By using the analytical equations of the propagation of Gaussian beams in which truncation exhibits negligible consequences, we describe a method that uses the value of the focal length of a focusing lens to classify its focusing performance. We show that for different distances between a laser and a focusing lens there are different planes where best focusing conditions can be obtained and we demonstrate how the value of the focal length impacts the lens focusing properties. To perform the classification we introduce the term delimiting focal length. As the value of the focal length used in wave propagation theory is nominal and difficult to measure accurately, we describe an experimental approach to calculate its value matching our analytical description. Finally, we describe possible applications of the results for characterizing Gaussian sources, for measuring focal lengths and/or alternatively for characterizing piston-like movements.
Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof
Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.
1999-01-26
A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs.
Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefor and evaluation thereof
Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Romero, Louis A.
1999-01-01
A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system.
Fast multiscale Gaussian beam methods for wave equations in bounded convex domains
Bao, Gang; Lai, Jun; Qian, Jianliang
2014-03-15
Motivated by fast multiscale Gaussian wavepacket transforms and multiscale Gaussian beam methods which were originally designed for pure initial-value problems of wave equations, we develop fast multiscale Gaussian beam methods for initial boundary value problems of wave equations in bounded convex domains in the high frequency regime. To compute the wave propagation in bounded convex domains, we have to take into account reflecting multiscale Gaussian beams, which are accomplished by enforcing reflecting boundary conditions during beam propagation and carrying out suitable reflecting beam summation. To propagate multiscale beams efficiently, we prove that the ratio of the squared magnitude of beam amplitude and the beam width is roughly conserved, and accordingly we propose an effective indicator to identify significant beams. We also prove that the resulting multiscale Gaussian beam methods converge asymptotically. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as Gaussian apertures.
Lin, Hungyen; Fumeaux, Christophe; Fischer, Bernd Michael; Abbott, Derek
2010-08-16
The THz emission point on a nonlinear electro-optical crystal for generating broadband THz radiation is modeled as a radiating Gaussian aperture. With the wavelengths of the infrared pump beam being much smaller than the wavelength components of the generated THz pulse, a THz sub-wavelength radiating aperture with Gaussian profile is effectively created. This paper comprehensively investigates Gaussian apertures in focused THz radiation generation in electro-optical crystals and illustrates the breakdown of the paraxial approximation at low THz frequencies. The findings show that the shape of the radiation pattern causes a reduction in detectable THz radiation and hence contributes significantly to low signal-to-noise ratio in THz radiation generation. Whilst we have demonstrated the findings on optical rectification in this paper, the model may apply without a loss of generality to other types of apertures sources in THz radiation generation. PMID:20721154
Secondary diffraction of diffracted Gaussian beam of laser radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasil'Ev, Yu. V.; Kozar', A. V.; Matyunin, A. V.
2011-10-01
The diffraction of a narrow Gaussian beam of laser radiation on mutually perpendicular edges of crossed, superimposed sharp wedge-shaped blades (safety razors) has been studied. The diffraction pattern observed on a flat screen behind the blades comprises a very bright central spot, which exhibits the structure of a "light network" with rectangular cells, and four groups of narrow bright bands that expand from the central spot toward the periphery and form a rectangular cross. The spatial frequency of light-field modulation on the screen can be controlled by varying the distance from the blades to screen.
Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.
2014-05-01
Spiral laser beams is a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotate with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. This paper describes the results of analytical and computer simulation of Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution. In the simulation used a laser beam consisting of the sum of the two modes HG TEMnm and TEMn1m1. The coefficients n1, n, m1, m were varied. Additional phase depending from the coefficients n, m, m1, n1 imposed on the resulting beam. As a result, formed the Hermite Gaussian beam phase distribution which takes the form of a spiral in the process of distribution. For modeling was used VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH).
A closed form of a kurtosis parameter of a hypergeometric-Gaussian type-II beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, Khannous; A, A. A. Ebrahim; A, Belafhal
2016-04-01
Based on the irradiance moment definition and the analytical expression of waveform propagation for hypergeometric-Gaussian type-II beams passing through an ABCD system, the kurtosis parameter is derived analytically and illustrated numerically. The kurtosis parameters of the Gaussian beam, modified Bessel modulated Gaussian beam with quadrature radial and elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams are obtained by treating them as special cases of the present treatment. The obtained results show that the kurtosis parameter depends on the change of the beam order m and the hollowness parameter p, such as its decrease with increasing m and increase with increasing p.
Second and third harmonic waves excited by focused Gaussian beams.
Levy, Uri; Silberberg, Yaron
2015-10-19
Harmonic generation by tightly-focused Gaussian beams is finding important applications, primarily in nonlinear microscopy. It is often naively assumed that the nonlinear signal is generated predominantly in the focal region. However, the intensity of Gaussian-excited electromagnetic harmonic waves is sensitive to the excitation geometry and to the phase matching condition, and may depend on quite an extended region of the material away from the focal plane. Here we solve analytically the amplitude integral for second harmonic and third harmonic waves and study the generated harmonic intensities vs. focal-plane position within the material. We find that maximum intensity for positive wave-vector mismatch values, for both second harmonic and third harmonic waves, is achieved when the fundamental Gaussian is focused few Rayleigh lengths beyond the front surface. Harmonic-generation theory predicts strong intensity oscillations with thickness if the material is very thin. We reproduced these intensity oscillations in glass slabs pumped at 1550nm. From the oscillations of the 517nm third-harmonic waves with slab thickness we estimate the wave-vector mismatch in a Soda-lime glass as Δk(H)= -0.249μm(-1). PMID:26480441
Optical fibers as beam shapers: from Gaussian beams to optical vortices.
Rodrigues Ribeiro, Rita S; Dahal, Pabitra; Guerreiro, Ariel; Jorge, Pedro; Viegas, Jaime
2016-05-15
This Letter reports a new method for the generation of optical vortices using a micropatterned optical fiber tip. Here, a spiral phase plate (2π phase shift) is micromachined on the tip of an optical fiber using a focused ion beam. This is a high resolution method that allows milling the fibers with nanoscale resolution. The plate acts as a beam tailoring system, transforming the fundamental guided mode, specifically a Gaussian mode, into the Laguerre-Gaussian mode (LG_{01}), which carries orbital angular momentum. The experimental results are supported by computational simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method. PMID:27176946
Self-trapped elliptical super-Gaussian beam in cubic-quintic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Soumendu; Singh, Ajitpal; Porsezian, K.; Mithun, T.
2014-12-01
We find self-trapped propagation of elliptical super-Gaussian beam in cubic-quintic nonlinear media. The soliton beam preserves its shape and size during propagation in Kerr media. Both defocusing and focusing quintic nonlinearities are considered. In a cubic (focusing)-quintic (defocusing) media breather like beam propagation with intriguing beam width oscillation is observed. The influence of beam ellipticity, super-Gaussian nature and quintic nonlinearity on self-trapping has been studied. A formula for critical power for self-focusing has been derived and it readily agrees with the results obtained by variational method. In Kerr and focusing quintic media beam collapse occurs quicker for higher order super-Gaussian beam. The critical power of self-focusing in defocusing (focusing) quintic medium prominently increases (decreases) with increasing strength of quintic nonlinearity. This variation rate is greater for higher order super Gaussian beam. A beam with greater ellipticity requires larger power for self-trapping.
Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang
2010-11-20
We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.
Composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Sujuan; Miao, Zhuang; He, Chao; Pang, Fufei; Li, Yingchun; Wang, Tingyun
2016-03-01
We propose the generation of novel composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with common waist position and waist parameter. Computer-generated holography by conjugate-symmetric extension is applied to produce the holograms of several composite vortex beams. Utilizing the holograms, fantastic light modes including optical ring lattice, double dark-ring and double bright-ring composite vortex beams etc. are numerically reconstructed. The generated composite vortex beams show diffraction broadening with some of them showing dynamic rotation around beam centers while propagating. Optical experiments based on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) verify the numerical results. These novel composite vortex beams possess more complicated distribution and more controllable parameters for their potential application in comparison to conventional optical ring lattice.
Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.
2016-07-01
In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).
Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H
2016-02-20
In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided. PMID:26906582
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Ning-Jing; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Guo, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Ming-Jun
2015-09-01
The extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is used to develop a formulation for the backscattered intensity enhancement of a Gaussian Schell-model source beam through a weak turbulence. The results are shown that backscattered intensity enhancement factor of the reflected GSM beam is concerned with the coherence length of source, the wavelength, the size of target and wave structure function. In addition, the closed-form expressions can interpret backscattered intensity enhancement of plane and spherical wave scattered from a diffuse target. The results are illustrated by examples and compared with the previous work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Yaochuan; Yin, Hongming
2016-04-01
The partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam is introduced and described by analytical expressions. The analytical propagation equation for partially coherent four-petal Gaussian vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere is derived by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral formula. The influences of refraction index structure, beam order n, topological charge M and the coherence length on the average intensity distributions of beam are investigated by numerical examples.
Terahertz generation by two cross focused Gaussian laser beams in magnetized plasma
Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, R. P.
2014-11-15
This paper presents a theoretical model for terahertz (THz) radiation generation by two cross-focused Gaussian laser beams in a collisionless magnetoplasma. The plasma is redistributed due to the ponderomotive nonlinearity which leads to the cross focusing of the laser beams. The focusing of the copropagating laser beams increases with increasing the externally applied static magnetic field which is perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. The nonlinear current at THz frequency arises on account of nonlinear ponderomotive force as a result of beating of the two lasers. The generated THz radiation amplitude increases significantly with increasing magnetic field. The cross focusing of two laser beams enhances the THz yield. Optimization of laser-plasma parameters gives the radiated normalized THz power of the order of 10 kW.
Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2013-07-15
In the present paper, we have employed the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma to model relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have presented an extensive parametric investigation of the dependence of beam-width parameter on distance of propagation in relativistic thermal quantum plasma. We have studied the role of Fermi temperature in the phenomenon of self-focusing. It is found that the quantum effects cause much higher oscillations of beam-width parameter and better relativistic focusing of laser beam in thermal quantum plasma in comparison with that in the relativistic cold quantum plasma and classical relativistic plasma. Our computations show more reliable results in comparison to the previous works.
Propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in plasma with modulated collision frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Yuan, Chengxun; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Gao, Ruilin; Li, Lei; Du, Yanwei
2012-08-01
The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma with the electron collision frequency modulated by laser intensity are presented. The nonlinear dynamics of the ponderomotive force, which induce nonlinear self-focusing as opposed to spatial diffraction, are considered. The effective dielectric function of the Drude model and complex eikonal function are adopted in deriving coupled differential equations of the varying laser beam parameters. In the framework of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the frequency of electron collision in plasmas, which is proportional to the spatial electron density, is strongly interrelated with the laser beam propagation characteristics. Hence, the propagation properties of the laser beam and the modulated electron collision frequency distribution in plasma were studied and explained in depth. Employing this self-consistent method, the obtained simulation results approach practical conditions, which is of significance to the study of laser-plasma interactions.
Gaussian beam decomposition of high frequency wave fields using expectation-maximization
Ariel, Gil; Engquist, Bjoern; Tanushev, Nicolay M.; Tsai, Richard
2011-03-20
A new numerical method for approximating highly oscillatory wave fields as a superposition of Gaussian beams is presented. The method estimates the number of beams and their parameters automatically. This is achieved by an expectation-maximization algorithm that fits real, positive Gaussians to the energy of the highly oscillatory wave fields and its Fourier transform. Beam parameters are further refined by an optimization procedure that minimizes the difference between the Gaussian beam superposition and the highly oscillatory wave field in the energy norm.
Extension of filament propagation in water with Bessel-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaya, G.; Kaya, N.; Sayrac, M.; Boran, Y.; Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Amani, M.; Schuessler, H. A.
2016-03-01
We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Bessel-Gaussian beams with different numbers of radial modal lobes. The transverse modes of the incident Bessel-Gaussian beam were created from a Gaussian beam of a Ti:sapphire laser system by using computer generated hologram techniques. We found that filament propagation length increased with increasing number of lobes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central peak of the incident beam, suggesting that the radial modal lobes may serve as an energy reservoir for the filaments formed by the central intensity peak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, F. R.; Melninkaitis, A.; BatavičiutÄ--, G.; Gouldieff, C.; Smalakys, L.; Beaudier, A.; Natoli, J.-Y.
2015-11-01
Damage induced by nanosecond laser in optical materials can often be attributed to the presence of laser damage precursor in the material. The presence of these precursors within dielectric optics can be successfully described by so called distributed defect ensembles. The physical parameters of these precursor presence models can be deduced by fitting experimental laser damage probability data. For a degenerate defect ensemble these parameters are the precursor threshold and the precursor density in the sample. To deduce precursor densities correctly it is essential to consider the real shape of laser beam that often deviates from Gaussian or hat-top models. To address these issues we discuss a new fitting procedure that minimizes significant errors in the deduced model parameters using experimental beam profile images. We suggest two methods: Defining a Gaussian replacement beam or using a numerical approximation of the surface over threshold (SOT) of the real beam. Both methods are discussed at the example of a degenerate damage precursor population but apply to any type of damage precursor population.
Refractive turbulence effects on truncated Gaussian beam heterodyne lidar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murty, R.
1984-01-01
A monostatic heterodyne lidar performance model is formulated to study the combined effects of beam truncation and refractive turbulence in the weak scintillation regime. The results show that there is a loss of signal power due to beam truncation and coherence loss, but there is also an enhancement of signal power due to log-amplitude covariance in suitable conditions of long paths with weak turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczyński, Paweł; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Żeglinski, Grzegorz
2008-09-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous media, including lens-like waveguides. By way of an example, the known analytical solution for Gaussian beam diffraction in free space is presented. Paraxial CGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations, which can be readily solved numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media as compared to the numerical methods of wave optics. For the paraxial on-axis Gaussian beam propagation in lens-like waveguide, we compare CGO solutions with numerical results for finite differences beam propagation method (FD-BPM). The CGO method is shown to provide 50-times higher rate of calculation then FD-BPM at comparable accuracy. Besides, paraxial eikonal-based complex geometrical optics is generalized for nonlinear Kerr type medium. This paper presents CGO analytical solutions for cylindrically symmetric Gaussian beam in Kerr type nonlinear medium and effective numerical solutions for the self-focusing effect of Gaussian beam with elliptic cross section. Both analytical and numerical solutions are shown to be in a good agreement with previous results, obtained by other methods.
Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam
Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu
2016-01-01
We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798
Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu
2016-07-01
We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications.
Closed laser-beam trajectories in plano-spherical resonators with Gaussian apertures
Malyutin, A A
2008-02-28
The closed trajectories of a Gaussian beam in plano-spherical degenerate and nondegenerate resonators with two Gaussian apertures (with two pump regions with the Gaussian distribution of the gain) are described analytically and the existence conditions are found for such trajectories. It was assumed that Gaussian apertures (gain regions) were located in the plane of a flat mirror at equal distances on both sides of the resonator axis and the size of apertures restricted their action by the corresponding half-plane. (beams, resonators)
Extended laser filamentation in air generated by femtosecond annular Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Z. F.; Li, W.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.
2015-03-01
Extending the longitudinal range of plasma channels produced by femtosecond annular (ring) Gaussian beams in atmosphere is numerically investigated. We find that the length of a stable plasma channel induced by the annular Gaussian beam, comparing with a Gaussian beam under the same initial condition, has a significant improvement, which can be well understood from two aspects. The dynamic complementation caused by the optical system composing of an axicon and a diverging lens can extend the plasma channel greatly, and the special initial transverse distribution of ring-Gaussian pulse leads to pulse splitting and redistribution of the pulse energy before the formation of optical filament. The ultrashort ring-Gaussian beam perhaps offers a new and an efficient route towards the generation of extended optical filament.
A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model
Pinto, Rafael Coimbra; Engel, Paulo Martins
2015-01-01
This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN). The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3) for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2) by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets. PMID:26444880
2DPUF: A sequential gaussian puff model
Addis, R.P.; O`Steen, B.L.
1990-12-31
This report documents the Environmental Transport Section`s (ETS) two-dimensional, sequential gaussian puff transport and dispersion model for emergency response. The sequential puff scheme is described, and the dispersion equations are presented. The advantages of this model over the ETS`s PUFF/PLUME model are discussed. Options are calculating a two-dimensional wind field, interpolation procedures, and the wind field grid are described. The various grid systems for puff transport calculations and dose estimates are also described. A flow diagram for the modules comprising the 2DPUF code and a description of each module is presented.
2DPUF: A sequential gaussian puff model
Addis, R.P.; O'Steen, B.L.
1990-01-01
This report documents the Environmental Transport Section's (ETS) two-dimensional, sequential gaussian puff transport and dispersion model for emergency response. The sequential puff scheme is described, and the dispersion equations are presented. The advantages of this model over the ETS's PUFF/PLUME model are discussed. Options are calculating a two-dimensional wind field, interpolation procedures, and the wind field grid are described. The various grid systems for puff transport calculations and dose estimates are also described. A flow diagram for the modules comprising the 2DPUF code and a description of each module is presented.
Anupriya, J.; Ram, Nibedita; Pattabiraman, M.
2010-04-15
We describe a computational and experimental study on Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonance line shapes with a Laguerre Gaussian (LG) beam. It is seen that the LG beam profile brings about a significant narrowing in the line shape of the Hanle resonance and ground-state Zeeman coherence in comparison to a Gaussian beam. This narrowing is attributed to the azimuthal mode index of the LG field.
Shaping the beam profile of an elliptical Gaussian beam by an elliptical phase aperture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wei; Wu, Gaofeng; Song, Kehui; Dong, Yiming
2013-03-01
Based on the generalized Collins integral formula, an analytical paraxial propagation formula for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) passing through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with an elliptical phase aperture is derived by use of a tensor method. As an application example, we study the propagation properties of an EGB passing through an elliptical aperture in free space. It is found that the elliptical phase aperture can be used for shaping the beam profile of an EGB, which is useful in many applications, such as free space optical communication and material thermal processing. The elliptical phase aperture induced changes of the propagation factors of an EGB are also analyzed.
A unifying review of linear gaussian models.
Roweis, S; Ghahramani, Z
1999-02-15
Factor analysis, principal component analysis, mixtures of gaussian clusters, vector quantization, Kalman filter models, and hidden Markov models can all be unified as variations of unsupervised learning under a single basic generative model. This is achieved by collecting together disparate observations and derivations made by many previous authors and introducing a new way of linking discrete and continuous state models using a simple nonlinearity. Through the use of other nonlinearities, we show how independent component analysis is also a variation of the same basic generative model. We show that factor analysis and mixtures of gaussians can be implemented in autoencoder neural networks and learned using squared error plus the same regularization term. We introduce a new model for static data, known as sensible principal component analysis, as well as a novel concept of spatially adaptive observation noise. We also review some of the literature involving global and local mixtures of the basic models and provide pseudocode for inference and learning for all the basic models. PMID:9950734
Nonlinear interaction of intense hypergeometric Gaussian subfamily laser beams in plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobhani, H.; Vaziri (Khamedi), M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2016-07-01
Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian laser beam in a nonlinear plasma medium is investigated by considering the Source Dependent Expansion method. A subfamily of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams with a non-negative, even and integer radial index, can be expressed as the linear superposition of finite number of Laguerre-Gaussian functions. Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams in a nonlinear plasma medium depends on the value of radial index. The bright rings' number of these beams is changed during the propagation in plasma medium. The effect of beam vortex charge number l and initial (input) beam intensity on the self-focusing of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams is explored. Also, by choosing the suitable initial conditions, Hypergeometric-Gaussian subfamily beams can be converted to one or more mode components that a typical of mode conversion may be occurred. The self-focusing of these winding beams can be used to control the focusing force and improve the electron bunch quality in laser plasma accelerators.
Integral momenta of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere.
Lukin, Igor P
2016-04-20
The orbital angular momentum of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere is studied theoretically. The field of an optical beam is determined through the solution of the paraxial wave equation for a randomly inhomogeneous medium with fluctuations of the refraction index of the turbulent atmosphere. Peculiarities in the behavior of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam at the receiver (or transmitter) are examined. The dependence of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam on optical beam parameters, namely, the transverse wave number of optical radiation, amplitude factor radius, and, especially, topological charge of the optical beam, is analyzed in detail. It turns out that the mean value of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam remains constant during propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. It is shown that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere calculated with the "mean-intensity" approximation is equal to zero identically. Thus, it is possible to declare confidently that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere is not very large. PMID:27140133
Gaussian laser beam transformation into an optical vortex beam by helical lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicijevic, Ljiljana; Topuzoski, Suzana
2016-01-01
In this article, we investigate the Fresnel diffraction characteristics of the hybrid optical element which is a combination of a spiral phase plate (SPP) with topological charge p and a thin lens with focal length f, named the helical lens (HL). As incident a Gaussian laser beam is treated, having its waist a distance ζ from the HL plane and its axis passing through the centre of the HL. It is shown that the SPP introduces a phase singularity of pth order to the incident beam, while the lens transforms the beam characteristic parameters. The output light beam is analyzed in detail: its characteristic parameters and focusing properties, amplitude and intensity distributions and the vortex rings profiles, and radii, at any z distance behind the HL plane, as well as in the near and far field.
Diffractive properties of obstructed vector Laguerre-Gaussian beam under tight focusing condition.
Vyas, Sunil; Niwa, Masato; Kozawa, Yuichi; Sato, Shunichi
2011-07-01
Diffractive and focusing properties of vector Laguerre-Gaussian beams with obstacle are investigated under tight focusing conditions. Using vector diffraction theory, intensity and polarization distributions near the focus at different orthogonal planes are calculated and analyzed for vector Laguerre-Gaussian beams. It is observed that the beam is able to compensate the distortion produced by obstacles when the size of the obstacle is small. The structural changes in the polarization distribution are not the same in different orthogonal planes. The polarization characteristics of the beam show a significant change when the size of the obstacle is large. A comparative study of the focusing and diffractive properties of vector Laguerre-Gaussian and vector Bessel-Gaussian beams has also been performed. PMID:21734737
Harmonic Pinnacles in the Discrete Gaussian Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubetzky, Eyal; Martinelli, Fabio; Sly, Allan
2016-06-01
The 2 D Discrete Gaussian model gives each height function {η : Z^2to{Z}} a probability proportional to {exp(-β {H}(η))}, where {β} is the inverse-temperature and {{H}(η) = sum_{x˜ y}(η_x-η_y)^2} sums over nearest-neighbor bonds. We consider the model at large fixed {β}, where it is flat unlike its continuous analog (the Discrete Gaussian Free Field). We first establish that the maximum height in an {L× L} box with 0 boundary conditions concentrates on two integers M, M + 1 with {M˜ √{(1/2πβ)log Llog log L}}. The key is a large deviation estimate for the height at the origin in {{Z}2}, dominated by "harmonic pinnacles", integer approximations of a harmonic variational problem. Second, in this model conditioned on {η≥ 0} (a floor), the average height rises, and in fact the height of almost all sites concentrates on levels H, H + 1 where {H˜ M/√{2}}. This in particular pins down the asymptotics, and corrects the order, in results of Bricmont et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 42(5-6):743-798, 1986), where it was argued that the maximum and the height of the surface above a floor are both of order {√{log L}}. Finally, our methods extend to other classical surface models (e.g., restricted SOS), featuring connections to p-harmonic analysis and alternating sign matrices.
Waveform synthesis of surface waves in a laterally heterogeneous earth by the Gaussian beam method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yomogida, K.; Aki, K.
1985-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with an application of the Gaussian beam method to surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous earth. The employed method has been developed for ray tracing and synthesizing seismograms of surface waves in cases involving the laterally heterogeneous earth. The procedure is based on formulations derived by Yomogida (1985). Vertical structure of the wave field is represented by the eigenfunctions of normal mode theory, while lateral variation is expressed by the parabolic equation as in two-dimensional acoustic waves or elastic body waves. It is demonstrated that a large-amplitude change can result from a slight perturbation in the phase velocity model.
Gaussian versus flat-top spatial beam profiles for optical stimulation of the prostate nerves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.
2010-02-01
The cavernous nerves (CN) course along the prostate surface and are responsible for erectile function. Improved identification and preservation of the CN's is critical to maintaining sexual potency after prostate cancer surgery. Noncontact optical nerve stimulation (ONS) of the CN's was recently demonstrated in a rat model, in vivo, as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for identification of the CN's during prostate surgery. However, the therapeutic window for ONS is narrow, so optimal design of the fiber optic delivery system is critical for safe, reproducible stimulation. This study describes modeling, assembly, and testing of an ONS probe for delivering a small, collimated, flat-top laser beam for uniform CN stimulation. A direct comparison of the magnitude and response time of the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) for both Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles was performed. Thulium fiber laser radiation (λ=1870 nm) was delivered through a 200-μm fiber, with distal fiber tip chemically etched to convert a Gaussian to flat-top beam profile. The laser beam was collimated to a 1-mm-diameter spot using an aspheric lens. Computer simulations of light propagation were used to optimize the probe design. The 10-Fr (3.4-mm-OD) laparoscopic probe provided a constant radiant exposure at the CN surface. The probe was tested in four rats, in vivo. ONS of the CN's was performed with a 1-mm-diameter spot, 5-ms pulse duration, and pulse rate of 20 Hz for a duration of 15-30 s. The flat-top laser beam profile consistently produced a faster and higher ICP response at a lower radiant exposure than the Gaussian beam profile due, in part, to easier alignment of the more uniform beam with nerve. The threshold for ONS was approximately 0.14 J/cm2, corresponding to a temperature increase of 6-8°C at the CN surface after a stimulation time of 15 s. With further development, ONS may be used as a diagnostic tool for identification of CN's during prostate
Generalised Hermite-Gaussian beams and mode transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan
2016-05-01
Generalised Hermite-Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite-Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function α, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function α. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation.
OPTICAL SOLITONS: Excitation of two-dimensional soliton matrices by fundamental Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovkova, O. V.; Chuprakov, D. A.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.
2005-01-01
The excitation of two-dimensional periodic structures of fields of the first and second radiation harmonics due to the modulation instability of fundamental Gaussian beams is studied in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity. The distances are found at which soliton matrix structures with a specified period are formed and destroyed. Optical gratings formed due to nonlinear aberration of broad Gaussian beams are considered.
Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T.C.
2015-01-01
Bessel beams have recently been investigated as a means of improving deep-tissue microscopy in highly scattering and heterogeneous media. It has been suggested that the long depth-of-field and self-reconstructing property of a Bessel beam enables an increased penetration depth of the focused beam in tissues compared to a conventional Gaussian beam. However, a study is needed to better quantify the magnitude of the beam steering as well as the distortion of focused Gaussian and Bessel beams in tissues with microscopic heterogeneities. Here, we have developed an imaging method and quantitative metrics to evaluate the motion and distortion of low-numerical-aperture (NA) Gaussian and Bessel beams focused in water, heterogeneous phantoms, and fresh mouse esophagus tissues. Our results indicate that low-NA Bessel beams exhibit reduced beam-steering artifacts and distortions compared to Gaussian beams, and are therefore potentially useful for microscopy applications in which pointing accuracy and beam quality are critical, such as dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy. PMID:25909015
Acoustical tweezers using single spherically focused piston, X-cut, and Gaussian beams.
Mitri, Farid G
2015-10-01
Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates are derived for circular spherically focused piston (i.e., apodized by a uniform velocity amplitude normal to its surface), X-cut (i.e., apodized by a velocity amplitude parallel to the axis of wave propagation), and Gaussian (i.e., apodized by a Gaussian distribution of the velocity amplitude) beams. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSEs assuming weakly focused beams (with focusing angle α ⩽ 20°) in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (parabolic) approximation. In contrast with previous analytical models, the derived expressions allow computing the scattering and acoustic radiation force from a sphere of radius a without restriction to either the Rayleigh (a ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident radiation) or the ray acoustics (a ≫λ) regimes. The analytical formulations are valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the focused acoustic radiator, when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected, and when the sphere is translated along the axis of wave propagation. Computational results illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the sphere's elastic properties and the axial distance to the center of the concave surface, with close connection of the emergence of negative trapping forces. Potential applications are in single-beam acoustical tweezers, acoustic levitation, and particle manipulation. PMID:26470046
Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2016-05-20
Experimental and theoretical work has shown that atmospheric turbulence can exhibit "non-Kolmogorov" behavior including anisotropy and modifications of the classically accepted spatial power spectral slope, -11/3. In typical horizontal scenarios, atmospheric anisotropy implies that the variations in the refractive index are more spatially correlated in both horizontal directions than in the vertical. In this work, we extend Gaussian beam theory for propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence to the case of anisotropic turbulence along the horizontal direction. We also study the effects of different spatial power spectral slopes on the beam propagation. A description is developed for the average beam intensity profile, and the results for a range of scenarios are demonstrated for the first time with a wave optics simulation and a spatial light modulator-based laboratory benchtop counterpart. The theoretical, simulation, and benchtop intensity profiles show good agreement and illustrate that an elliptically shaped beam profile can develop upon propagation. For stronger turbulent fluctuation regimes and larger anisotropies, the theory predicts a slightly more elliptical form of the beam than is generated by the simulation or benchtop setup. The theory also predicts that without an outer scale limit, the beam width becomes unbounded as the power spectral slope index α approaches a maximum value of 4. This behavior is not seen in the simulation or benchtop results because the numerical phase screens used for these studies do not model the unbounded wavefront tilt component implied in the analytic theory. PMID:27411135
Propagation properties of quantized Laguerre-Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Aya; Tanabe, Ayano; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Kayo
2016-03-01
Effect of scintillations is serious problems in optical systems which require the atmospheric propagation, the optimization of optical system to minimize the effects of scintillation have been examined using the simulation of propagation in atmospheric turbulence. The analytic studies of scintillation index of LG beams show that LG beams have less scintillation than Gaussian beams. However, in these researches, the diameter of receiving aperture was set as point receiver without considering the effects of aperture averaging, which is phenomenon that reduced scintillations over finite aperture. In this paper, considering size of a receiving aperture, the propagation losses and the scintillation index of LG beams are simulated. Also, for practical applications, propagation properties of "quantized" LG(5,1) beams simulated. As a result of the examination, the propagation losses and the scintillation index of LG beams is smaller than those of Gaussian beams. By applying LG beams for optical wireless communications, it is expected to improve better the effect of scintillations than using Gaussian beams. The result is that the scintillation index of quantized LG beams is equal to those of LG beams, and it suggested that quantized LG beams can be treat the quantized LG beams the same as LG beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruffato, G.; Carli, M.; Massari, M.; Romanato, F.
2015-03-01
The work of design, fabrication and characterization of spiral phase plates for the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with non-null radial index is presented. Samples were fabricated by electron beam lithography on polymethylmethacrylate layers over glass substrates. The optical response of these phase optical elements was measured and the purity of the experimental beams was investigated in terms of Laguerre-Gaussian modes contributions. The farfield intensity pattern was compared with theoretical models and numerical simulations, while the expected phase features were confirmed by interferometric analyses. The high quality of the output beams confirms the applicability of these phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A novel application consisting in the design of computer-generated holograms encoding information for light beams carrying phase singularities is shown. A numerical code based on iterative Fourier transform algorithm has been developed for the computation of the phase pattern of phase-only diffractive optical element for illumination under LG beams. Numerical analysis and preliminary experimental results confirm the applicability of these devices as high-security optical elements.
Connections between Graphical Gaussian Models and Factor Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salgueiro, M. Fatima; Smith, Peter W. F.; McDonald, John W.
2010-01-01
Connections between graphical Gaussian models and classical single-factor models are obtained by parameterizing the single-factor model as a graphical Gaussian model. Models are represented by independence graphs, and associations between each manifest variable and the latent factor are measured by factor partial correlations. Power calculations…
Procedures for the measurement of the extinction cross section of one particle using a Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosch, Salvador; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi
2016-09-01
Two procedures for the measurement of the extinction cross section (ECS) of one particle using a slightly focused Gaussian beam have been introduced and numerically tested. While the first one relies on previously introduced ideas and has close connection with the optical theorem, the second procedure is new and is mostly related with light measurements where the detector collects much of the energy of the incident beam. Both procedures prove to be valid and somehow complementary up to particle sizes of the order of the beam waist, thus enlarging the capability of simple measurement set-ups based on Gaussian beams for the estimation of the ECS of one particle.
Smirnov, V N; Strokovsky, G A
1993-05-20
The diffraction pattern in the penumbra region from a metallic cylinder of radius p illuminated by a focused Gaussian beam waist of the half-width w approximately rho is experimentally studied. The observed correlation of band structure distortions in the diffraction pattern with calibrated deformations of the Gaussian beam by an opaque obstacle (which is called a label) is considered to be anomalous from the viewpoint of wave (interference) phenomena. The alternative (corpuscular) interpretation of diffracted light distribution, which is represented as a bundle of partially overlapping noninterfering beams propagating in discrete directions and preserving geometric similarity to the disturbed incident beams, is discussed. PMID:20820447
The intensity distribution of hollow Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkelly, Abdu A.; Al-Nadary, H.; Alhijry, Ibraheem A.
2011-01-01
We developed an expression that describes the hollow Gaussian beams (HGBs) passing through a spherically aberrated lens by using the Collins formula. The radial intensity distribution in both spherical aberration SA free lens, lens that exhibits relatively large in both positive spherical aberration PSA, and negative spherical aberration NSA is calculated. Numerical calculations are made and the results show that the PSA and NSA have a strong influence on the intensity distribution especially at the focus. The study showed remarkable results for which there is no hollow Gaussian beam at a large NSA along the optical axis at the focus. In addition, we found that the DSS, and wr of focused hollow Gaussian beams in the focal region depend not only on the beam radius, and beam order; but also on the spherical aberration.
Exact image method for Gaussian beam problems involving a planar interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindell, I. V.
1987-01-01
Exact image method, recently introduced for the solution of electromagnetic field problems involving sources above a planar interface or two homogeneous media, is shown to be valid also for sources located in complex space, which makes its application possible for Gaussian beam analysis. It is demonstrated that the Goos-Hanchen shift and the angular shift of a TE polarized beam are correctly given as asymptotic results by the exact reflection image theory. Also, the apparent image location giving the correct Gaussian beam transmitted through the interface is obtained as another asymptotic check. The present theory makes it possible to calculate the exact coupling from the Gaussian beam to the reflected and refracted beams, as well as to the surface wave.
Evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the Kerr medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Chen, Chidao; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Deng, Dongmei; Guo, Hong
2016-05-01
Nonlinear optical phenomena are of great practical interest in optics. The evolution of ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the nonlinear Kerr medium is investigated using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Numerical simulations indicate that the distribution factor b can influence the formation of the ring Airy Gaussian beams. Results show that the beams can be oscillating, and the light filament can be achieved under appropriate laser input power. On the other hand, the evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the nonlinear Kerr medium can be implemented, and the numerical simulations of the holographic generation of the ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams propagated in the medium demonstrate that the vortex can be preserved along the propagation. The Poynting vector shows that the energy flow of the ring Airy Gaussian beams flows in the opposite direction on both sides of the focus plane; however, for beams with a spiral phase, the flow direction remains the same; the energy flow can rotate in opposite directions on both sides of the focal plane.
Using harmonic oscillators to determine the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steely, Sidney L.
1993-01-01
The similarity of the functional forms of quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators and the modes of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams is illustrated. This functional similarity provides a direct correlation to investigate the spot size of large-order mode Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of a corresponding two-dimensional harmonic oscillator provide a definition of the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of the harmonic oscillator provide integration limits for the photon probability densities of the laser beam modes to determine the fraction of photons detected therein. Mathematica is used to integrate the probability densities for large-order beam modes and to illustrate the functional similarities. The probabilities of detecting photons within the classical limits of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams asymptotically approach unity in the limit of large-order modes, in agreement with the Correspondence Principle. The classical limits for large-order modes include all of the nodes for Hermite Gaussian laser beams; Sturm's theorem provides a direct proof.
Fiber coupling efficiency for a Gaussian-beam wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Zhai, Chao; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing
2015-06-15
Nowadays it has been accepted that the Kolmogorov model is not the only possible turbulent one in the atmosphere, which has been confirmed by the increasing experimental evidence and some results of theoretical investigation. This has prompted the scientist community to study optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, using the method of effective beam parameters and a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which has a more general power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a more general amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the fiber coupling efficiency for a Gaussian-beam wave has been derived for a horizontal path in both weak and strong fluctuation regimes. And then the influence of spectral power law variations on the fiber coupling efficiency has been analyzed. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of atmospheric turbulence and optical wave propagation in the atmospheric turbulence. PMID:26193506
Propagation and self-healing ability of a Bessel-Gaussian beam modulated by Bessel gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Chunhong; Feng, Xiaoxing; Chu, Xiuxiang
2016-04-01
A new type of Bessel-like beam which can be generated by using Bessel gratings to modulate the amplitude and phase of a Bessel beam is proposed. In analogy to study a Bessel beam in free space, the intensity evolution and self-healing property of the Bessel-like beam have been studied. Meanwhile, based on the Fresnel diffraction integral, the propagation of the Bessel-like beam in free space has also been investigated. Results show that the Bessel-like beam and the Bessel-Gaussian-like beams have some special and interesting properties.
On the relaxation of semi-Gaussian and K-V beams to thermal equilibrium
Lund, S.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Miller, J.M.
1995-05-02
A beam propagating in a continuous, linear focusing channel tends to relax to a thermal equilibrium state. We employ nonlinear conservation constraints to theoretically analyze changes in quantities that characterize both an initial semi-Gaussian beam with a matched rms beam envelope and a K-V beam under a relaxation to thermal equilibrium. Results from particle-in-cell simulations are compared to the theoretical predictions.
Deep transmission of Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beams through turbid scattering media.
Wang, W B; Gozali, Richard; Shi, Lingyan; Lindwasser, Lukas; Alfano, R R
2016-05-01
Light scattering and transmission of Gaussian (G) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) vortex beams with different orbital angular momentum (L) in various turbid media were investigated. Transmittance was measured with varied ratios of sample thickness (z) to scattering mean free path (l_{s}) of turbid media, z/l_{s}. In the ballistic region, the LG and G beams were found to have no significant difference on transmittance, while in the diffusive region, the LG beams showed a higher received signal than the G beams, and the LG beams with higher L values showed a higher received signal than those with lower L values. The transition points from ballistic to diffusive regions for different scattering media were determined. This newly observed transmittance difference of LG and G beams may be used for deep target detection in turbid media through LG beam imaging. PMID:27128076
Generation of optical vortex dipole from superposition of two transversely scaled Gaussian beams.
Naik, Dinesh N; Pradeep Chakravarthy, T; Viswanathan, Nirmal K
2016-04-20
We propose a distinct concept on the generation of optical vortex through coupling between the amplitude and phase differences of the superposing beams. For the proof-of-concept demonstration, we propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled synthesis of an optical beam with a vortex dipole by superposing two transversely scaled Gaussian beams. The experimental demonstration using a Sagnac interferometer introduces the desired amount of radial shear and linear phase difference between the two out-of-phase Gaussian beams to create a vortex pair of opposite topological charge in the superposed beam. Flexibility to tune their location and separation using the choice of direction of the linear phase difference and the amount of amplitude difference between the superposing beams has potential applications in optical tweezers and traps utilizing the local variation in angular momentum across the beam cross section. PMID:27140138
The Gaussian beam mode analysis of off-axis aberrations in long wavelength optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, T. J.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Withington, S.
2008-03-01
An issue of major concern in the design of long wavelength systems is optical aberration or distortion, which can be particularly severe in off-axis systems. Aberrations occur in both lenses and mirrors and in this paper we present a novel method capable of modelling off-axis mirror configurations. Aberrations degrade fundamental receiver coupling coefficients such as aperture efficiency while increasing spillover power losses. For single pixel instruments this will lead to much longer integration times and the possibility of stray light. For imaging arrays the aberrations cause a departure from perfect point imaging by increasing coupling to array detectors located at angles further off the bore sight of the telescope. This paper verifies a matrix-based scheme using Gaussian beam mode analysis (GBMA) for predicting aberrations from off-axis mirrors. The applied technique was originally described in (S. Withington, A. Murphy, G. Isaak, Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase transforming surfaces, Infrared Phys. Tech. 36(3) (1995) 723-734. [1]) and in this paper we exploit the theory and validate the approach with a series of examples using off-axis conic sections. We present the predictions for both a fundamental Gaussian and a scalar horn field illuminating various off-axis mirror configurations including different angles of incidence. A commercially available physical optics (PO) software package, GRASP8™, is used to validate the accuracy of these scalar GBMA predictions.
Gaussian beam in two-photon fluorescence imaging of rat brain microvessel
Shi, Lingyan; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Alfano, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Abstract. The critical optical properties of a Gaussian laser beam in two-photon or multiphoton fluorescence imaging, including the beam spot size, depth of focus, and intensity profile, are investigated for spatially locating nanoscale solutes in and surrounding the microvessels of rat brain. PMID:25490048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chengliang; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui
2010-03-01
The properties of Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs) and Bessel beams (BBs) propagating through a fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system have been investigated. The analytical transformation formulae for BBs and BGBs propagation through a FRT optical system are derived based on definition of the FRT in the cylindrical coordinate system. By using the derived formula, numerical examples are illustrated.
Device and method for creating Gaussian aberration-corrected electron beams
McMorran, Benjamin; Linck, Martin
2016-01-19
Electron beam phase gratings have phase profiles that produce a diffracted beam having a Gaussian or other selected intensity profile. Phase profiles can also be selected to correct or compensate electron lens aberrations. Typically, a low diffraction order produces a suitable phase profile, and other orders are discarded.
Second-harmonic generation excited by a rotating Laguerre-Gaussian beam
Petrov, Dmitri
2010-09-15
Experimental data demonstrate that unlike linear optical processes, an optical Laguerre-Gaussian beam of frequency {omega}, with topological charge m, rotating with angular frequency {Omega}<<{omega}, may not be considered as a monochromatic beam with the shifted frequency {omega}+m{Omega} (Doppler angular shift) for the second-harmonic generation nonlinear process.
Arrays of Gaussian vortex, Bessel and Airy beams by computer-generated hologram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yang; Jiang, Bo; Lü, Shuchao; Liu, Yongqi; Li, Shasha; Cao, Zheng; Qi, Xinyuan
2016-03-01
We generate various kinds of arrays of Gaussian vortex, Bessel and Airy beams, respectively, with digital phase holograms (DPH) based on the fractional-Talbot effect by using the phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). The linear and nonlinear transmissions of these beam arrays in strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystal are investigated numerically and experimentally. Compared with Gaussian vortex arrays, Bessel and Airy beam arrays can keep their patterns unchanged in over 20 mm, realizing non-diffracting transmission. The Fourier spectra (far-field diffraction patterns) of the lattices are also studied. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
Gaussian Process Modeling of Protein Turnover.
Rahman, Mahbubur; Previs, Stephen F; Kasumov, Takhar; Sadygov, Rovshan G
2016-07-01
We describe a stochastic model to compute in vivo protein turnover rate constants from stable-isotope labeling and high-throughput liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments. We show that the often-used one- and two-compartment nonstochastic models allow explicit solutions from the corresponding stochastic differential equations. The resulting stochastic process is a Gaussian processes with Ornstein-Uhlenbeck covariance matrix. We applied the stochastic model to a large-scale data set from (15)N labeling and compared its performance metrics with those of the nonstochastic curve fitting. The comparison showed that for more than 99% of proteins, the stochastic model produced better fits to the experimental data (based on residual sum of squares). The model was used for extracting protein-decay rate constants from mouse brain (slow turnover) and liver (fast turnover) samples. We found that the most affected (compared to two-exponent curve fitting) results were those for liver proteins. The ratio of the median of degradation rate constants of liver proteins to those of brain proteins increased 4-fold in stochastic modeling compared to the two-exponent fitting. Stochastic modeling predicted stronger differences of protein turnover processes between mouse liver and brain than previously estimated. The model is independent of the labeling isotope. To show this, we also applied the model to protein turnover studied in induced heart failure in rats, in which metabolic labeling was achieved by administering heavy water. No changes in the model were necessary for adapting to heavy-water labeling. The approach has been implemented in a freely available R code. PMID:27229456
Effect of turbulent atmosphere on the on-axis average intensity of Pearcey–Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, Boufalah; L, Dalil-Essakali; H, Nebdi; A, Belafhal
2016-06-01
The propagation characteristics of the Pearcey–Gaussian (PG) beam in turbulent atmosphere are investigated in this paper. The Pearcey beam is a new kind of paraxial beam, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory, which describes diffraction about a cusp caustic. By using the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral formula in the paraxial approximation and the Rytov theory, an analytical expression of axial intensity for the considered beam family is derived. Some numerical results for PG beam propagating in atmospheric turbulence are given by studying the influences of some factors, including incident beam parameters and turbulence strengths.
The Gouy phase anomaly for harmonic and time-domain paraxial Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowack, Robert L.; Kainkaryam, Sribharath M.
2011-02-01
The Gouy phase anomaly resulting from the focusing of wave solutions is illustrated using 2-D paraxial Gaussian beams. For harmonic Gaussian beams, this gives rise to a continuous variation of the Gouy phase as a function of propagation distance. This is in contrast to the discontinuous phase anomaly at caustics for ray solutions. However, as the beam-width of a Gaussian beam at a focus gets smaller, the Gouy phase anomaly becomes more concentrated near the focus and approaches that of the ray solution. The Gouy phase for a harmonic Gaussian beam is first illustrated in a homogeneous medium, and then in a quadratic velocity waveguide where the beam can pass through multiple focus points. However for multiple focus points, care must be taken to ensure that the phase remains continuous. Finally, an example is shown of the Gouy phase for a time-domain signal using a Gabor wavelet. This is validated using the finite difference method, and illustrates the progressive phase advance of a time-domain signal modifying the pulse shape with distance. Intuitively, as a wave solution gets `squeezed' at a focus, it `squirts' forward by slightly increasing its apparent speed in the propagation direction and modifying the pulse shape. However, this is a phase advance and not a group or energy advance and does not violate causality. Nonetheless, this could potentially influence the interpretation of travel-times using correlation techniques when using sources that generate beamed signals, for example from transducer sources in the laboratory.
Effects of astigmatic aberration in holographic generation of Laguerre-Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Takumi; Nishihara, Noboru; Takeda, Mitsuo
2001-05-01
The Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an optical beam with a phase singularity that propagates along its axis. We have previously reported the fabrication of blazed transmission phase holograms to generate beams with phase singularities. A common problem encountered in the generation of a phase singularity with high charge is that the singularity tends to split into m individual charge 1 singularities, where m is the charge of the original singularity. We have found through numerical simulation that astigmatic aberration can cause a higher-charge phase singularity to split. We have also found that strong astigmatic aberrations make the resulting beam close to a Hermite-Gaussian beam rather than an LG beam. Experimental investigation of these phenomena agree with the numerical simulation.
On the interference of two Gaussian beams and their ABCD matrix representation.
Arain, Muzammil A; Mueller, Guido
2009-10-12
Gaussian beam propagation is well described by the q-parameter and the ABCD matrices. A variety of ABCD matrices are available that represent commonly occurring scenarios/components in optics. One important phenomenon that has not been studied in detail is the interference of two optical beams with different q-parameters undergoing interference. In this paper, we describe the effect of interference of two Gaussian beams. We derive an ABCD matrix for the addition of two beams that takes into account both the amplitude and phase difference between two beams. This ABCD matrix will help greatly in determining the propagation of beams inside complex interferometers and finding the solutions for the coupled cavity Eigenmodes. PMID:20372655
Fraunhofer diffraction of Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam by helical axicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topuzoski, S.
2014-11-01
In this article we present a theoretical study for Fraunhofer diffraction of a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam with “0” radial mode number and “l” azimuthal mode number (LG0l) by helical axicon. Analytical expressions describing the diffracted wave field amplitude and intensity distributions in the back focal plane of a convergent lens are derived in a form of product of a Gauss-doughnut function and a sum of hypergeometric Kummer functions. Also, the diffracted LG beam by axicon only, as well as by spiral phase plate only, and the diffracted Gaussian beam by helical axicon, are described mathematically in the back focal plane of a convergent lens. Different possibilities for obtaining output vortex beam with reduced or increased topological charge compared to that of the incident beam, or for obtaining chargeless beam are analyzed.
Interaction of Airy–Gaussian beams in saturable media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Meiling; Peng, Yulian; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Deng, Dongmei
2016-08-01
Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy–Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy–Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Province Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), and the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.
Direct evidence for three-dimensional off-axis trapping with single Laguerre-Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsu, T.; Ando, T.; Takiguchi, Y.; Ohtake, Y.; Toyoda, H.; Itoh, H.
2014-04-01
Optical tweezers are often applied to control the dynamics of objects by scanning light. However, there is a limitation that objects fail to track the scan when the drag exceeds the trapping force. In contrast, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams can directly control the torque on objects and provide a typical model for nonequilibrium systems such as Brownian motion under external fields. Although stable ``mid-water'' trapping is essential for removing extrinsic hydrodynamic effects in such studies, three-dimensional trapping by LG beams has not yet been clearly established. Here we report the three-dimensional off-axis trapping of dielectric spheres using high-quality LG beams generated by a special holographic method. The trapping position was estimated as ~ half the wavelength behind the beam waist. These results establish the scientific groundwork of LG trapping and the technical basis of calibrating optical torque to provide powerful tools for studying energy-conversion mechanisms and the nonequilibrium nature of biological molecules under torque.
Direct evidence for three-dimensional off-axis trapping with single Laguerre-Gaussian beam.
Otsu, T; Ando, T; Takiguchi, Y; Ohtake, Y; Toyoda, H; Itoh, H
2014-01-01
Optical tweezers are often applied to control the dynamics of objects by scanning light. However, there is a limitation that objects fail to track the scan when the drag exceeds the trapping force. In contrast, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams can directly control the torque on objects and provide a typical model for nonequilibrium systems such as Brownian motion under external fields. Although stable "mid-water" trapping is essential for removing extrinsic hydrodynamic effects in such studies, three-dimensional trapping by LG beams has not yet been clearly established. Here we report the three-dimensional off-axis trapping of dielectric spheres using high-quality LG beams generated by a special holographic method. The trapping position was estimated as ~ half the wavelength behind the beam waist. These results establish the scientific groundwork of LG trapping and the technical basis of calibrating optical torque to provide powerful tools for studying energy-conversion mechanisms and the nonequilibrium nature of biological molecules under torque. PMID:24694781
Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts for astigmatic Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea
2015-06-01
In this work we investigate the role of the beam astigmatism in the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shift. As a case study, we consider a Gaussian beam focused by an astigmatic lens and we calculate explicitly the corrections to the standard formulas for beam shifts due to the astigmatism induced by the lens. Our results show that the different focusing in the longitudinal and transverse direction introduced by an astigmatic lens may enhance the angular part of the shift.
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Yixin
2015-12-14
Analytic expression of the receiver-aperture-averaged scintillation index (SI) was derived for Gaussian-beam waves propagating through non-Kolmogorov maritime atmospheric environment by establishing a generalized maritime atmospheric spectrum model. The error performance of an intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IM/DD) free-space optical (FSO) system was investigated using the derived SI and log-normal distribution. The combined effects of non-Kolmogorov power-law exponent, turbulence inner scale, structure parameter, propagation distance, receiver aperture, and wavelength were also evaluated. Results show that inner scale and power-law exponent obviously affect SI. Large wavelength and receiver aperture can mitigate the effects of turbulence. The proposed model can be evaluated ship-to-ship/shore FSO system performance. PMID:26699050
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez, Jose Ramón; González Anera, Rosario; Jiménez del Barco, Luis; Hita, Enrique; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco
2005-01-01
We provide a correction factor to be added in ablation algorithms when a Gaussian beam is used in photorefractive laser surgery. This factor, which quantifies the effect of pulse overlapping, depends on beam radius and spot size. We also deduce the expected post-surgical corneal radius and asphericity when considering this factor. Data on 141 eyes operated on LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) with a Gaussian profile show that the discrepancy between experimental and expected data on corneal power is significantly lower when using the correction factor. For an effective improvement of post-surgical visual quality, this factor should be applied in ablation algorithms that do not consider the effects of pulse overlapping with a Gaussian beam.
Gaussian Beam Propagation in a Kerr Type Metamaterial Medium Using ABCD Matrix Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavarz, A.; Naseri, M.
2016-08-01
In this paper, a split step ABCD matrix method is suggested to investigate Gaussian beam propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial medium. This method is based on dividing the medium interval into subsequent steps. Meanwhile, Gaussian beam profile in every step is obtained by finding the ABCD matrix of that particular step, and is used to find the ABCD matrix of the next step. Results of the suggested matrix method have been compared with the results of numerical split-step Fourier method for a Kerr medium, which indicates a good agreement. Then, we use the ABCD matrix to investigate Gaussian beams propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial, which is also in agreement with pervious results by other methods.
Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.
2016-01-01
Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625
On focusing of a ring ripple on a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a plasma
Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.
2008-09-15
In this communication the authors have investigated the focusing of a ring ripple on a Gaussian electromagnetic beam propagating in a plasma, considering each of the three kinds of basic nonlinearities, namely, ponderomotive, collisional, and relativistic. In this analysis, the electric field profile of the propagating beam is assumed to be composed of the radial electric field distribution of the Gaussian beam as well as that of the ring ripple; a paraxial like approach has been adopted to analyze the characteristics of the propagation. Thus, one considers a unique dielectric function for the beam propagation and a radial field sensitive diffraction term, appropriate to the vicinity of the maximum of the irradiance distribution of the ring ripple. Further, the variation of the phase associated with the beam on account of the r independent terms in the eikonal has also been accounted for.
Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K
2016-01-01
Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625
Propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through an apertured ABCD optical system.
Gao, Yan-Qi; Zhu, Bao-Qiang; Liu, Dai-Zhong; Lin, Zun-Qi
2009-10-01
The generalized analytical expression for the propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a misaligned apertured ABCD optical system is derived. Using this analytical expression, the propagation characteristics of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a spatial filter are investigated. The analytical formula of the electric field distribution in the focal plane is also derived for revealing the effects of the misalignment parameters clearly. It is found that different misalignment parameters have different influences on the electric field distributions of the beam focus spot and the output beam characteristics. The intensity distribution of the beam is mainly determined by the misalignment matrix element E, and the phase distribution is affected by the misalignment matrix elements G and E. PMID:19798391
Vacuum electron acceleration driven by a tightly focused radially polarized Gaussian beam.
Dai, Lin; Li, Jian-Xing; Zang, Wei-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo
2011-05-01
Electron acceleration in vacuum driven by a tightly focused radially polarized Gaussian beam has been studied in detail. Weniger transformation method is used to eliminate the divergence of the radially polarized electromagnetic field derived from the Lax series approach. And, electron dynamics in an intense radially polarized Gaussian beam is analyzed by using the Weniger transformation field. The roles of the initial phase of the electromagnetic field and the injection angle, position and energy of electron in energy gain of electron have been studied in detail. PMID:21643185
S., Juan Manuel Franco; Cywiak, Moises; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir
2015-06-24
A homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He–Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. Furthermore, we give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.
Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam
Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen; Liu, Xiaozhou
2014-10-14
A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.
Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Xiaozhou; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen
2014-10-01
A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.
2013-09-01
The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear Kerr type and saturable fibres. CGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam evolution in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to other methods of nonlinear optics such as variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam propagation in saturable fibres with either focusing and defocusing refractive profiles. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front, phenomenon of weak absorption and effect of either transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneity on GB propagation in nonlinear fibres is discussed in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jianfeng; Gong, Jinhui; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng
2011-11-01
A special software is constructed effectively for reconstructing the fine phase distribution of the diffracted Gaussian laser beams in the terahertz frequency range, according to common diffraction theory. The fine surface microrelief patterns of the elements, which originate from the simple patterns in photomask and further etched onto the surface of {100}- oriented silicon wafer by a low cost and rapid method, are created by the software above according to the phase distribution designed. Being different with the traditional silicon diffractive lenses fabricated by multiple level processes, the elements produced by the method introduced by us can transfer common Gaussian beams into desired images through created fine patterns over the surface of the elements. Two typical type of diffractive elements, which are used to transform common Gaussian laser beams in terahertz frequency into highly focused spot or so-called common focus, and the desired figure of the "umber one", are designed and fabricated. For testing the element, the LASER SIEIR 50 of Coherent Company is used to generate common Gaussian laser beams (the diameter of the beams is 10mm), and the PYROCAM THERE of Spiricon Company is also used to display the images acquired. Experimental results show that the elements can be used to form needed light fields and expected images, respectively.
Nonlinear derating of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams using Gaussian modal sums.
Dibaji, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Banerjee, Rupak K; Soneson, Joshua E; Myers, Matthew R
2013-11-01
A method is introduced for using measurements made in water of the nonlinear acoustic pressure field produced by a high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer to compute the acoustic pressure and temperature rise in a tissue medium. The acoustic pressure harmonics generated by nonlinear propagation are represented as a sum of modes having a Gaussian functional dependence in the radial direction. While the method is derived in the context of Gaussian beams, final results are applicable to general transducer profiles. The focal acoustic pressure is obtained by solving an evolution equation in the axial variable. The nonlinear term in the evolution equation for tissue is modeled using modal amplitudes measured in water and suitably reduced using a combination of "source derating" (experiments in water performed at a lower source acoustic pressure than in tissue) and "endpoint derating" (amplitudes reduced at the target location). Numerical experiments showed that, with proper combinations of source derating and endpoint derating, direct simulations of acoustic pressure and temperature in tissue could be reproduced by derating within 5% error. Advantages of the derating approach presented include applicability over a wide range of gains, ease of computation (a single numerical quadrature is required), and readily obtained temperature estimates from the water measurements. PMID:24180754
Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams.
Lloyd, David T; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N; Hooker, Simon M
2016-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation. PMID:27465654
Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, David T.; O’Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N.; Hooker, Simon M.
2016-07-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation.
Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams
Lloyd, David T.; O’Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N.; Hooker, Simon M.
2016-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation. PMID:27465654
2-D Gaussian beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protasov, M. I.
2015-12-01
An approach for true-amplitude seismic beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in 2-D anisotropic elastic media is presented and discussed. Here, the recovered true-amplitude function is a scattering potential. This approach is a migration procedure based on the weighted summation of pre-stack data. The true-amplitude weights are computed by applying Gaussian beams (GBs). We shoot a pair of properly chosen GBs with a fixed dip and opening angles from the current imaging point towards an acquisition system. This pair of beams is used to compute a true-amplitude selective image of a rapid velocity variation. The total true-amplitude image is constructed by superimposing selective images computed for a range of available dip angles. The global regularity of the GBs allows one to disregard whether a ray field is regular or irregular. P- and S-wave GBs can be used to handle raw multicomponent data without separating the waves. The use of anisotropic GBs allows one to take into account the anisotropy of the background model.
Focusing of Gaussian beam passed under small angle to optical axis of uniaxial crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, M. O.; Shostka, N. V.
2016-07-01
We showed both experimentally and analytically, the effect of focusing of a Gaussian beam propagated under small angle ϕ with respect to the optical axis of a uniaxial crystal, on the generation of a bottle beam. At ϕ = 0° two foci that correspond to ordinary and extraordinary parts of a beam form a closed 3D structure of a bottle beam. At this point, the beam, in the foci points, has radially and azimuthally aligned polarizations. Increasing the value of ϕ leads to dramatic changes in the intensity and polarization structure of a bottle beam. Starting from the value of ϕ = ±2° the closed 3D symmetric structure of a bottle beam breaks down. At ϕ = ±5° both beams are focused at the same transverse plane, while its polarization evolves to x- and y-linear. With a further increase in angle ϕ two foci ‘switch’ their spatial positions and move further away.
Rayleigh scattering of a Gaussian laser beam from expanding clusters
Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.
2009-12-15
Rayleigh scattering of an intense laser with Gaussian temporal and radial profiles from clustered gases is examined. The laser quickly converts the clusters into plasma balls with electron cloud of each ball executing large excursions about the ion sphere. The laser also heats the electrons. As the clusters expand under hydrodynamic pressure, plasma frequency of the cluster electrons omega{sub pe} decreases. The temporal rate of decrease in omega{sub pe} is maximum on laser axis and falls off with r. As the electron density of a cluster approaches plasma resonance, omega{sub pe}=omegasq root(3) (where omega is the frequency of the laser) the oscillatory electron cloud of the cluster produces resonantly enhanced Rayleigh scattering. This resonant enhancement first occurs in clusters on laser axis and afterward in farther clusters. The diffraction divergence of the laser limits the length of the cluster plasma, hence the Rayleigh scattering.
Terahertz generation by mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in collisional plasma
Singh, Divya; Malik, Hitendra K. E-mail: hkmalik@physics.iitd.ac.in
2014-08-15
Considering a realistic situation, where electron-neutral collisions persist in plasma, analytical calculations are carried out for the Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two Super-Gaussian (SG) lasers of index p. The competency of these lasers over Gaussian lasers is discussed in detail with respect to the effects of collision and beam width on the THz field amplitude and efficiency of the mechanism. A critical transverse distance of the peak of the THz field is defined that shows a dependence on the index of SG lasers. Although electron-neutral collisions and larger beam width lead to the drastic reduction in the THz field when the SG lasers are used in the plasma, the efficiency of the mechanism remains much larger than the case of Gaussian lasers. Moreover, the higher index SG lasers produce stronger and focused THz radiation.
Propagation characteristics of a non-uniformly Hermite-Gaussian correlated beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Zhenzhen; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhou, Keya; Sun, Qiongge; Liu, Shutian
2016-01-01
We introduce a new kind of partially coherent beam, non-uniformly Hermite-Gaussian correlated beam, by employing a non-uniformly Hermite function to modulate the spectral degree of coherence. The evolution of such scalar beam on propagation in free space and turbulent atmosphere are investigated. It is demonstrated that the spectral intensity distributions exhibit extraordinary propagation characteristics, such as self-focusing and laterally shifted intensity maxima. The position of the maximum intensity and the intensity profile can be controlled by the order of the Hermite function. The results can be useful in free-space optical communications and beam shaping.
Self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beam with relativistic nonlinearity
Sharma, Prerana
2015-07-31
This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams in plasma considering relativistic nonlinearity. The differential equations for beam width parameters are obtained using the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is assumed to be aroused mainly due to the relativistic mass correction of electron. To highlight the nature of focusing, graphical results of the behavior of beam-width parameters with the dimensionless distance of propagation is presented. The numerical computation is completed by using Taylor series method. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments.
Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam
Stallard, B.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Byers, J.A.
1992-05-19
An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam is described. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k[sub [phi
On the reconstruction of parameters of quasi-Gaussian pump beams during transient SBS
Dementjev, Aleksandr S; Kosenko, E K; Murauskas, E; Girdauskas, V
2006-08-31
The radii and radii of curvature of Stokes stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) beams are measured by the method of moments for smooth nearly Gaussian focused pump beams with the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p{<=}}1.2. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently deeply focused pump radiation, the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}S} of Stokes beams near the threshold of the transient SBS is smaller than M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p} and approaches it with increasing the pump pulse energy. It is also found that the radii of Stokes beams at the output from a nonlinear medium are smaller than the radii of pump beams, while the radii of wave-front curvature are close (in modulus) to the radii of wave-front curvature for pump beams. (laser beams)
Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie
2016-05-01
Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.
Synthesis of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piquero, G.; Gori, F.; Romanini, P.; Santarsiero, M.; Borghi, R.; Mondello, A.
2002-07-01
An experimental procedure for the synthesis of a class of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model sources is proposed. The experimental set-up is based on Mach-Zenhder interferometer. This kind of sources give rise to not only a coherence degree and intensity profile that are both Gaussian but also a Gaussian local degree of polarization in each plane upon free propagation. Measurements of the local degree of polarization and the intensities in the far field are presented. It is shown that from these measurements some characteristic parameters of the source can be obtained.
Gaussian beams for a linearized cold plasma confined in a torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardinali, A.; Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Klevin, A.; Tirozzi, B.
2016-04-01
We consider a system of linear pde describing a cold plasma in a toroidal region in three-dimensional space. This system simulates the passage of a laser beam through the TOKAMAK, it consists of 9 equations for the electric field and the velocities of electrons and ions in a given magnetic field. Asymptotic solutions describing high-frequency Gaussian beams are constructed using the theory of Maslov complex germ in a fairly effective form. The solutions of the system are localized in the neighborhood of the beam passing through the toroidal domain (the camera). The equations for a ray take into account the density of particles in the camera and don't ``feel'' the presence of the magnetic field because of the high frequency of the Gaussian beam; the dependence on the magnetic field is contained in the amplitude of the electric field. Before the TOKAMAK camera the amplitude of the Gaussian beam is the same as in free space, but after the camera the amplitude vector rotates under the influence of the magnetic field. The formula for the angle of rotation is given explicitly. An analytical-numerical algorithm based on the asymptotic solutions is used to analyze the parameters of the magnetic field in the TOKAMAK.
Low coherence interferometry modelling using combined broadband Gaussian light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansz, Paul; Wild, Graham; Richardson, Steven; Hinckley, Steven
2012-02-01
Using a Low Coherence Interferometry (LCI) model, a comparison of broadband single-Gaussian and multi-Gaussian light sources has been undertaken. For single-Gaussian sources, the axial resolution improved with source bandwidth, confirming the coherence length relation that resolution for single Gaussian sources improves with increasing spectral bandwidth. However, narrow bandwidth light sources resulted in interferograms with overlapping strata peaks and the loss of individual strata information. For multiple-Gaussian sources with the same bandwidth, spectral side lobes increased, reducing A-scan reliability to show accurate layer information without eliminating the side lobes. The simulations show the conditions needed for resolution of strata information for broadband light sources using both single and multiple Gaussian models. The potential to use the model to study LCI and OCT light sources, optical delays and sample structures can better characterise these LCI and OCT elements. Forecasting misinformation in the interferogram, may allow preliminary corrections. With improvements to the LCI-OCT model, more applications are envisaged.
Gaussian-to-top-hat beam shaping: an overview of parameters, methods, and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homburg, O.; Mitra, T.
2012-02-01
Direct laser patterning of various materials is today widely used in several micro-system production lines like inkjet printing, solar cell technology, flat-panel display production, LEDs, OLEDs, semiconductors and medicine. Typically single-mode solid state lasers and their higher harmonics (e. g. 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) are used especially for machining of holes and grooves. The striking advantages of flat top intensity distributions compared to Gaussian beam profiles with respect to the efficiency and quality of these processes were already demonstrated. Here we will give an overview of parameters, methods and applications of Gaussian-to-top-hat beam shaping. The top hat field size can start from about 30 μm with no upper size limitation in the far field of the optics. Beam shaping for various wavelengths were realized with field geometries of squares, rectangles and circles. With LIMO's compact Gaussian-to-top-hat converter an inhomogeneity better than 5% contrast was reached. Special focus is put on the integration of Gaussian-to-top-hat beam shapers in fast scanning systems employing Galvo mirrors and a specially developed f-Theta lens to avoid destruction of the top hat profile within the scan field. Results with a 50x50μm2 top hat size (inhomogeneity down to <10%) in a scan area of 156x156mm² are presented. The minimal distortions of the top hat observed within the scan area make LIMO's compact Gaussian-to-top-hat converter excellently suited for industrial scanning applications, e.g. for the processing of solar panels.
Spin-controlled orbital motion in tightly focused high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Cao, Yongyin; Zhu, Tongtong; Lv, Haiyi; Ding, Weiqiang
2016-02-22
Spin angular momentum can contribute to both optical force and torque exerted on spheres. Orbit rate of spheres located in tightly focused LG beams with the same azimuthal mode index l is spin-controlled due to spin-orbit coupling. Laguerre-Gaussian beams with high-order azimuthal mode are used here to study the orbit rate of dielectric spheres. Orbit rates of spheres with varying sizes and refravtive indices are investigated as well as optical forces acting on spheres in LG beams with different azimuthal modes. These results would be much helpful to investigation on optical rotation and transfer of spin and orbital angular momentum. PMID:26906996
Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam
Stallard, Barry W.; Makowski, Michael A.; Byers, Jack A.
1992-01-01
An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k.sub..phi. component of the propagation vector of the gyrotron output beam. The second mirror has a twist reflector to linearly polarize the beam. The third mirror has a constant phase surface so the converter output is in phase.
Generating a Bessel-Gaussian beam for the application in optical engineering
Chu, Xiuxiang; Sun, Quan; Wang, Jing; Lü, Pin; Xie, Wenke; Xu, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Bessel beam is the important member of the family of non-diffracting beams and has many novel properties which can be used in many areas. However, the source of Bessel beam generated by the existing methods can be used only in a short distance due to its low power. In this paper, based on the coherent combining technology, we have proposed a method which can be used to generate a high-power Bessel beam. Even more, we give an innovative idea to form vortex phase by using discontinuous piston phase. To confirm the validity of this method, the intensity evolution of the combined beam and the Bessel-Gaussian beam at different propagation distance have been studied and compared. Meanwhile, the experimental realization has been discussed from the existing experimental result related to the coherent combining technology. PMID:26690264
Propagation of an Airy-Gaussian vortex beam in linear and nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chidao; Peng, Xi; Chen, Bo; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei
2016-05-01
We investigate the propagation of an Airy-Gaussian vortex (AiGV) beam in free space and Kerr media. It is interesting to see that the beam will perform self-healing and main lobe focusing both in free space and Kerr media when the vortex locates at the center of the plane. By controlling the number of the topological charge, the beam distribution factor χ 0 and the position of the vortex, we can control the intensity distribution of the AiGV beam in the out plane both in free space and Kerr media. It is found that when the vortex is close to the center of the plane, it has a strong effect on the intensity distribution of the beam. When the beam propagates in the number of the topological charge, the partial collapse will take place even with low initial input power. We find that the main lobe focusing contributes to this partial collapse.
Generating a Bessel-Gaussian beam for the application in optical engineering.
Chu, Xiuxiang; Sun, Quan; Wang, Jing; Lü, Pin; Xie, Wenke; Xu, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Bessel beam is the important member of the family of non-diffracting beams and has many novel properties which can be used in many areas. However, the source of Bessel beam generated by the existing methods can be used only in a short distance due to its low power. In this paper, based on the coherent combining technology, we have proposed a method which can be used to generate a high-power Bessel beam. Even more, we give an innovative idea to form vortex phase by using discontinuous piston phase. To confirm the validity of this method, the intensity evolution of the combined beam and the Bessel-Gaussian beam at different propagation distance have been studied and compared. Meanwhile, the experimental realization has been discussed from the existing experimental result related to the coherent combining technology. PMID:26690264
Automatic image equalization and contrast enhancement using Gaussian mixture modeling.
Celik, Turgay; Tjahjadi, Tardi
2012-01-01
In this paper, we propose an adaptive image equalization algorithm that automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution, and the intersection points of the Gaussian components in the model are used to partition the dynamic range of the image into input gray-level intervals. The contrast equalized image is generated by transforming the pixels' gray levels in each input interval to the appropriate output gray-level interval according to the dominant Gaussian component and the cumulative distribution function of the input interval. To take account of the hypothesis that homogeneous regions in the image represent homogeneous silences (or set of Gaussian components) in the image histogram, the Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances, and the gray-level distribution is also used to weight the components in the mapping of the input interval to the output interval. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces better or comparable enhanced images than several state-of-the-art algorithms. Unlike the other algorithms, the proposed algorithm is free of parameter setting for a given dynamic range of the enhanced image and can be applied to a wide range of image types. PMID:21775265
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Donglin; Shan, Lei; Xia, Mingchao; Zhao, Yuanhang
2016-05-01
The effects of strong turbulence on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of infrared and non-diffraction beam propagation in a terrestrial atmosphere are investigated. A new probability density model for OAM states of Bessel-Gaussian-Schell beam in the paraxial and strong turbulent channel is modeled based on the modified Rytov approximation. We find that the normalization energy weight of signal OAM modes at each OAM level is approximate equivalence in strong turbulence regime, one can constitute multiple mode channels by choosing OAM modes with large energy level difference between modes to reduce mode interference, and one can utilize BGS beam with OAM modes increasing the channel capacity of optical communications.
Strong terahertz generation by optical rectification of a super-Gaussian laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Subodh; Kishor Singh, Ram; Sharma, R. P.
2016-06-01
Terahertz (THz) generation by optical rectification of a laser beam having spatially super-Gaussian and temporally Gaussian intensity profile is investigated when it is propagating in a pre-formed rippled density plasma. The quasi-static ponderomotive force which is generated due to the variation in intensity of laser pulse leads to a nonlinear current density in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation which drives a radiation. The frequency of this radiation falls in the THz range if the pulse duration of the laser is chosen suitably. The density ripple provides the phase matching. The yield of generated THz has been compared when the phase matching is exact and when there is slight mismatch of phases. The variation in the intensity of the generated THz with the index of super-Gaussian pulse has also been studied.
Investigation of Anderson localization in disordered heterostructures irradiated by a Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardakani, Abbas Ghasempour
2016-02-01
The propagation of a Gaussian beam through a one-dimensional disordered media is studied. By employing the transfer matrix method, the localization length as a function of frequency is calculated for different values of transverse coordinate r. It is demonstrated that the localization length significantly depends on r in different frequency ranges. This result is in contrast to those reported for a plane wave incident on disordered structures in which the localization length is transversely constant. For some frequency regions, the peak of localization length is red-shifted and becomes smaller with increasing the transverse coordinate. At some frequencies, the system is in the localized state for particular values of r, while at other r values the system is in the extend regime at the same frequencies. It is observed that the quality of localization at each frequency depends on r. To quantify the localization behavior of the whole Gaussian beam, a modified localization length is defined in terms of the input and output powers of the Gaussian beam where the dependence of Anderson localization on the transverse coordinate is considered. It is suggested that this modified localization length is used in experiments performed for study of wave propagation in one-dimensional random media under illumination of laser beams.
Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma
Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.
2014-06-15
The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.
Design and analysis of diffractive optical elements for flattening of single modal Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Kewei; Huang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Wumei; Xing, Tingwen
2012-10-01
A design method of diffractive optical element is presented for converting a single modal Gaussian beam into a flat-top beam in the far field of the source. The design is based on geometrical method and modified Gerchberg-Saxton method. Geometrical method derives from the conservation of energy and the constant optical path length. This method could supply initial phase distribution of the modified Gerchberg-Saxton method. To find the optimization design results, the modified Gerchberg-Saxton method is important to choose the feedback factor to increase the convergent speed. In addition, tolerances and limitations of such elements result in a reduction of the diffraction efficiency and as a result of stray light. Further study indicates that deviation of the laser wavelength, incident beam, and observation plane can greatly influence flat-top beam shaping quality. On the basis of theoretical and experimental results, limitations for the application of diffractive beam shaping elements are investigated.
Geometrical representation of Gaussian beams propagating through complex paraxial optical systems.
Andrews, L C; Miller, W B; Ricklin, J C
1993-10-20
Geometric relations are used to study the propagation environment of a Gaussian beam wave propagating through a complex paraxial optical system characterized by an ABCD ray matrix in two naturally linked complex planes. In the plane defined by beam transmitter parameters Ω(o) and Ω, the propagation path is described by a ray line similar to the ray line in the y? diagram method, whereas the path in the plane of beam receiver parameters θ and Λ is described by a circular arc. In either plane the amplitude, phase, spot size, and radius of curvature of the Gaussian beam are directly related to the modulus and argument of the complex number designating a particular transverse plane along the propagation path. These beam parameters also lead to simple geometric relations for locating the beam waist, Rayleigh range, focal plane, and sister planes, which share the same radius of curvature but have opposite signs. Combined with the paraxial wave propagation technique based on a Huygens-Fresnel integral and complex ABCD ay matrices, this geometric approach provides a new and powerful method for the analysis and design of laser systems. PMID:20856413
Negative refraction and backward wave in pseudochiral mediums: illustrations of Gaussian beams.
Chern, Ruey-Lin; Chang, Po-Han
2013-02-11
We investigate the phenomena of negative refraction and backward wave in pseudochiral mediums, with illustrations of Gaussian beams. Due to symmetry breaking intrinsic in pseudochiral mediums, there exist two elliptically polarized eigenwaves with different wave vectors. As the chirality parameter increases from zero, the two waves begin to split from each other. For a wave incident from vacuum onto a pseudochiral medium, negative refraction may occur for the right-handed wave, whereas backward wave may appear for the left-handed wave. These features are illustrated with Gaussian beams based on Fourier integral formulations for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves. Negative refraction and backward wave are manifest, respectively, on the energy flow in space and wavefront movement in time. PMID:23481721
Phase-only shaping algorithm for Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams.
Durfee, Charles G; Gemmer, John; Moloney, Jerome V
2013-07-01
Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams can be used to create a Bessel-like axial line focus at a distance from the focusing lens. For many applications it is desirable to create an axial intensity profile that is uniform along the Bessel zone. In this article, we show that this can be accomplished through phase-only shaping of the wavefront in the far field where the beam has an annular ring structure with a Gaussian cross section. We use a one-dimensional transform to map the radial input field to the axial Bessel field and then optimized the axial intensity with a Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. By separating out the quadratic portion of the shaping phase the algorithm converges more rapidly. PMID:23842364
Log-amplitude variance for a Gaussian-beam wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Tan, Liying; Du, Wenhe; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Han, Qiqi
2010-01-18
In the past decades, both the increasing experimental evidences and some results of theoretical investigation on non-Kolmogorov turbulence have been reported. This has prompted the study of optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which owns a generalized power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the log-amplitude variances for a Gaussian-beam wave are derived in the weak-fluctuation regime for a horizontal path. The analytic expressions are obtained and then used to analyze the effect of spectral power-law variations on the log-amplitude fluctuations of Gaussian-beam wave. PMID:20173865
Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R.
2014-06-01
This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors.
Remacha, Clément; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Brunel, Marc; Lebrun, Denis
2013-02-01
Wavelet analysis provides an efficient tool in numerous signal processing problems and has been implemented in optical processing techniques, such as in-line holography. This paper proposes an improvement of this tool for the case of an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian (AEG) beam. We show that this mathematical operator allows reconstructing an image of a spherical particle without compression of the reconstructed image, which increases the accuracy of the 3D location of particles and of their size measurement. To validate the performance of this operator we have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle illuminated by an AEG beam. This study used mutual intensity propagation, and the particle is defined as a chirped Gaussian sum. The proposed technique was applied and the experimental results are presented. PMID:23385926
The properties of the anti-tumor model with coupling non-Gaussian noise and Gaussian colored noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Qin; Sun, Zhongkui; Xu, Wei
2016-05-01
The anti-tumor model with correlation between multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive Gaussian-colored noise has been investigated in this paper. The behaviors of the stationary probability distribution demonstrate that the multiplicative non-Gaussian noise plays a dual role in the development of tumor and an appropriate additive Gaussian colored noise can lead to a minimum of the mean value of tumor cell population. The mean first passage time is calculated to quantify the effects of noises on the transition time of tumors between the stable states. An increase in both the non-Gaussian noise intensity and the departure from the Gaussian noise can accelerate the transition from the disease state to the healthy state. On the contrary, an increase in cross-correlated degree will slow down the transition. Moreover, the correlation time can enhance the stability of the disease state.
Light scattering of a Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam by a chiral sphere.
Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shang, Qing-Chao; Li, Zheng-Jun
2016-04-01
Since the development of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, electromagnetic scattering by arbitrary beams has drawn growing interest. The Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) vortex beam is well known for its orbital angular momentum. With the aim of investigating the analytical solution to the scattering of a chiral sphere by a LG vortex beam, particular attention is paid to the expansion expression of the LG vortex beam. The expansion coefficients are derived based on the expansion of a Hermite Guassian beam as the LG vortex beam can be expressed as the superposition of Hermite Guassian modes. The numerical results of the incident beam expansion coefficients convergence and the scattered field comparison with the reference prove the validity of the theoretical analysis and computation codes. The results reveal that there exists an optimal sphere size for the maximum scattered field which is determined by the topological charge, beam waist radius, and beam center position. The investigation could provide a foundation for the optical manipulation of chiral particles by a LG vortex beam. PMID:27140753
Gaussian beams for surface waves in laterally slowly-varying media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yomogida, K.
1985-01-01
Asymptotic ray theory is applied to surface waves in a medium where the lateral variations of structure are very smooth. The elastodynamic equations of motion in ray-centered coordinates are derived, and a laterally slowly-varying approximation for elastodynamic equations is obtained. Parabolic equations for Love and Rayleigh waves are studied and solved, and the properties of Gaussian beams of seismic surface waves are examined.
Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Tong, Shoufeng; Lou, Yan
2016-04-01
The radial average-power distribution and normalized average power of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes in a vortex Gaussian beam after passing through weak-to-strong atmospheric turbulence are theoretically formulated. Based on numerical calculations, the role of the intrinsic mode index, initial beam radius and turbulence strength in OAM-mode variations of a propagated vortex Gaussian beam is explored, and the validity of the pure-phase-perturbation approximation employed in existing theoretical studies is examined. Comparison between turbulence-induced OAM-mode scrambling of vortex Gaussian beams and that of either Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams or pure vortex beams has been made. Analysis shows that the normalized average power of OAM modes changes with increasing receiver-aperture size until it approaches a nearly stable value. For a receiver-aperture size of practical interest, OAM-mode scrambling is severer with a larger mode index or smaller initial beam radius besides stronger turbulence. Under moderate-to-strong turbulence condition, for two symmetrically-neighboring extrinsic OAM modes, the normalized average power of the one with an index closer to zero may be greater than that of the other one. The validity of the pure-phase-perturbation approximation is determined by the intrinsic mode index, initial beam radius and turbulence strength. It makes sense to jointly control the amplitude and phase of a fundamental Gaussian beam for producing an OAM-carrying beam. PMID:27136990
Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media: solution in frame of complex geometrical optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Berczynski, P.
2005-09-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics is presented to describe Gaussian beam diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous media, including lens-like media. The method modifies and specifies the results by Babic' (1968), Kirpichnikova (1971), Cerveny, Popov, Psencik (1982), Cerveny (1983, 2001), Timofeev (1995) and Pereverzev (1996) as applied to the optical problems. The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media to the solution of the system of the ordinary differential equations of first order, which can be readily calculated numerically by the Runge-Kutta method. Thereby the paraxial complex geometrical optics radically simplifies description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media as compared to the numerical methods of wave optics. By the way of example the known analytical solution for Gaussianbeam diffraction both in a free space and in lens-like medium (Bornatici, Maj 2003) are presented. It is pointed out, that the method of paraxial complex geometrical optics turns out to be equivalent to the solutions of the abridged parabolic wave equation.
Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Salih, Hyder A.
2009-04-15
Second harmonic generation of a right circularly polarized Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The beam causes Ohmic heating of electrons and subsequent redistribution of the plasma, leading to self-defocusing. The radial density gradient, in conjunction with the oscillatory electron velocity, produces density oscillation at the wave frequency. The density oscillation beats with the oscillatory velocity to produce second harmonic current density, giving rise to resonant second harmonic radiation when the wave frequency is one-third of electron cyclotron frequency. The second harmonic field has azimuthal dependence as exp(i{theta}). The self-defocusing causes a reduction in the efficiency of harmonic generation.
Demonstration of CNOT gate with Laguerre Gaussian beams via four-wave mixing in atom vapor.
Cao, Mingtao; Yu, Ya; Zhang, Liyun; Ye, Fengjuan; Wang, Yunlong; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Wenge; Zhang, Shougang; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli
2014-08-25
We present an experimental study of controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate through four-wave mixing (FWM) process in a Rubidium vapor cell. A degenerate FWM process in a two level atomic system is directly excited by a single diode laser, where backward pump beam and probe beam are Laguerre Gaussian mode. By means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum, we demonstrate the ability to realize CNOT gate with topological charges transformation in this nonlinear process. The fidelity of CNOT gate for a superposition state with different topological charge reaches about 97% in our experiment. PMID:25321227
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina
2015-12-01
Non-paraxial theories of wave propagation are essential to model the interaction of highly focused light with matter. Here we investigate the energy, momentum and propagation of the Laguerre-, Hermite- and Ince-Gaussian solutions (LG, HG, and IG) of the paraxial wave equation in an apertured non-paraxial regime. We investigate the far-field relationships between the LG, HG, and IG solutions and the vector spherical wave function (VSWF) solutions of the vector Helmholtz wave equation. We investigate the convergence of the VSWF and the various Gaussian solutions in the presence of an aperture. Finally, we investigate the differences in linear and angular momentum evaluated in the paraxial and non-paraxial regimes. The non-paraxial model we develop can be applied to calculations of the focusing of high-order Gaussian modes in high-resolution microscopes. We find that the addition of an aperture in high numerical aperture optical systems does not greatly affect far-field properties except when the beam is significantly clipped by an aperture. Diffraction from apertures causes large distortions in the near-field and will influence light-matter interactions. The method is not limited to a particular solution of the paraxial wave equation. Our model is constructed in a formalism that is commonly used in scattering calculations. It is thus applicable to optical trapping and other optical investigations of matter.
Propagation properties of Airy-Gaussian vortex beams through the gradient-index medium.
Zhao, Ruihuang; Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Huang, Jiayao; Deng, Dongmei
2016-06-01
Propagation of Airy-Gaussian vortex (AiGV) beams through the gradient-index medium is investigated analytically and numerically with the transfer matrix method. Deriving the analytic expression of the AiGV beams based on the Huygens diffraction integral formula, we obtain the propagate path, intensity and phase distributions, and the Poynting vector of the first- and second-order AiGV beams, which propagate through the paraxial ABCD system. The ballistic trajectory is no longer conventional parabolic but trigonometric shapes in the gradient-index medium. Especially, the AiGV beams represent the singular behavior at the propagation path and the light intensity distribution. The phase distribution and the Poynting vector exhibit in reverse when the AiGV beams through the singularity. As the order increases, the main lobe of the AiGV beams is gradually overlapped by the vortex core. Further, the sidelobe weakens when the AiGV beams propagate nearly to the singularity. Additionally, the figure of the Poynting vector of the AiGV beams proves the direction of energy flow corresponding to the intensity distribution. The vortex of the second-order AiGV beams is larger, and the propagation velocity is faster than that of the first order. PMID:27409428
Scintillation reduction for combined Gaussian-vortex beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere
Berman, Gennady P; Gorshkov, V. N.; Torous, S. V.
2010-12-14
We numerically examine the spatial evolution of the structure of coherent and partially coherent laser beams (PCBs), including the optical vortices, propagating in turbulent atmospheres, The influence of beam fragmentation and wandering relative to the axis of propagation (z-axis) on the value of the scintillation index (SI) of the signal at the detector is analyzed. A method for significantly reducing the SI, by averaging the signal at the detector over a set of PCBs, is described, This novel method is to generate the PCBs by combining two laser beams - Gaussian and vortex beams, with different frequencies (the difference between these two frequencies being significantly smaller than the frequencies themselves). In this case, the SI is effectively suppressed without any high-frequency modulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrando, A.; García-March, M. A.
2016-06-01
We present a novel procedure for solving the Schrödinger equation, which in optics is the paraxial wave equation, with an initial multisingular vortex Gaussian beam. This initial condition has a number of singularities in a plane transversal to propagation embedded in a Gaussian beam. We use scattering modes, which are solutions to the paraxial wave equation that can be combined straightforwardly to express the initial condition and therefore allow the problem to be solved. To construct the scattering modes one needs to obtain a particular set of polynomials, which play an analogous role to Laguerre polynomials for Laguerre–Gaussian modes. We demonstrate here the recurrence relations needed to determine these polynomials. To stress the utility and strength of the method we solve first the problem of an initial Gaussian beam with two positive singularities and a negative one embedded in it. We show that the solution permits one to obtain analytical expressions. These can used to obtain mathematical expressions for meaningful quantities, such as the distance at which the positive and negative singularities merge, closing the loop of a vortex line. Furthermore, we present an example of the calculation of an specific discrete-Gauss state, which is the solution of the diffraction of a Laguerre–Gauss state showing definite angular momentum (that is, a highly charged vortex) by a thin diffractive element showing certain discrete symmetry. We show that this problem is therefore solved in a much simpler way than by using the previous procedure based on the integral Fresnel diffraction method.
Yuan, Qiong-kun; Wu, Zhen-sen; Li, Zheng-jun
2010-06-01
An analytical solution to the scattering of an off-axis Gaussian beam obliquely incident on a uniaxial anisotropic sphere is obtained in the particle-centered system. Based on the local approximation to the off-axis beam shape coefficients and the coordinate rotation theory, the off-axis obliquely incident Gaussian beam is expanded with the spherical vector wave functions in the primary coordinate of the uniaxial anisotropic sphere. The internal fields of the uniaxial anisotropic sphere are proposed in the integrating form of the spherical vector wave functions by introducing the Fourier transform. By matching the fields on the boundary and solving matrix equations, the expansion coefficients are analytically derived. The influences of the beam waist center positioning and the obliquely incident angles, as well as the permittivity tensors on the far scattered field distributions, are numerically presented. The correctness of the theory is verified by comparing our numerical results in special cases with results from the references and with calculations by other algorithms. PMID:20508716
Bayesian Gaussian Copula Factor Models for Mixed Data
Murray, Jared S.; Dunson, David B.; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E.
2013-01-01
Gaussian factor models have proven widely useful for parsimoniously characterizing dependence in multivariate data. There is a rich literature on their extension to mixed categorical and continuous variables, using latent Gaussian variables or through generalized latent trait models acommodating measurements in the exponential family. However, when generalizing to non-Gaussian measured variables the latent variables typically influence both the dependence structure and the form of the marginal distributions, complicating interpretation and introducing artifacts. To address this problem we propose a novel class of Bayesian Gaussian copula factor models which decouple the latent factors from the marginal distributions. A semiparametric specification for the marginals based on the extended rank likelihood yields straightforward implementation and substantial computational gains. We provide new theoretical and empirical justifications for using this likelihood in Bayesian inference. We propose new default priors for the factor loadings and develop efficient parameter-expanded Gibbs sampling for posterior computation. The methods are evaluated through simulations and applied to a dataset in political science. The models in this paper are implemented in the R package bfa.1 PMID:23990691
Gaussian modelling and Schmidt modes of SPDC biphoton states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, M. V.; Mikhailova, Yu M.; Volkov, P. A.
2009-09-01
A double-Gaussian model and the Schmidt modes are found for the biphoton wavefunction characterizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion with the degenerate collinear phase-matching of type I and with a pulsed pump. The obtained results are valid for all durations of the pump pulses: short, long and intermediately long.
Robust Gaussian Graphical Modeling via l1 Penalization
Sun, Hokeun; Li, Hongzhe
2012-01-01
Summary Gaussian graphical models have been widely used as an effective method for studying the conditional independency structure among genes and for constructing genetic networks. However, gene expression data typically have heavier tails or more outlying observations than the standard Gaussian distribution. Such outliers in gene expression data can lead to wrong inference on the dependency structure among the genes. We propose a l1 penalized estimation procedure for the sparse Gaussian graphical models that is robustified against possible outliers. The likelihood function is weighted according to how the observation is deviated, where the deviation of the observation is measured based on its own likelihood. An efficient computational algorithm based on the coordinate gradient descent method is developed to obtain the minimizer of the negative penalized robustified-likelihood, where nonzero elements of the concentration matrix represents the graphical links among the genes. After the graphical structure is obtained, we re-estimate the positive definite concentration matrix using an iterative proportional fitting algorithm. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed robust method performs much better than the graphical Lasso for the Gaussian graphical models in terms of both graph structure selection and estimation when outliers are present. We apply the robust estimation procedure to an analysis of yeast gene expression data and show that the resulting graph has better biological interpretation than that obtained from the graphical Lasso. PMID:23020775
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jianjun; Guo, Banghong; Fan, Ronghua; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Litao; Zhang, Panpan
2016-03-01
We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a new method to measure high-order topological charges (TCs) of Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beams, including the magnitude and the sign, by analyzing the interference intensity patterns. The magnitude is determined by analyzing the interference intensity patterns between the vortex beam and its conjugate beam, and using an improved Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a dove prism. Counting the number of interference bright petals attests to the magnitude of high-order TCs through half of the bright petal number. After the TC is modulated by a spiral phase plate, the sign is acquired by comparing the counting results of two charge-coupled devices. Just by this method, we have been able to measure both the magnitude and the sign of the TCs up to l=±90. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
Optical trapping by Laguerre-Gaussian beams: Far-field matching, equilibria, and dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, Alexei D.; Plutenko, Dmytro O.
2016-07-01
By using the method of far-field matching we obtain the far-field expressions for the optical (radiation) force exerted by Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) light beams on a spherical (Mie) particle and study the optical-force-induced dynamics of the scatterer near the trapping points represented by the equilibrium (zero-force) positions. The regimes of linearized dynamics are described in terms of the stiffness matrix spectrum and the damping constant of the ambient medium. Numerical analysis is performed for both nonvortex and optical-vortex LG beams. For the purely azimuthal LG beams, the dynamics is found to be locally nonconservative and is characterized by the presence of conditionally stable equilibria (unstable zero-force points that can be stabilized by the ambient damping). We also discuss effects related to the Mie resonances (maxima of the internal field Mie coefficients) that under certain conditions manifest themselves as the points changing the trapping properties of the particles.
Scattering of an anisotropic sphere by an arbitrarily incident Hermite-Gaussian beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhensen; Shang, Qingchao; Li, Zhengjun; Bai, Lu; Li, Haiying
2016-02-01
An analytic theory for the scattering of an off-axis Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam obliquely incident on an anisotropic sphere is developed. Based on the complex-source-point method and coordinate rotation theory, a general expansion expression for an arbitrarily incident HG beam in terms of Spherical Vector Wave Functions (SVWFs) is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the internal field expressions of the anisotropic sphere are represented. With the continuous tangential boundary conditions applied, the unknown scattering coefficients are solved. The theory and code are verified from the comparisons between the degenerated cases using our theory and those in the references. Two eigenmodes inside the uniaxial anisotropic sphere are characterized. The influences of beam mode, oblique incident angles, permittivity and permeability tensors, and sphere radius on the scattered field are analyzed numerically. The scattering intensity distributions on uniaxial anisotropic sphere in xoz and yoz plane are enantiomorphous for on-axis oblique illumination.
Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun
2016-08-01
We studied Gaussian beams with three different partially coherent models, including the Gaussian-Schell model (GSM), Laguerre-Gaussian Schell model (LGSM), and Bessel-Gaussian Schell model (BGSM), propagating through oceanic turbulence. The expressions of average intensity, beam spreading, and beam wander for GSM, LGSM, and BGSM beams in the paraxial channel are derived. We make a contrast for the three models in numerical simulations and find that the GSM beam has smaller spreading than the others, and the LGSM beam needs longer propagation distance to transform into a well-like profile of average intensity than the BGSM beam in the same conditions. The salinity fluctuation has a greater contribution to the wander of LGSM and BGSM beams than that of the temperature fluctuation. Our results can be helpful in the design of an optical wireless communication link operating in oceanic environment. PMID:27505642
The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Shingyu; Qian, Jianliang
2010-11-01
We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schrödinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in [12]. In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.
Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo
2008-09-20
Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.
A Model for Gaussian Perturbations of Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodson, C. T. J.
2015-11-01
Graphene consists nominally of a regular planar hexagonal carbon lattice monolayer. However, its structure experiences perturbations in the presence of external influences, whether from substrate properties, thermal or electromagnetic fields, or ambient fluid movement. Here we give an information geometric model to represent the state space of perturbations as a Riemannian pseudosphere with scalar curvature close to -1/2. This would allow the representation of a trajectory of states under a given ambient or process change, so opening the possibility for geometrically formulated dynamical models to link structural perturbations to the physics.
The influence of oceanic turbulence on the spectral properties of chirped Gaussian pulsed beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Yaochuan; Wang, Guiqiu; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Jinren
2016-08-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the spectral behaviors of a chirped Gaussian pulsed beam propagating in oceanic turbulence are illustrated. The influence of the parameters of oceanic turbulence (the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-square temperature, relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations), relative position parameter and propagation distance on the spectra shift is analysed and given by numerical examples. The research results have the potential application in underwater wireless laser communication and remote sensing.
Declercq, Nico F
2006-12-22
It is well known that harmonic bounded Gaussian beams undergo a transformation into two bounded beams upon reflection on a solid immersed in a liquid. The effect is known as the Schoch effect and can be found at the Rayleigh angle for thick plates and at the different Lamb angles for thin plates. Here, a study is made on the effect of pulsed Gaussian beams reflected on solids. It is found experimentally that the Rayleigh wave phenomenon still generates two reflected bounded beams, whereas Lamb wave phenomena do not generate this effect. This fact may be explained intuitively by realizing that the Rayleigh phenomenon is a coincidental phenomenon that is generated in situ, whereas the Lamb wave phenomenon is a non-coincidental phenomenon that is generated only after incident sound is influenced by both sides of a thin plate. Another explanation is the fact that Rayleigh waves are not dispersive, whereas stimulation and propagation of Lamb waves is frequency dependent. A pulse contains many frequencies and therefore only a fraction of the incident pulse is transformed into a Lamb wave. In this paper, numerical simulations are performed that show that actually the Schoch effect does occur neither for Rayleigh waves, nor for Lamb waves. As a matter of fact, a pulse, incident at the Rayleigh angle, generates two reflected lobes with a null zone of a different kind. The null zone is beating several times during the passage of each pulse. This results in a 'null zone' having a lower mean intensity than any of the two lobes, still less outspoken than for the case of harmonic incident bounded beams. This effect does only occur for Rayleigh wave generation and is much less outspoken for Lamb wave generation. PMID:16815510
Trispectrum estimator in equilateral type non-Gaussian models
Mizuno, Shuntaro; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk
2010-10-01
We investigate an estimator to measure the primordial trispectrum in equilateral type non-Gaussian models such as k-inflation, single field DBI inflation and multi-field DBI inflation models from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. The shape of the trispectrum whose amplitude is not constrained by the bispectrum in the context of effective theory of inflation and k-inflation is known to admit a separable form of the estimator for CMB anisotropies. We show that this shape is 87% correlated with the full quantum trispectrum in single field DBI inflation, while it is 33% correlated with the one in multi-field DBI inflation when curvature perturbation is originated from purely entropic contribution. This suggests that g{sub NL}{sup equil}, the amplitude of this particular shape, provides a reasonable measure of the non-Gaussianity from the trispectrum in equilateral non-Gaussian models. We relate model parameters such as the sound speed, c{sub s} and the transfer coefficient from entropy perturbations to the curvature perturbation, T{sub RS} with g{sub NL}{sup equil}, which enables us to constrain model parameters in these models once g{sub NL}{sup equil} is measured in WMAP and Planck.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan
2016-09-01
A method for revealing the covariance matrix of an unknown two-mode Gaussian state is given based on the interference with a reference twin beam whose covariance matrix is known. In the method, first- and second-order cross-correlation intensity moments are determined varying the overall phase of the reference twin beam.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Transversal symmetry breaking and axial spreading modification for gaussian optical beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araújo, Manoel P.; De Leo, Stefano; Lima, Marina
2016-03-01
For a long time, it was believed there was no reason to include the geometrical phase in studying the propagation of gaussian optical beams through dielectric blocks. This can be justified by the fact that the first-order term in the Taylor expansion of this phase is responsible for the lateral shift of the optical beam which is also predicted by ray optics. From this point of view, the geometrical phase can be seen as a purely auxiliary concept. In this paper, we show how the second-order term in the Taylor expansion accounts for the symmetry breaking of the transversal spatial distribution and acts as an axial spreading modifier. These new effects clearly show the importance of the geometrical phase in describing the correct behavior of light. To test our theoretical predictions, we briefly discuss a possible experimental implementation.
Stochastic model updating utilizing Bayesian approach and Gaussian process model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Hua-Ping; Ren, Wei-Xin
2016-03-01
Stochastic model updating (SMU) has been increasingly applied in quantifying structural parameter uncertainty from responses variability. SMU for parameter uncertainty quantification refers to the problem of inverse uncertainty quantification (IUQ), which is a nontrivial task. Inverse problem solved with optimization usually brings about the issues of gradient computation, ill-conditionedness, and non-uniqueness. Moreover, the uncertainty present in response makes the inverse problem more complicated. In this study, Bayesian approach is adopted in SMU for parameter uncertainty quantification. The prominent strength of Bayesian approach for IUQ problem is that it solves IUQ problem in a straightforward manner, which enables it to avoid the previous issues. However, when applied to engineering structures that are modeled with a high-resolution finite element model (FEM), Bayesian approach is still computationally expensive since the commonly used Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for Bayesian inference requires a large number of model runs to guarantee the convergence. Herein we reduce computational cost in two aspects. On the one hand, the fast-running Gaussian process model (GPM) is utilized to approximate the time-consuming high-resolution FEM. On the other hand, the advanced MCMC method using delayed rejection adaptive Metropolis (DRAM) algorithm that incorporates local adaptive strategy with global adaptive strategy is employed for Bayesian inference. In addition, we propose the use of the powerful variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA) in parameter selection to exclude non-influential parameters from calibration parameters, which yields a reduced-order model and thus further alleviates the computational burden. A simulated aluminum plate and a real-world complex cable-stayed pedestrian bridge are presented to illustrate the proposed framework and verify its feasibility.
Research on Bayes matting algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Wei; Jiang, Shan; Han, Cheng; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Zhengang
2015-12-01
The digital matting problem is a classical problem of imaging. It aims at separating non-rectangular foreground objects from a background image, and compositing with a new background image. Accurate matting determines the quality of the compositing image. A Bayesian matting Algorithm Based on Gaussian Mixture Model is proposed to solve this matting problem. Firstly, the traditional Bayesian framework is improved by introducing Gaussian mixture model. Then, a weighting factor is added in order to suppress the noises of the compositing images. Finally, the effect is further improved by regulating the user's input. This algorithm is applied to matting jobs of classical images. The results are compared to the traditional Bayesian method. It is shown that our algorithm has better performance in detail such as hair. Our algorithm eliminates the noise well. And it is very effectively in dealing with the kind of work, such as interested objects with intricate boundaries.
Gaussian beam prestack depth migration of converted wave in TI media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jianguang; Wang, Yun; Xing, Zhantao; Lu, Jun
2014-10-01
Increasing amounts of multi-component seismic data are being acquired on land and offshore because more complete seismic wavefield information is beneficial for structural imaging, fluid detection, and reservoir monitoring. S-waves are typically influenced more by anisotropy in a medium than are P-waves; as a result, the anisotropy cannot be ignored during the converted PS-wave imaging. Gaussian beam migration, an elegant and efficient depth migration method, is becoming a new topic in the study of PS-wave migration; its accuracy is comparable to that of wave-equation migration, and its flexibility is comparable to that of Kirchhoff migration. In this paper, we introduce an anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) method for the converted PS-wave, in which the anisotropic media can be a transversely isotropic (TI) medium with a vertical or tilted symmetry axis. We present the PS-wave common shot gathers GB-PSDM imaging condition and derive the ray tracing of P- and SV-waves in two-dimensional TI media. The migration impulse responses of P- and SV-propagation modes in TI media with both vertical and tilted symmetry axes are presented. The results of numerical examples indicate that the method introduced here offers significant improvements in the quality of converted PS-wave imaging compared with an isotropic algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purohit, Gunjan; Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi
2016-01-01
The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.
Villafranca, Ana B; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi
2011-08-01
A Gaussian beam propagating in a photopolymer undergoes self-phase modulation to form diffraction rings and then transforms into a single ring, which in turn ruptures into a necklace of stable self-trapped multimode filaments. The transitions of the beam between the three distinct nonlinear forms only occur at intensities where the beam-induced refractive index profile in the medium slowly evolves from a Gaussian to a flattened Gaussian. PMID:21934919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore; Petra, Nicola
2014-04-01
Background identification is a fundamental task in many video processing systems. The Gaussian Mixture Model is a background identification algorithm that models the pixel luminance with a mixture of K Gaussian distributions. The number of Gaussian distributions determines the accuracy of the background model and the computational complexity of the algorithm. This paper compares two hardware implementations of the Gaussian Mixture Model that use three and five Gaussians per pixel. A trade off analysis is carried out by evaluating the quality of the processed video sequences and the hardware performances. The circuits are implemented on FPGA by exploiting state of the art, hardware oriented, formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model equations and by using truncated binary multipliers. The results suggest that the circuit that uses three Gaussian distributions provides video with good accuracy while requiring significant less resources than the option that uses five Gaussian distributions per pixel.
Accuracy of Loopy belief propagation in Gaussian models.
Nishiyama, Yu; Watanabe, Sumio
2009-05-01
This paper considers the loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm applied to Gaussian graphical models. It is known for Gaussian belief propagation that, if LBP converges, LBP computes the exact posterior means but incorrect variances. In this paper, we analytically derive the posterior variances for some special structured graphs and clarify the accuracy of LBP. For the graphs of a single cycle, we derive a rigorous solution for the posterior variances and thereby find the quantity that determines the accuracy of LBP. Based on this result, we state a necessary condition for LBP convergence. The quantity above also plays an important role in graphs of a single cycle with arbitrary trees. For arbitrary topological graphs, we consider the situation where correlations between any pair of nodes are comparatively small and show analytically the principal values that determine the accuracy of LBP. PMID:19243911
Accelerated Gaussian mixture model and its application on image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Yihua; Long, Chengjiang; Yuan, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dengyi
2013-03-01
Gaussian mixture model (GMM) has been widely used for image segmentation in recent years due to its superior adaptability and simplicity of implementation. However, traditional GMM has the disadvantage of high computational complexity. In this paper an accelerated GMM is designed, for which the following approaches are adopted: establish the lookup table for Gaussian probability matrix to avoid the repetitive probability calculations on all pixels, employ the blocking detection method on each block of pixels to further decrease the complexity, change the structure of lookup table from 3D to 1D with more simple data type to reduce the space requirement. The accelerated GMM is applied on image segmentation with the help of OTSU method to decide the threshold value automatically. Our algorithm has been tested through image segmenting of flames and faces from a set of real pictures, and the experimental results prove its efficiency in segmentation precision and computational cost.
Signatures of non-Gaussianity in the curvaton model
Enqvist, Kari; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2008-09-15
We discuss the signatures of non-Gaussianity in the curvaton model where the potential includes also a non-quadratic term. In such a case the non-linearity parameter f{sub NL} can become very small, and we show that non-Gaussianity is then encoded in the non-reducible non-linearity parameter g{sub NL} of the trispectrum, which can be very large. Thus the place to look for the non-Gaussianity in the curvaton model may be the trispectrum rather than the bispectrum. We also show that g{sub NL} measures directly the deviation of the curvaton potential from the purely quadratic form. While g{sub NL} depends on the strength of the non-quadratic terms relative to the quadratic one, we find that for reasonable cases roughly g{sub NL}{approx}O(-10{sup 4})-O(-10{sup 5}), which are values that may well be accessible by future observations.
Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam by fork-shaped gratings.
Janicijevic, Ljiljana; Topuzoski, Suzana
2008-11-01
Expressions describing the vortex beams that are generated by the process of Fresnel diffraction of a Gaussian beam incident out of waist on fork-shaped gratings of arbitrary integer charge p, and vortex spots in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by these gratings, are deduced. The common general transmission function of the gratings is defined and specialized for the cases of amplitude holograms, binary amplitude gratings, and their phase versions. Optical vortex beams, or carriers of phase singularity with charges mp and -mp, are the higher negative and positive diffraction-order beams. The radial part of their wave amplitudes is described by the product of the mpth-order Gauss-doughnut function and a Kummer function, or by the first-order Gauss-doughnut function and the difference of two modified Bessel functions whose orders do not match the singularity charge value. The wave amplitude and the intensity distributions are discussed for the near and far fields in the focal plane of a convergent lens, as well as the specialization of the results when the grating charge p=0; i.e., the grating turns from forked into rectilinear. The analytical expressions for the vortex radii are also discussed. PMID:18978843
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2004-10-01
A simple and effective method to describe Gaussian beams propagation and diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous 2D medium has been developed based on the eikonal form of complex geometrical optics. The method assumes the eikonal equation can be solved in paraxial approximation in curvilinear frame of references, connected with the central ray. The Riccati-type ordinary differential equation is derived for complex parameter characterizing the Gaussian beam width and phase front curvature. The same parameter was proved to define both the modulus and the argument of the complex amplitude. As a result, the problem of the Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media has been reduced to the solution of the ordinary differential equation of the first order, which can be readily calculated numerically for arbitrary profile of dielectric permittivity.
Fresnel diffraction by circular aperture of Gaussian beams in gradient index media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acosta, E.; Gomez-Reino, Carlos C.; Gonzalez, R. M.
1990-07-01
The intensity distribution of a gaussian beam propagating through GRIN media that has been truncated by a centered circular aperture is calculated by Fresnel-Kirchoff theory. On axis intensity is evaluated. 1 MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT AND DISCUSSION. The circular aperture in an opaque screen is located at z r is the radial coordinate. In the z half-space the medium has a refractive index profile given by 2 2 2 2 n (r (z)r ). For the z half-space the medium is considered to be homogeneous with n''l. The diffracted field in the z region when a gaussian beam source at z0 in the z region is evaluated in terms of Bessel functions. The beam at z can be represented in terms of its waist size and its half-width w(z0) and curvature radius R(z0) at the aperture plane. The Huygens-Fresnel diffraction formula with the Fresnel approximation can be evaluated as an infinite sum yielding: S 2 Akwn iknHr 2 J(aa) 00 01 1 1 2 n u(r w(z )JexP[ 2H JJ : exp(a C) (1) 1 0 1 n 2n! (aa) where H(z) and H2(z) are respectively the axial and the field rays1 a and C intensity distribution in the diffraction pattern is given by I(r This treatment predicts for the on axis intensity: I 2 2 nH 1 I I a 1 ia ki 1 0 2 I (z)cx . coshi
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2014-06-15
Habibi and Ghamari have presented a Comment on our paper [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)] by examining quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma. They have modeled the relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold and warm quantum plasmas and reported that self-focusing length does not change in both situations. In this response, we have reached the following important conclusions about the comment itself.
Tan, Liying; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing; Lu, Gaoyuan
2015-05-01
In the past decades, both the increasing experimental evidence and some results of theoretical investigation on non-Kolmogorov turbulence have been reported. This has prompted the study of optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, based on the thin phase screen model and a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which owns a generalized power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations for a Gaussian-beam wave is derived in the weak fluctuation regime for a horizontal path. The analytic expressions are obtained and then used to analyze the influence of spectral power law variations on the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations. PMID:25969221
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Kumar, Challa Sesha Sai Pavan; Choi, Hee Joo; Cha, Myoungsik
2016-02-01
Random duty-cycle error (RDE) is inherent in the fabrication of ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings. Although a small RDE may not affect the nonlinearity of QPM devices, it enhances non-phase-matched parasitic harmonic generations, limiting the device performance in some applications. Recently, we demonstrated a simple method for measuring the RDE in QPM gratings by analyzing the far-field diffraction pattern obtained by uniform illumination (Dwivedi et al. in Opt Express 21:30221-30226, 2013). In the present study, we used a Gaussian beam illumination for the diffraction experiment to measure noise spectra that are less affected by the pedestals of the strong diffraction orders. Our results were compared with our calculations based on a random grating model, demonstrating improved resolution in the RDE estimation.
Parameter Optimization for the Gaussian Model of Folded Proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erman, Burak; Erkip, Albert
2000-03-01
Recently, we proposed an analytical model of protein folding (B. Erman, K. A. Dill, J. Chem. Phys, 112, 000, 2000) and showed that this model successfully approximates the known minimum energy configurations of two dimensional HP chains. All attractions (covalent and non-covalent) as well as repulsions were treated as if the monomer units interacted with each other through linear spring forces. Since the governing potential of the linear springs are derived from a Gaussian potential, the model is called the ''Gaussian Model''. The predicted conformations from the model for the hexamer and various 9mer sequences all lie on the square lattice, although the model does not contain information about the lattice structure. Results of predictions for chains with 20 or more monomers also agreed well with corresponding known minimum energy lattice structures. However, these predicted conformations did not lie exactly on the square lattice. In the present work, we treat the specific problem of optimizing the potentials (the strengths of the spring constants) so that the predictions are in better agreement with the known minimum energy structures.
Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti
2014-07-15
The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.
Defocusing properties of Gaussian beams for measuring refractive index of thin transparent samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervantes-L, Joel; Cywiak, Moisés; Olvera-R, Octavio; Morales, Arquímedes
2013-11-01
We show how the defocusing properties of Gaussian beams can be used to measure the refractive index of solutions in thin transparent samples (less than 2 mm). Additionally, it is possible to predict analytically the shape of the plot for the refractive index as a function of concentration in any range. Our theory is limited for substances whose refractive index increases with concentration. The thin sample is placed between the focusing lens and its back focal plane and the system is adjusted to best focusing conditions. As a result, changes of the refractive index of the sample cause variations of the size of the focused beam. To measure with high accuracy the size of the beam we use the homodyne knife-edge profilometer while profiling a calibrated holographic reflective grating. The recorded vertical heights of the grating provide statistical data for improving even more the accuracy of the measurements. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of the system is a function of the pitch of the grating allowing selecting the range of interest. We apply our method for glucose liquid solutions. We include analytical description of our method and experimental results.
Comparing flat top and Gaussian focal beam shapes when micromachining steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest
2011-10-01
Laser micromachining, drilling and marking is extensively used within the aerospace, automotive and firearms industries. The unique properties of lasers make them ideal tools for micromachining a wide diversity of materials, including steel alloys [1]. We describe the results of micromachining of low carbon steel and stainless steel alloys, using a high powered diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser operating at a wavelength of 355nm. The laser was configured with beam conditioning optics to produce either a flat top beam or a Gaussian output which was then sent through a galvanometer scanner and telecentric lens beam delivery system. This paper outlines the interrelationship of process variables when micromachining fine features in steel and stainless steel alloys. Process variables measured included the optimum laser focus plane, energy density, galvanometer scan rate, and pulse overlap and focal spot diameter. Optimum process performance was evaluated based on a dimensional comparison of the micromachined features from each test coupon, including uniformity and surface roughness of the micromachined surface and the minimization of surface irregularities (stalagmite type slag / debris / corn row patterns) and taper angle of the micromachined feature side walls.
Two particle tracking and detection in a single Gaussian beam optical trap.
Praveen, P; Yogesha; Iyengar, Shruthi S; Bhattacharya, Sarbari; Ananthamurthy, Sharath
2016-01-20
We have studied in detail the situation wherein two microbeads are trapped axially in a single-beam Gaussian intensity profile optical trap. We find that the corner frequency extracted from a power spectral density analysis of intensity fluctuations recorded on a quadrant photodetector (QPD) is dependent on the detection scheme. Using forward- and backscattering detection schemes with single and two laser wavelengths along with computer simulations, we conclude that fluctuations detected in backscattering bear true position information of the bead encountered first in the beam propagation direction. Forward scattering, on the other hand, carries position information of both beads with substantial contribution from the bead encountered first along the beam propagation direction. Mie scattering analysis further reveals that the interference term from the scattering of the two beads contributes significantly to the signal, precluding the ability to resolve the positions of the individual beads in forward scattering. In QPD-based detection schemes, detection through backscattering, thereby, is imperative to track the true displacements of axially trapped microbeads for possible studies on light-mediated interbead interactions. PMID:26835934
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamovsky, Grigory
1997-08-01
Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in the atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in the wave propagation through shocks generated in supersonic flows. Historically these shocks have been treated as discontinuities in refractive index profiles. However, a profile of the refractive index across the shock possesses a finite thickness and gradient. Geometry of the inhomogeneity also had an impact. This dissertation reports on modeling and numerical analysis of wave propagation through inhomogeneous media with shock-like profiles of refractive indexes. In particular, effects of geometry of inhomogeneities and the refractive index profile are addressed. The subject of study is a dielectric penetrable circular cylinder with a cylindrically symmetric profile of the refractive index illuminated by a two dimensional Gaussian beam. The propagation vector of the beam is normal to the long axis of the cylinder. The beam is a sheet of light with Gaussian profile along a direction normal to both, the propagation vector and the long axis of the cylinder. The incident electromagnetic field is a TM wave with the electric field vector being parallel to the long axis of the cylinder. The refractive index of the cylinder has a shock-like profile. In the dissertation, the refractive index profile of such a medium is described and the wave propagation phenomena through a such medium is formulated. The wavefront that emerges after passing through the inhomogeneous cylinder described above is propagated to a remotely located screen using the Fresnel diffraction equation. The resultant pattern is evaluated. Thus the method is a hybrid one. The first part of the method is to propagate the incident Gaussian beam through an inhomogeneous medium of a given profile. The second part is
a Gaussian Process Based Multi-Person Interaction Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinger, T.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.
2016-06-01
Online multi-person tracking in image sequences is commonly guided by recursive filters, whose predictive models define the expected positions of future states. When a predictive model deviates too much from the true motion of a pedestrian, which is often the case in crowded scenes due to unpredicted accelerations, the data association is prone to fail. In this paper we propose a novel predictive model on the basis of Gaussian Process Regression. The model takes into account the motion of every tracked pedestrian in the scene and the prediction is executed with respect to the velocities of all interrelated persons. As shown by the experiments, the model is capable of yielding more plausible predictions even in the presence of mutual occlusions or missing measurements. The approach is evaluated on a publicly available benchmark and outperforms other state-of-the-art trackers.
Singh, Arvinder E-mail: naveens222@rediffmail.com; Gupta, Naveen E-mail: naveens222@rediffmail.com
2015-01-15
This paper presents an investigation of relativistic self-focusing effect of a q-Gaussian laser beam on second harmonic generation in a preformed parabolic plasma channel. An expression has been derived for density perturbation associated with the plasma wave excited by the laser beam. This in turn acts as a source of second harmonic generation. The moment theory approach has been used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of spot size of the laser beam with the distance of propagation. The detailed effects of intensity distribution deviation from Gaussian distribution, intensity of laser beam, density, and depth of the channel have been studied on self-focusing as well as on second harmonic generation.
Learning Gaussian mixture models with entropy-based criteria.
Penalver Benavent, Antonio; Escolano Ruiz, Francisco; Saez, Juan Manuel
2009-11-01
In this paper, we address the problem of estimating the parameters of Gaussian mixture models. Although the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm yields the maximum-likelihood (ML) solution, its sensitivity to the selection of the starting parameters is well-known and it may converge to the boundary of the parameter space. Furthermore, the resulting mixture depends on the number of selected components, but the optimal number of kernels may be unknown beforehand. We introduce the use of the entropy of the probability density function (pdf) associated to each kernel to measure the quality of a given mixture model with a fixed number of kernels. We propose two methods to approximate the entropy of each kernel and a modification of the classical EM algorithm in order to find the optimum number of components of the mixture. Moreover, we use two stopping criteria: a novel global mixture entropy-based criterion called Gaussianity deficiency (GD) and a minimum description length (MDL) principle-based one. Our algorithm, called entropy-based EM (EBEM), starts with a unique kernel and performs only splitting by selecting the worst kernel attending to GD. We have successfully tested it in probability density estimation, pattern classification, and color image segmentation. Experimental results improve the ones of other state-of-the-art model order selection methods. PMID:19770090
Phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model.
Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Giaquinta, Paolo V
2005-05-01
We trace with high numerical accuracy the phase diagram of the Gaussian-core model, a classical system of point particles interacting via a Gaussian-shaped, purely repulsive potential. This model, which provides a reliable qualitative description of the thermal behavior of interpenetrable globular polymers, is known to exhibit a polymorphic fcc-bcc transition at low densities and reentrant melting at high densities. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations, carried out in conjunction with accurate calculations of the solid free energies, lead to a thermodynamic scenario that is partially modified with respect to previous knowledge. In particular, we find that: (i) the fluid-bcc-fcc triple-point temperature is about one third of the maximum freezing temperature; (ii) upon isothermal compression, the model exhibits a fluid-bcc-fcc-bcc-fluid sequence of phases in a narrow range of temperatures just above the triple point. We discuss these results in relation to the behavior of star-polymer solutions and of other softly repulsive systems. PMID:16089510
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibrahim, Hany L. S.; Wriedt, Thomas; Khaled, Elsayed Esam M.
2016-04-01
Scattering of an arbitrarily focused electromagnetic Gaussian beam by a chain cluster consisting of axisymmetric particles is presented. The illustrated technique in this paper combines the plane-waves spectrum method and the cluster T-matrix calculation technique. This combination provides a powerful mathematical and numerical tool to solve such types of scattering problems. Computed results are shown for different particles shapes in the cluster and for different beam focusing.
Liu, Hongzhan; Liu, Liren; Xu, Rongwei; Luan, Zhu
2005-08-10
We report the formulation of an ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution that separate media of different refractive indices based on optical phase matching. The equations for the spot sizes and wave-front radii of the beams are also obtained by using theABCD matrix. With these matrices, we can more conveniently design and evaluate some special optical systems, including these kinds of elements. PMID:16114516
Scattering of Sound by Sound from Gaussian Beams and Parametric Reception Near a Reflecting Surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darvennes, Corinne Marcelle L.
A quasilinear solution of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya -Kuznetsov equation is derived for the case of two Gaussian beams that intersect at a small angle. In the absence of absorption, a closed-form solution is obtained which is a generalization of the result obtained for parametric receiving arrays by Hamilton, Naze Tjotta, and Tjotta (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 311-318 (1987)). The solution is used to investigate two problems, (1) the scattering of sound by sound, and (2) the ability of a parametric receiving array to discriminate against multipath interference. In the first investigation, significant levels of scattered sum and difference frequency sound are shown to exist outside the interaction region that is formed by two intersecting primary beams. An asymptotic formula reveals that sum or difference frequency sound is scattered in the approximate direction of k _1+/- k_2, where k_{j} is the wave vector associated with the direction and frequency of the j th primary beam. Computed propagation curves and beam patterns demonstrate the dependence of the scattered radiation on source separation, frequency ratio, and interaction angle. No scattered sound is observed when the axes of the two primary beams cross in the farfield. The results are in good agreement with those of Berntsen, Naze Tjotta, and Tjotta (accepted for publication in J. Acoust. Soc. Am.), which are valid for arbitrary interaction angles and amplitude distributions. Effects of absorption and focusing are also considered. In the second investigation, solutions for the scattering of sound by sound are combined using the method of images to study the ability of a parametric receiving array to measure the freefield directivity of a source in the neighborhood of a reflector. Consideration is given primarily to directive underwater sources whose acoustic axes are parallel to the air-water interface. The pump is located on the source and radiates a directive high intensity beam through the sound field. Cases
On the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models.
Proïa, Frédéric; Pernet, Alix; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Clotault, Jérémy
2016-08-01
In this paper, we develop a statistical methodology applied to the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models. Our study relies on a set of rosebushes flowering data, and Gaussian mixture models are mainly used to quantify the reblooming properties of each one. In this regard, we also suggest our own selection criterion to take into account the lack of symmetry of most of the flowering curves. Three classes are created on the basis of a principal component analysis conducted on a set of reblooming indicators, and a subclassification is made using a longitudinal k-means algorithm which also highlights the role played by the precocity of the flowering. In this way, we obtain an overview of the correlations between the features we decided to retain on each curve. In particular, results suggest the lack of correlation between reblooming and flowering precocity. The pertinent indicators obtained in this study will be a first step towards the comprehension of the environmental and genetic control of these biological processes. PMID:27113781
Retinal image registration via feature-guided Gaussian mixture model.
Liu, Chengyin; Ma, Jiayi; Ma, Yong; Huang, Jun
2016-07-01
Registration of retinal images taken at different times, from different perspectives, or with different modalities is a critical prerequisite for the diagnoses and treatments of various eye diseases. This problem can be formulated as registration of two sets of sparse feature points extracted from the given images, and it is typically solved by first creating a set of putative correspondences and then removing the false matches as well as estimating the spatial transformation between the image pairs or solved by estimating the correspondence and transformation jointly involving an iteration process. However, the former strategy suffers from missing true correspondences, and the latter strategy does not make full use of local appearance information, which may be problematic for low-quality retinal images due to a lack of reliable features. In this paper, we propose a feature-guided Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to address these issues. We formulate point registration as the estimation of a feature-guided mixture of densities: A GMM is fitted to one point set, such that both the centers and local features of the Gaussian densities are constrained to coincide with the other point set. The problem is solved under a unified maximum-likelihood framework together with an iterative expectation-maximization algorithm initialized by the confident feature correspondences, where the image transformation is modeled by an affine function. Extensive experiments on various retinal images show the robustness of our approach, which consistently outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, especially when the data is badly degraded. PMID:27409682
Nonuniformity correction algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mou, Xin-gang; Zhang, Gui-lin; Hu, Ruo-lan; Zhou, Xiao
2011-08-01
As an important tool to acquire information of target scene, infrared detector is widely used in imaging guidance field. Because of the limit of material and technique, the performance of infrared imaging system is known to be strongly affected by the spatial nonuniformity in the photoresponse of the detectors in the array. Temporal highpass filter(THPF) is a popular adaptive NUC algorithm because of its simpleness and effectiveness. However, there still exists the problem of ghosting artifact in the algorithms caused by blind update of parameters, and the performance is noticeably degraded when the methods are applied over scenes with lack of motion. In order to tackle with this problem, a novel adaptive NUC algorithm based on Gaussian mixed model (GMM) is put forward according to traditional THPF. The drift of the detectors is assumed to obey a single Gaussian distribution, and the update of the parameters is selectively performed based on the scene. GMM is applied in the new algorithm for background modeling, in which the background is updated selectively so as to avoid the influence of the foreground target on the update of the background, thus eliminating the ghosting artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with infrared image sequences with simulated and real fixed-pattern noise. The results show a more reliable fixed-pattern noise reduction, tracking the parameter drift, and presenting a good adaptability to scene changes.
Visual saliency detection based on modeling the spatial Gaussianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Hongbin
2015-04-01
In this paper, a novel salient object detection method based on modeling the spatial anomalies is presented. The proposed framework is inspired by the biological mechanism that human eyes are sensitive to the unusual and anomalous objects among complex background. It is supposed that a natural image can be seen as a combination of some similar or dissimilar basic patches, and there is a direct relationship between its saliency and anomaly. Some patches share high degree of similarity and have a vast number of quantity. They usually make up the background of an image. On the other hand, some patches present strong rarity and specificity. We name these patches "anomalies". Generally, anomalous patch is a reflection of the edge or some special colors and textures in an image, and these pattern cannot be well "explained" by their surroundings. Human eyes show great interests in these anomalous patterns, and will automatically pick out the anomalous parts of an image as the salient regions. To better evaluate the anomaly degree of the basic patches and exploit their nonlinear statistical characteristics, a multivariate Gaussian distribution saliency evaluation model is proposed. In this way, objects with anomalous patterns usually appear as the outliers in the Gaussian distribution, and we identify these anomalous objects as salient ones. Experiments are conducted on the well-known MSRA saliency detection dataset. Compared with other recent developed visual saliency detection methods, our method suggests significant advantages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guo-Bo; Chen, Min; Schroeder, C. B.; Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yu, Tong-Pu; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Esarey, E.
2016-03-01
We show that a ring-shaped hollow electron beam can be injected and accelerated by using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse and ionization-induced injection in a laser wakefield accelerator. The acceleration and evolution of such a hollow, relativistic electron beam are investigated through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that both the ring size and the beam thickness oscillate during the acceleration. The beam azimuthal shape is angularly dependent and evolves during the acceleration. The beam ellipticity changes resulting from the electron angular momenta obtained from the drive laser pulse and the focusing forces from the wakefield. The dependence of beam ring radius on the laser-plasma parameters (e.g., laser intensity, focal size, and plasma density) is studied. Such a hollow electron beam may have potential applications for accelerating and collimating positively charged particles.
Measure of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams.
Leclere, P; Renotte, Y; Lion, Y
1992-08-10
We present a methodology for analyzing the characteristics of a photosensitive material for holography. When two Gaussian beams of equal intensities are exactly superimposed on the recording material, the modulation of the interference pattern is equal to unity. When they are no longer exactly superimposed, this modulation varies from one to zero depending on the analyzed point. On the other hand, the modulation is constant in a direction that is perpendicular to the incident plane. Therefore it is possible to consider a complete analysis (point by point) of only one holographic grating to measure the diffraction efficiency eta at a given modulation versus exposure or for varying modulation (or beam ratio K) for a given exposure. We present the results that are obtained with an experimental setup that was devised for that purpose. From these measurements it was possible to extract various parameters such as refractive-index modulation of the photosensitive support. The tested recording materials consist of film of dichromated gelatin and films of dichromate polyvinyl alcohol. PMID:20725484
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
A Gaussian graphical model approach to climate networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zerenner, Tanja; Friederichs, Petra; Lehnertz, Klaus; Hense, Andreas
2014-06-01
Distinguishing between direct and indirect connections is essential when interpreting network structures in terms of dynamical interactions and stability. When constructing networks from climate data the nodes are usually defined on a spatial grid. The edges are usually derived from a bivariate dependency measure, such as Pearson correlation coefficients or mutual information. Thus, the edges indistinguishably represent direct and indirect dependencies. Interpreting climate data fields as realizations of Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs), we have constructed networks according to the Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM) approach. In contrast to the widely used method, the edges of GGM networks are based on partial correlations denoting direct dependencies. Furthermore, GRFs can be represented not only on points in space, but also by expansion coefficients of orthogonal basis functions, such as spherical harmonics. This leads to a modified definition of network nodes and edges in spectral space, which is motivated from an atmospheric dynamics perspective. We construct and analyze networks from climate data in grid point space as well as in spectral space, and derive the edges from both Pearson and partial correlations. Network characteristics, such as mean degree, average shortest path length, and clustering coefficient, reveal that the networks posses an ordered and strongly locally interconnected structure rather than small-world properties. Despite this, the network structures differ strongly depending on the construction method. Straightforward approaches to infer networks from climate data while not regarding any physical processes may contain too strong simplifications to describe the dynamics of the climate system appropriately.
A Gaussian graphical model approach to climate networks
Zerenner, Tanja; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Lehnertz, Klaus
2014-06-15
Distinguishing between direct and indirect connections is essential when interpreting network structures in terms of dynamical interactions and stability. When constructing networks from climate data the nodes are usually defined on a spatial grid. The edges are usually derived from a bivariate dependency measure, such as Pearson correlation coefficients or mutual information. Thus, the edges indistinguishably represent direct and indirect dependencies. Interpreting climate data fields as realizations of Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs), we have constructed networks according to the Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM) approach. In contrast to the widely used method, the edges of GGM networks are based on partial correlations denoting direct dependencies. Furthermore, GRFs can be represented not only on points in space, but also by expansion coefficients of orthogonal basis functions, such as spherical harmonics. This leads to a modified definition of network nodes and edges in spectral space, which is motivated from an atmospheric dynamics perspective. We construct and analyze networks from climate data in grid point space as well as in spectral space, and derive the edges from both Pearson and partial correlations. Network characteristics, such as mean degree, average shortest path length, and clustering coefficient, reveal that the networks posses an ordered and strongly locally interconnected structure rather than small-world properties. Despite this, the network structures differ strongly depending on the construction method. Straightforward approaches to infer networks from climate data while not regarding any physical processes may contain too strong simplifications to describe the dynamics of the climate system appropriately.
A Gaussian graphical model approach to climate networks.
Zerenner, Tanja; Friederichs, Petra; Lehnertz, Klaus; Hense, Andreas
2014-06-01
Distinguishing between direct and indirect connections is essential when interpreting network structures in terms of dynamical interactions and stability. When constructing networks from climate data the nodes are usually defined on a spatial grid. The edges are usually derived from a bivariate dependency measure, such as Pearson correlation coefficients or mutual information. Thus, the edges indistinguishably represent direct and indirect dependencies. Interpreting climate data fields as realizations of Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs), we have constructed networks according to the Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM) approach. In contrast to the widely used method, the edges of GGM networks are based on partial correlations denoting direct dependencies. Furthermore, GRFs can be represented not only on points in space, but also by expansion coefficients of orthogonal basis functions, such as spherical harmonics. This leads to a modified definition of network nodes and edges in spectral space, which is motivated from an atmospheric dynamics perspective. We construct and analyze networks from climate data in grid point space as well as in spectral space, and derive the edges from both Pearson and partial correlations. Network characteristics, such as mean degree, average shortest path length, and clustering coefficient, reveal that the networks posses an ordered and strongly locally interconnected structure rather than small-world properties. Despite this, the network structures differ strongly depending on the construction method. Straightforward approaches to infer networks from climate data while not regarding any physical processes may contain too strong simplifications to describe the dynamics of the climate system appropriately. PMID:24985417
Inversion of hierarchical Bayesian models using Gaussian processes.
Lomakina, Ekaterina I; Paliwal, Saee; Diaconescu, Andreea O; Brodersen, Kay H; Aponte, Eduardo A; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E
2015-09-01
Over the past decade, computational approaches to neuroimaging have increasingly made use of hierarchical Bayesian models (HBMs), either for inferring on physiological mechanisms underlying fMRI data (e.g., dynamic causal modelling, DCM) or for deriving computational trajectories (from behavioural data) which serve as regressors in general linear models. However, an unresolved problem is that standard methods for inverting the hierarchical Bayesian model are either very slow, e.g. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods (MCMC), or are vulnerable to local minima in non-convex optimisation problems, such as variational Bayes (VB). This article considers Gaussian process optimisation (GPO) as an alternative approach for global optimisation of sufficiently smooth and efficiently evaluable objective functions. GPO avoids being trapped in local extrema and can be computationally much more efficient than MCMC. Here, we examine the benefits of GPO for inverting HBMs commonly used in neuroimaging, including DCM for fMRI and the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter (HGF). Importantly, to achieve computational efficiency despite high-dimensional optimisation problems, we introduce a novel combination of GPO and local gradient-based search methods. The utility of this GPO implementation for DCM and HGF is evaluated against MCMC and VB, using both synthetic data from simulations and empirical data. Our results demonstrate that GPO provides parameter estimates with equivalent or better accuracy than the other techniques, but at a fraction of the computational cost required for MCMC. We anticipate that GPO will prove useful for robust and efficient inversion of high-dimensional and nonlinear models of neuroimaging data. PMID:26048619
Beyond Gaussians: a study of single-spot modeling for scanning proton dose calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yupeng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Anand, Aman; Zhang, Xiaodong
2012-02-01
Active spot scanning proton therapy is becoming increasingly adopted by proton therapy centers worldwide. Unlike passive-scattering proton therapy, active spot scanning proton therapy, especially intensity-modulated proton therapy, requires proper modeling of each scanning spot to ensure accurate computation of the total dose distribution contributed from a large number of spots. During commissioning of the spot scanning gantry at the Proton Therapy Center in Houston, it was observed that the long-range scattering protons in a medium may have been inadequately modeled for high-energy beams by a commercial treatment planning system, which could lead to incorrect prediction of field size effects on dose output. In this study, we developed a pencil beam algorithm for scanning proton dose calculation by focusing on properly modeling individual scanning spots. All modeling parameters required by the pencil beam algorithm can be generated based solely on a few sets of measured data. We demonstrated that low-dose halos in single-spot profiles in the medium could be adequately modeled with the addition of a modified Cauchy-Lorentz distribution function to a double-Gaussian function. The field size effects were accurately computed at all depths and field sizes for all energies, and good dose accuracy was also achieved for patient dose verification. The implementation of the proposed pencil beam algorithm also enabled us to study the importance of different modeling components and parameters at various beam energies. The results of this study may be helpful in improving dose calculation accuracy and simplifying beam commissioning and treatment planning processes for spot scanning proton therapy
Beyond Gaussians: a study of single spot modeling for scanning proton dose calculation
Li, Yupeng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Anand, Aman; Zhang, Xiaodong
2013-01-01
Active spot scanning proton therapy is becoming increasingly adopted by proton therapy centers worldwide. Unlike passive-scattering proton therapy, active spot scanning proton therapy, especially intensity-modulated proton therapy, requires proper modeling of each scanning spot to ensure accurate computation of the total dose distribution contributed from a large number of spots. During commissioning of the spot scanning gantry at the Proton Therapy Center in Houston, it was observed that the long-range scattering protons in a medium may have been inadequately modeled for high-energy beams by a commercial treatment planning system, which could lead to incorrect prediction of field-size effects on dose output. In the present study, we developed a pencil-beam algorithm for scanning-proton dose calculation by focusing on properly modeling individual scanning spots. All modeling parameters required by the pencil-beam algorithm can be generated based solely on a few sets of measured data. We demonstrated that low-dose halos in single-spot profiles in the medium could be adequately modeled with the addition of a modified Cauchy-Lorentz distribution function to a double-Gaussian function. The field-size effects were accurately computed at all depths and field sizes for all energies, and good dose accuracy was also achieved for patient dose verification. The implementation of the proposed pencil beam algorithm also enabled us to study the importance of different modeling components and parameters at various beam energies. The results of this study may be helpful in improving dose calculation accuracy and simplifying beam commissioning and treatment planning processes for spot scanning proton therapy. PMID:22297324
Gaussian predictive process models for large spatial data sets
Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E.; Finley, Andrew O.; Sang, Huiyan
2009-01-01
Summary With scientific data available at geocoded locations, investigators are increasingly turning to spatial process models for carrying out statistical inference. Over the last decade, hierarchical models implemented through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods have become especially popular for spatial modelling, given their flexibility and power to fit models that would be infeasible with classical methods as well as their avoidance of possibly inappropriate asymptotics. However, fitting hierarchical spatial models often involves expensive matrix decompositions whose computational complexity increases in cubic order with the number of spatial locations, rendering such models infeasible for large spatial data sets. This computational burden is exacerbated in multivariate settings with several spatially dependent response variables. It is also aggravated when data are collected at frequent time points and spatiotemporal process models are used. With regard to this challenge, our contribution is to work with what we call predictive process models for spatial and spatiotemporal data. Every spatial (or spatiotemporal) process induces a predictive process model (in fact, arbitrarily many of them). The latter models project process realizations of the former to a lower dimensional subspace, thereby reducing the computational burden. Hence, we achieve the flexibility to accommodate non-stationary, non-Gaussian, possibly multivariate, possibly spatiotemporal processes in the context of large data sets. We discuss attractive theoretical properties of these predictive processes. We also provide a computational template encompassing these diverse settings. Finally, we illustrate the approach with simulated and real data sets. PMID:19750209
Serdyuk, Vladimir; Rudnitsky, Anton
2015-05-01
We present an approximate 2D asymptotic analytic theory of light field excitation in a plane thin dielectric layer under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection, when an inclined Gaussian beam, falling from a triangular prism, excites a decaying field in air spacing between a prism and a plane dielectric. Ignoring the radiation scattering on the sharp edges of a prism, we have obtained the formulas that allow us to compute spatial structures of an electromagnetic field in every point of space and to estimate the integral efficiency of waveguide mode excitation in a plane dielectric layer and the total energy of a reflected beam. It is shown that the width of an initial Gaussian beam has an effect on waveguide mode intensity. PMID:26366908
Gaussian Process for Activity Modeling and Anomaly Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, W.; Rosenhahn, B.; Yang, M. Ying
2015-08-01
Complex activity modeling and identification of anomaly is one of the most interesting and desired capabilities for automated video behavior analysis. A number of different approaches have been proposed in the past to tackle this problem. There are two main challenges for activity modeling and anomaly detection: 1) most existing approaches require sufficient data and supervision for learning; 2) the most interesting abnormal activities arise rarely and are ambiguous among typical activities, i.e. hard to be precisely defined. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model complex activities and detect anomalies by using non-parametric Gaussian Process (GP) models in a crowded and complicated traffic scene. In comparison with parametric models such as HMM, GP models are nonparametric and have their advantages. Our GP models exploit implicit spatial-temporal dependence among local activity patterns. The learned GP regression models give a probabilistic prediction of regional activities at next time interval based on observations at present. An anomaly will be detected by comparing the actual observations with the prediction at real time. We verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model on the QMUL Junction Dataset. Furthermore, we provide a publicly available manually labeled ground truth of this data set.
Gaussian-Charge Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Models for CO2.
Jiang, Hao; Moultos, Othonas A; Economou, Ioannis G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z
2016-02-11
A polarizable intermolecular potential model using three classical Drude oscillators on the atomic sites has been developed for CO2. The model is rigid with bond lengths and molecular geometries set to their experimental values. Electrostatic interactions are represented by three Gaussian charges connected to the molecular frame by harmonic springs. Nonelectrostatic interactions are represented by the Buckingham exponential-6 potential, with potential parameters optimized to vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. A nonpolarizable CO2 model that shares the other ingredients of the polarizable model was also developed and optimized to VLE data. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were used to evaluate the two models with respect to a variety of thermodynamic and transport properties, including the enthalpy of vaporization, second virial coefficient, density in the one-phase fluid region, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was found for all properties studied. The polarizable and nonpolarizable models provide a similar representation of CO2 properties, which indicates that the properties of pure CO2 fluid are not strongly affected by polarization. The polarizable model, which has an order of magnitude higher computational cost than the nonpolarizable model, will likely be useful for the study of a mixture of CO2 and polar components for which polarization is important. PMID:26788614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelton, John D.
1995-10-01
Expressions for the variance and the power spectral density of turbulence-induced log-amplitude fluctuations are derived for Gaussian-beam waves in the regime of weak scattering. This formulation includes effects that are due to turbulence strength variations along the propagation path, offset of the observation point from the beam axis, and sensitivity to focus and beam diameter. Comparison of theoretical results with observed scintillation during experiments with a laser-illuminated satellite reveals good agreement. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2013-08-15
We have studied the steady state self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime for upward increasing plasma ramp density profile. We have obtained the differential equation for beam width parameter by using parabolic equation approach under the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The variation of beam width parameter with respect to dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically by varying the parameters of density profile, intensity parameter, and electronic temperature. It shows that the above stated parameters play an important role in propagation characteristics and give reasonably interesting results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, James A.
1993-01-01
I review the theory of the scattering of a Gaussian laser beam by a dielectric spherical particle and give the details for constructing a computer program to implement the theory. Computational results indicate that if the width of the laser beam is much less than the diameter of the particle and if the axis of the beam is incident near the edge of the particle, the fifth-, sixth-, and ninth-order rainbows should be evident in the far-field scattered intensity. I performed an experiment that yielded tentative evidence for the presence of the sixth- order rainbow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yonggen; Li, Yude; Dan, Youquan; Du, Quan; Wang, Shijian
2016-07-01
The Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been used to study the propagation properties of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian (PCLG) beams through atmospheric turbulence. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, an analytical formula of the propagation matrixes in terms of the second-order moments of the WDF for PCLG Beams in the receiving plane is derived. And then the analytical formulae for the curvature radii of PCLG Beams propagating in turbulence are given by the second-order moments of the WDF. The numerical results indicate that the curvature radius of PCLG Beams changes more rapidly in turbulence than that in the free space. The influence of the transverse coherence width and the beam waist width on the curvature radius of PCLG Beams is obvious, while the laser wavelength and the inner scale of turbulence have a slight effect. The study results may be useful for remote sensing and free space optical communications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkholder, Robert J.; Pathak, Prabhakar H.
1991-01-01
Gaussian beam (GB) representation methods are used to analyze the electromagnetic coupling into and the scattering by a large nonuniform cavity. The aperture field in the cavity is decomposed into beams using the Gabor expansion, and shooting techniques are then employed. The method is illustrated only for the two-dimensional (2-D) case. The GBs are tracked axially using the rules of beam optics which ignore any beam distortion upon reflection at the walls. The effects of beam distortion are not significant for relatively slowly varying waveguide cavities. The field scattered into the exterior by the termination within the cavity is found using a reciprocity integral formulation which requires a knowledge of the beam fields near the termination. Numerical results based on this GB approach are presented and compared with results based on an independent reference solution.
Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering.
De Leon, Phillip L.; McClanahan, Richard D.
2012-04-01
In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we were able
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Arvinder; Gupta, Naveen
2015-06-01
A scheme for beat wave excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) is proposed by relativistic cross-focusing of two coaxial Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beams in an under dense plasma. The plasma wave is generated on account of beating of two coaxial laser beams of frequencies ω1 and ω2 . The mechanism for laser produced nonlinearity is assumed to be relativistic nonlinearity in electron mass. Following moment theory approach in Wentzel Kramers Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation, the coupled differential equations governing the evolution of spot size of laser beams with distance of propagation have been derived. The relativistic nonlinearity depends not only on the intensity of first laser beam but also on the intensity of second laser beam. Therefore, propagation dynamics of one laser beam affect that of second beam and hence cross-focusing of the two laser beams takes place. Due to non uniform intensity distribution of pump laser beams, the background electron concentration gets modified. The amplitude of EPW, which depends on the background electron concentration, thus gets nonlinearly coupled with the laser beams. The effects of relativistic electron mass nonlinearity and the cross-focusing of pump beams on excitation of EPW have been incorporated. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of laser as well as plasma parameters on cross-focusing of laser beams and further its effect on power of excited EPW.
Evolving Gaussian Mixture Models with Splitting and Merging Mutation Operators.
Covões, Thiago Ferreira; Hruschka, Eduardo Raul; Ghosh, Joydeep
2016-01-01
This paper describes the evolutionary split and merge for expectation maximization (ESM-EM) algorithm and eight of its variants, which are based on the use of split and merge operations to evolve Gaussian mixture models. Asymptotic time complexity analysis shows that the proposed algorithms are competitive with the state-of-the-art genetic-based expectation maximization (GA-EM) algorithm. Experiments performed in 35 data sets showed that ESM-EM can be computationally more efficient than the widely used multiple runs of EM (for different numbers of components and initializations). Moreover, a variant of ESM-EM free from critical parameters was shown to be able to provide competitive results with GA-EM, even when GA-EM parameters were fine-tuned a priori. PMID:25950390
Thermodynamical Limit for Correlated Gaussian Random Energy Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contucci, P.; Esposti, M. Degli; Giardinà, C.; Graffi, S.
Let {EΣ(N)}ΣΣN be a family of |ΣN|=2N centered unit Gaussian random variables defined by the covariance matrix CN of elements cN(Σ,τ):=Av(EΣ(N)Eτ(N)) and the corresponding random Hamiltonian. Then the quenched thermodynamical limit exists if, for every decomposition N=N1+N2, and all pairs (Σ,τ)ΣN×ΣN:
Characterization of non-Gaussian mid-infrared free-electron laser beams by the knife-edge method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Yu; Nakajima, Takashi; Zen, Heishun; Wang, Xiaolong; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2014-09-01
We report the characterization of mid-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) beams at the wavelength of 11 μm by the knife-edge method. From the knife-edge data we find that the FEL beam has a non-Gaussian shape. To represent the non-Gaussian beam shape we employ two methods: fitting the knife-edge data to some analytical functions with a few free parameters and numerical smoothing of the knife-edge data. Both methods work equally well. Using those data we can reconstruct the two-dimensional (2D) beam profiles at different positions around the focus by assuming that the 2D intensity distribution function is separable in x (horizontal) and y (vertical) directions. Using the 2D beam profiles at different positions around the focus, we find that the beam propagation factor (M2 factor) is ∼1.1 in both x and y directions. As a cross-check, we also carry out the burn pattern experiment to find that the behavior of the focused FEL beam along the propagation is consistent with the results obtained by the knife-edge method.
Multiple Response Regression for Gaussian Mixture Models with Known Labels.
Lee, Wonyul; Du, Ying; Sun, Wei; Hayes, D Neil; Liu, Yufeng
2012-12-01
Multiple response regression is a useful regression technique to model multiple response variables using the same set of predictor variables. Most existing methods for multiple response regression are designed for modeling homogeneous data. In many applications, however, one may have heterogeneous data where the samples are divided into multiple groups. Our motivating example is a cancer dataset where the samples belong to multiple cancer subtypes. In this paper, we consider modeling the data coming from a mixture of several Gaussian distributions with known group labels. A naive approach is to split the data into several groups according to the labels and model each group separately. Although it is simple, this approach ignores potential common structures across different groups. We propose new penalized methods to model all groups jointly in which the common and unique structures can be identified. The proposed methods estimate the regression coefficient matrix, as well as the conditional inverse covariance matrix of response variables. Asymptotic properties of the proposed methods are explored. Through numerical examples, we demonstrate that both estimation and prediction can be improved by modeling all groups jointly using the proposed methods. An application to a glioblastoma cancer dataset reveals some interesting common and unique gene relationships across different cancer subtypes. PMID:24416092
Processing tree point clouds using Gaussian Mixture Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belton, D.; Moncrieff, S.; Chapman, J.
2013-10-01
While traditionally used for surveying and photogrammetric fields, laser scanning is increasingly being used for a wider range of more general applications. In addition to the issues typically associated with processing point data, such applications raise a number of new complications, such as the complexity of the scenes scanned, along with the sheer volume of data. Consequently, automated procedures are required for processing, and analysing such data. This paper introduces a method for modelling multi-modal, geometrically complex objects in terrestrial laser scanning point data; specifically, the modelling of trees. The model method comprises a number of geometric features in conjunction with a multi-modal machine learning technique. The model can then be used for contextually dependent region growing through separating the tree into its component part at the point level. Subsequently object analysis can be performed, for example, performing volumetric analysis of a tree by removing points associated with leaves. The workflow for this process is as follows: isolate individual trees within the scanned scene, train a Gaussian mixture model (GMM), separate clusters within the mixture model according to exemplar points determined by the GMM, grow the structure of the tree, and then perform volumetric analysis on the structure.
Radiation pattern of two identical emitters driven by a Laguerre-Gaussian beam: An atom nanoantenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lembessis, Vassilis E.; Lyras, Andreas; Rsheed, Anwar Al; Aldossary, Omar M.; Ficek, Zbigniew
2015-08-01
We study the directional properties of a radiation field emitted by a geometrically small system composed of two identical two-level emitters located at short distances and driven by an optical vortex beam, a Laguerre-Gaussian beam which possesses a structured phase and amplitude. We find that the system may operate as a nanoantenna for controlled and tunable directional emission. Polar diagrams of the radiation intensity are presented showing that a constant phase or amplitude difference at the positions of the emitters plays an essential role in the directivity of the emission. We find that the radiation patterns may differ dramatically for different phases and amplitude differences at the positions of the emitters. As a result the system may operate as a two- or one-sided nanoantenna. In particular, a two-sided highly focused directional emission can be achieved when the emitters experience the same amplitude and a constant phase difference of the driving field. We find the general directional property of the emitted field that when the phase differences at the positions of the emitters equal an even multiple of π /4 , the system behaves as a two-sided antenna. When the phase difference equals an odd multiple of π /4 , the system behaves as a one-sided antenna. The case when the emitters experience the same phase but different amplitudes of the driving field is also considered and it is found that the effect of different amplitudes is to cause the system to behave as a unidirectional antenna radiating along the interatomic axis.
Propagation of rotating elliptical Gaussian beams from right-handed material to left-handed material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xi; Chen, Chi-Dao; Chen, Bo; Deng, Dong-Mei
2015-12-01
By applying the ABCD matrix method, we report the propagating properties of the rotating elliptical Gaussian beams (REGBs) from the right-handed material (RHM) to the left-handed material (LHM). Based on the propagation equation, we obtain the intensity distributions of the REGBs during the propagation. It is found that the rotating direction of the REGBs is opposite in the RHM and the LHM, and the rotation angles tend to be π/2 as the propagation distance is long enough. Then we analyze the relationship between the refractive index and the rotating velocity. Furthermore, the energy flow and the angular momentum (AM) of the REGBs which can rotate are also obtained. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Provincial Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province in China, and the Fund from the CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Linyan
2016-07-01
Experiments and theoretical investigations have shown that the atmosphere turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this paper, based on the anisotropic generalized von Karman spectrum and the Rytov approximation theory, new expression for the irradiance scintillation index of optical waves is derived for Gaussian beam propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Compared with previously published results, it considers simultaneously the asymmetry property of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane, the general spectral power law in the range 3-4 instead of constant value of 11/3 for the Kolmogorov turbulence, and the finite turbulence inner and outer scales. Two anisotropic factors are introduced to parameterize the anisotropy of turbulence cells or eddies in horizontal and vertical directions. In the special cases of these two anisotropic factors equaling one and the finite turbulence inner and outer scales equaling separately zero and infinite, the derived expression can reduce correctly to the previously published results. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived results.
Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Wu, Junru
2015-10-15
A computational study is reported of the acoustic streaming flow field generated by a Gaussian ultrasound beam propagating normally toward the end wall of a cylindrical container. Particular focus is given to examining the effectiveness of the acoustic streaming flow for fluid mixing within the container, for deposition of particles in suspension onto the bottom surface, and for particle suspension from the bottom surface back into the flow field. The flow field is assumed to be axisymmetric with the ultrasound transducer oriented parallel to the cylinder axis and normal to the bottom surface of the container, which we refer to as the impingement surface. Reflection of the sound from the impingement surface and sound absorption within the material at the container bottom are both accounted for in the computation. The computation also accounts for thermal buoyancy force due to ultrasonic heating of the impingement surface, but over the time period considered in the current simulations, the flow is found to be dominated by the acoustic streaming force, with only moderate effect of buoyancy force.
Exposure of 895i resist using a vector scan Gaussian electron-beam lithography system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kugelmass, Sheldon M.; Mitchell, Joseph; Poreda, John T.
1996-07-01
A positive tone, optical resist, OCG 895i, was exposed using the Lepton EBES4, a vector scan Gaussian electron beam lithography system. Proximity Effect Corrections (PEC) were applied via dose modulation on a figure-by-figure basis at write time. Test patterns were corrected using a simple "framing" technique that is the first step in a phased implementation of a complete PEC solution. Figures were separated into bulk and frame regions, with different doses being applied to each. The corrected pattern was exposed in a single pass using a single pattern file. The mask lithography quality of these exposures was evaluated by measurement of CD Linearity, Line Edge Roughness and CD X-Y Bias. A throughput study was conducted to determine the impact of using lower sensitivity resists on mask write times. A series of test jobs was written at conditions consistent with exposure doses of 2 and 8 μC/cm2. This 4X dose increase resulted in a write times that were only 1 .5X longer. A 64 MBit DRAM pattern, prepared with framing, with 50 nm address was exposed at 8 μC/cm2 in 3 hr 35 min.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Wu, Junru
2015-10-01
A computational study is reported of the acoustic streaming flow field generated by a Gaussian ultrasound beam propagating normally toward the end wall of a cylindrical container. Particular focus is given to examining the effectiveness of the acoustic streaming flow for fluid mixing within the container, for deposition of particles in suspension onto the bottom surface, and for particle suspension from the bottom surface back into the flow field. The flow field is assumed to be axisymmetric with the ultrasound transducer oriented parallel to the cylinder axis and normal to the bottom surface of the container, which we refer to as the impingement surface. Reflection of the sound from the impingement surface and sound absorption within the material at the container bottom are both accounted for in the computation. The computation also accounts for thermal buoyancy force due to ultrasonic heating of the impingement surface, but over the time period considered in the current simulations, the flow is found to be dominated by the acoustic streaming force, with only moderate effect of buoyancy force.
Direct Simulation of Multiple Scattering by Discrete Random Media Illuminated by Gaussian Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackowski, Daniel W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2011-01-01
The conventional orientation-averaging procedure developed in the framework of the superposition T-matrix approach is generalized to include the case of illumination by a Gaussian beam (GB). The resulting computer code is parallelized and used to perform extensive numerically exact calculations of electromagnetic scattering by volumes of discrete random medium consisting of monodisperse spherical particles. The size parameters of the scattering volumes are 40, 50, and 60, while their packing density is fixed at 5%. We demonstrate that all scattering patterns observed in the far-field zone of a random multisphere target and their evolution with decreasing width of the incident GB can be interpreted in terms of idealized theoretical concepts such as forward-scattering interference, coherent backscattering (CB), and diffuse multiple scattering. It is shown that the increasing violation of electromagnetic reciprocity with decreasing GB width suppresses and eventually eradicates all observable manifestations of CB. This result supplements the previous demonstration of the effects of broken reciprocity in the case of magneto-optically active particles subjected to an external magnetic field.
Bayesian Gaussian Mixture Models for High-Density Genotyping Arrays
Sabatti, Chiara; Lange, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Affymetrix's SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping chips have increased the scope and decreased the cost of gene-mapping studies. Because each SNP is queried by multiple DNA probes, the chips present interesting challenges in genotype calling. Traditional clustering methods distinguish the three genotypes of an SNP fairly well given a large enough sample of unrelated individuals or a training sample of known genotypes. This article describes our attempt to improve genotype calling by constructing Gaussian mixture models with empirically derived priors. The priors stabilize parameter estimation and borrow information collectively gathered on tens of thousands of SNPs. When data from related family members are available, our models capture the correlations in signals between relatives. With these advantages in mind, we apply the models to Affymetrix probe intensity data on 10,000 SNPs gathered on 63 genotyped individuals spread over eight pedigrees. We integrate the genotype-calling model with pedigree analysis and examine a sequence of symmetry hypotheses involving the correlated probe signals. The symmetry hypotheses raise novel mathematical issues of parameterization. Using the Bayesian information criterion, we select the best combination of symmetry assumptions. Compared to Affymetrix's software, our model leads to a reduction in no-calls with little sacrifice in overall calling accuracy. PMID:21572926
Gaussian and Lognormal Models of Hurricane Gust Factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merceret, Frank
2009-01-01
A document describes a tool that predicts the likelihood of land-falling tropical storms and hurricanes exceeding specified peak speeds, given the mean wind speed at various heights of up to 500 feet (150 meters) above ground level. Empirical models to calculate mean and standard deviation of the gust factor as a function of height and mean wind speed were developed in Excel based on data from previous hurricanes. Separate models were developed for Gaussian and offset lognormal distributions for the gust factor. Rather than forecasting a single, specific peak wind speed, this tool provides a probability of exceeding a specified value. This probability is provided as a function of height, allowing it to be applied at a height appropriate for tall structures. The user inputs the mean wind speed, height, and operational threshold. The tool produces the probability from each model that the given threshold will be exceeded. This application does have its limits. They were tested only in tropical storm conditions associated with the periphery of hurricanes. Winds of similar speed produced by non-tropical system may have different turbulence dynamics and stability, which may change those winds statistical characteristics. These models were developed along the Central Florida seacoast, and their results may not accurately extrapolate to inland areas, or even to coastal sites that are different from those used to build the models. Although this tool cannot be generalized for use in different environments, its methodology could be applied to those locations to develop a similar tool tuned to local conditions.
Diagnosing non-Gaussianity of forecast and analysis errors in a convective-scale model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legrand, R.; Michel, Y.; Montmerle, T.
2016-01-01
In numerical weather prediction, the problem of estimating initial conditions with a variational approach is usually based on a Bayesian framework associated with a Gaussianity assumption of the probability density functions of both observations and background errors. In practice, Gaussianity of errors is tied to linearity, in the sense that a nonlinear model will yield non-Gaussian probability density functions. In this context, standard methods relying on Gaussian assumption may perform poorly. This study aims to describe some aspects of non-Gaussianity of forecast and analysis errors in a convective-scale model using a Monte Carlo approach based on an ensemble of data assimilations. For this purpose, an ensemble of 90 members of cycled perturbed assimilations has been run over a highly precipitating case of interest. Non-Gaussianity is measured using the K2 statistics from the D'Agostino test, which is related to the sum of the squares of univariate skewness and kurtosis. Results confirm that specific humidity is the least Gaussian variable according to that measure and also that non-Gaussianity is generally more pronounced in the boundary layer and in cloudy areas. The dynamical control variables used in our data assimilation, namely vorticity and divergence, also show distinct non-Gaussian behaviour. It is shown that while non-Gaussianity increases with forecast lead time, it is efficiently reduced by the data assimilation step especially in areas well covered by observations. Our findings may have implication for the choice of the control variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel; Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.; Kravtsov, Yuri A.; Stateczny, Andrzej
2006-06-01
We present an ab initio account of the paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) in application to scalar Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. The paraxial CGO deals with quadratic expansion of the complex eikonal and reduces the wave problem to the solution of ordinary differential equations of the Riccati type. This substantially simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction as compared with full-wave or parabolic (quasi-optics) equations. For a Gaussian beam propagating in a homogeneous medium or along the symmetry axis in a lenslike medium, the CGO equations possess analytical solutions; otherwise, they can be readily solved numerically. As a nontrivial example we consider Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction along a helical ray in an axially symmetric waveguide medium. It is shown that the major axis of the beam's elliptical cross section grows unboundedly; it is oriented predominantly in the azimuthal (binormal) direction and does not obey the parallel-transport law.
Compressive sensing by learning a Gaussian mixture model from measurements.
Yang, Jianbo; Liao, Xuejun; Yuan, Xin; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David J; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence
2015-01-01
Compressive sensing of signals drawn from a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) admits closed-form minimum mean squared error reconstruction from incomplete linear measurements. An accurate GMM signal model is usually not available a priori, because it is difficult to obtain training signals that match the statistics of the signals being sensed. We propose to solve that problem by learning the signal model in situ, based directly on the compressive measurements of the signals, without resorting to other signals to train a model. A key feature of our method is that the signals being sensed are treated as random variables and are integrated out in the likelihood. We derive a maximum marginal likelihood estimator (MMLE) that maximizes the likelihood of the GMM of the underlying signals given only their linear compressive measurements. We extend the MMLE to a GMM with dominantly low-rank covariance matrices, to gain computational speedup. We report extensive experimental results on image inpainting, compressive sensing of high-speed video, and compressive hyperspectral imaging (the latter two based on real compressive cameras). The results demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform state-of-the-art methods by significant margins. PMID:25361508
Mourka, A.; Mazilu, M.; Wright, E. M.; Dholakia, K.
2013-01-01
The modal characterization of various families of beams is a topic of current interest. We recently reported a new method for the simultaneous determination of both the azimuthal and radial mode indices for light fields possessing orbital angular momentum. The method is based upon probing the far-field diffraction pattern from a random aperture and using the recorded data as a ‘training set'. We then transform the observed data into uncorrelated variables using the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. Here, we show the generic nature of this approach for the simultaneous determination of the modal parameters of Hermite-Gaussian and Bessel beams. This reinforces the widespread applicability of this method for applications including information processing, spectroscopy and manipulation. Additionally, preliminary results demonstrate reliable decomposition of superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussians, yielding the intensities and relative phases of each constituent mode. Thus, this approach represents a powerful method for characterizing the optical multi-dimensional Hilbert space. PMID:23478330
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yuanhang; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zhengda; Li, Ye; Wang, Donglin
2016-07-01
Polarization and spatial coherence of quantization Gaussian Schell-beams propagating through the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence of marine-atmosphere channel are studied based on the quantized Huygens-Fresnel principle and the degree of quantum polarization. The spatial coherence length and the polarization degree of linearly polarization quantization Gaussian Schell-beams are developed. The effects of outer scale on the lateral coherence length are not obvious as same as the effects of wavelength on the degree of polarization. The degree of polarization decreases as the source transverse coherent width, anisotropic factor, the number of received photons, spectral index, the inner scale of turbulent eddies and source transverse radius decrease or generalized refractive-index structure parameter increases. The refractive-index structure parameter, spectral index and inner scale have also effect on the changes of lateral coherence length. Those results can be used to improve the performance of a polarization-encoded quantum communication system.
A phenomenological kV beam model for cone-beam imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Blessing, Manuel; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Zygmanski, Piotr
2010-10-01
A phenomenological kV beam model was developed to address attenuation and scatter in radiographic images for the purpose of cone-beam imaging. Characterization of a kV beam in terms of the minimal number of parameters and calculation of attenuation and scatter in radiographs of scanned objects are the main applications of this model. Model parameters are derived from radiographs of homogeneous solid water phantoms for various depths and field sizes. The response of the cone-beam detector to kV beams is factorized into different contributions such as output factor, tissue-air ratio and off-axis ratio, with each contribution having an analytical representation. The formulas which are used to characterize the beam model in uniform phantoms are then extended to arbitrary objects using the concept of the water-equivalent pathlength. A weighted sum of three Gaussians in each direction models the dose deposition kernel. Detector response arising from the first Gaussian term can be interpreted as the primary signal while the second and third Gaussians constitute short- and long-range scatter. The model is then applied to predict the primary and scatter signals for arbitrary objects. A technique of scatter removal from the measured radiographs is investigated. The model accurately predicts detector response of varying-thickness phantoms such as multi-step and cylindrical phantoms. The scatter contributes over 90% to the total signal for 20 cm thick phantoms. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio as a function of spatial coordinates agrees with Monte Carlo studies reported in the literature. Water-equivalent thickness related to primary and scatter contributions calculated from an analysis of radiographs results in an improved calibration technique suitable for CB-CT reconstruction. The kV beam model and the associated theoretical formulations can be utilized to characterize any kV beam line; however, for the specific study the OBI™ system (Varian) was used to obtain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galdi, Vincenzo; Feng, Haihua; CastañOn, David A.; Karl, W. Clem; Felsen, Leopold B.
2002-04-01
An adaptive framework is presented for frequency-stepped ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging of low-contrast buried objects in the presence of a moderately rough air-soil interface, with potential applications intended in the area of humanitarian demining. The proposed approach, so far restricted to two-dimeansional (2-D) geometries, works with sparse data and relies on recently developed problem-matched narrow-waisted Gaussian beam (GB) algorithms as fast forward scattering predictive models to estimate and compensate for the effects of the coarse-scale roughness profile. Possible targets are subsequently imaged by inverting the Born-linearized subsurface scattering model via object-based curve evolution (CE) techniques. This frequency domain (FD) strategy implements a further step in our planned sequential approach toward a physics based, robust, and numerically efficient framework for rough surface underground imaging in both FD and time domain (TD). Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed framework is attractive from both computational and robustness viewpoints. The results in this paper could also be used for synthesis of TD illumination (in a previous study [, 2001b], we have dealt with wideband illumination directly in the TD).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Major, Balázs; Horváth, Zoltán L.; Porras, Miguel A.
2015-06-01
This work presents a study on the phase- and group-velocity variations of focused, pulsed Gaussian beams during the propagation through the focal region along the optical axis. In the aberration-free case, it is discussed how the wavelength dependence of beam properties alters the group velocity, and how a chromatic aberration-like effect can arise even when focusing is performed with an element that does not have chromatic aberration. It is also examined what effects primary spherical aberration, astigmatism, coma, curvature of field and distortion, along with chromatic aberration, have on the phase- and group-velocity changes occurring during propagation through focus.
Gaussian Process Model for Collision Dynamics of Complex Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.
2015-08-01
We show that a Gaussian process model can be combined with a small number (of order 100) of scattering calculations to provide a multidimensional dependence of scattering observables on the experimentally controllable parameters (such as the collision energy or temperature) as well as the potential energy surface (PES) parameters. For the case of Ar -C6H6 collisions, we show that 200 classical trajectory calculations are sufficient to provide a ten-dimensional hypersurface, giving the dependence of the collision lifetimes on the collision energy, internal temperature, and eight PES parameters. This can be used for solving the inverse scattering problem, for the efficient calculation of thermally averaged observables, for reducing the error of the molecular dynamics calculations by averaging over the PES variations, and for the analysis of the sensitivity of the observables to individual parameters determining the PES. Trained by a combination of classical and quantum calculations, the model provides an accurate description of the quantum scattering cross sections, even near scattering resonances.
An Arabidopsis gene network based on the graphical Gaussian model
Ma, Shisong; Gong, Qingqiu; Bohnert, Hans J.
2007-01-01
We describe a gene network for the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome based on a modified graphical Gaussian model (GGM). Through partial correlation (pcor), GGM infers coregulation patterns between gene pairs conditional on the behavior of other genes. Regularized GGM calculated pcor between gene pairs among ∼2000 input genes at a time. Regularized GGM coupled with iterative random samplings of genes was expanded into a network that covered the Arabidopsis genome (22,266 genes). This resulted in a network of 18,625 interactions (edges) among 6760 genes (nodes) with high confidence and connections representing ∼0.01% of all possible edges. When queried for selected genes, locally coherent subnetworks mainly related to metabolic functions, and stress responses emerged. Examples of networks for biochemical pathways, cell wall metabolism, and cold responses are presented. GGM displayed known coregulation pathways as subnetworks and added novel components to known edges. Finally, the network reconciled individual subnetworks in a topology joined at the whole-genome level and provided a general framework that can instruct future studies on plant metabolism and stress responses. The network model is included. PMID:17921353
Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.
2014-06-15
Patil and Takale in their recent article [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)], by evaluating the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma, have modeled the relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have found that there are some important shortcomings and fundamental mistakes in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)] that we give a brief description about them and refer readers to important misconception about the use of the Fermi temperature in quantum plasmas, appearing in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCallum, Matthew S.
An integral transform which reproduces a transformable input function after a finite number N of successive applications is known as a cyclic transform. Of course, such a transform will reproduce an arbitrary transformable input after N applications, but it also admits eigenfunction inputs which will be reproduced after a single application of the transform. These transforms and their eigenfunctions appear in various applications, and the systematic determination of eigenfunctions of cyclic integral transforms has been a problem of interest to mathematicians since at least the early twentieth century. In this work we review the various approaches to this problem, providing generalizations of published expressions from previous approaches. We then develop a new formalism, differential eigenoperators, that reduces the eigenfunction problem for a cyclic transform to an eigenfunction problem for a corresponding ordinary differential equation. In this way we are able to relate eigenfunctions of integral equations to boundary-value problems, which are typically easier to analyze. We give extensive examples and discussion via the specific case of the Fourier transform. We also relate this approach to two formalisms that have been of interest to the mathematical physics community---hyperdifferential operators and linear canonical transforms. We show how this new approach reproduces known results of Fourier optics regarding free-space diffractive propagation of Gaussian beams in both one and two dimensions. Finally we discuss the group-theoretical aspects of the formalism and describe an isomorphism between roots of the identity transform and complex roots of unity. In the appendix we derive several technical results related to integrability and transformability of solutions in the Fourier transform case, and we prove two theorems---one of them new---on polynomial roots. We conclude that the formalism offers a new and equally valuable perspective on an interesting
Huang, Yongping; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Zenghui; Zhang, Bin
2015-01-26
Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian (PCESHG) vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, including the spectral degree of polarization and evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity are investigated in detail by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It is shown that the motion, creation and annihilation of the coherent vortices of PCESHG vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence may appear with the increasing propagation distance, and the distance for the conservation of the topological charge depends on the turbulence parameters and beam parameters. In additions, the evolution behavior of coherent vortices, average intensity and spectral degree of polarization vary significantly for different values of the generalized exponent parameter and the generalized refractive-index structure parameter of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the beam parameters as well as the propagation distance. PMID:25835869
Density Transition Based Self-Focusing of cosh-Gaussian Laser Beam in Plasma with Linear Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niti, Kant; Manzoor, Ahmad Wani
2015-07-01
Density transition based self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma with linear absorption has been studied. The field distribution in the plasma is expressed in terms of beam width parameter, decentered parameter, and linear absorption coefficient. The differential equation for the beam width parameter is solved by following Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximation through parabolic wave equation approach. The behaviour of beam width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is studied at optimum values of plasma density, decentered parameter and with different absorption levels in the medium. The results reveal that these parameters can affect the self-focusing significantly. Supported by a Financial Grant from CSIR, New Delhi, India, under Project No. 03(1277)/13/EMR-II
Gaussian model-based statistical matching for image enhancement and segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yufeng
2008-04-01
A Gaussian model-based statistical matching procedure is proposed for image enhancement and segmentation. Generally speaking, enhanced images are desired for visual analysis whereas segmented images are required for target recognition. A histogram matching procedure is used to enhance a given image. To perform histogram matching, two histograms are needed, an original histogram computed from the given image and a specified histogram to be matched to. For image enhancement, the specified histogram is a Gaussian model (mean & standard deviation) that can be estimated from a number of well-exposed images or properly processed images. Certainly the Gaussian model varies with the category of imagery. For image segmentation, N Gaussian models (means & standard deviations) are estimated from the original histogram of a given image. The number of Gaussian models (N) is decided by analyzing the original histogram. A statistical matching procedure is used to map the original histogram onto one of the Gaussian models defined by their means and standard deviations. Specifically, the mapped image can be computed by subtracting the mean of original image from the original image, scaling with the ratio of the standard deviation of Gaussian model to the standard deviation of original image and plus the mean of Gaussian model. The statistically mapped image is thresheld by using the mean of Gaussian model, which results one set of expected segments. The statistical matching plus thresholding procedure is repeated N times for N Gaussian models. Finally, all N sets of segments are fully obtained. The proposed image enhancement and segmentation procedure are validated with multi-sensor imagery.
Damping modeling in Timoshenko beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.
1992-01-01
Theoretical and numerical results of damping model studies for composite material beams using the Timoshenko theory is presented. Based on the damping models developed for Euler-Bernoulli beams, the authors develop damping methods for both bending and shear in investigation of Timoshenko beams. A computational method for the estimation of the damping parameters is given. Experimental data with high-frequency excitation were used to test Timoshenko beam equations with different types of damping models for bending and shear in various combinations.
Bayesian modeling of JET Li-BES for edge electron density profiles using Gaussian processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, Jakob; Brix, Mathias; Ghim, Young-Chul; JET Contributors Collaboration
2015-11-01
A Bayesian model for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system has been developed to infer edge electron density profiles. The 26 spatial channels measure emission profiles with ~15 ms temporal resolution and ~1 cm spatial resolution. The lithium I (2p-2s) line radiation in an emission spectrum is calculated using a multi-state model, which expresses collisions between the neutral lithium beam atoms and the plasma particles as a set of differential equations. The emission spectrum is described in the model including photon and electronic noise, spectral line shapes, interference filter curves, and relative calibrations. This spectral modeling gets rid of the need of separate background measurements for calculating the intensity of the line radiation. Gaussian processes are applied to model both emission spectrum and edge electron density profile, and the electron temperature to calculate all the rate coefficients is obtained from the JET high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system. The posterior distributions of the edge electron density profile are explored via the numerical technique and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplings. See the Appendix of F. Romanelli et al., Proceedings of the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2014, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Storytelling Voice Conversion: Evaluation Experiment Using Gaussian Mixture Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračková, Daniela
2015-07-01
In the development of the voice conversion and personification of the text-to-speech (TTS) systems, it is very necessary to have feedback information about the users' opinion on the resulting synthetic speech quality. Therefore, the main aim of the experiments described in this paper was to find out whether the classifier based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM) could be applied for evaluation of different storytelling voices created by transformation of the sentences generated by the Czech and Slovak TTS system. We suppose that it is possible to combine this GMM-based statistical evaluation with the classical one in the form of listening tests or it can replace them. The results obtained in this way were in good correlation with the results of the conventional listening test, so they confirm practical usability of the developed GMM classifier. With the help of the performed analysis, the optimal setting of the initial parameters and the structure of the input feature set for recognition of the storytelling voices was finally determined.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.
2014-09-01
With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkholder, R. J.; Pathak, P. H.
1988-01-01
The electromagnetic (EM) scattering from a planar termination located inside relatively arbitrarily shaped open-ended waveguide cavities with smoothly curved interior walls is analyzed using a Gaussian Beam (GB) expansion of the incident plane wave fields in the open end. The cavities under consideration may contain perfectly-conducting interior walls with or without a thin layer of material coating, or the walls may be characterized by an impedance boundary condition. In the present approach, the GB's are tracked only to the termination of the waveguide cavity via beam reflections from interior waveguide cavity walls. The Gaussian beams are tracked approximately only along their beam axes; this approximation which remains valid for relatively well focussed beams assumes that an incident GB gives rise to a reflected GB with parameters related to the incident beam and the radius of curvature of the wall. It is found that this approximation breaks down for GB's which come close to grazing a convex surface and when the width of the incident beam is comparable to the radius of curvature of the surface. The expansion of the fields at the open end depend on the incidence angle only through the expansion coefficients, so the GB's need to be tracked through the waveguide cavity only once for a wide range of incidence angles. At the termination, the sum of all the GB's are integrated using a result developed from a generalized reciprocity principle, to give the fields scattered from the interior of the cavity. The rim edge at the open end of the cavity is assumed to be sharp and the external scattering from the rim is added separately using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction. The results based on the present approach are compared with solutions based on the hybrid asymptotic modal method. The agreement is found to be very good for cavities made up of planar surfaces, and also for cavities with curved surfaces which are not too long with respect to their width.
Li, Yajun
2007-07-01
In Part I of this study [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 2023 (2007)] the Q(2n) functions of E. Wolf and the Y(n) functions of H. H. Hopkins have been generalized for evaluating the fraction of the total energy in systems with focused truncated Gaussian beams by apertures of different Fresnel numbers and different ratios of aperture radius to beam radius. The generalized special functions provide a mathematical basis for a rigorous study of maximizing beam energy concentration on a target. This subject is addressed under two subtitles: (1) active focusing of a Gaussian beam onto a distant target and (2) optimizing photodetection in a focused field. PMID:17728827
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yajun
2007-07-01
In Part I of this study [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 2023 (2007)] the Q2n functions of E. Wolf and the Yn functions of H. H. Hopkins have been generalized for evaluating the fraction of the total energy in systems with focused truncated Gaussian beams by apertures of different Fresnel numbers and different ratios of aperture radius to beam radius. The generalized special functions provide a mathematical basis for a rigorous study of maximizing beam energy concentration on a target. This subject is addressed under two subtitles: (1) active focusing of a Gaussian beam onto a distant target and (2) optimizing photodetection in a focused field.
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing; Cheng, Qi; Zhang, Dan
2016-06-10
The analytical formulas for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode probability density, signal OAM mode detection probability, and spiral spectrum of partially coherent Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with optical vortices propagation in weak horizontal oceanic turbulent channels were developed, based on the Rytov approximation theory. The effect of oceanic turbulence and beam source parameters on the propagation behavior of the optical vortices carried by partially coherent LG beams was investigated in detail. Our results indicated that optical turbulence in an ocean environment produced a much stronger effect on the optical vortex than that in an atmosphere environment; the effective range of the signal OAM mode of LG beams with a smaller ratio of the mode crosstalk was limited to only several tens of meters in turbulent ocean. The existence of oceanic turbulence evidently induced OAM mode crosstalk and spiral spectrum spread. The effects of oceanic turbulence on the OAM mode detection probability increased with the increase of radial and azimuthal mode orders, oceanic turbulent equivalent temperature structure parameter, and temperature-salinity balance parameter. The spatial partial coherence of the beam source would enhance the effect of turbulent aberrations on the signal OAM mode detection probability, and fully coherent vortex beams provided better performance than partially coherent ones. Increasing wavelength of the vortex beams would help improve the performance of this quantum optical communication system. These results might be of interest for the potential application of optical vortices in practical underwater quantum optical communication among divers, submarines, and sensors in the ocean environment. PMID:27409021
Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2003-01-01
The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Mobola; Stoltz, Peter H.; Lee, W. Wei-Li
1998-11-01
The dynamics of an intense nonneutral beam propagating through a periodic focusing field has been studied using the δ F simulation scheme footnote Qian Qian et al, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1915 (1997). in which the distribution function is divided into an equilibrium part (F^0_b) and a pertubation (δ F_b). Extending the application of this technique for a thermal beam,footnote Peter Stoltz et al, this conference. δ F simulation results are presented for the cases where the equilibria are Lorentzian and Gaussian-inverted-population distributions. The impetus for these studies stems from the fact that both these distributions are models of the Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky distribution which has been well-studied and theorized. The simulation studies are aimed at testing some of these theories including the evolution of envelope oscillations, frequency spectra and conservation properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derbov, V. L.; Mel'Nikov, L. A.; Novikov, A. D.
1989-08-01
A modification of the generalized method of moments is applied to off-axis Gaussian beams in nonlinear inhomogeneous media. Numerical estimates of the induced astigmatism, spot distortion, and beam curvature are obtained for the conventional saturation spectroscopy scheme with a probing counterpropagating beam slightly deflected from the axis of the saturating beam. It is shown that this deflection causes asymmetry in the radial dependence of the saturation resonance frequency shift.
Application of Gaussian Process Modeling to Analysis of Functional Unreliability
R. Youngblood
2014-06-01
This paper applies Gaussian Process (GP) modeling to analysis of the functional unreliability of a “passive system.” GPs have been used widely in many ways [1]. The present application uses a GP for emulation of a system simulation code. Such an emulator can be applied in several distinct ways, discussed below. All applications illustrated in this paper have precedents in the literature; the present paper is an application of GP technology to a problem that was originally analyzed [2] using neural networks (NN), and later [3, 4] by a method called “Alternating Conditional Expectations” (ACE). This exercise enables a multifaceted comparison of both the processes and the results. Given knowledge of the range of possible values of key system variables, one could, in principle, quantify functional unreliability by sampling from their joint probability distribution, and performing a system simulation for each sample to determine whether the function succeeded for that particular setting of the variables. Using previously available system simulation codes, such an approach is generally impractical for a plant-scale problem. It has long been recognized, however, that a well-trained code emulator or surrogate could be used in a sampling process to quantify certain performance metrics, even for plant-scale problems. “Response surfaces” were used for this many years ago. But response surfaces are at their best for smoothly varying functions; in regions of parameter space where key system performance metrics may behave in complex ways, or even exhibit discontinuities, response surfaces are not the best available tool. This consideration was one of several that drove the work in [2]. In the present paper, (1) the original quantification of functional unreliability using NN [2], and later ACE [3], is reprised using GP; (2) additional information provided by the GP about uncertainty in the limit surface, generally unavailable in other representations, is discussed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Santasri; Hyde, Milo W.; McCrae, Jack E.; Spencer, Mark F.; Fiorino, Steven T.
2014-10-01
In military applications that use adaptive optics, an extended beacon instead of a point source beacon is created at the target due to atmospheric turbulence and other factors. These beacons, which have a finite spatial extent and exhibit varying degrees of coherence, are typically modeled in existing literature as a Gaussian Schell Model (GSM) due to its analytical tractability. Earlier, we used a full wave computational technique to evaluate the scattered field from a rough impedance surface in vacuum. The results showed some deviations from GSM behavior. The present work uses a simulation approach based on Physical Optics (PO) approximation to study the scattering behavior in presence of atmospheric turbulence. A fully coherent Gaussian beam is propagated through atmospheric phase screens to the rough surface target plane. The PO current is computed on the rough surface and the scattered field right above the surface is determined. The scattered light is propagated through a second set of atmospheric phase screens and thus the double passage through the atmosphere is realized. The rough surface is simulated using statistical parameters derived from profilometer measurements of standard targets. Through multiple realizations of the atmosphere and the rough surface, the statistics of the scattered field is determined. The simulations are done with different strengths of turbulence and different roughness scales of the target. The results are compared with a GSM. An effects model where the rough surface is modeled as a phase screen has also been implemented in order to verify the nature of the speckle returns.
Implications of Planck results for models with local type non-Gaussianity
Suyama, Teruaki; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp E-mail: shu@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2013-06-01
We discuss implications of Planck results for models with local type non-Gaussianity. In light of the recent results of the Planck satellite, we constrain model parameters of several representative models and give the prediction of trispectrum, in particular, g{sub NL}. We also consider interesting possibilities that trispectrum appears as the first signature of the non-Gaussianities of the curvature perturbations, that is, f{sub NL} is small while g{sub NL} can be significantly large.
Optimisation of dispersion parameters of Gaussian plume model for CO₂ dispersion.
Liu, Xiong; Godbole, Ajit; Lu, Cheng; Michal, Guillaume; Venton, Philip
2015-11-01
The carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects entail the possibility of accidental release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. To quantify the spread of CO2 following such release, the 'Gaussian' dispersion model is often used to estimate the resulting CO2 concentration levels in the surroundings. The Gaussian model enables quick estimates of the concentration levels. However, the traditionally recommended values of the 'dispersion parameters' in the Gaussian model may not be directly applicable to CO2 dispersion. This paper presents an optimisation technique to obtain the dispersion parameters in order to achieve a quick estimation of CO2 concentration levels in the atmosphere following CO2 blowouts. The optimised dispersion parameters enable the Gaussian model to produce quick estimates of CO2 concentration levels, precluding the necessity to set up and run much more complicated models. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were employed to produce reference CO2 dispersion profiles in various atmospheric stability classes (ASC), different 'source strengths' and degrees of ground roughness. The performance of the CFD models was validated against the 'Kit Fox' field measurements, involving dispersion over a flat horizontal terrain, both with low and high roughness regions. An optimisation model employing a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the best dispersion parameters in the Gaussian plume model was set up. Optimum values of the dispersion parameters for different ASCs that can be used in the Gaussian plume model for predicting CO2 dispersion were obtained. PMID:26374541
Automatic selection of ROIs in functional imaging using Gaussian mixture models.
Górriz, J M; Lassl, A; Ramírez, J; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Puntonet, C G; Lang, E W
2009-08-28
We present an automatic method for selecting regions of interest (ROIs) of the information contained in three-dimensional functional brain images using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), where each Gaussian incorporates a contiguous brain region with similar activation. The novelty of the approach is based on approximating the grey-level distribution of a brain image by a sum of Gaussian functions, whose parameters are determined by a maximum likelihood criterion via the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Each Gaussian or cluster is represented by a multivariate Gaussian function with a center coordinate and a certain shape. This approach leads to a drastic compression of the information contained in the brain image and serves as a starting point for a variety of possible feature extraction methods for the diagnosis of brain diseases. PMID:19454303
Non-Gaussianity, spectral index, and tensor modes in mixed inflaton and curvaton models
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Suyama, Teruaki; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2008-07-15
We study non-Gaussianity, the spectral index of primordial scalar fluctuations, and tensor modes in models where fluctuations from the inflaton and the curvaton can both contribute to the present cosmic density fluctuations. Even though simple single-field inflation models generate only tiny non-Gaussianity, if we consider such a mixed scenario, large non-Gaussianity can be produced. Furthermore, we study the inflationary parameters such as the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in this kind of models and discuss in what cases models predict the spectral index and tensor modes allowed by the current data while generating large non-Gaussianity, which may have many implications for model-buildings of the inflationary universe.
Gupta, Naveen Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Navpreet
2015-11-15
This paper presents a scheme for second harmonic generation of an intense q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed parabolic plasma channel, where collisional nonlinearity is operative with nonlinear absorption. Due to nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of the laser beam, nonuniform Ohmic heating of plasma electrons takes place. Due to this nonuniform heating of plasma, the laser beam gets self-focused and produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The generated density gradients excite an electron plasma wave at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. The formulation is based on a numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation in WKB approximation followed by moment theory approach. A second order nonlinear differential equation governing the propagation dynamics of the laser beam with distance of propagation has been obtained and is solved numerically by Runge Kutta fourth order technique. The effect of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam and conversion efficiency of its second harmonics has been investigated.
A non-gaussian model of continuous atmospheric turbulence for use in aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeves, P. M.; Joppa, R. G.; Ganzer, V. M.
1976-01-01
A non-Gaussian model of atmospheric turbulence is presented and analyzed. The model is restricted to the regions of the atmosphere where the turbulence is steady or continuous, and the assumptions of homogeneity and stationarity are justified. Also spatial distribution of turbulence is neglected, so the model consists of three independent, stationary stochastic processes which represent the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal gust components. The non-Gaussian and Gaussian models are compared with experimental data, and it is shown that the Gaussian model underestimates the number of high velocity gusts which occur in the atmosphere, while the non-Gaussian model can be adjusted to match the observed high velocity gusts more satisfactorily. Application of the proposed model to aircraft response is investigated, with particular attention to the response power spectral density, the probability distribution, and the level crossing frequency. A numerical example is presented which illustrates the application of the non-Gaussian model to the study of an aircraft autopilot system. Listings and sample results of a number of computer programs used in working with the model are included.
Anous, Noha H; Khalil, Diaa A
2014-04-10
In this work, the performance of a nonconventional IR surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gas sensor structure based on the use of a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure is studied. This MIM-based sensor structure gives enhanced performance five times better than the conventional MI SPR optical gas sensors. The performance of the SPR gas sensors is studied under the effect of oblique incident Gaussian beams with different spot sizes, and the performance enhancement of the MIM structure is confirmed for different spot sizes. The simulation technique used to generate the results is also verified by comparing them to actual experimental results available in the literature. PMID:24787425
Scale-dependent non-Gaussianity as a generalization of the local model
Becker, Adam; Huterer, Dragan; Kadota, Kenji E-mail: huterer@umich.edu
2011-01-01
We generalize the local model of primordial non-Gaussianity by promoting the parameter f{sub NL} to a general scale-dependent function f{sub NL}(k). We calculate the resulting bispectrum and the effect on the bias of dark matter halos, and thus the extent to which f{sub NL}(k) can be measured from the large-scale structure observations. By calculating the principal components of f{sub NL}(k), we identify scales where this form of non-Gaussianity is best constrained and estimate the overlap with previously studied local and equilateral non-Gaussian models.
Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Molchanova, S I; Savelyev, A G; Khaydukov, E V; Panchenko, V Ya
2014-11-30
The problem of reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian light beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes using a total internal reflection prism is considered. Using the spectral approach we have derived the analytic expressions for the mode propagation lengths, widths and depths of m-lines (sharp and narrow dips in the angular dependence of the specular reflection coefficient), depending on the structure parameters. It is shown that in the case of weak coupling, when the propagation lengths l{sub m} of the waveguide modes are mainly determined by the extinction coefficient in the film, the depth of m-lines grows with the mode number m. In the case of strong coupling, when l{sub m} is determined mainly by the radiation of modes into the prism, the depth of m-lines decreases with increasing m. The change in the TE-polarised Gaussian beam shape after its reflection from the layered structure is studied, which is determined by the energy transfer from the incident beam into waveguide modes that propagate along the structure by the distance l{sub m}, are radiated in the direction of specular reflection and interfere with a part of the beam reflected from the working face of the prism. It is shown that this interference can lead to the field intensity oscillations near m-lines. The analysis of different methods for determining the parameters of thin-film structures is presented, including the measurement of mode angles θ{sub m} and the reflected beam shape. The methods are based on simultaneous excitation of a few waveguide modes in the film with a strongly focused monochromatic Gaussian beam, the waist width of which is much smaller than the propagation length of the modes. As an example of using these methods, the refractive index and the thickness of silicon monoxide film on silica substrate at the wavelength 633 nm are determined. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)
Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti
2014-04-15
Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc.
Isocurvature, non-Gaussianity, and the curvaton model
Beltran, Maria
2008-07-15
Recent analyses of the statistical distribution of the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background do not rule out the possibility that there is a large non-Gaussian contribution to the primordial power spectrum. This fact motivates the reanalysis of the curvaton scenario, paying special attention to the compatibility of large non-Gaussianity of the local type with the current detection limits on the isocurvature amplitude in the cosmic microwave background. We find that if the curvaton mechanism generates a primordial power spectrum with an important non-Gaussian component, any residual isocurvature imprint originated by the curvaton, would have an amplitude too big to be compatible with the current bounds. This implies that the isocurvature mode should be equal to zero in this scenario and we explore the consequences of this inference. In order to prevent the generation of a such a signal, the cold dark matter (CDM) must be created at a late stage, after the curvaton decays completely. This is used to constrain the nature of the CDM, arriving at a general relation between the temperature of the universe at CDM creation and the scale of inflation. It is possible to find an absolute maximum for the temperature at CDM creation, which is dependent on the particular inflationary potential. For a quadratic potential, we find T{sub cdm}<1.7x10{sup 6} GeV.
The topology of large-scale structure. II - Nonlinear evolution of Gaussian models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, Adrian L.; Weinberg, David H.; Gott, J. Richard, III
1988-01-01
The evolution of non-Gaussian behavior in the large-scale universe from Gaussian initial conditions is studied. Topology measures developed in previous papers are applied to the smoothed initial, final, and biased matter distributions of cold dark matter, white noise, and massive neutrino simulations. When the smoothing length is approximately twice the mass correlation length or larger, the evolved models look like the initial conditions, suggesting that random phase hypotheses in cosmology can be tested with adequate data sets. When a smaller smoothing length is used, nonlinear effects are recovered, so nonlinear effects on topology can be detected in redshift surveys after smoothing at the mean intergalaxy separation. Hot dark matter models develop manifestly non-Gaussian behavior attributable to phase correlations, with a topology reminiscent of bubble or sheet distributions. Cold dark matter models remain Gaussian, and biasing does not disguise this.
Kir'yanov, Yu F; Kochemasov, G G; Maslov, N V; Shestakova, I V
1998-01-31
A numerical investigation is reported of the influence of the thermal self-interaction of a Gaussian pump beam on the quality of phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A laser pulse is assumed to be sufficiently long to apply the equalised pressure approximation in calculating the acoustic field. All the calculations are carried out in a three-dimensional formulation for focused beams making use of an approximation linear in respect of the pump intensity. It is confirmed that the growth of thermal perturbations increases the SBS threshold and lowers the phase conjugation quality. A comparison of the calculated and published experimental results shows that they are in satisfactory quantitative agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)
Non-Gaussian correlations in the McLerran-Venugopalan model
Lam, C. S.; Mahlon, Gregory
2001-07-01
We argue that the statistical weight function W[{rho}] appearing in the McLerran-Venugopalan model of a large nucleus is intrinsically non-Gaussian, even if we neglect quantum corrections. Based on the picture where the nucleus of radius R consists of a collection of color-neutral nucleons, each of radius a{much_lt}R, we show that to leading order in {alpha}{sub s} and a/R only the Gaussian part of W[{rho}] enters into the final expression for the gluon number density. Thus, the existing results in the literature which assume a Gaussian weight remain valid.
Non-Gaussian correlations in the McLerran-Venugopalan model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, C. S.; Mahlon, Gregory
2001-07-01
We argue that the statistical weight function W[ρ] appearing in the McLerran-Venugopalan model of a large nucleus is intrinsically non-Gaussian, even if we neglect quantum corrections. Based on the picture where the nucleus of radius R consists of a collection of color-neutral nucleons, each of radius a<
Spectral renormalization group for the Gaussian model and ψ4 theory on nonspatial networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuncer, Aslı; Erzan, Ayşe
2015-08-01
We implement the spectral renormalization group on different deterministic nonspatial networks without translational invariance. We calculate the thermodynamic critical exponents for the Gaussian model on the Cayley tree and the diamond lattice and find that they are functions of the spectral dimension, d ˜. The results are shown to be consistent with those from exact summation and finite-size scaling approaches. At d ˜=2 , the lower critical dimension for the Ising universality class, the Gaussian fixed point is stable with respect to a ψ4 perturbation up to second order. However, on generalized diamond lattices, non-Gaussian fixed points arise for 2
Properties of an Axial Optical Vortex Generated with the Use of a Gaussian Beam and Two Ramps.
Khoroshun, A N; Chernykh, A V; Tsimbaluk, A N; Kirichenko, J A; Yezhov, P V; Kuzmenko, A V; Kim, J T
2016-02-01
The behavior of an axial optical vortex (OV), which is generated with the use of a Gaussian beam and two ramps implemented by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM), is studied as a function of the parameters of two ramps. The analytic solution of a wave equation is obtained in the Fresnel approximation for the diffraction of a Gaussian beam on the two-ramp structure. Nonlinear dependences of the ellipticity gamma of the intensity distribution in the OV core, as well as the angle (phi between the x-axis and the major ellipse axis of the vortex core, on the ramp phase gradient K, are analyzed. The values of given parameters obtained in optical and numerical experiments are in good agreement. It is shown that, as the gradients of the phases of two ramps vary in the limits of 3pi rad/cm, the ellipticity and the slope angle of the major axis ellipse are changed, respectively, by 0.3 and 56 degrees. This gives possibility to efficiently control the parameters of OVs. PMID:27433739
Poly-Gaussian model of randomly rough surface in rarefied gas flow
Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.
2014-12-09
Surface roughness is simulated by the model of non-Gaussian random process. Our results for the scattering of rarefied gas atoms from a rough surface using modified approach to the DSMC calculation of rarefied gas flow near a rough surface are developed and generalized applying the poly-Gaussian model representing probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities. The transformation of the scattering function due to the roughness is characterized by the roughness operator. Simulating rough surface of the walls by the poly-Gaussian random field expressed as integrated Wiener process, we derive a representation of the roughness operator that can be applied in numerical DSMC methods as well as in analytical investigations.
Constrained Gaussian mixture model framework for automatic segmentation of MR brain images.
Greenspan, Hayit; Ruf, Amit; Goldberger, Jacob
2006-09-01
An automated algorithm for tissue segmentation of noisy, low-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain is presented. A mixture model composed of a large number of Gaussians is used to represent the brain image. Each tissue is represented by a large number of Gaussian components to capture the complex tissue spatial layout. The intensity of a tissue is considered a global feature and is incorporated into the model through tying of all the related Gaussian parameters. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is utilized to learn the parameter-tied, constrained Gaussian mixture model. An elaborate initialization scheme is suggested to link the set of Gaussians per tissue type, such that each Gaussian in the set has similar intensity characteristics with minimal overlapping spatial supports. Segmentation of the brain image is achieved by the affiliation of each voxel to the component of the model that maximized the a posteriori probability. The presented algorithm is used to segment three-dimensional, T1-weighted, simulated and real MR images of the brain into three different tissues, under varying noise conditions. Results are compared with state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature. The algorithm does not use an atlas for initialization or parameter learning. Registration processes are therefore not required and the applicability of the framework can be extended to diseased brains and neonatal brains. PMID:16967808
Modeling of low coherence interferometry using broadband multi-Gaussian light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansz, Paul; Richardson, Steven; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven
2012-09-01
Using a low coherence interferometry (LCI) model, a comparison of broadband single-Gaussian and multi-Gaussian light sources has been undertaken. For single-Gaussian sources, the axial resolution improves with the source bandwidth, confirming the coherence length relation that the resolution for single Gaussian sources improves with increasing spectral bandwidth. However, narrow bandwidth light sources result in interferograms with overlapping strata peaks and the loss of individual strata information. For multiple-Gaussian sources with the same bandwidth, spectral side lobes increase, reducing A-scan reliability to show accurate layer information without eliminating the side lobes. The simulations show the conditions needed for the resolution of strata information for broadband light sources using both single and multiple Gaussian models. The potential to use the model to study optical coherence tomography (OCT) light sources including super luminescent diodes (SLDs), as reviewed in this paper, as well as optical delay lines and sample structures could better characterize these LCI and OCT elements. Forecasting misinformation in the interferogram may allow preliminary corrections. With improvement to the LCI-OCT model, more applications are envisaged.
Mitri, F. G.
2015-11-14
Using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustical scattering of a 2D cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with an arbitrary angle of incidence θ{sub i}, focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder in a non-viscous fluid, is developed. The cylindrical focused beam expression is an exact solution of the Helmholtz equation. The scattering coefficients for the elliptical cylinder are determined by forcing the expression of the total (incident + scattered) field to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface, and performing the product of matrices involving an inversion procedure. Computations for the matrices elements require a single numerical integration procedure for each partial-wave mode. Numerical results are performed with particular emphasis on the focusing properties of the incident beam and its angle of incidence with respect to the major axis a of the ellipse as well as the aspect ratio a/b where b is the minor axis (assuming a > b). The method is validated and verified against previous results obtained via the T-matrix for plane waves. The present analysis is the first to consider an acoustical beam on an elliptic cylinder of variable cross-section as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Other 2D non-spherical and Chebyshev surfaces are mentioned that may be examined throughout this analytical formalism assuming a small deformation parameter ε.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Huang, Ting-Wen; Wang, Li-Yang
2010-04-01
We present beam solutions of the strongly nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation in left-handed materials (LHMs). Different Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) necklace beams, such as symmetric and asymmetric single layer and multilayer necklace beams are created by the superposition of two single beams with different topological charges. Such superpositions are then propagated through LHMs, displaying linear diffraction. It is found that the superposition of two LGnm beams with opposite topological charges does not show rotational behavior and that there exists rotation for other topological charge combinations. Our theory predicts that the accessible solitons cannot exist in LHMs.
An optical system design that converts a Gaussian to a flattop annular beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chaochen; Wu, Tengfei; Wang, Yu
2015-10-01
Flattop annular beam has been predicted with good character over an increasing application, but the generating of flattop annular beam is rarely mentioned by academic article. In our paper, an optical refractive system, which is designed to achieve flattop annular beam, are proposed. The cone prism is commonly used to get an annular beam, however, the beam intensity distribution is non-uniform. In our design, an additional aspheric lens is placed in front of the cone prism along the optical axis. The lens parameters are theoretically analyzed and well optimized to homogenize the optical field. Furthermore, to lower the requirement of machining accuracy, a pair of aspheric lenses is also designed, which can be used independently to generate flattop annular beam. It combines the function of cone prism and aspheric lens, so as to replace them both. The performance of the implementations has been demonstrated in detail. Simulation result shows that the proposed design is effective and feasible. It is hope that our work would be helpful in related fields. Flattop annular beam, Aspheric lens, Cone prism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowmik, Anal; Mondal, Pradip Kumar; Majumder, Sonjoy; Deb, Bimalendu
2016-06-01
The exchange of orbital angular momentum (OAM) between paraxial optical vortex and a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of atomic gases is well known. In this paper, we develop a theory for the microscopic interaction between matter and an optical vortex beyond paraxial approximation. We show how superposition of vortex states of BEC can be created with a focused optical vortex. Since the polarization or spin angular momentum (SAM) of the optical field is coupled with OAM of the field, in this case, these angular momenta can be transferred to the internal electronic and external center-of-mass motion of atoms provided both the motions are coupled. We propose a scheme for producing the superposition of matter-wave vortices using Gaussian and a focused Laguerre-Gaussian beam. We study how two-photon Rabi frequencies of stimulated Raman transitions vary with focusing angles for different combinations of OAM and SAM of optical states. We demonstrate the formation of vortex-antivortex structure and discuss interference of three vortex states in a BEC.
Gaussian Copula multivariate modeling for texture image retrieval using wavelet transforms.
Lasmar, Nour-Eddine; Berthoumieu, Yannick
2014-05-01
In the framework of texture image retrieval, a new family of stochastic multivariate modeling is proposed based on Gaussian Copula and wavelet decompositions. We take advantage of the copula paradigm, which makes it possible to separate dependence structure from marginal behavior. We introduce two new multivariate models using, respectively, generalized Gaussian and Weibull densities. These models capture both the subband marginal distributions and the correlation between wavelet coefficients. We derive, as a similarity measure, a closed form expression of the Jeffrey divergence between Gaussian copula-based multivariate models. Experimental results on well-known databases show significant improvements in retrieval rates using the proposed method compared with the best known state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:24686281
Berczynski, Pawel; Bliokh, Konstantin Yu; Kravtsov, Yuri A; Stateczny, Andrzej
2006-06-01
We present an ab initio account of the paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) in application to scalar Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. The paraxial CGO deals with quadratic expansion of the complex eikonal and reduces the wave problem to the solution of ordinary differential equations of the Riccati type. This substantially simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction as compared with full-wave or parabolic (quasi-optics) equations. For a Gaussian beam propagating in a homogeneous medium or along the symmetry axis in a lenslike medium, the CGO equations possess analytical solutions; otherwise, they can be readily solved numerically. As a nontrivial example we consider Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction along a helical ray in an axially symmetric waveguide medium. It is shown that the major axis of the beam's elliptical cross section grows unboundedly; it is oriented predominantly in the azimuthal (binormal) direction and does not obey the parallel-transport law. PMID:16715163
Brain MRI segmentation and lesion detection using generalized Gaussian and Rician modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xuqiang; Bricq, Stéphanie; Collet, Christophe
2011-03-01
In this paper we propose a mixed noise modeling so as to segment the brain and to detect lesion. Indeed, accurate segmentation of multimodal (T1, T2 and Flair) brain MR images is of great interest for many brain disorders but requires to efficiently manage multivariate correlated noise between available modalities. We addressed this problem in1 by proposing an entirely unsupervised segmentation scheme, taking into account multivariate Gaussian noise, imaging artifacts,intrinsic tissue variation and partial volume effects in a Bayesian framework. Nevertheless, tissue classification remains a challenging task especially when one addresses the lesion detection during segmentation process2 as we did. In order to improve brain segmentation into White and Gray Matter (resp. WM and GM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), we propose to fit a Rician (RC) density distribution for CSF whereas Generalized Gaussian (GG) models are used to fit the likelihood between model and data corresponding to WM and GM. In this way, we present in this paper promising results showing that in a multimodal segmentation-detection scheme, this model fits better with the data and increases lesion detection rate. One of the main challenges consists in being able to take into account various pdf (Gaussian and non- Gaussian) for correlated noise between modalities and to show that lesion-detection is then clearly improved, probably because non-Gaussian noise better fits to the physic of MRI image acquisition.
Fan Hongyi; Lu Hailiang . E-mail: luhailiang@sjtu.edu.cn; Gao Weibo; Xu Xuefen
2006-09-15
The development of technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators extends the Newton-Leibniz integration rule, originally applying to permutable functions, to the non-commutative quantum mechanical operators composed of Dirac's ket-bra, which enables us to obtain the images of directly mapping symplectic transformation in classical phase space parameterized by [A, B; C, D] into quantum mechanical operator through the coherent state representation, we call them the generalized Fresnel operators (GFO) since they correspond to Fresnel transforms in Fourier optics. Based on GFO we find the ABCD rule for Gaussian beam propagation in the context of quantum optics (both in one-mode and two-mode cases) whose classical correspondence is just the ABCD rule in matrix optics. The entangled state representation is used in discussing the two-mode case.
Kumar, Subodh; Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, R. P.
2015-10-15
Terahertz (THz) generation by beating of two co-axial Gaussian laser beams, propagating in ripple density plasma, has been studied when both ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities are operative. When the two lasers co-propagate in rippled density plasma, electrons acquire a nonlinear velocity at beat frequency in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation. This nonlinear oscillatory velocity couples with the density ripple to generate a nonlinear current, which in turn generates THz radiation at the difference frequency. The necessary phase matching condition is provided by the density ripple. Relativistic ponderomotive focusing of the two lasers and its effects on yield of the generated THz amplitude have been discussed. Numerical results show that conversion efficiency of the order of 10{sup −3} can be achieved in the terahertz radiation generation with relativistic ponderomotive focusing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ke; Jiao, Liyang; Zhong, Xianqiong
2016-05-01
Based on the vector angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method, the analytical far-field vectorial expressions of radial noncanonical vortex Airy beam arrays (NVAiBAs) and radial noncanonical vortex Gaussian beam arrays (NVGBAs) are derived, and used to investigate their far-field vectorial properties, e.g. center optical vortices and energy fluxes of these corresponding beams, where the effect of noncanonical strength, topological charge, initial phase index and the number of beamlet on far-field vectorial properties of these corresponding beams is emphasized, respectively. The results show that the topological charge of center optical vortices in the far field is equal to initial phase index for the case of the radial NVAiBAs, whereas for radial NVGBAs the topological charge not only lies on initial phase index, but also is closely related to the odevity and sign of optical vortices embedded in beamlet, where mathematical analysis is made to explain the topological charge of center optical vortices, and the limitation of the number of beamlet to the topological charge of center optical vortices is also discussed. In addition, energy fluxes of radial NVAiBAs and NVGBAs exhibit different space orientations by controlling noncancial strength and present larger dark zones by increasing topological charge of beamlet, respectively. Finally, the relationship between the center optical vortices and energy fluxes of radial NVAiBAs and NVGBAs in even or odd N beamlets is also revealed, respectively.
Superdiffusion in a non-Markovian random walk model with a Gaussian memory profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, G. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A. A.; Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Mariz, A. M.
2012-09-01
Most superdiffusive Non-Markovian random walk models assume that correlations are maintained at all time scales, e.g., fractional Brownian motion, Lévy walks, the Elephant walk and Alzheimer walk models. In the latter two models the random walker can always "remember" the initial times near t = 0. Assuming jump size distributions with finite variance, the question naturally arises: is superdiffusion possible if the walker is unable to recall the initial times? We give a conclusive answer to this general question, by studying a non-Markovian model in which the walker's memory of the past is weighted by a Gaussian centered at time t/2, at which time the walker had one half the present age, and with a standard deviation σt which grows linearly as the walker ages. For large widths we find that the model behaves similarly to the Elephant model, but for small widths this Gaussian memory profile model behaves like the Alzheimer walk model. We also report that the phenomenon of amnestically induced persistence, known to occur in the Alzheimer walk model, arises in the Gaussian memory profile model. We conclude that memory of the initial times is not a necessary condition for generating (log-periodic) superdiffusion. We show that the phenomenon of amnestically induced persistence extends to the case of a Gaussian memory profile.
2010-01-01
Background Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is one of the major techniques for the quantification of metabolites in complex biological samples. Peak modeling is one of the key components in LC-MS data pre-processing. Results To quantify asymmetric peaks with high noise level, we developed an estimation procedure using the bi-Gaussian function. In addition, to accurately quantify partially overlapping peaks, we developed a deconvolution method using the bi-Gaussian mixture model combined with statistical model selection. Conclusions Using extensive simulations and real data, we demonstrated the advantage of the bi-Gaussian mixture model over the Gaussian mixture model and the method of kernel smoothing combined with signal summation in peak quantification and deconvolution. The method is implemented in the R package apLCMS: http://www.sph.emory.edu/apLCMS/. PMID:21073736
PMOG: the projected mixture of Gaussians model with application to blind source separation.
Pendse, Gautam V
2012-04-01
We extend the mixtures of Gaussians (MOG) model to the projected mixture of Gaussians (PMOG) model. In the PMOG model, we assume that q dimensional input data points z(i) are projected by a q dimensional vector w into 1-D variables u(i). The projected variables u(i) are assumed to follow a 1-D MOG model. In the PMOG model, we maximize the likelihood of observing u(i) to find both the model parameters for the 1-D MOG as well as the projection vector w. First, we derive an EM algorithm for estimating the PMOG model. Next, we show how the PMOG model can be applied to the problem of blind source separation (BSS). In contrast to conventional BSS where an objective function based on an approximation to differential entropy is minimized, PMOG based BSS simply minimizes the differential entropy of projected sources by fitting a flexible MOG model in the projected 1-D space while simultaneously optimizing the projection vector w. The advantage of PMOG over conventional BSS algorithms is the more flexible fitting of non-Gaussian source densities without assuming near-Gaussianity (as in conventional BSS) and still retaining computational feasibility. PMID:22391233
Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade
2013-10-15
Accurate relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets (RAGBSs) for 87 Fr up to 118 Uuo atoms without variational prolapse were developed here with the use of a polynomial version of the Generator Coordinate Dirac-Fock method. Two finite nuclear models have been used, the Gaussian and uniform sphere models. The largest RAGBS error, with respect to numerical Dirac-Fock results, is 15.4 miliHartree for Ununoctium with a basis set size of 33s30p19d14f functions. PMID:23913741
Plachenov, A B; Radin, A M
2011-01-31
Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an odd number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (laser beams)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhaoxue; Chen, Hao
2014-07-01
A deconvolution method based on the Gaussian radial basis function (GRBF) interpolation is proposed. Both the original image and Gaussian point spread function are expressed as the same continuous GRBF model, thus image degradation is simplified as convolution of two continuous Gaussian functions, and image deconvolution is converted to calculate the weighted coefficients of two-dimensional control points. Compared with Wiener filter and Lucy-Richardson algorithm, the GRBF method has an obvious advantage in the quality of restored images. In order to overcome such a defect of long-time computing, the method of graphic processing unit multithreading or increasing space interval of control points is adopted, respectively, to speed up the implementation of GRBF method. The experiments show that based on the continuous GRBF model, the image deconvolution can be efficiently implemented by the method, which also has a considerable reference value for the study of three-dimensional microscopic image deconvolution.
Gendron, Paul J
2016-04-01
A hierarchical Gaussian mixture model is proposed to characterize shallow water acoustic response functions that are time-varying and sparse. The mixture model is based on the assumption that acoustic paths can be partitioned into two sets. The first is a relatively coherent set of arrivals that on average exhibit Doppler spreading about a mean Doppler and the remaining set is of multiple surface scattered paths that exhibit a spectrally flat Doppler. The hierarchy establishes constraints on the parameters of each of these Gaussian models such that coherent components of the response are both sparse and in the ensemble obey the Doppler spread profile. This is accomplished with a Bernoulli model that indicates the ensonification state of each element in the bi-frequency representation of the acoustic response function. Estimators of the time-varying acoustic response for the full duration of a broadband transmission are developed and employed to compensate for the shared time-varying dilation process among the coherent arrivals. The approach ameliorates response coherence degradation and can be employed to enhance coherent multi-path combining and is a useful alternative to time recursive estimation. The model is tested with acoustic communication recordings taken in shallow water at low signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:27106339
MacKenzie, Donald; Spears, Taylor
2014-06-01
Drawing on documentary sources and 114 interviews with market participants, this and a companion article discuss the development and use in finance of the Gaussian copula family of models, which are employed to estimate the probability distribution of losses on a pool of loans or bonds, and which were centrally involved in the credit crisis. This article, which explores how and why the Gaussian copula family developed in the way it did, employs the concept of 'evaluation culture', a set of practices, preferences and beliefs concerning how to determine the economic value of financial instruments that is shared by members of multiple organizations. We identify an evaluation culture, dominant within the derivatives departments of investment banks, which we call the 'culture of no-arbitrage modelling', and explore its relation to the development of Gaussian copula models. The article suggests that two themes from the science and technology studies literature on models (modelling as 'impure' bricolage, and modelling as articulating with heterogeneous objectives and constraints) help elucidate the history of Gaussian copula models in finance. PMID:25051588
Analytical Model for Pair Dispersion in Gaussian Models of Eulerian Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory; Benveniste, Damien
2012-11-01
Synthetic models of Eulerian turbulence are often used as computational shortcuts for studying Lagrangian properties of turbulence (e.g. Elliott & Majda, 1996). These models have been criticized by Thomson & Devenish (2005), who argued on physical grounds that their sweeping effects are very different from true turbulence. We give analytical results for Eulerian turbulence modeled by Gaussian fields. Our starting point is an exact integrodifferential equation for the particle pair separation distribution obtained from Gaussian integration-by-parts. When velocity correlation times are short, a Markovian approximation leads to a Richardson-type diffusion model. We obtain a time-dependent pair diffusivity tensor of the form Kij (r , t) =Sij (r) τ (r , t) where Sij (r) is the structure-function tensor and τ (r , t) is an effective correlation time of velocity increments. Crucially, this is found to be the minimum value of three times: the intrinsic turnover time τeddy (r) at separation r, the overall evolution time t , and the sweeping time r /v0 with v0 the rms velocity. We thus verify the main argument of Thomson & Devenish (2005), but we predict scaling laws for pair dispersion different from theirs for zero-mean velocity ensembles.
A Gaussian Model-Based Probabilistic Approach for Pulse Transit Time Estimation.
Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Seung-Hun; Hahn, Minsoo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic approach to pulse transit time (PTT) estimation using a Gaussian distribution model. It is motivated basically by the hypothesis that PTTs normalized by RR intervals follow the Gaussian distribution. To verify the hypothesis, we demonstrate the effects of arterial compliance on the normalized PTTs using the Moens-Korteweg equation. Furthermore, we observe a Gaussian distribution of the normalized PTTs on real data. In order to estimate the PTT using the hypothesis, we first assumed that R-waves in the electrocardiogram (ECG) can be correctly identified. The R-waves limit searching ranges to detect pulse peaks in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) and to synchronize the results with cardiac beats--i.e., the peaks of the PPG are extracted within the corresponding RR interval of the ECG as pulse peak candidates. Their probabilities of being the actual pulse peak are then calculated using a Gaussian probability function. The parameters of the Gaussian function are automatically updated when a new pulse peak is identified. This update makes the probability function adaptive to variations of cardiac cycles. Finally, the pulse peak is identified as the candidate with the highest probability. The proposed approach is tested on a database where ECG and PPG waveforms are collected simultaneously during the submaximal bicycle ergometer exercise test. The results are promising, suggesting that the method provides a simple but more accurate PTT estimation in real applications. PMID:25420274
Self-focusing of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a multi-ions plasma
Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.
2013-10-15
In this paper, the authors have developed a formulation for the dependence of electron and ion densities on the irradiance of an electromagnetic beam in a plasma with multiply charged ions, corresponding to collisional, ponderomotive, and relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearities and different electron/ion temperatures; consequently, the corresponding expressions for the electron density modification in the presence of an electromagnetic (em) field have been derived. Paraxial approach in the vicinity of intensity maximum has been adopted to analyze the propagation characteristics of an em beam in such plasmas; on the basis of this analysis, critical curves and self-focusing curves have been computed numerically and graphically illustrated. For a numerical appreciation of the analysis, we have specifically carried out the computations for the simultaneous presence of singly and doubly charged ions in the plasma. As an important outcome, it is seen that the nonlinear effects (and hence self-focusing) get suppressed in the presence of multiply ionized ions; the conditions for the three modes of em-beam propagation viz. oscillatory focusing/defocusing and steady divergence have been discussed.
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2008-03-15
We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.
Minimal Model of Stochastic Athermal Systems: Origin of Non-Gaussian Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sano, Tomohiko G.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao
2015-03-01
For a wide class of stochastic athermal systems, we derive Langevin-like equations driven by non-Gaussian noise, starting from master equations and developing a new asymptotic expansion. We found an explicit condition whereby the non-Gaussian properties of the athermal noise become dominant for tracer particles associated with both thermal and athermal environments. Furthermore, we derive an inverse formula to infer microscopic properties of the athermal bath from the statistics of the tracer particle. We apply our formulation to a granular motor under viscous friction and analytically obtain the angular velocity distribution function. Our theory demonstrates that the non-Gaussian Langevin equation is the minimal model of athermal systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szalkowski, Gregory; Majeski, Richard; Schmitt, John
2014-10-01
The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) is a low aspect ratio tokamak with a steel clad copper shell that can be heated to 300-400 °C and coated with lithium. The lithium coating has been shown to decrease impurities in the plasma and decrease the recycling coefficient, improving plasma performance. The coating is applied to the walls by heating the shells, then using an electron beam to evaporate a pool of lithium located at the bottom of the shell. The beam is steered using the magnetic field generated by the field coils. This method allows for rapid evaporation of the lithium, producing a 50-100 nm coating in approximately 5 minutes. The current electron beam system can only coat half of the shell surface. A new electron beam system has been installed on LTX to coat the remaining shell surface. A model of this electron gun has been created using the AMaze program series (Field Precision LCC). The model will be used to find the magnetic fields needed to steer the electron beam produced by the gun to the lithium pool. The model will also show the electropotential produced both at the electron gun head and in the vessel. The model may also be used to find the dispersion of the beam and therefore the effective power density of the beam as it impacts the lithium pool. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344 and in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship.
Predictions of a non-Gaussian model for large scale structure
Fan, Z.H.; Bardeen, J.M.
1992-06-26
A modified CDM model for the origin of structure in the universe based on an inflation model with two interacting scalar fields, is analyzed to make predictions for the statistical properties of the density and velocity fields and the microwave background anisotropy. The initial gauge-invariant potential {zeta} which is defined as {zeta} = {delta}{rho}/({rho} + p) + 3{var_phi}, where {var_phi} is the curvature perturbation amplitude and p is the pressure, is the sum of a Gaussian field {phi}{sub 1}, and the square of a Gaussian field {phi}{sub 2}. A Harrison-Zel`dovich scale-invariant power spectrum is assumed for {phi}{sub 1}; and a log-normal `peak` power spectrum for {phi}{sub 2}. The location and the width of the peak are described by parameters k{sub c} and a. respectively. The model is motivated to some extent by inflation models with two interacting scalar fields, but is mainly interesting as an example of a model whose statistical properties change with scale. On small scales, it is almost identical to a standard scale-invariant Gaussian CDM model. On scales near the location of the peak of the non-Gaussian field, the distributions have long tails in high positive values of the density and velocity fields. Thus, it is easier to get large-scale streaming velocities than the standard CDM model. The quadrupole amplitude of fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the rms variation of the temperature field smoothed with a 10{degree} FWHM Gaussian are calculated; a reasonable agreement is found with the new COBE results.
Predictions of a non-Gaussian model for large scale structure
Fan, Z.H.; Bardeen, J.M.
1992-06-26
A modified CDM model for the origin of structure in the universe based on an inflation model with two interacting scalar fields, is analyzed to make predictions for the statistical properties of the density and velocity fields and the microwave background anisotropy. The initial gauge-invariant potential [zeta] which is defined as [zeta] = [delta][rho]/([rho] + p) + 3[var phi], where [var phi] is the curvature perturbation amplitude and p is the pressure, is the sum of a Gaussian field [phi][sub 1], and the square of a Gaussian field [phi][sub 2]. A Harrison-Zel'dovich scale-invariant power spectrum is assumed for [phi][sub 1]; and a log-normal 'peak' power spectrum for [phi][sub 2]. The location and the width of the peak are described by parameters k[sub c] and a. respectively. The model is motivated to some extent by inflation models with two interacting scalar fields, but is mainly interesting as an example of a model whose statistical properties change with scale. On small scales, it is almost identical to a standard scale-invariant Gaussian CDM model. On scales near the location of the peak of the non-Gaussian field, the distributions have long tails in high positive values of the density and velocity fields. Thus, it is easier to get large-scale streaming velocities than the standard CDM model. The quadrupole amplitude of fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the rms variation of the temperature field smoothed with a 10[degree] FWHM Gaussian are calculated; a reasonable agreement is found with the new COBE results.
Intuitive understanding of non-Gaussianity in ekpyrotic and cyclic models
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2008-07-15
It has been pointed out by several groups that ekpyrotic and cyclic models generate significant non-Gaussianity. In this paper, we present a physically intuitive, semianalytic estimate of the bispectrum. We show that, in all such models, there is an intrinsic contribution to the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} that is determined by the geometric mean of the equation of state w{sub ek} during the ekpyrotic phase and w{sub c} during the phase that curvature perturbations are generated, and whose value is O(100) or more times the intrinsic value predicted by simple slow-roll inflationary models, f{sub NL}{sup intrinsic}=O(0.1). Other contributions to f{sub NL}, which we also estimate, can increase |f{sub NL}| but are unlikely to decrease it significantly, making non-Gaussianity a useful test of these models. Furthermore, we discuss a predicted correlation between the non-Gaussianity and scalar spectral index that sharpens the test.
The vertical diffusion of a passive tracer released from surface and elevated sources in a neutrally-stratified boundary layer has been studied by comparing field and laboratory experiments with a non-Gaussian K-theory model that assumes power-law profiles for the mean velocity a...
Ambrosio, Leonardo A.; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E.
2010-01-01
Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised. PMID:21258549
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mengnan; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Yang, Qingbo; Wu, Jiajie
2016-05-01
Based on the characteristics of the laser device and the inevitable error of the processing technique, a laser beam emitted from a communication terminal can be represented by the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). In space-to-ground link laser communications, the optical intensity is affected by the source coherence parameter and the zenith angle. With full consideration of these two parameters, the statistical distribution model of the optical intensity with a GSM laser in both downlink and uplink is derived. The simulation results indicate that increasing the source coherence parameter has an effect on the statistical distribution of the optical intensity; this effect is highly similar to the effect of a larger zenith angle. The optical intensity invariably degrades with increasing source coherence parameter or zenith angle. The results of this work can promote the improvement of the redundancy design of a laser communication receiver system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niknam, A. R.; Banjafar, M. R.; Jahangiri, F.; Barzegar, S.; Massudi, R.
2016-05-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by the interaction of two co-propagating high intensity laser beams with a warm collisional inhomogeneous plasma is analytically investigated. By presenting the dielectric permittivity of plasma and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the nonlinear current at THz frequency is obtained. A secondary resonant enhancement of THz radiation is observed, in addition to that occurs at the plasma frequency, which can be tuned by plasma density and temperature. Moreover, we show that for each beat frequency, there exists an optimum temperature at which THz radiation is maximized. It is also shown that the power and efficiency of THz radiation decrease by increasing the collision frequency.
Ma, Denglong; Zhang, Zaoxiao
2016-07-01
Gas dispersion model is important for predicting the gas concentrations when contaminant gas leakage occurs. Intelligent network models such as radial basis function (RBF), back propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model can be used for gas dispersion prediction. However, the prediction results from these network models with too many inputs based on original monitoring parameters are not in good agreement with the experimental data. Then, a new series of machine learning algorithms (MLA) models combined classic Gaussian model with MLA algorithm has been presented. The prediction results from new models are improved greatly. Among these models, Gaussian-SVM model performs best and its computation time is close to that of classic Gaussian dispersion model. Finally, Gaussian-MLA models were applied to identifying the emission source parameters with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The estimation performance of PSO with Gaussian-MLA is better than that with Gaussian, Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and network models based on original monitoring parameters. Hence, the new prediction model based on Gaussian-MLA is potentially a good method to predict contaminant gas dispersion as well as a good forward model in emission source parameters identification problem. PMID:27035273
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krems, Roman; Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying
2016-05-01
We show how statistical learning techniques based on kriging (Gaussian Process regression) can be used for improving the predictions of classical and/or quantum scattering theory. In particular, we show how Gaussian Process models can be used for: (i) efficient non-parametric fitting of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces without the need to fit ab initio data with analytical functions; (ii) obtaining scattering observables as functions of individual PES parameters; (iii) using classical trajectories to interpolate quantum results; (iv) extrapolation of scattering observables from one molecule to another; (v) obtaining scattering observables with error bars reflecting the inherent inaccuracy of the underlying potential energy surfaces. We argue that the application of Gaussian Process models to quantum scattering calculations may potentially elevate the theoretical predictions to the same level of certainty as the experimental measurements and can be used to identify the role of individual atoms in determining the outcome of collisions of complex molecules. We will show examples and discuss the applications of Gaussian Process models to improving the predictions of scattering theory relevant for the cold molecules research field. Work supported by NSERC of Canada.
Discussion: the design and analysis of the Gaussian process model
Williams, Brian J; Loeppky, Jason L
2008-01-01
The investigation of complex physical systems utilizing sophisticated computer models has become commonplace with the advent of modern computational facilities. In many applications, experimental data on the physical systems of interest is extremely expensive to obtain and hence is available in limited quantities. The mathematical systems implemented by the computer models often include parameters having uncertain values. This article provides an overview of statistical methodology for calibrating uncertain parameters to experimental data. This approach assumes that prior knowledge about such parameters is represented as a probability distribution, and the experimental data is used to refine our knowledge about these parameters, expressed as a posterior distribution. Uncertainty quantification for computer model predictions of the physical system are based fundamentally on this posterior distribution. Computer models are generally not perfect representations of reality for a variety of reasons, such as inadequacies in the physical modeling of some processes in the dynamic system. The statistical model includes components that identify and adjust for such discrepancies. A standard approach to statistical modeling of computer model output for unsampled inputs is introduced for the common situation where limited computer model runs are available. Extensions of the statistical methods to functional outputs are available and discussed briefly.
A Non-Gaussian Stock Price Model: Options, Credit and a Multi-Timescale Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borland, L.
We review a recently proposed model of stock prices, based on astatistical feedback model that results in a non-Gaussian distribution of price changes. Applications to option pricing and the pricing of debt is discussed. A generalization to account for feedback effects over multiple timescales is also presented. This model reproduces most of the stylized facts (ie statistical anomalies) observed in real financial markets.
Non-Gaussianity in single field models without slow-roll conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noller, Johannes; Magueijo, João
2011-05-01
We investigate non-Gaussianity in general single field models without assuming slow-roll conditions or the exact scale invariance of the scalar power spectrum. The models considered include general single field inflation (e.g. Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical inflation) as well as bimetric models. We compute the full non-Gaussian amplitude A, its size fNL, its shape, and the running with scale nNG. In doing so we show that observational constraints allow significant violations of slow-roll conditions and we derive explicit bounds on slow-roll parameters for fast-roll single field scenarios. A variety of new observational signatures is found for models respecting these bounds. We also explicitly construct concrete model implementations giving rise to this new phenomenology.
Modeling Sea-Level Change using Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin
2014-05-01
We perform Bayesian inference on historical and late Holocene (last 2000 years) rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to our model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. To accurately estimate rates of sea-level change and reliably compare tide-gauge compilations with proxy reconstructions it is necessary to account for the uncertainties that characterize each dataset. Many previous studies used simple linear regression models (most commonly polynomial regression) resulting in overly precise rate estimates. The model we propose uses an integrated Gaussian process approach, where a Gaussian process prior is placed on the rate of sea-level change and the data itself is modeled as the integral of this rate process. The non-parametric Gaussian process model is known to be well suited to modeling time series data. The advantage of using an integrated Gaussian process is that it allows for the direct estimation of the derivative of a one dimensional curve. The derivative at a particular time point will be representative of the rate of sea level change at that time point. The tide gauge and proxy data are complicated by multiple sources of uncertainty, some of which arise as part of the data collection exercise. Most notably, the proxy reconstructions include temporal uncertainty from dating of the sediment core using techniques such as radiocarbon. As a result of this, the integrated Gaussian process model is set in an errors-in-variables (EIV) framework so as to take account of this temporal uncertainty. The data must be corrected for land-level change known as glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) as it is important to isolate the climate-related sea-level signal. The correction for GIA introduces covariance between individual age and sea level observations into the model. The proposed integrated Gaussian process model allows for the estimation of instantaneous rates of sea-level change and accounts for all
Broadband spatiotemporal Gaussian Schell-model pulse trains.
Dutta, Rahul; Korhonen, Minna; Friberg, Ari T; Genty, Göery; Turunen, Jari
2014-03-01
A new class of partially coherent model sources is introduced on the basis of the second-order coherence theory of nonstationary optical fields. These model sources are spatially fully coherent at each frequency but can have broadband spectra and variable spectral coherence properties, which lead to reduced spatiotemporal coherence in the time domain. The source model is motivated by the spectral coherence properties of supercontinuum pulse trains generated in single-spatial-mode optical fibers. We demonstrate that such broadband light is highly (but not completely) spatially coherent, even though the spectral and temporal coherence properties may vary over a wide range. The model sources introduced here are convenient in assessing the spatiotemporal coherence of broadband pulses in optical systems. PMID:24690663
Lee, E.P.
1980-08-08
An analytical model of beam head dynamics is presented, leading to an estimate of the erosion rate due to the combined effects of Ohmic dissipation and scattering. Agreement with the results of a computer simulation and detailed one-dimensional computations is good in all respects except for the scaling of the erosion rate with net current.
Signal Partitioning Algorithm for Highly Efficient Gaussian Mixture Modeling in Mass Spectrometry
Polanski, Andrzej; Marczyk, Michal; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr; Polanska, Joanna
2015-01-01
Mixture - modeling of mass spectra is an approach with many potential applications including peak detection and quantification, smoothing, de-noising, feature extraction and spectral signal compression. However, existing algorithms do not allow for automated analyses of whole spectra. Therefore, despite highlighting potential advantages of mixture modeling of mass spectra of peptide/protein mixtures and some preliminary results presented in several papers, the mixture modeling approach was so far not developed to the stage enabling systematic comparisons with existing software packages for proteomic mass spectra analyses. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for Gaussian mixture modeling of proteomic mass spectra of different types (e.g., MALDI-ToF profiling, MALDI-IMS). The main idea is automated partitioning of protein mass spectral signal into fragments. The obtained fragments are separately decomposed into Gaussian mixture models. The parameters of the mixture models of fragments are then aggregated to form the mixture model of the whole spectrum. We compare the elaborated algorithm to existing algorithms for peak detection and we demonstrate improvements of peak detection efficiency obtained by using Gaussian mixture modeling. We also show applications of the elaborated algorithm to real proteomic datasets of low and high resolution. PMID:26230717
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeves, P. M.; Campbell, G. S.; Ganzer, V. M.; Joppa, R. G.
1974-01-01
A method is described for generating time histories which model the frequency content and certain non-Gaussian probability characteristics of atmospheric turbulence including the large gusts and patchy nature of turbulence. Methods for time histories using either analog or digital computation are described. A STOL airplane was programmed into a 6-degree-of-freedom flight simulator, and turbulence time histories from several atmospheric turbulence models were introduced. The pilots' reactions are described.
On classification of models of large local-type non-Gaussianity
Suyama, Teruaki; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp
2010-12-01
We classify models generating large local-type non-Gaussianity into some categories by using some ''consistency relations'' among the non-linearity parameters f{sub NL}{sup local},τ{sub NL}{sup local} and g{sub NL}{sup local}, which characterize the size of bispectrum for the former and trispectrum for the latter two. Then we discuss how one can discriminate models of large local-type non-Gaussianity with such relations. We first classify the models by using the ratio of τ{sub NL}{sup local}/(6f{sub NL}{sup local}/5){sup 2}, which is unity for ''single-source'' models and deviates from unity for ''multi-source'' ones. We can make a further classification of models in each category by utilizing the relation between f{sub NL}{sup local} and g{sub NL}{sup local}. Our classification suggests that observations of trispectrum would be very helpful to distinguish models of large non-Gaussianity and may reveal the generation mechanism of primordial fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, L.; Seo, D.; Demargne, J.; Brown, J. D.
2008-12-01
In this presentation, we describe generation of ensemble precipitation forecasts from single-value quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) via the mixed-type bivariate meta-Gaussian model (Herr and Krzysztofowicz 2005). Because of the intermittent nature of precipitation, it is necessary to model precipitation amount as a mixed variable. The joint distribution of single-value QPF and observed precipitation amounts may then be modeled by the mixed-type bivariate meta-Gaussian distribution. From the single-value QPF, one may generate ensemble precipitation forecasts by sampling from the conditional distribution of the mixed-type bivariate meta-Gaussian distribution. The marginal distributions of the meta-Gaussian distribution are estimated using the Gaussian kernel smoothing technique with a plug-in bandwidth selection procedure. This methodology attempts to capture the skill and uncertainty in the QPF. We present both dependent and independent validation results for selected river basins in the AB-, CN-, and MA-RFC areas.
Novel Methods for Surface EMG Analysis and Exploration Based on Multi-Modal Gaussian Mixture Models.
Vögele, Anna Magdalena; Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Krüger, Björn; Licka, Theresia
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a new method for data analysis of animal muscle activation during locomotion. It is based on fitting Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to surface EMG data (sEMG). This approach enables researchers/users to isolate parts of the overall muscle activation within locomotion EMG data. Furthermore, it provides new opportunities for analysis and exploration of sEMG data by using the resulting Gaussian modes as atomic building blocks for a hierarchical clustering. In our experiments, composite peak models representing the general activation pattern per sensor location (one sensor on the long back muscle, three sensors on the gluteus muscle on each body side) were identified per individual for all 14 horses during walk and trot in the present study. Hereby we show the applicability of the method to identify composite peak models, which describe activation of different muscles throughout cycles of locomotion. PMID:27362752
Novel Methods for Surface EMG Analysis and Exploration Based on Multi-Modal Gaussian Mixture Models
Vögele, Anna Magdalena; Zsoldos, Rebeka R.; Krüger, Björn; Licka, Theresia
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a new method for data analysis of animal muscle activation during locomotion. It is based on fitting Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to surface EMG data (sEMG). This approach enables researchers/users to isolate parts of the overall muscle activation within locomotion EMG data. Furthermore, it provides new opportunities for analysis and exploration of sEMG data by using the resulting Gaussian modes as atomic building blocks for a hierarchical clustering. In our experiments, composite peak models representing the general activation pattern per sensor location (one sensor on the long back muscle, three sensors on the gluteus muscle on each body side) were identified per individual for all 14 horses during walk and trot in the present study. Hereby we show the applicability of the method to identify composite peak models, which describe activation of different muscles throughout cycles of locomotion. PMID:27362752
Unsupervised Change Detection in SAR Images Using Gaussian Mixture Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiana, E.; Homayouni, S.; Sharifi, M. A.; Farid-Rohani, M.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a method for unsupervised change detection in Remote Sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. This method is based on the mixture modelling of the histogram of difference image. In this process, the difference image is classified into three classes; negative change class, positive change class and no change class. However the SAR images suffer from speckle noise, the proposed method is able to map the changes without speckle filtering. To evaluate the performance of this method, two dates of SAR data acquired by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic from an agriculture area are used. Change detection results show better efficiency when compared to the state-of-the-art methods.
Gaussian estimation for discretely observed Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Chao; Shu, Huisheng; Liu, Yurong
2016-07-01
This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation problem for Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model based on discrete observation. First, a new discretized process is built based on the Euler-Maruyama scheme. Then, the parameter estimators are obtained by employing the maximum likelihood method and the explicit expressions of the error of estimation are given. Subsequently, the consistency property of all parameter estimators are proved by applying the law of large numbers for martingales, Holder's inequality, B-D-G inequality and Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Finally, a numerical simulation example for estimators and the absolute error between estimators and true values is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimation approach used in this paper.
Modelling the presence of disease under spatial misalignment using Bayesian latent Gaussian models.
Barber, Xavier; Conesa, David; Lladosa, Silvia; López-Quílez, Antonio
2016-01-01
Modelling patterns of the spatial incidence of diseases using local environmental factors has been a growing problem in the last few years. Geostatistical models have become popular lately because they allow estimating and predicting the underlying disease risk and relating it with possible risk factors. Our approach to these models is based on the fact that the presence/absence of a disease can be expressed with a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model that incorporates the information provided by the geographical and environmental characteristics of the region of interest. Nevertheless, our main interest here is to tackle the misalignment problem arising when information about possible covariates are partially (or totally) different than those of the observed locations and those in which we want to predict. As a result, we present two different models depending on the fact that there is uncertainty on the covariates or not. In both cases, Bayesian inference on the parameters and prediction of presence/absence in new locations are made by considering the model as a latent Gaussian model, which allows the use of the integrated nested Laplace approximation. In particular, the spatial effect is implemented with the stochastic partial differential equation approach. The methodology is evaluated on the presence of the Fasciola hepatica in Galicia, a North-West region of Spain. PMID:27087038
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, W.; Xu, C.; Huang, J.; Wu, J.; Tuller, M.
2014-12-01
Soil moisture is one of the most crucial properties for monitoring and modeling landscape processes. For this study hyperspectral imagery and soil physical properties were collected in both in situ and controlled laboratory experiments to establish predictive capabilities for soil moisture in saline soils. An inverse Gaussian model was first applied to fit the spectral reflectance curves and to derive three curve-specific parameters, namely the inverted amplitude, the distance from the center to the inflection point, and the area under the Gaussian curve. Then both linear regression analysis and artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to develop soil moisture prediction models. Results indicate that soil salinity greatly affects surface reflectance and thereby prediction of soil moisture. The linear regression model failed to predict soil moisture for all in situ field samples as well as for controlled laboratory samples with moderate salinity levels. It was only able to predict moisture reasonably well when salinity levels were extremely high. Application of ANNs significantly improved prediction accuracy as evidenced by a substantial increase of the correlation coefficient and Nash - Sutcliffe efficiency. Based on obtained results, the coupling of an inverse Gaussian model with artificial neural networks provides practical and accurate means for prediction of soil moisture of saline soils and shows great potential for large-scale soil moisture mapping based on hyperspectral imagery.
Investigation into the effect of beam shape on melt pool characteristics using analytical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, N.; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.
2010-05-01
An established analytical model is used to simulate an extended laser beam. Multiple Gaussian sources are superimposed to form a rectangular beam and results are compared with a single circular Gaussian source model as well as experimental results from a high power diode laser with a rectangular beam. Melt depth and melt pool profile and progression have been predicted by modeling, which are compared with experimental results from melting of Inconel 625. The model produced is shown to give a reasonable prediction of melt pool shape and can be usefully employed to help optimise overlap required for laser surface processing applications. The value of absorptivity used in the model can be used as a fitting parameter to optimise the match between experimental and predicted results.
Diffraction-free beams in fractional Schrödinger equation.
Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Belić, Milivoj R; Ahmed, Noor; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2016-01-01
We investigate the propagation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional (1D, 2D) Gaussian beams in the fractional Schrödinger equation (FSE) without a potential, analytically and numerically. Without chirp, a 1D Gaussian beam splits into two nondiffracting Gaussian beams during propagation, while a 2D Gaussian beam undergoes conical diffraction. When a Gaussian beam carries linear chirp, the 1D beam deflects along the trajectories z = ±2(x - x0), which are independent of the chirp. In the case of 2D Gaussian beam, the propagation is also deflected, but the trajectories align along the diffraction cone and the direction is determined by the chirp. Both 1D and 2D Gaussian beams are diffractionless and display uniform propagation. The nondiffracting property discovered in this model applies to other beams as well. Based on the nondiffracting and splitting properties, we introduce the Talbot effect of diffractionless beams in FSE. PMID:27097656
Diffraction-free beams in fractional Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Belić, Milivoj R.; Ahmed, Noor; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2016-04-01
We investigate the propagation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional (1D, 2D) Gaussian beams in the fractional Schrödinger equation (FSE) without a potential, analytically and numerically. Without chirp, a 1D Gaussian beam splits into two nondiffracting Gaussian beams during propagation, while a 2D Gaussian beam undergoes conical diffraction. When a Gaussian beam carries linear chirp, the 1D beam deflects along the trajectories z = ±2(x ‑ x0), which are independent of the chirp. In the case of 2D Gaussian beam, the propagation is also deflected, but the trajectories align along the diffraction cone and the direction is determined by the chirp. Both 1D and 2D Gaussian beams are diffractionless and display uniform propagation. The nondiffracting property discovered in this model applies to other beams as well. Based on the nondiffracting and splitting properties, we introduce the Talbot effect of diffractionless beams in FSE.
Primordial curvature fluctuation and its non-Gaussianity in models with modulated reheating
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Suyama, Teruaki; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2008-09-15
We investigate non-Gaussianity in the modulated reheating scenario where fluctuations of the decay rate of the inflaton generate adiabatic perturbations, paying particular attention to the nonlinearity (NL) parameters f{sub NL}, {tau}{sub NL}, and g{sub NL} as well as the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio which characterize the nature of the primordial power spectrum. We also take into account the preexisting adiabatic perturbations produced from the inflaton fluctuations. It has been known that the nonlinearity between the curvature perturbations and the fluctuations of the decay rate can yield non-Gaussianity at the level of f{sub NL}{approx}O(1), but we find that the nonlinearity between the decay rate and the modulus field which determines the decay rate can generate much greater non-Gaussianity. We also discuss a consistency relation among nonlinearity parameters which holds in the scenario and find that the modulated reheating yields a different one from that of the curvaton model. In particular, they both can yield a large positive f{sub NL} but with a different sign of g{sub NL}. This provides a possibility to discriminate these two competitive models by looking at the sign of g{sub NL}. Furthermore, we work on some concrete inflation models and investigate in what cases models predict the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio allowed by the current data while generating large non-Gaussianity, which may have many implications for model buildings of the inflationary universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilaru, Vamsi; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Sévigny, Pascale; DiFilippo, David
2015-01-01
We propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based approach to discriminate stationary humans from their ghosts and clutter in through-the-wall radar images. More specifically, we use a mixture of Gaussian distributions to model the image intensity histograms corresponding to target and ghost/clutter regions. The mixture parameters, namely the means, variances, and weights of the component distributions, are used as features and a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using real-data measurements of multiple humans standing or sitting at different locations in a small room. Experimental results show that the nature of the targets and ghosts/clutter in the image allows successful application of the GMM feature-based classifier to distinguish between target and ghost/clutter regions.
Mean-field dynamic criticality and geometric transition in the Gaussian core model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coslovich, Daniele; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Kunimasa
2016-04-01
We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate dynamic heterogeneities and the potential energy landscape of the Gaussian core model (GCM). Despite the nearly Gaussian statistics of particles' displacements, the GCM exhibits giant dynamic heterogeneities close to the dynamic transition temperature. The divergence of the four-point susceptibility is quantitatively well described by the inhomogeneous version of the mode-coupling theory. Furthermore, the potential energy landscape of the GCM is characterized by large energy barriers, as expected from the lack of activated, hopping dynamics, and display features compatible with a geometric transition. These observations demonstrate that all major features of mean-field dynamic criticality can be observed in a physically sound, three-dimensional model.
Mean-field dynamic criticality and geometric transition in the Gaussian core model.
Coslovich, Daniele; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Kunimasa
2016-04-01
We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate dynamic heterogeneities and the potential energy landscape of the Gaussian core model (GCM). Despite the nearly Gaussian statistics of particles' displacements, the GCM exhibits giant dynamic heterogeneities close to the dynamic transition temperature. The divergence of the four-point susceptibility is quantitatively well described by the inhomogeneous version of the mode-coupling theory. Furthermore, the potential energy landscape of the GCM is characterized by large energy barriers, as expected from the lack of activated, hopping dynamics, and display features compatible with a geometric transition. These observations demonstrate that all major features of mean-field dynamic criticality can be observed in a physically sound, three-dimensional model. PMID:27176347
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yongfeng; Shen, Yajun; Tan, Jianguo
2016-09-01
The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by a periodic signal and correlated noises for the cases of a multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and an additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. Applying the path integral approach, the unified colored noise approximation and the two-state model theory, the analytical expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. It is found that conventional stochastic resonance exists in this system. From numerical computations we obtain that: (i) As a function of the non-Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is increased when the non-Gaussian noise deviation parameter q is increased. (ii) As a function of the Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is decreased when q is increased. This demonstrates that the effect of the non-Gaussian noise on SNR is different from that of the Gaussian noise in this system. Moreover, we further discuss the effect of the correlation time of the non-Gaussian noise, cross-correlation strength, the amplitude and frequency of the periodic signal on SR.
Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teneng, Dean
2013-09-01
We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.
Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M; Derocher, Andrew E; Lewis, Mark A; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna
2016-01-01
State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results. PMID:27220686
Vinciotti, Veronica; Augugliaro, Luigi; Abbruzzo, Antonino; Wit, Ernst C
2016-06-01
Factorial Gaussian graphical Models (fGGMs) have recently been proposed for inferring dynamic gene regulatory networks from genomic high-throughput data. In the search for true regulatory relationships amongst the vast space of possible networks, these models allow the imposition of certain restrictions on the dynamic nature of these relationships, such as Markov dependencies of low order - some entries of the precision matrix are a priori zeros - or equal dependency strengths across time lags - some entries of the precision matrix are assumed to be equal. The precision matrix is then estimated by l1-penalized maximum likelihood, imposing a further constraint on the absolute value of its entries, which results in sparse networks. Selecting the optimal sparsity level is a major challenge for this type of approaches. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a number of model selection criteria for fGGMs by means of two simulated regulatory networks from realistic biological processes. The analysis reveals a good performance of fGGMs in comparison with other methods for inferring dynamic networks and of the KLCV criterion in particular for model selection. Finally, we present an application on a high-resolution time-course microarray data from the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium, a causative agent of life-threatening infections such as meningitis. The methodology described in this paper is implemented in the R package sglasso, freely available at CRAN, http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=sglasso. PMID:27023322
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz De la Cruz, A.; Ferrer, A.; del Hoyo, J.; Siegel, J.; Solis, J.
2011-08-01
In this work, we report a model for accurately calculating the focal volumes corresponding to astigmatic elliptical beams used in fs-laser waveguide writing. The model is based on the use of the ABCD matrix formalism for the propagation of a Gaussian beam. The code includes the effects of propagation on the astigmatic elliptical beam, and the effects of beam truncation and diffraction at the entrance pupil of the focusing objective due to beam clipping when overfilling the pupil. The results predict that for a given astigmatism value and propagation distance it is possible to efficiently suppress the astigmatic focus closer to the surface. This explains previous experimental results where single structure waveguides with controllable aspect-ratio were fabricated using astigmatic-elliptical beams. Furthermore, we investigate the respective roles of astigmatism and beam propagation, as well as the strong impact of truncation and diffraction effects caused by clipping the beam at the pupil of the focusing optics. Finally, based on the results from our model, we present some practical considerations in terms of beam propagation and phase wrapping constraints.
EXACT MINIMAX ESTIMATION OF THE PREDICTIVE DENSITY IN SPARSE GAUSSIAN MODELS1
Mukherjee, Gourab; Johnstone, Iain M.
2015-01-01
We consider estimating the predictive density under Kullback–Leibler loss in an ℓ0 sparse Gaussian sequence model. Explicit expressions of the first order minimax risk along with its exact constant, asymptotically least favorable priors and optimal predictive density estimates are derived. Compared to the sparse recovery results involving point estimation of the normal mean, new decision theoretic phenomena are seen. Suboptimal performance of the class of plug-in density estimates reflects the predictive nature of the problem and optimal strategies need diversification of the future risk. We find that minimax optimal strategies lie outside the Gaussian family but can be constructed with threshold predictive density estimates. Novel minimax techniques involving simultaneous calibration of the sparsity adjustment and the risk diversification mechanisms are used to design optimal predictive density estimates. PMID:26448678
Gaussian mixture models and semantic gating improve reconstructions from human brain activity
Schoenmakers, Sanne; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel; Heskes, Tom
2015-01-01
Better acquisition protocols and analysis techniques are making it possible to use fMRI to obtain highly detailed visualizations of brain processes. In particular we focus on the reconstruction of natural images from BOLD responses in visual cortex. We expand our linear Gaussian framework for percept decoding with Gaussian mixture models to better represent the prior distribution of natural images. Reconstruction of such images then boils down to probabilistic inference in a hybrid Bayesian network. In our set-up, different mixture components correspond to different character categories. Our framework can automatically infer higher-order semantic categories from lower-level brain areas. Furthermore, the framework can gate semantic information from higher-order brain areas to enforce the correct category during reconstruction. When categorical information is not available, we show that automatically learned clusters in the data give a similar improvement in reconstruction. The hybrid Bayesian network leads to highly accurate reconstructions in both supervised and unsupervised settings. PMID:25688202
Revisiting Gaussian Process Regression Modeling for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks.
Richter, Philipp; Toledano-Ayala, Manuel
2015-01-01
Signal strength-based positioning in wireless sensor networks is a key technology for seamless, ubiquitous localization, especially in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals propagate poorly. To enable wireless local area network (WLAN) location fingerprinting in larger areas while maintaining accuracy, methods to reduce the effort of radio map creation must be consolidated and automatized. Gaussian process regression has been applied to overcome this issue, also with auspicious results, but the fit of the model was never thoroughly assessed. Instead, most studies trained a readily available model, relying on the zero mean and squared exponential covariance function, without further scrutinization. This paper studies the Gaussian process regression model selection for WLAN fingerprinting in indoor and outdoor environments. We train several models for indoor/outdoor- and combined areas; we evaluate them quantitatively and compare them by means of adequate model measures, hence assessing the fit of these models directly. To illuminate the quality of the model fit, the residuals of the proposed model are investigated, as well. Comparative experiments on the positioning performance verify and conclude the model selection. In this way, we show that the standard model is not the most appropriate, discuss alternatives and present our best candidate. PMID:26370996
Revisiting Gaussian Process Regression Modeling for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Richter, Philipp; Toledano-Ayala, Manuel
2015-01-01
Signal strength-based positioning in wireless sensor networks is a key technology for seamless, ubiquitous localization, especially in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals propagate poorly. To enable wireless local area network (WLAN) location fingerprinting in larger areas while maintaining accuracy, methods to reduce the effort of radio map creation must be consolidated and automatized. Gaussian process regression has been applied to overcome this issue, also with auspicious results, but the fit of the model was never thoroughly assessed. Instead, most studies trained a readily available model, relying on the zero mean and squared exponential covariance function, without further scrutinization. This paper studies the Gaussian process regression model selection for WLAN fingerprinting in indoor and outdoor environments. We train several models for indoor/outdoor- and combined areas; we evaluate them quantitatively and compare them by means of adequate model measures, hence assessing the fit of these models directly. To illuminate the quality of the model fit, the residuals of the proposed model are investigated, as well. Comparative experiments on the positioning performance verify and conclude the model selection. In this way, we show that the standard model is not the most appropriate, discuss alternatives and present our best candidate. PMID:26370996
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.
2011-03-01
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia in which aberrant electrical activity cause the atria to quiver which results in irregular beating of the heart. Catheter ablation therapy is becoming increasingly popular in treating atrial fibrillation, a procedure in which an electrophysiologist guides a catheter into the left atrium and creates radiofrequency lesions to stop the arrhythmia. Typical visualization tools include bi-plane fluoroscopy, 2-D ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps, however, recently there has been increased interest in incorporating preoperative surface models into the procedure. Typical strategies for registration include landmark-based and surface-based methods. Drawbacks of these approaches include difficulty in accurately locating corresponding landmark pairs and the time required to sample surface points with a catheter. In this paper, we describe a new approach which models the catheter tip as a Gaussian kernel and eliminates the need to collect surface points by instead using the stream of continuosly tracked catheter points. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique with a left atrial phantom model and compare the results with a standard surface based approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ijjas, Anna; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2014-06-01
We explore a new type of entropic mechanism for generating density perturbations in a contracting phase in which there are two scalar fields but only one has a steep negative potential. This first field dominates the energy density and is the source of the ekpyrotic equation of state. The second field has a negligible potential, but its kinetic energy density is coupled to the first field with a nonlinear sigma-model type interaction. We show that for any ekpyrotic equation of state it is possible to choose the potential and the kinetic coupling such that exactly scale-invariant (or nearly scale-invariant) entropy perturbations are produced. The corresponding background solutions are stable, and the bispectrum of the entropy perturbations vanishes as no non-Gaussianity is produced during the ekpyrotic phase. Hence, the only contribution to non-Gaussianity comes from the nonlinearity of the conversion process during which entropic perturbations are turned into adiabatic ones, resulting in a local non-Gaussianity parameter, fNL˜5.
Ettehadi Abari, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mahsa; Shokri, Babak
2015-10-15
The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in collisional magnetized plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive and ohmic heating nonlinearities. Here, by taking into account the effect of the external magnetic field, the second order differential equation of the dimensionless beam width parameter is solved numerically. Furthermore, the nonlinear dielectric permittivity of the mentioned plasma medium in the paraxial approximation and its dependence on the propagation characteristics of the Gaussian laser pulse is obtained, and its variation in terms of the dimensionless plasma length is analyzed at different initial normalized plasma and cyclotron frequencies. The results show that the dimensionless beam width parameter is strongly affected by the initial plasma frequency, magnetic strength, and laser pulse intensity. Furthermore, it is found that there exists a certain intensity value below which the laser pulse tends to self focus, while the beam diverges above of this value. In addition, the results confirm that, by increasing the plasma and cyclotron frequencies (plasma density and magnetic strength), the self-focusing effect can occur intensively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin; Schauberger, Günther
2016-09-01
Direction-dependent separation distances to avoid odour annoyance, calculated with the Gaussian Austrian Odour Dispersion Model AODM and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model LASAT at two sites, are analysed and compared. The relevant short-term peak odour concentrations are calculated with a stability-dependent peak-to-mean algorithm. The same emission and meteorological data, but model-specific atmospheric stability classes are used. The estimate of atmospheric stability is obtained from three-axis ultrasonic anemometers using the standard deviations of the three wind components and the Obukhov stability parameter. The results are demonstrated for the Austrian villages Reidling and Weissbach with very different topographical surroundings and meteorological conditions. Both the differences in the wind and stability regimes as well as the decrease of the peak-to-mean factors with distance lead to deviations in the separation distances between the two sites. The Lagrangian model, due to its model physics, generally calculates larger separation distances. For worst-case calculations necessary with environmental impact assessment studies, the use of a Lagrangian model is therefore to be preferred over that of a Gaussian model. The study and findings relate to the Austrian odour impact criteria.
Regression Models for the Analysis of Longitudinal Gaussian Data from Multiple Sources
O’Brien, Liam M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.
2006-01-01
We present a regression model for the joint analysis of longitudinal multiple source Gaussian data. Longitudinal multiple source data arise when repeated measurements are taken from two or more sources, and each source provides a measure of the same underlying variable and on the same scale. This type of data generally produces a relatively large number of observations per subject; thus estimation of an unstructured covariance matrix often may not be possible. We consider two methods by which parsimonious models for the covariance can be obtained for longitudinal multiple source data. The methods are illustrated with an example of multiple informant data arising from a longitudinal interventional trial in psychiatry. PMID:15726666
A Gaussian random field model for similarity-based smoothing in Bayesian disease mapping.
Baptista, Helena; Mendes, Jorge M; MacNab, Ying C; Xavier, Miguel; Caldas-de-Almeida, José
2016-08-01
Conditionally specified Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) models with adjacency-based neighbourhood weight matrix, commonly known as neighbourhood-based GMRF models, have been the mainstream approach to spatial smoothing in Bayesian disease mapping. In the present paper, we propose a conditionally specified Gaussian random field (GRF) model with a similarity-based non-spatial weight matrix to facilitate non-spatial smoothing in Bayesian disease mapping. The model, named similarity-based GRF, is motivated for modelling disease mapping data in situations where the underlying small area relative risks and the associated determinant factors do not vary systematically in space, and the similarity is defined by "similarity" with respect to the associated disease determinant factors. The neighbourhood-based GMRF and the similarity-based GRF are compared and accessed via a simulation study and by two case studies, using new data on alcohol abuse in Portugal collected by the World Mental Health Survey Initiative and the well-known lip cancer data in Scotland. In the presence of disease data with no evidence of positive spatial correlation, the simulation study showed a consistent gain in efficiency from the similarity-based GRF, compared with the adjacency-based GMRF with the determinant risk factors as covariate. This new approach broadens the scope of the existing conditional autocorrelation models. PMID:27566771
Content-adaptive pentary steganography using the multivariate generalized Gaussian cover model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica; Cogranne, Rémi
2015-03-01
The vast majority of steganographic schemes for digital images stored in the raster format limit the amplitude of embedding changes to the smallest possible value. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to further improve the empirical security by allowing the embedding changes in highly textured areas to have a larger amplitude and thus embedding there a larger payload. Our approach is entirely model driven in the sense that the probabilities with which the cover pixels should be changed by a certain amount are derived from the cover model to minimize the power of an optimal statistical test. The embedding consists of two steps. First, the sender estimates the cover model parameters, the pixel variances, when modeling the pixels as a sequence of independent but not identically distributed generalized Gaussian random variables. Then, the embedding change probabilities for changing each pixel by 1 or 2, which can be transformed to costs for practical embedding using syndrome-trellis codes, are computed by solving a pair of non-linear algebraic equations. Using rich models and selection-channel-aware features, we compare the security of our scheme based on the generalized Gaussian model with pentary versions of two popular embedding algorithms: HILL and S-UNIWARD.
Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Sabaeian, Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Khaldi-Nasab, Ali
2015-02-20
In this work, a thorough and detailed solution for the time-dependent heat equation for a cylindrical nonlinear potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal under a repetitively pulsed pumping source is developed. The convection and radiation boundary conditions, which are usually ignored in the literature, have been taken into account, and their importance on the temperature distribution has been discussed in detail. Moreover, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of KTP was considered in the calculations, and its impact is discussed. It is shown that the radiation term has a negligible effect and can be dropped safely, while the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is more influential, such that ignorance of it brings some errors into the modeling. The time evolution of the temperature while the crystal is pumping with a train of successive Gaussian pulses until reaching equilibrium is shown. To accomplish numerical calculations, we developed a homemade code written with the finite difference time domain method in Intel Fortran (ifort) and ran it with the Linux operating system. PMID:25968183
Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Daducci, Alessandro; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aja-Fernández, Santiago; Radua, Joaquim; Yurramendi Mendizabal, Jesús M; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Melie-García, Lester; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sarró, Salvador; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Salvador, Raymond
2015-01-01
Spherical deconvolution (SD) methods are widely used to estimate the intra-voxel white-matter fiber orientations from diffusion MRI data. However, while some of these methods assume a zero-mean Gaussian distribution for the underlying noise, its real distribution is known to be non-Gaussian and to depend on many factors such as the number of coils and the methodology used to combine multichannel MRI signals. Indeed, the two prevailing methods for multichannel signal combination lead to noise patterns better described by Rician and noncentral Chi distributions. Here we develop a Robust and Unbiased Model-BAsed Spherical Deconvolution (RUMBA-SD) technique, intended to deal with realistic MRI noise, based on a Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm adapted to Rician and noncentral Chi likelihood models. To quantify the benefits of using proper noise models, RUMBA-SD was compared with dRL-SD, a well-established method based on the RL algorithm for Gaussian noise. Another aim of the study was to quantify the impact of including a total variation (TV) spatial regularization term in the estimation framework. To do this, we developed TV spatially-regularized versions of both RUMBA-SD and dRL-SD algorithms. The evaluation was performed by comparing various quality metrics on 132 three-dimensional synthetic phantoms involving different inter-fiber angles and volume fractions, which were contaminated with noise mimicking patterns generated by data processing in multichannel scanners. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of proper likelihood models leads to an increased ability to resolve fiber crossings with smaller inter-fiber angles and to better detect non-dominant fibers. The inclusion of TV regularization dramatically improved the resolution power of both techniques. The above findings were also verified in human brain data. PMID:26470024
Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J.; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aja-Fernández, Santiago; Radua, Joaquim; Yurramendi Mendizabal, Jesús M.; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Melie-García, Lester; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Sarró, Salvador; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Salvador, Raymond
2015-01-01
Spherical deconvolution (SD) methods are widely used to estimate the intra-voxel white-matter fiber orientations from diffusion MRI data. However, while some of these methods assume a zero-mean Gaussian distribution for the underlying noise, its real distribution is known to be non-Gaussian and to depend on many factors such as the number of coils and the methodology used to combine multichannel MRI signals. Indeed, the two prevailing methods for multichannel signal combination lead to noise patterns better described by Rician and noncentral Chi distributions. Here we develop a Robust and Unbiased Model-BAsed Spherical Deconvolution (RUMBA-SD) technique, intended to deal with realistic MRI noise, based on a Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm adapted to Rician and noncentral Chi likelihood models. To quantify the benefits of using proper noise models, RUMBA-SD was compared with dRL-SD, a well-established method based on the RL algorithm for Gaussian noise. Another aim of the study was to quantify the impact of including a total variation (TV) spatial regularization term in the estimation framework. To do this, we developed TV spatially-regularized versions of both RUMBA-SD and dRL-SD algorithms. The evaluation was performed by comparing various quality metrics on 132 three-dimensional synthetic phantoms involving different inter-fiber angles and volume fractions, which were contaminated with noise mimicking patterns generated by data processing in multichannel scanners. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of proper likelihood models leads to an increased ability to resolve fiber crossings with smaller inter-fiber angles and to better detect non-dominant fibers. The inclusion of TV regularization dramatically improved the resolution power of both techniques. The above findings were also verified in human brain data. PMID:26470024
Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Ramirez, Erandy; Kunze, Kerstin E.
2014-06-01
We present a generic inference method for inflation models from observational data by the usage of higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces. This method is based on the calculation of the posterior for the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, which in general depend on specific parameters of inflation and reheating models, and enables to discriminate among the still viable inflation models. To keep analyticity as far as possible to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques a saddle-point approximation is introduced, whose precision is validated for a numerical toy example. The mathematical formulation is done in a generic way so that the approach remains applicable to cosmic microwave background data as well as to large scale structure data. Additionally, we review a few currently interesting inflation models and present numerical toy examples thereof in two and three dimensions to demonstrate the efficiency of the higher-order statistics method. A second quantity of interest is the primordial power spectrum. Here, we present two Bayesian methods to infer it from observational data, the so called critical filter and an extension thereof with smoothness prior, both allowing for a non-parametric spectrum reconstruction. These methods are able to reconstruct the spectra of the observed perturbations and the primordial ones of curvature perturbation even in case of non-Gaussianity and partial sky coverage. We argue that observables like T- and B-modes permit to measure both spectra. This also allows to infer the level of non-Gaussianity generated since inflation.
On the Bayesian Treed Multivariate Gaussian Process with Linear Model of Coregionalization
Konomi, Bledar A.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Lin, Guang
2015-02-01
The Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP) has gained popularity in recent years because it provides a straightforward mechanism for modeling non-stationary data and can alleviate computational demands by fitting models to less data. The extension of BTGP to the multivariate setting requires us to model the cross-covariance and to propose efficient algorithms that can deal with trans-dimensional MCMC moves. In this paper we extend the cross-covariance of the Bayesian treed multivariate Gaussian process (BTMGP) to that of linear model of Coregionalization (LMC) cross-covariances. Different strategies have been developed to improve the MCMC mixing and invert smaller matrices in the Bayesian inference. Moreover, we compare the proposed BTMGP with existing multiple BTGP and BTMGP in test cases and multiphase flow computer experiment in a full scale regenerator of a carbon capture unit. The use of the BTMGP with LMC cross-covariance helped to predict the computer experiments relatively better than existing competitors. The proposed model has a wide variety of applications, such as computer experiments and environmental data. In the case of computer experiments we also develop an adaptive sampling strategy for the BTMGP with LMC cross-covariance function.
A blind deconvolution method for attenuative materials based on asymmetrical Gaussian model.
Jin, Haoran; Chen, Jian; Yang, Keji
2016-08-01
During propagation in attenuative materials, ultrasonic waves are distorted by frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation. As a result, reference signals for blind deconvolution in attenuative materials are asymmetrical and should be accurately estimated by considering attenuation. In this study, an asymmetrical Gaussian model is established to estimate the reference signals from these materials, and a blind deconvolution method based on this model is proposed. Based on the symmetrical Gaussian model, the asymmetrical one is formulated by adding an asymmetrical coefficient. Upon establishing the model, the reference signal for blind deconvolution is determined via maximum likelihood estimation, and the blind deconvolution is implemented with an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. To verify the feasibility of the established model, spectra of ultrasonic signals from attenuative polyethylene plates with different thicknesses are measured and estimated. The proposed blind deconvolution method is applied to the A-scan signal and B-scan image from attenuative materials. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of separating overlapping echoes and therefore achieves a high temporal resolution. PMID:27586747
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir; Organic Materials; Devices Team
2015-03-01
Charge transport in disordered organic systems has been in recent decades mainly discerned from the perspective of a variety of phenomenological models prominent of which those stemming from the Gaussian Disorder Model. But while the use of these models has been prevalent, uncertainty regarding the extent of their validity remains due to the large number of free parameters they consist and their frequent deficiency to consistently account for large sets of experiments while keeping model input parameters and distributions unchanged. In the presented study, we have investigated using Monte Carlo simulations the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and its variants. Doing so enabled the provision of additional dimensions for comparison between the aforementioned theoretical frameworks and real systems, beyond those based on extensively studied charge transport properties, and the provision of a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, strategies will be discussed to experimentally deduce the DOS shape, infer whether a system's activation energy originates from its energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder.
Multiscale Gaussian network model (mGNM) and multiscale anisotropic network model (mANM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-11-01
Gaussian network model (GNM) and anisotropic network model (ANM) are some of the most popular methods for the study of protein flexibility and related functions. In this work, we propose generalized GNM (gGNM) and ANM methods and show that the GNM Kirchhoff matrix can be built from the ideal low-pass filter, which is a special case of a wide class of correlation functions underpinning the linear scaling flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) method. Based on the mathematical structure of correlation functions, we propose a unified framework to construct generalized Kirchhoff matrices whose matrix inverse leads to gGNMs, whereas, the direct inverse of its diagonal elements gives rise to FRI method. With this connection, we further introduce two multiscale elastic network models, namely, multiscale GNM (mGNM) and multiscale ANM (mANM), which are able to incorporate different scales into the generalized Kirchhoff matrices or generalized Hessian matrices. We validate our new multiscale methods with extensive numerical experiments. We illustrate that gGNMs outperform the original GNM method in the B-factor prediction of a set of 364 proteins. We demonstrate that for a given correlation function, FRI and gGNM methods provide essentially identical B-factor predictions when the scale value in the correlation function is sufficiently large. More importantly, we reveal intrinsic multiscale behavior in protein structures. The proposed mGNM and mANM are able to capture this multiscale behavior and thus give rise to a significant improvement of more than 11% in B-factor predictions over the original GNM and ANM methods. We further demonstrate the benefits of our mGNM through the B-factor predictions of many proteins that fail the original GNM method. We show that the proposed mGNM can also be used to analyze protein domain separations. Finally, we showcase the ability of our mANM for the analysis of protein collective motions.
Multiscale Gaussian network model (mGNM) and multiscale anisotropic network model (mANM).
Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-11-28
Gaussian network model (GNM) and anisotropic network model (ANM) are some of the most popular methods for the study of protein flexibility and related functions. In this work, we propose generalized GNM (gGNM) and ANM methods and show that the GNM Kirchhoff matrix can be built from the ideal low-pass filter, which is a special case of a wide class of correlation functions underpinning the linear scaling flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) method. Based on the mathematical structure of correlation functions, we propose a unified framework to construct generalized Kirchhoff matrices whose matrix inverse leads to gGNMs, whereas, the direct inverse of its diagonal elements gives rise to FRI method. With this connection, we further introduce two multiscale elastic network models, namely, multiscale GNM (mGNM) and multiscale ANM (mANM), which are able to incorporate different scales into the generalized Kirchhoff matrices or generalized Hessian matrices. We validate our new multiscale methods with extensive numerical experiments. We illustrate that gGNMs outperform the original GNM method in the B-factor prediction of a set of 364 proteins. We demonstrate that for a given correlation function, FRI and gGNM methods provide essentially identical B-factor predictions when the scale value in the correlation function is sufficiently large. More importantly, we reveal intrinsic multiscale behavior in protein structures. The proposed mGNM and mANM are able to capture this multiscale behavior and thus give rise to a significant improvement of more than 11% in B-factor predictions over the original GNM and ANM methods. We further demonstrate the benefits of our mGNM through the B-factor predictions of many proteins that fail the original GNM method. We show that the proposed mGNM can also be used to analyze protein domain separations. Finally, we showcase the ability of our mANM for the analysis of protein collective motions. PMID:26627949
TH-C-BRD-02: Analytical Modeling and Dose Calculation Method for Asymmetric Proton Pencil Beams
Gelover, E; Wang, D; Hill, P; Flynn, R; Hyer, D
2014-06-15
Purpose: A dynamic collimation system (DCS), which consists of two pairs of orthogonal trimmer blades driven by linear motors has been proposed to decrease the lateral penumbra in pencil beam scanning proton therapy. The DCS reduces lateral penumbra by intercepting the proton pencil beam near the lateral boundary of the target in the beam's eye view. The resultant trimmed pencil beams are asymmetric and laterally shifted, and therefore existing pencil beam dose calculation algorithms are not capable of trimmed beam dose calculations. This work develops a method to model and compute dose from trimmed pencil beams when using the DCS. Methods: MCNPX simulations were used to determine the dose distributions expected from various trimmer configurations using the DCS. Using these data, the lateral distribution for individual beamlets was modeled with a 2D asymmetric Gaussian function. The integral depth dose (IDD) of each configuration was also modeled by combining the IDD of an untrimmed pencil beam with a linear correction factor. The convolution of these two terms, along with the Highland approximation to account for lateral growth of the beam along the depth direction, allows a trimmed pencil beam dose distribution to be analytically generated. The algorithm was validated by computing dose for a single energy layer 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment field, defined by the trimmers, using both the proposed method and MCNPX beamlets. Results: The Gaussian modeled asymmetric lateral profiles along the principal axes match the MCNPX data very well (R{sup 2}≥0.95 at the depth of the Bragg peak). For the 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment plan created with both the modeled and MCNPX pencil beams, the passing rate of the 3D gamma test was 98% using a standard threshold of 3%/3 mm. Conclusion: An analytical method capable of accurately computing asymmetric pencil beam dose when using the DCS has been developed.
Option pricing formulas based on a non-Gaussian stock price model.
Borland, Lisa
2002-08-26
Options are financial instruments that depend on the underlying stock. We explain their non-Gaussian fluctuations using the nonextensive thermodynamics parameter q. A generalized form of the Black-Scholes (BS) partial differential equation and some closed-form solutions are obtained. The standard BS equation (q=1) which is used by economists to calculate option prices requires multiple values of the stock volatility (known as the volatility smile). Using q=1.5 which well models the empirical distribution of returns, we get a good description of option prices using a single volatility. PMID:12190447
Primordial non-Gaussianities in single field inflationary models with non-trivial initial states
Bahrami, Sina; Flanagan, Éanna É. E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu
2014-10-01
We compute the non-Gaussianities that arise in single field, slow roll inflationary models arising from arbitrary homogeneous initial states, as well as subleading contributions to the power spectrum. Non Bunch-Davies vacuum initial states can arise if the transition to the single field, slow roll inflation phase occurs only shortly before observable modes left the horizon. They can also arise from new physics at high energies that has been integrated out. Our general result for the bispectrum exhibits several features that were previously seen in special cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. K.; Anufriev, M. N.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Namiot, D. E.; Karasik, V. E.; Pnev, A. B.
2016-03-01
We propose a novel approach to the recognition of particular classes of non-conventional events in signals from phase-sensitive optical time-domain-reflectometry-based sensors. Our algorithmic solution has two main features: filtering aimed at the de-nosing of signals and a Gaussian mixture model to cluster them. We test the proposed algorithm using experimentally measured signals. The results show that two classes of events can be distinguished with the best-case recognition probability close to 0.9 at sufficient numbers of training samples.
Application of Gaussian moment method to a gene autoregulation model of rational vector field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xi
2016-07-01
We take a lambda expression autoregulation model driven by multiplicative and additive noises as example to extend the Gaussian moment method from nonlinear stochastic systems of polynomial vector field to noisy biochemical systems of rational polynomial vector field. As a direct application of the extended method, we also disclose the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. It is found that the transcription rate can inhibit the stochastic resonant effect, but the degradation rate may enhance the phenomenon. These observations should be helpful in understanding the functional role of noise in gene autoregulation.
Fedorov, A K; Anufriev, M N; Zhirnov, A A; Stepanov, K V; Nesterov, E T; Namiot, D E; Karasik, V E; Pnev, A B
2016-03-01
We propose a novel approach to the recognition of particular classes of non-conventional events in signals from phase-sensitive optical time-domain-reflectometry-based sensors. Our algorithmic solution has two main features: filtering aimed at the de-nosing of signals and a Gaussian mixture model to cluster them. We test the proposed algorithm using experimentally measured signals. The results show that two classes of events can be distinguished with the best-case recognition probability close to 0.9 at sufficient numbers of training samples. PMID:27036840
Montalvão, Jugurta; Istrate, Dan; Boudy, Jerôme; Mouba, Joan
2010-01-01
The use of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), adapted through the Expectation Minimization (EM) algorithm, is not rare in Audio Analysis for Surveillance Applications and Environmental sound recognition. Their use is founded on the good qualities of GMM models when aimed at approximating Probability Density Functions (PDF) of random variables. But in some cases, where models are to be adapted from small sample sets instead of large but generic databases, a problem of balance between model complexity and sample size may play an important role. From this perspective, we show, through simple sound classification experiments, that constrained GMM, with fewer degrees of freedom, as compared to GMM with full covariance matrices, provide better classification performances. Moreover, pushing this argument even further, we also show that a Parzen model can do even better than usual GMM. PMID:21096562
Wang, Ting; Ren, Zhao; Ding, Ying; Fang, Zhou; Sun, Zhe; MacDonald, Matthew L; Sweet, Robert A; Wang, Jieru; Chen, Wei
2016-02-01
Biological networks provide additional information for the analysis of human diseases, beyond the traditional analysis that focuses on single variables. Gaussian graphical model (GGM), a probability model that characterizes the conditional dependence structure of a set of random variables by a graph, has wide applications in the analysis of biological networks, such as inferring interaction or comparing differential networks. However, existing approaches are either not statistically rigorous or are inefficient for high-dimensional data that include tens of thousands of variables for making inference. In this study, we propose an efficient algorithm to implement the estimation of GGM and obtain p-value and confidence interval for each edge in the graph, based on a recent proposal by Ren et al., 2015. Through simulation studies, we demonstrate that the algorithm is faster by several orders of magnitude than the current implemented algorithm for Ren et al. without losing any accuracy. Then, we apply our algorithm to two real data sets: transcriptomic data from a study of childhood asthma and proteomic data from a study of Alzheimer's disease. We estimate the global gene or protein interaction networks for the disease and healthy samples. The resulting networks reveal interesting interactions and the differential networks between cases and controls show functional relevance to the diseases. In conclusion, we provide a computationally fast algorithm to implement a statistically sound procedure for constructing Gaussian graphical model and making inference with high-dimensional biological data. The algorithm has been implemented in an R package named "FastGGM". PMID:26872036
Assessing clustering strategies for Gaussian mixture filtering a subsurface contaminant model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B.; Gharamti, M. E.; Hoteit, I.
2016-04-01
An ensemble-based Gaussian mixture (GM) filtering framework is studied in this paper in term of its dependence on the choice of the clustering method to construct the GM. In this approach, a number of particles sampled from the posterior distribution are first integrated forward with the dynamical model for forecasting. A GM representation of the forecast distribution is then constructed from the forecast particles. Once an observation becomes available, the forecast GM is updated according to Bayes' rule. This leads to (i) a Kalman filter-like update of the particles, and (ii) a Particle filter-like update of their weights, generalizing the ensemble Kalman filter update to non-Gaussian distributions. We focus on investigating the impact of the clustering strategy on the behavior of the filter. Three different clustering methods for constructing the prior GM are considered: (i) a standard kernel density estimation, (ii) clustering with a specified mixture component size, and (iii) adaptive clustering (with a variable GM size). Numerical experiments are performed using a two-dimensional reactive contaminant transport model in which the contaminant concentration and the heterogenous hydraulic conductivity fields are estimated within a confined aquifer using solute concentration data. The experimental results suggest that the performance of the GM filter is sensitive to the choice of the GM model. In particular, increasing the size of the GM does not necessarily result in improved performances. In this respect, the best results are obtained with the proposed adaptive clustering scheme.
Gaussian process models for reference ET estimation from alternative meteorological data sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holman, Daniel; Sridharan, Mohan; Gowda, Prasanna; Porter, Dana; Marek, Thomas; Howell, Terry; Moorhead, Jerry
2014-09-01
Accurate estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) are needed for efficient irrigation management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where crop water demand exceeds rainfall. Daily grass or alfalfa reference ET values and crop coefficients are widely used to estimate crop water demand. Inaccurate reference ET estimates can hence have a tremendous impact on irrigation costs and the demands on U.S. freshwater resources, particularly within the Ogallala aquifer region. ET networks calculate reference ET using local meteorological data. With gaps in spatial coverage of existing networks and the agriculture-based Texas High Plains ET (TXHPET) network in jeopardy due to lack of funding, there is an immediate need for alternative sources capable of filling data gaps without high maintenance and field-based support costs. Non-agricultural weather stations located throughout the Texas High Plains are providing publicly accessible meteorological data. However, there are concerns that the data may not be suitable for estimating reference ET due to factors such as weather station siting, fetch requirements, data formats, parameters recorded, and quality control issues. The goal of the research reported in this paper is to assess the use of alternative data sources for reference ET computation. Towards this objective, we trained Gaussian process models, an instance of kernel-based machine learning algorithms, on data collected from weather stations to estimate reference ET values and augment the TXHPET database. Results show that Gaussian process models provide much greater accuracy than baseline least square regression models.
Models of discretized moduli spaces, cohomological field theories, and Gaussian means
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Chekhov, Leonid O.; Norbury, Paul; Penner, Robert C.
2015-12-01
We prove combinatorially the explicit relation between genus filtrated s-loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model (KPMM). The latter is the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli spaces Mg,sdisc given by Ng,s(P1, …, Ps) for (P1, …, Ps) ∈ Z+s. This generating function therefore enjoys the topological recursion, and we prove that it is simultaneously the generating function for ancestor invariants of a cohomological field theory thus enjoying the Givental decomposition. We use another Givental-type decomposition obtained for this model by the second authors in 1995 in terms of special times related to the discretization of moduli spaces thus representing its asymptotic expansion terms (and therefore those of the Gaussian means) as finite sums over graphs weighted by lower-order monomials in times thus giving another proof of (quasi)polynomiality of the discrete volumes. As an application, we find the coefficients in the first subleading order for Mg,1 in two ways: by using the refined Harer-Zagier recursion and by exploiting the above Givental-type transformation. We put forward the conjecture that the above graph expansions can be used for probing the reduction structure of the Deligne-Mumford compactification M bar g, s of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces.
Modeling of the non-Gaussian PDFs of Field Variations and Intermittency in the Turbulent Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragot, B. R.
2013-03-01
The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of magnetic field variations display strong scale-dependent non-Gaussianity in the turbulent solar wind. This is a typical signature of intermittent turbulence. Physical modeling of the turbulent field variations based on the characteristics of the observed turbulence, including the variability of its power level, produces, free of parameter adjustment and over a broad range of inertial scales, accurate fits of the non-Gaussian PDFs. The effects of phase randomization and time resolution of the Fourier power spectra are further tested to determine which of the phase correlation or the spectral variability is responsible for the strong non-Gaussianity of the observed PDFs of field variations. The periods of enhanced power level are found to be responsible for the non-Gaussian tails of the PDFs.
MODELING OF THE NON-GAUSSIAN PDFs OF FIELD VARIATIONS AND INTERMITTENCY IN THE TURBULENT SOLAR WIND
Ragot, B. R.
2013-03-10
The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of magnetic field variations display strong scale-dependent non-Gaussianity in the turbulent solar wind. This is a typical signature of intermittent turbulence. Physical modeling of the turbulent field variations based on the characteristics of the observed turbulence, including the variability of its power level, produces, free of parameter adjustment and over a broad range of inertial scales, accurate fits of the non-Gaussian PDFs. The effects of phase randomization and time resolution of the Fourier power spectra are further tested to determine which of the phase correlation or the spectral variability is responsible for the strong non-Gaussianity of the observed PDFs of field variations. The periods of enhanced power level are found to be responsible for the non-Gaussian tails of the PDFs.
A four-dimensional, mesoscale, non-gaussian multispectral smoke model. Phase 1: Feasibility study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamartino, R. J.; Strimaitis, D. G.; Scire, J. S.; Insley, E. M.
1992-12-01
The feasibility of developing a four-dimensional, non-Gaussian mesoscale multispectral smoke model that could run on a personal computer is investigated. Several of the model components are formulated, coded, and tested. This included the main driver program for accessing and interpolating the mesoscale winds and generating particle trajectories, a sub-grid-scale velocity field generator based on the kinematic simulation approach, and a dry deposition model for particle deposition velocities. Current understanding of flow and turbulence modeling is reviewed and can be applied to developing appropriate kinematic simulation fields. Technical approaches to account for the height and particle size dependent probability of particle removal and to compute the point and path average particle concentrations are also presented. Conclusions and recommendations for future work are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohmer, J.; Foerster, E.
2012-04-01
Large-scale landslide prediction is typically based on numerical modeling, with computer codes generally involving a large number of input parameters. Addressing the influence of each of them on the final result and providing a ranking procedure may be useful for risk management purposes, especially to guide future lab or in site characterizations and studies, but also to simplify the model by fixing the input parameters, which have negligible influence. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis relying on the Sobol' indices can provide such valuable information and presents the advantages of exploring the sensitivity to input parameters over their whole range of variation (i.e. in a global manner), of fully accounting for possible interaction between them and of being applicable without introducing a priori assumptions on the mathematical formulation of the landslide model. Nevertheless, such analysis require a large number of computer code simulations (typically a thousand), which appears impracticable for computationally demanding simulations, with computation times ranging from several hours to several days. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a ''meta-model''-based strategy consisting in replacing the complex simulator by a "costless-to-evaluate" statistical approximation (i.e. emulator) provided by a Gaussian-Process (GP) model. This allows computation of sensitivity measures from a limited number of simulations. This meta-modelling strategy is demonstrated on two cases. The first application is a simple analytical model based on the infinite slope analysis, which allows to compare the sensitivity measures computed using the ''true'' model with those computed using the GP meta-model. The second application aims at ranking in terms of importance the properties of the elasto-plastic model describing the complex behaviour of the slip surface in the "La Frasse" landslide (Switzerland). This case is more challenging as a single simulation requires at least 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yiming; Shah, Mohak; Francis, Simon; Arnold, Douglas L.; Arbel, Tal; Collins, D. Louis
Brain tissue segmentation is important in studying markers in human brain Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of patients with diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Parametric segmentation approaches typically assume unimodal Gaussian distributions on MRI intensities of individual tissue classes, even in applications on multi-spectral images. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified especially in the context of MS. In this work, we evaluate the local MRI intensities of both healthy and diseased brain tissues of 21 multi-spectral MRIs (63 volumes in total) of MS patients for adherence to this assumption. We show that the tissue intensities are not uniform across the brain and vary across (anatomical) regions of the brain. Consequently, we show that Gaussian mixtures can better model the multi-spectral intensities. We utilize an Expectation Maximization (EM) based approach to learn the models along with a symmetric Jeffreys divergence criterion to study differences in intensity distributions. The effects of these findings are also empirically verified on automatic segmentation of brains with MS.
Liu, Chengyu; Zhuang, Tao; Zhao, Lina; Chang, Faliang; Liu, Changchun; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Qiqiang; Zheng, Dingchang
2014-01-01
Changes of arterial pressure waveform characteristics have been accepted as risk indicators of cardiovascular diseases. Waveform modelling using Gaussian functions has been used to decompose arterial pressure pulses into different numbers of subwaves and hence quantify waveform characteristics. However, the fitting accuracy and computation efficiency of current modelling approaches need to be improved. This study aimed to develop a novel two-stage particle swarm optimizer (TSPSO) to determine optimal parameters of Gaussian functions. The evaluation was performed on carotid and radial artery pressure waveforms (CAPW and RAPW) which were simultaneously recorded from twenty normal volunteers. The fitting accuracy and calculation efficiency of our TSPSO were compared with three published optimization methods: the Nelder-Mead, the modified PSO (MPSO), and the dynamic multiswarm particle swarm optimizer (DMS-PSO). The results showed that TSPSO achieved the best fitting accuracy with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.1% for CAPW and 1.0% for RAPW, in comparison with 4.2% and 4.1% for Nelder-Mead, 2.0% and 1.9% for MPSO, and 1.2% and 1.1% for DMS-PSO. In addition, to achieve target MAE of 2.0%, the computation time of TSPSO was only 1.5 s, which was only 20% and 30% of that for MPSO and DMS-PSO, respectively. PMID:24967415
Zhuang, Tao; Zhao, Lina; Chang, Faliang; Liu, Changchun; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Qiqiang
2014-01-01
Changes of arterial pressure waveform characteristics have been accepted as risk indicators of cardiovascular diseases. Waveform modelling using Gaussian functions has been used to decompose arterial pressure pulses into different numbers of subwaves and hence quantify waveform characteristics. However, the fitting accuracy and computation efficiency of current modelling approaches need to be improved. This study aimed to develop a novel two-stage particle swarm optimizer (TSPSO) to determine optimal parameters of Gaussian functions. The evaluation was performed on carotid and radial artery pressure waveforms (CAPW and RAPW) which were simultaneously recorded from twenty normal volunteers. The fitting accuracy and calculation efficiency of our TSPSO were compared with three published optimization methods: the Nelder-Mead, the modified PSO (MPSO), and the dynamic multiswarm particle swarm optimizer (DMS-PSO). The results showed that TSPSO achieved the best fitting accuracy with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.1% for CAPW and 1.0% for RAPW, in comparison with 4.2% and 4.1% for Nelder-Mead, 2.0% and 1.9% for MPSO, and 1.2% and 1.1% for DMS-PSO. In addition, to achieve target MAE of 2.0%, the computation time of TSPSO was only 1.5 s, which was only 20% and 30% of that for MPSO and DMS-PSO, respectively. PMID:24967415
The cluster graphical lasso for improved estimation of Gaussian graphical models
Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela; Shojaie, Ali
2015-01-01
The task of estimating a Gaussian graphical model in the high-dimensional setting is considered. The graphical lasso, which involves maximizing the Gaussian log likelihood subject to a lasso penalty, is a well-studied approach for this task. A surprising connection between the graphical lasso and hierarchical clustering is introduced: the graphical lasso in effect performs a two-step procedure, in which (1) single linkage hierarchical clustering is performed on the variables in order to identify connected components, and then (2) a penalized log likelihood is maximized on the subset of variables within each connected component. Thus, the graphical lasso determines the connected components of the estimated network via single linkage clustering. The single linkage clustering is known to perform poorly in certain finite-sample settings. Therefore, the cluster graphical lasso, which involves clustering the features using an alternative to single linkage clustering, and then performing the graphical lasso on the subset of variables within each cluster, is proposed. Model selection consistency for this technique is established, and its improved performance relative to the graphical lasso is demonstrated in a simulation study, as well as in applications to a university webpage and a gene expression data sets. PMID:25642008
Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.; Li, Zhiying
2015-10-21
We consider a problem of extrapolating the collision properties of a large polyatomic molecule A–H to make predictions of the dynamical properties for another molecule related to A–H by the substitution of the H atom with a small molecular group X, without explicitly computing the potential energy surface for A–X. We assume that the effect of the −H →−X substitution is embodied in a multidimensional function with unknown parameters characterizing the change of the potential energy surface. We propose to apply the Gaussian Process model to determine the dependence of the dynamical observables on the unknown parameters. This can be used to produce an interval of the observable values which corresponds to physical variations of the potential parameters. We show that the Gaussian Process model combined with classical trajectory calculations can be used to obtain the dependence of the cross sections for collisions of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CN with He on the unknown parameters describing the interaction of the He atom with the CN fragment of the molecule. The unknown parameters are then varied within physically reasonable ranges to produce a prediction uncertainty of the cross sections. The results are normalized to the cross sections for He — C{sub 6}H{sub 6} collisions obtained from quantum scattering calculations in order to provide a prediction interval of the thermally averaged cross sections for collisions of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CN with He.
Tzagkarakis, George; Beferull-Lozano, Baltasar; Tsakalides, Panagiotis
2008-07-01
This paper addresses the construction of a novel efficient rotation-invariant texture retrieval method that is based on the alignment in angle of signatures obtained via a steerable sub-Gaussian model. In our proposed scheme, we first construct a steerable multivariate sub-Gaussian model, where the fractional lower-order moments of a given image are associated with those of its rotated versions. The feature extraction step consists of estimating the so-called covariations between the orientation subbands of the corresponding steerable pyramid at the same or at adjacent decomposition levels and building an appropriate signature that can be rotated directly without the need of rotating the image and recalculating the signature. The similarity measurement between two images is performed using a matrix-based norm that includes a signature alignment in angle between the images being compared, achieving in this way the desired rotation-invariance property. Our experimental results show how this retrieval scheme achieves a lower average retrieval error, as compared to previously proposed methods having a similar computational complexity, while at the same time being competitive with the best currently known state-of-the-art retrieval system. In conclusion, our retrieval method provides the best compromise between complexity and average retrieval performance. PMID:18586628
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Fan; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Wenda; Qu, Feng
2016-05-01
Infrared images are characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and low contrast. Therefore, the edge details are easily immerged in the background and noise, making it much difficult to achieve infrared image edge detail enhancement and denoising. This article proposes a novel method of Gaussian mixture model-based gradient field reconstruction, which enhances image edge details while suppressing noise. First, by analyzing the gradient histogram of noisy infrared image, Gaussian mixture model is adopted to simulate the distribution of the gradient histogram, and divides the image information into three parts corresponding to faint details, noise and the edges of clear targets, respectively. Then, the piecewise function is constructed based on the characteristics of the image to increase gradients of faint details and suppress gradients of noise. Finally, anisotropic diffusion constraint is added while visualizing enhanced image from the transformed gradient field to further suppress noise. The experimental results show that the method possesses unique advantage of effectively enhancing infrared image edge details and suppressing noise as well, compared with the existing methods. In addition, it can be used to effectively enhance other types of images such as the visible and medical images.
A Stochastic Non-Gaussian Velocity Model for Tracer Dispersion in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, D. W.; Tchelepi, H. A.
2009-12-01
To model tracer transport in porous media, computationally expensive Monte Carlo (MC) techniques or low-order approximation methods (LOAM) are applicable [1]. The latter are inexpensive but limited to relatively homogeneous media with low conductivity or transmissivity variations, and approximately Gaussian one-point velocity statistics. MC studies have shown that heterogeneous media lead to distinctly skewed non-Gaussian velocity distributions [2]. In addition to MC and LOAM, continuous time random walk (CTRW) or Lévy motion (LM) approaches were proposed for the modeling of dispersion in highly heterogeneous media, e.g, fractured rock [3,4]. Both models involve discontinuous stochastic processes for the displacement of tracer particles. The parameters that determine these processes, however, are not always easy to identify. In this work, a new particle-based model for the simulation of tracer dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media is presented. Other than in CTRW or LM models, a continuous stochastic process for the Lagrangian velocity of a tracer particle is formulated. The suggested formulation encompasses Gaussian and skewed velocity statistics, and the model parameters can be related more easily to medium characteristics. Numerical simulations of the tracer plume evolution in the Borden tracer experiment and of breakthrough curves in homogeneous and uniformly heterogeneous sand packs are successfully validated with experimental data [5,6]. Non-Fickian dispersion behavior resulting from the scale effect (plume-size dependent dispersivities) and skewed velocity statistics is demonstrated and analyzed. [1] Zhang, Y. K. and D. Zhang (2004). "Forum: The state of stochastic hydrology." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 18(4): 265-265. [2] Salandin, P. and V. Fiorotto (1998). "Solute transport in highly heterogeneous aquifers." Water Resources Research 34(5): 949-961. [3] Benson, D. A., R. Schumer, et al. (2001). "Fractional
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Tengfei; Gong, Changmei
2013-11-01
We present a simulation method for studying turbid media in the optical field based on circular Gaussian distribution (CGD) model, by which the transmission matrix, representing the modulation of a turbid medium on the amplitude and the phase of incident light, can be generated directly and efficiently. As an application example, light refocusing through a turbid medium is realized employing the CGD model approach, combining with wavefront-phase modulation technique and Fresnel diffraction theory, which is applied to describe the light propagation between optical elements of the entire system. Simulation results based on this approach agree well with theoretical analysis for light refocusing, which can validate the feasibility of CGD model. This work can be used for exploring the potential applications of turbid media in the optical field further, especially for developing new microscopic imaging technologies beyond the diffraction limit.
Lee, Sunghoon Ivan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Hoffman, Haydn A; Lu, Derek S; Li, Charles; Paak, Brian H; Garst, Jordan H; Razaghy, Mehrdad; Espinal, Marie; Park, Eunjeong; Lu, Daniel C; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
2016-01-01
Predicting the functional outcomes of spinal cord disorder patients after medical treatments, such as a surgical operation, has always been of great interest. Accurate posttreatment prediction is especially beneficial for clinicians, patients, care givers, and therapists. This paper introduces a prediction method for postoperative functional outcomes by a novel use of Gaussian process regression. The proposed method specifically considers the restricted value range of the target variables by modeling the Gaussian process based on a truncated Normal distribution, which significantly improves the prediction results. The prediction has been made in assistance with target tracking examinations using a highly portable and inexpensive handgrip device, which greatly contributes to the prediction performance. The proposed method has been validated through a dataset collected from a clinical cohort pilot involving 15 patients with cervical spinal cord disorder. The results show that the proposed method can accurately predict postoperative functional outcomes, Oswestry disability index and target tracking scores, based on the patient's preoperative information with a mean absolute error of 0.079 and 0.014 (out of 1.0), respectively. PMID:25423659
A field study evaluation of short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models
Piper, A.
1996-12-31
A tracer study was conducted at the Duke Forest Site in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in January, 1995 to evaluate the ability of three short-term refined Gaussian dispersion models to predict the fate of volume source emissions under field study conditions. Study participants included the American Petroleum Institute (API), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and private consulting firms. The models evaluated were Industrial Source Complex--Short Term versions 2 and 3 (ISC2, ISC3) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) model, AERMOD. All three models are based on the steady-state Gaussian plume dispersion equation, which predicts concentrations at downwind receptor locations when integrated over the distance between the source and receptor. Chemicals were released at known rates and measurements were taken at various points in the study field using Tedlar bag point sampling and open-path Fourier Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring. The study found that ISC and AERMOD underpredicted the measured concentrations for each dataset collected in the field study. ISC and AERMOD each underpredicted the OPFTIR dataset by a factor of approximately 1.6. ISC underpredicted the Tedlar{reg_sign} dataset by approximately 2.1, while AERMOD underpredicted by a factor of approximately 2.6. Regardless of source configuration or measurement technique used, under-prediction with respect to the measured concentration was consistently observed. This indicates that safety factors or other corrections may be necessary in predicting contaminant concentrations over the distances examined in this study, i.e., in the near field of less than 200 meters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.
2016-03-01
We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively.
Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.
2016-01-01
We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068
Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P J; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E
2016-01-01
We experimentally investigate the potential of using 'self-healing' Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068
Gaussian functional regression for output prediction: Model assimilation and experimental design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, N. C.; Peraire, J.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we introduce a Gaussian functional regression (GFR) technique that integrates multi-fidelity models with model reduction to efficiently predict the input-output relationship of a high-fidelity model. The GFR method combines the high-fidelity model with a low-fidelity model to provide an estimate of the output of the high-fidelity model in the form of a posterior distribution that can characterize uncertainty in the prediction. A reduced basis approximation is constructed upon the low-fidelity model and incorporated into the GFR method to yield an inexpensive posterior distribution of the output estimate. As this posterior distribution depends crucially on a set of training inputs at which the high-fidelity models are simulated, we develop a greedy sampling algorithm to select the training inputs. Our approach results in an output prediction model that inherits the fidelity of the high-fidelity model and has the computational complexity of the reduced basis approximation. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.
Using Gaussian Processes for the Calibration and Exploration of Complex Computer Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman-Smith, C. E.
Cutting edge research problems require the use of complicated and computationally expensive computer models. I will present a practical overview of the design and analysis of computer experiments in high energy nuclear and astro phsyics. The aim of these experiments is to infer credible ranges for certain fundamental parameters of the underlying physical processes through the analysis of model output and experimental data. To be truly useful computer models must be calibrated against experimental data. Gaining an understanding of the response of expensive models across the full range of inputs can be a slow and painful process. Gaussian Process emulators can be an efficient and informative surrogate for expensive computer models and prove to be an ideal mechanism for exploring the response of these models to variations in their inputs. A sensitivity analysis can be performed on these model emulators to characterize and quantify the relationship between model input parameters and predicted observable properties. The result of this analysis provides the user with information about which parameters are most important and most likely to affect the prediction of a given observable. Sensitivity analysis allow us to identify what model parameters can be most efficiently constrained by the given observational data set. In this thesis I describe a range of techniques for the calibration and exploration of the complex and expensive computer models so common in modern physics research. These statistical methods are illustrated with examples drawn from the fields of high energy nuclear physics and galaxy formation.
Bayesian estimation of airborne fugitive emissions using a Gaussian plume model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, Bamdad; Stockie, John M.
2016-09-01
A new method is proposed for estimating the rate of fugitive emissions of particulate matter from multiple time-dependent sources via measurements of deposition and concentration. We cast this source inversion problem within the Bayesian framework, and use a forward model based on a Gaussian plume solution. We present three alternate models for constructing the prior distribution on the emission rates as functions of time. Next, we present an industrial case study in which our framework is applied to estimate the rate of fugitive emissions of lead particulates from a smelter in Trail, British Columbia, Canada. The Bayesian framework not only provides an approximate solution to the inverse problem, but also quantifies the uncertainty in the solution. Using this information we perform an uncertainty propagation study in order to assess the impact of the estimated sources on the area surrounding the industrial site.
Prediction of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a State-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model
Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping
2016-01-01
Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and prediction of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a state-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be predicted over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and prediction of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI prediction was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of predicting future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for predicting and controlling filamentous sludge bulking. PMID:27498888
Spatial location priors for Gaussian model based reverberant audio source separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duong, Ngoc QK; Vincent, Emmanuel; Gribonval, Rémi
2013-12-01
We consider the Gaussian framework for reverberant audio source separation, where the sources are modeled in the time-frequency domain by their short-term power spectra and their spatial covariance matrices. We propose two alternative probabilistic priors over the spatial covariance matrices which are consistent with the theory of statistical room acoustics and we derive expectation-maximization algorithms for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. We argue that these algorithms provide a statistically principled solution to the permutation problem and to the risk of overfitting resulting from conventional maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. We show experimentally that in a semi-informed scenario where the source positions and certain room characteristics are known, the MAP algorithms outperform their ML counterparts. This opens the way to rigorous statistical treatment of this family of models in other scenarios in the future.
Prediction of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a State-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model.
Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping
2016-01-01
Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and prediction of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a state-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be predicted over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and prediction of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI prediction was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of predicting future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for predicting and controlling filamentous sludge bulking. PMID:27498888
Huang, Yi-Fei; Golding, G. Brian
2014-01-01
A critical question in biology is the identification of functionally important amino acid sites in proteins. Because functionally important sites are under stronger purifying selection, site-specific substitution rates tend to be lower than usual at these sites. A large number of phylogenetic models have been developed to estimate site-specific substitution rates in proteins and the extraordinarily low substitution rates have been used as evidence of function. Most of the existing tools, e.g. Rate4Site, assume that site-specific substitution rates are independent across sites. However, site-specific substitution rates may be strongly correlated in the protein tertiary structure, since functionally important sites tend to be clustered together to form functional patches. We have developed a new model, GP4Rate, which incorporates the Gaussian process model with the standard phylogenetic model to identify slowly evolved regions in protein tertiary structures. GP4Rate uses the Gaussian process to define a nonparametric prior distribution of site-specific substitution rates, which naturally captures the spatial correlation of substitution rates. Simulations suggest that GP4Rate can potentially estimate site-specific substitution rates with a much higher accuracy than Rate4Site and tends to report slowly evolved regions rather than individual sites. In addition, GP4Rate can estimate the strength of the spatial correlation of substitution rates from the data. By applying GP4Rate to a set of mammalian B7-1 genes, we found a highly conserved region which coincides with experimental evidence. GP4Rate may be a useful tool for the in silico prediction of functionally important regions in the proteins with known structures. PMID:24453956
Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J; Brix, M; Ghim, Y-C
2016-02-01
A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are modelled with non-parametric Gaussian processes. All free parameters of the model, the intensities of the Li line, Bremsstrahlung background, and instrumental offset, are inferred using Bayesian probability theory with a Gaussian likelihood for photon statistics and electronic background noise. The prior distributions of the free parameters are chosen as Gaussians. Given these assumptions, the intensity of the Li line and corresponding uncertainties are analytically available using a Bayesian linear inversion technique. The proposed approach makes it possible to extract the intensity of Li line without doing a separate background subtraction through modulation of the Li beam. PMID:26931843
FastGGM: An Efficient Algorithm for the Inference of Gaussian Graphical Model in Biological Networks
Ding, Ying; Fang, Zhou; Sun, Zhe; MacDonald, Matthew L.; Sweet, Robert A.; Wang, Jieru; Chen, Wei
2016-01-01
Biological networks provide additional information for the analysis of human diseases, beyond the traditional analysis that focuses on single variables. Gaussian graphical model (GGM), a probability model that characterizes the conditional dependence structure of a set of random variables by a graph, has wide applications in the analysis of biological networks, such as inferring interaction or comparing differential networks. However, existing approaches are either not statistically rigorous or are inefficient for high-dimensional data that include tens of thousands of variables for making inference. In this study, we propose an efficient algorithm to implement the estimation of GGM and obtain p-value and confidence interval for each edge in the graph, based on a recent proposal by Ren et al., 2015. Through simulation studies, we demonstrate that the algorithm is faster by several orders of magnitude than the current implemented algorithm for Ren et al. without losing any accuracy. Then, we apply our algorithm to two real data sets: transcriptomic data from a study of childhood asthma and proteomic data from a study of Alzheimer’s disease. We estimate the global gene or protein interaction networks for the disease and healthy samples. The resulting networks reveal interesting interactions and the differential networks between cases and controls show functional relevance to the diseases. In conclusion, we provide a computationally fast algorithm to implement a statistically sound procedure for constructing Gaussian graphical model and making inference with high-dimensional biological data. The algorithm has been implemented in an R package named “FastGGM”. PMID:26872036
Gonzalez, Juan Eugenio Iglesias; Thompson, Paul M.; Zhao, Aishan; Tu, Zhuowen
2011-01-01
Purpose: This work describes a spatially variant mixture model constrained by a Markov random field to model high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data. Mixture models suit HARDI well because the attenuation by diffusion is inherently a mixture. The goal is to create a general model that can be used in different applications. This study focuses on image denoising and segmentation (primarily the former). Methods: HARDI signal attenuation data are used to train a Gaussian mixture model in which the mean vectors and covariance matrices are assumed to be independent of spatial locations, whereas the mixture weights are allowed to vary at different lattice positions. Spatial smoothness of the data is ensured by imposing a Markov random field prior on the mixture weights. The model is trained in an unsupervised fashion using the expectation maximization algorithm. The number of mixture components is determined using the minimum message length criterion from information theory. Once the model has been trained, it can be fitted to a noisy diffusion MRI volume by maximizing the posterior probability of the underlying noiseless data in a Bayesian framework, recovering a denoised version of the image. Moreover, the fitted probability maps of the mixture components can be used as features for posterior image segmentation. Results: The model-based denoising algorithm proposed here was compared on real data with three other approaches that are commonly used in the literature: Gaussian filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and Rician-adapted nonlocal means. The comparison shows that, at low signal-to-noise ratio, when these methods falter, our algorithm considerably outperforms them. When tractography is performed on the model-fitted data rather than on the noisy measurements, the quality of the output improves substantially. Finally, ventricle and caudate nucleus segmentation experiments also show the potential usefulness of the mixture probability maps for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.
2016-05-01
This paper presents an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of laser beam propagation in plasma. The differential equation for beam-width parameter is obtained using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations through parabolic equation approach. The nonlinearity in dielectric function is assumed to be aroused due to the combined effect of weakly relativistic and ponderomotive regime. To highlight the nature of propagation, behavior of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments where light absorption plays a vital role.
Non-stationary noise estimation using dictionary learning and Gaussian mixture models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, James M.; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Wang, Yang
2014-02-01
Stationarity of the noise distribution is a common assumption in image processing. This assumption greatly simplifies denoising estimators and other model parameters and consequently assuming stationarity is often a matter of convenience rather than an accurate model of noise characteristics. The problematic nature of this assumption is exacerbated in real-world contexts, where noise is often highly non-stationary and can possess time- and space-varying characteristics. Regardless of model complexity, estimating the parameters of noise dis- tributions in digital images is a difficult task, and estimates are often based on heuristic assumptions. Recently, sparse Bayesian dictionary learning methods were shown to produce accurate estimates of the level of additive white Gaussian noise in images with minimal assumptions. We show that a similar model is capable of accu- rately modeling certain kinds of non-stationary noise processes, allowing for space-varying noise in images to be estimated, detected, and removed. We apply this modeling concept to several types of non-stationary noise and demonstrate the model's effectiveness on real-world problems, including denoising and segmentation of images according to noise characteristics, which has applications in image forensics.
SAR amplitude probability density function estimation based on a generalized Gaussian model.
Moser, Gabriele; Zerubia, Josiane; Serpico, Sebastiano B
2006-06-01
In the context of remotely sensed data analysis, an important problem is the development of accurate models for the statistics of the pixel intensities. Focusing on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, this modeling process turns out to be a crucial task, for instance, for classification or for denoising purposes. In this paper, an innovative parametric estimation methodology for SAR amplitude data is proposed that adopts a generalized Gaussian (GG) model for the complex SAR backscattered signal. A closed-form expression for the corresponding amplitude probability density function (PDF) is derived and a specific parameter estimation algorithm is developed in order to deal with the proposed model. Specifically, the recently proposed "method-of-log-cumulants" (MoLC) is applied, which stems from the adoption of the Mellin transform (instead of the usual Fourier transform) in the computation of characteristic functions and from the corresponding generalization of the concepts of moment and cumulant. For the developed GG-based amplitude model, the resulting MoLC estimates turn out to be numerically feasible and are also analytically proved to be consistent. The proposed parametric approach was validated by using several real ERS-1, XSAR, E-SAR, and NASA/JPL airborne SAR images, and the experimental results prove that the method models the amplitude PDF better than several previously proposed parametric models for backscattering phenomena. PMID:16764268
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Lee, Hyoung; Son, Jung-Young; Guschin, V. P.
2014-06-01
In this paper, we review automatic concealed object recognition with multi-channel passive millimeter wave images. A four-channel passive millimeter wave imaging system operates in the 8 and 3 mm wavelength regimes with linear vertical and horizontal polarization directions. Registration between multi-channel images and segmentation of concealed objects are addressed. Multi-channel image registration is performed by means of the affine transform derived by the geometric feature matching. Gaussian mixture models are adopted to cluster hidden object pixels in the images. Multi-level segmentation separates the human body region from the background, and concealed objects from the body region, sequentially. In the experiments, the metallic and non-metallic objects concealed under clothing are captured and processed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sijia; Sa, Ruhan; Maguire, Orla; Minderman, Hans; Chaudhary, Vipin
2015-03-01
Cytogenetic abnormalities are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A flow cytometry-based imaging approach for FISH in suspension (FISH-IS) was established that enables the automated analysis of several log-magnitude higher number of cells compared to the microscopy-based approaches. The rotational positioning can occur leading to discordance between spot count. As a solution of counting error from overlapping spots, in this study, a Gaussian Mixture Model based classification method is proposed. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of GMM are used as global image features of this classification method. Via Random Forest classifier, the result shows that the proposed method is able to detect closely overlapping spots which cannot be separated by existing image segmentation based spot detection methods. The experiment results show that by the proposed method we can obtain a significant improvement in spot counting accuracy.
Structure-aware depth super-resolution using Gaussian mixture model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sunok; Oh, Changjae; Kim, Youngjung; Sohn, Kwanghoon
2015-03-01
This paper presents a probabilistic optimization approach to enhance the resolution of a depth map. Conventionally, a high-resolution color image is considered as a cue for depth super-resolution under the assumption that the pixels with similar color likely belong to similar depth. This assumption might induce a texture transferring from the color image into the depth map and an edge blurring artifact to the depth boundaries. In order to alleviate these problems, we propose an efficient depth prior exploiting a Gaussian mixture model in which an estimated depth map is considered to a feature for computing affinity between two pixels. Furthermore, a fixed-point iteration scheme is adopted to address the non-linearity of a constraint derived from the proposed prior. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods both quantitatively and qualitatively.
EM-based Gaussian mixture model estimation for GMTI-based tracking using speedboat data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akselrod, David; McDonald, Michael; Kirubarajan, T.
2009-08-01
In this paper, the problem of detection, classification and tracking of highly manoeuvring boats in sea clutter is considered. The considered problem is challenging due to numerous inherent issues: abrupt direction changes, high level of false alarms, lowered detectability, group movement and re-grouping, among many others. The results of applying a proposed measurement extraction and estimation technique to a set of real data from DRDC-Ottawa trials using Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar are described. Real radar data containing a small manoeuvring boat in sea clutter is processed using Expectation Maximization (EM) Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based estimation. A trial was undertaken to collect data against highly maneuvering speedboats in the sea. All the data were collected in the GMTI single-channel high-resolution spotlight mode. True data were collected using GPS recording equipment. Real data processing results are presented.
Identification of Ligand Binding Sites of Proteins Using the Gaussian Network Model
Tuzmen, Ceren; Erman, Burak
2011-01-01
The nonlocal nature of the protein-ligand binding problem is investigated via the Gaussian Network Model with which the residues lying along interaction pathways in a protein and the residues at the binding site are predicted. The predictions of the binding site residues are verified by using several benchmark systems where the topology of the unbound protein and the bound protein-ligand complex are known. Predictions are made on the unbound protein. Agreement of results with the bound complexes indicates that the information for binding resides in the unbound protein. Cliques that consist of three or more residues that are far apart along the primary structure but are in contact in the folded structure are shown to be important determinants of the binding problem. Comparison with known structures shows that the predictive capability of the method is significant. PMID:21283550
Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir
2014-09-18
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian disorder model and its variants. In doing so, we provide much needed additional dimensions for comparison between these theoretical frameworks and real systems beyond those based on extensively studied charge-transport properties and aim to provide a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric-based applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, we discuss strategies to experimentally deduce a system's DOS shape and the temperature dependence of its transport energy (which can discern hopping transport from multiple trapping transport), infer whether a system's activation energy originates from inherent energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder. PMID:26276340
About a solvable mean field model of a Gaussian spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele
2014-04-01
In a series of papers, we have studied a modified Hopfield model of a neural network, with learned words characterized by a Gaussian distribution. The model can be represented as a bipartite spin glass, with one party described by dichotomic Ising spins, and the other party by continuous spin variables, with an a priori Gaussian distribution. By application of standard interpolation methods, we have found it useful to compare the neural network model (bipartite) from one side, with two spin glass models, each monopartite, from the other side. Of these, the first is the usual Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, the second is a spin glass model, with continuous spins and inbuilt highly nonlinear smooth cut-off interactions. This model is an invaluable laboratory for testing all techniques which have been useful in the study of spin glasses. The purpose of this paper is to give a synthetic description of the most peculiar aspects, by stressing the necessary novelties in the treatment. In particular, it will be shown that the control of the infinite volume limit, according to the well-known Guerra-Toninelli strategy, requires in addition one to consider the involvement of the cut-off interaction in the interpolation procedure. Moreover, the control of the ergodic region, the annealed case, cannot be directly achieved through the standard application of the Borel-Cantelli lemma, but requires previous modification of the interaction. This remark could find useful application in other cases. The replica symmetric expression for the free energy can be easily reached through a suitable version of the doubly stochastic interpolation technique. However, this model shares the unique property that the fully broken replica symmetry ansatz can be explicitly calculated. A very simple sum rule connects the general expression of the fully broken free energy trial function with the replica symmetric one. The definite sign of the error term shows that the replica solution is optimal. Then
Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Tong, Shoufeng; Lou, Yan
2015-06-20
A theoretical formulation of the spherical-wave two-frequency mutual coherence function (MCF) for a propagation path characterized by a complex ABCD matrix with anisotropic atmospheric turbulence existing somewhere is developed. A specialization of this formulation leads to an expression for the two-frequency MCF of an equivalent pulsed Gaussian beam propagating in weak anisotropic atmospheric turbulence along a horizontal line-of-sight path; relevant closed-form analytical solutions under both near- and far-field conditions are obtained. The small- and large-scale solutions for both the plane- and spherical-wave spatial-coherence radii in either horizontal or vertical direction are derived. Analysis shows that the formula for the on-axis two-frequency MCF of a pulsed Gaussian beam under the weak-turbulence condition in both the near- and far-field regions is distinguished from that applicable in the strong-turbulence limit only by whether the turbulence-induced beam broadening can be thought of as negligible. Under both the near- and far-field conditions, the turbulence-induced increment of the mean-square temporal-pulse half-width is proportional to the effective anisotropy factor of turbulence. The MCF becomes statistically anisotropic due to the anisotropy of turbulence. For the spatial coherence radius of either a plane or spherical wave propagating along a horizontal line-of-sight path in anisotropic atmospheric turbulence, the corresponding small-scale solution is proportional to that for the plane-wave spatial-coherence radius in the isotropic-turbulence case with a proportionality coefficient depending only on the effective anisotropy factor of turbulence. The corresponding large-scale solution is proportional to that for the plane-wave spatial-coherence radius in the isotropic-turbulence case with a proportionality coefficient that depends on both the effective anisotropy factor and spectral index of turbulence. PMID:26193032